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# Tutorial 1: PSD of Line Codes

Dr. A. W. Umrani

## Power Spectra for Line Codes

We can use the earlier results concerning power
spectra to derive the PSD for PAM schemes
Initially we will consider the case where the
symbols are transmitted as weighted impulses.
We will then generalise to arbitrary pulse shapes

## Signal TX as impulse train

A PAM signal sent as a weighted impulse train is,
x (t )

a (t nT )

## Where Ts is the symbol period. We will show that the PSD of

x(t) is given by,
1
S x ( )
Ts

and

R ( m)e

jmTs

Ts
m 1

R(m) E[an an m ]

## Which is the discrete Autocorrelation function (ACF). Also note

that R(m) = R(-m) for real valued an

Proof
Using direct method, ie,
lim E[ X T ( ) ]
S x ( )
T
T
2

## The truncated signal xT(t) is,

xT (t )

a (t nT ),

n N

T ( 2 N 1)Ts

Now,

X T ( ) xT (t )e jt dt

## And substituting for xT(t) gives,

Proof
X T ( )

Now,

a (t nT )e

n N

n N

jt

dt

jt
a

(
t

nT
)
e
dt
n
s
N

jnTs
a
e
n

n N

X T ( ) X T ( ) X T* ( )
2

Proof
| X T ( ) |
2

a e

n N
N

jnTs

a e

k N

jkTs

j ( k n )Ts
a
a
e
nk

n N k N

Now,

N N
j ( k n )Ts
E | X T ( ) | E an ak e

n N k N

j ( k n )Ts
E
[
a
a
]
e
n k

n N k N

Proof
k nm

Let,

E[ a a

E | X T ( ) |
2

N n

n N m N n
N

m k n

and so

N n

j ( n m n )Ts
]
e
nm

R(m)e

jmTs

n N m N n

## Replace the outer sum over index n by 2N+1,

E | X

( ) | ( 2 N 1) R ( m)e
N n

m N n

jmTs

Proof
Now,

lim E[ X T ( ) ]
S x ( )
T
T
2

Where T=(2N+1)Ts, so
N n
1
S x ( )
(2 N 1) R(m)e jmTs
N (2 N 1)Ts
m N n

lim

Ts

R(m)e

jmTs

Proof
1

1
jmTs
jmTs
R ( 0) R ( m ) e
R ( m )e

Ts
m
m 1

1
jmTs
jmTs
R ( 0) R ( m ) e
R ( m)e

Ts
m 1
m 1

1
jmTs
jmTs
R ( 0) R ( m ) e
e

Ts
m 1

Ts
m 1

## Remembering that R(m) = R(-m) for real valued an

Proof
Note that for R(m)=0 for all m except zero,
the PSD reduces to
R ( 0)
S x ( )
Ts
e.g., for polar binary line coding.

## For Arbitrary Pulse Shapes

Recall that a PAM signal with a desired pulse
shape h(t) may be generated by filtering (actually
convolving) the weighted impulse train with a
filter whose impulse response is h(t)
From the power spectra results we obtain,
2
S y ( ) H ( ) S x ( )

H ( )
R(0) 2 R(m) cos(mTs )
Ts
m 1

## PSD of Specific Schemes

Given a particular line coding scheme which
generates symbols ak, the transmitted PSD is
calculated as follows:
Determine the discrete ACF
M

R (m) E[ ak ak m ] Ri pi
i 1

Where,
M is the number of possible values that akak+m can take on

## Ri is the ith value of akak+m

pi is the probability that Ri occurs

## PSD of Specific Schemes

Evaluate impulse train PSD
Substitute R(m) into the PSD formula,

Ts
m 1

## Evaluate PSD with pulse shaping

Multiply Sx() by |H()|2,

S y ( ) H ( ) S x ( )
2

## Example- Polar Binary

bk : 0,1

ak : 1,1

bk ....bk m ak ....ak m Ri ak ak m

pi

R (m) Ri pi
i 1

0...0

1... 1

R1 1

p1 0.5

## R(0) (1 0.5) (1 0.5)

1...1

1...1

R2 1

p2 0.5

R ( 0) 1

0...0

1... 1

R1 1

0...1

1...1

1...0

1... 1
1...1

1...1

p1 0.25 R( 1) (1 0.25)
R2 1 p2 0.25 (1 0.25) (1 0.25)
R3 1 p3 0.25 (1 0.25)
R4 1 p4 0.25 R( 1) 0

So,

Ts
m 1

Ts

## Example- Polar Binary

Now extend to pulses with a rectangular
shape and duration Ts. To do this we
convolve the impulse stream with a filter
h(t) with a rectangular impulse response,
i.e., from the E and I Data Book,
h(t)

-b/2

a
0

FT

b/2

b
H ab sinc

where,

sinx
sinc x
x

## Example- Polar Binary

In our example, b=Ts and a=1, so the filter
frequency response is,
T
H Ts sinc s
2
This response has an amplitude of Ts at = 0 and zero
crossings at multiples of 2p/Ts rad/s or 1/Ts Hz.

