Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

Prokaryotic cell

A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any
other membrane-bound organelle.[1] The word prokaryote comes from the Greek (pro) "before" and
(karyon) "nut or kernel".[2][3] Prokaryotes can be divided into two domains, Archaea and Bacteria. In contrast, species
with nuclei and organelles are placed in the domain Eukaryota.[4]
In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA and metabolites) are located
together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments. Bacteria,
however, do possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles
enclosed in protein shells.[5][6] Some prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria may form large colonies. Others, such
as myxobacteria, have multicellular stages in their life cycles.[7]

Parts of prokaryotic cell

Pilus-A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural : pili) is a hair like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.

Cytoplasm -the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Ribosome -is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site
of biological protein synthesis. . Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified bymessenger
RNA (mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which
reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is
composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins. The
ribosomes and associated molecules are also known as the translational apparatus.
Nucleoid -The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a
prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore. In contrast to the
nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, it is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Plasma Membrane -a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary
of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and
out of the cytoplasm.
Cell wall -a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants,
fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
Capsule-The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryoticcells, such as bacterial cells. It is
a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the
outer envelope of a bacterial cell.
Flagellum-A flagellum (/fldlm/; plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell
body of certainprokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The word flagellum in Latin means whip. The primary role
of the flagellum islocomotion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to
chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.[1][2][3][4] Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than
structure. Large differences occur between different types of flagella; the prokaryotic and eukaryotic
flagella differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion. However, both can be
used for swimming.