## Example- Polar Binary

Now the PSD at the output of the filter H()
is,
2
S y ( ) S x ( ) H ( )
1
Ts
Ts sinc

Ts
2
2

Ts
Ts sinc

2
This response has an amplitude of Ts at = 0 and zero
crossings at multiples of 2p/Ts rad/s or 1/Ts Hz. This is
consistent with the PSD plot for polar binary signalling with
rectangular pulses.

PSD*Ts

PSD*Ts

f *Ts

f *Ts

bk : 0,1

## Example- Bipolar (AMI)

ak : 0,1,1

bk ....bk m ak ....ak m Ri ak ak m

pi

R (m) Ri pi
i 1

1
2
2

So,

Ts
m 1

1 1 1
2 cos(Ts )
Ts 2 4

1
1 cos(Ts )

2Ts
1 2 Ts
sin

Ts
2

## Example- Bipolar (AMI)

Note that if rectangular pulses are employed
as in the previous Polar example, the
resulting PSD is given by,
S y ( ) S x ( ) H ( )
Where,

T
H Ts sinc s
2
Note the zero crossings at multiples of 2p/Ts rad/s or 1/Ts Hz
and the lowering of the frequency sidelobes evident in the
PSD plot.

PSD*Ts

PSD*Ts

f *Ts

f *Ts

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

Sometimes the line coded data will have a
non-zero mean value.
This could be due to
The line coding scheme, e.g., unipolar
The probability distribution of the data
Incorrect signalling voltages owing to faults

## The result is that the R(m) will have finite

values for m in the range +/- infinity

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

The result for Sx() is valid but is hard to
interpret physically
The solution is to express R(m) as the sum
of two parts
The first part has a constant value of R over the
range of m from + to - infinity
The second part has non-zero values of R over a
finite range of m

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

The advantage of this approach is that the
first term can be represented in a format that
is consistent with physical observations.
We will now show that this representation
comprises a sequence of spikes (impulses)
in the frequency domain, occurring at
multiples of the bit rate.

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

Suppose that R(m)=R for all m, then we can
express the PSD as follows
1
S x ( )
Ts
R

Ts

jmTs
R
(
m
)
e

jmTs
e

## Note the similarity in form to the Fourier series

representation of an impulse train,

1
(t kT0 )

T0
k

jk

2p
t
T0

Note in time
domain

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

Reminder, the Fourier Series (FS) for a
periodic function
is,

x (t )

ck e jk ot

where, 0 2p

T0

## We now wish to find the FS of the

rectangular pulse train x(t),
t
x(t)

A
0
To

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

Now the coefficients are given by,
t

1
ck
T0

jk 0t
Ae
dt

A kpt

sin
pk T0

impulse train),
kpt

sin
lim 1
T0 1

ck

t 0 T0 kpt
T0

T0

So we know,

x (t )

ck e jk ot

## Remembering that ck=1/T0 when x(t) is a sequence of

unit impulses we can write,

1
(t kT0 )
T0

T0

e jk ot

jk

2p
t
T0

## If we substitute, =t, m=k and T0=2p/Ts, to get the

equivalent relation in the frequency domain,
Ts jmTs
2p
( m )
e

Ts
2p m
m

2
p
2p
jmTs
e

( m )

Ts m
Ts
m

## And hence we may express Sx() as a series of impulses in the

frequency domain,

R
S x ( )
Ts

jmTs
e

2pR
2p
2 ( m )
Ts m
Ts

## ACF With Non-Zero Mean Data

The PSD due to a constant R for all m consists of
spikes, known as line spectral components, at
multiples of o=2p/Ts
This result enables simplified calculation of PSDs
when R(i) can be written in the form,
R(i ) C (i ) R

with C (i ) 0 for | i | L

First calculate the PSD for R(i)=C(i), then add on the line
spectrum for R(i)=R

## Example- Unipolar Binary

bk : 0,1

ak : 0,1

bk ....bk m ak ....ak m Ri ak ak m

pi

R (m) Ri pi
i 1

0...0

0...0

R1 0

p1 0.5

## R(0) (0 0.5) (1 0.5)

1...1

1...1

R2 1

p2 0.5

R ( 0 ) 0 .5

0...0

0...0

R1 0

0...1

0...1

1...0

1...0
1...1

1...1

p1 0.25 R( 1) (0 0.25)
R2 0 p2 0.25 (0 0.25) (0 0.25)
R3 0 p3 0.25 (1 0.25)
R4 1 p4 0.25 R( 1) 0.25

So,

1
jmTs
S x ( )
R
(
m
)
e

Ts m
1 1 1 jmTs
e

Ts 4 4 m

1
jmTs

1 e

4Ts m

4Ts

2p
1

Ts

1
p

2
4Ts 2Ts

2p
m

Ts
m

2p
m

Ts
m

PSD*Ts

PSD*Ts

f *Ts

f *Ts