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7, SEPTEMBER 2012

in Rear Electric Traction Passenger HEVs

Rafael Coronel B. Sampaio, Member, IEEE, Andre C. Hernandes, Member, IEEE,

Vinicius V. M. Fernandes, Member, IEEE Marcelo Becker, Member, IEEE, and Adriano A. G.

Siqueira, Member, IEEE,

of Electronic Differential Systems (EDS) in EVs/HEVs. However,

conventional closed-loop control architectures do not completely

match the needed ability to reject noises/disturbances, specially

regarding the input acceleration signal incoming from the

drivers commands, which turns the EDS (in this case) ineffective.

Due to this, in this paper a novel EDS control architecture is

proposed in order to offer a new approach for the traction

system that can be used with a great variety of controllers (e.g.

classic, artificial intelligence-based, modern/robust theory). In

addition to this, a modified PID controller, an AI-based (artificial

intelligence) neuro-fuzzy controller, and a robust optimal H

controller were designed and evaluated in order to observe

and evaluate the versatility of the novel architecture. Kinematic

and dynamic models of the vehicle are briefly introduced.

Then, simulated and experimental results were presented and

discussed. HELVIS-Sim simulation environment was employed

to the preliminary analysis of the proposed EDS architecture.

Later, the EDS itself was embedded in a dSpaceTM 1103 high

performance interface board so that the real-time control of the

rear wheels of HELVIS platform was successfully achieved.

Index TermsElectronic Differential System, HEV, Control

System, Control Architecture, HELVIS mini-HEV

I. I NTRODUCTION

depletion of the oil resources worldwide and following

our tradition of carrying out researches focused on mobile

robotics for transportation systems [1] we recently started studies on the substitution of conventional oil-based vehicles by

HEVs (Hybrid Electrical Vehicles) [2] [3]. Important institutes

[4] [5][6] and industries all over the world are investigating

new technologies in this field and searching for skilled manpower resources, which is still very scarce. Grounded on that

idea, we are giving the opportunity for undergraduate and

graduated students to be in touch with HEVs technologies,

becoming one of the first universities in South America to

have a real line of research currently running in this area.

The Electric Wheels Project, is supported by the Brazilian

Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANNEL) and the Innovation

Center of the State of Sao Paulo Energy Distributor (CPFL).

One of the aims of the group is to bring new technologies in

Copyright (c) 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted.

However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be

obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org.

Authors are with the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Engineering School

of Sao Carlos (USP-EESC), Department of Mechanical Engineering (SEM),

Mechatronics Group, Laboratory of Mobile Robotics (LabRoM), e-mail:

(rafaelc@sc.usp.br, carmonaroom@gmail.com, viniciusvmf@yahoo.com.br,

becker@sc.usp.br, siqueira@sc.usp.br).

conventional ones in preexisting passenger vehicles, turning

them into series HEVs. Concrete results of such research

were recently published [7], which has strengthened the group,

encouraging the launching of the project, the design of a

mini-HEV named HELVIS (Hybrid Electric Vehicle In Low

Scale) [8] and the implementation of a parametric vehicular

simulator named HELVIS-Sim [9], all of them have significantly expedited researches on HEVs, specially regarding the

design and evaluation of 2WD/RWD (Two-Wheel Drive/RearWheel Drive) EDS (Electronic Differential System) [10] [11]

for passenger EVs/HEVs [12]. Furthermore, such tools have

proved to be valuable opportunities to encourage researchers

and enthusiasts to develop a new generation of cleaner vehicles

for the new century [13].

Many works in the literature bring relevant results for the

EDS problem. When it comes to numerical analysis [14] and

[15] works must be highlighted. Other works proposed either

classic and non-robust controllers approaches [16] or very

simple plant models [17] [18]. A magnetic flow algorithm was

proposed in [19] while observers were proposed in [20]. The

use of artificial intelligence-base controllers were described

in [21] [22]. Besides of accurate models of the vehicle and

the power train, the core of a well designed EDS lies in

1) the control system ability to quickly and properly apply

the corrective actions and also in 2) its robustness against

noises/disturbances/uncertainties. Maneuverability and stability are considered as direct functions of these two variables.

Thus, the vehicle can ultimately follow Ackerman Geometry

and minimize the slip phenomena [23] [7]. This work focuses

on the design and in both simulated and experimental evaluation of an EDS for rear electric traction HEV that can be

used with a great variety of control systems. In this case, the

optimal H robust controller for HELVIS EDS has shown

to be highly effective [12]. However, the robust control theory

demands the control architecture (and so the EDS architecture)

to be rearranged. Thus, this work also proposes a new control

architecture to match the EDS problem for the optimal H

controller [24] [25] [26] [27], which consequently allows

the use of other control systems of different proposes. It is

expected that such novel architecture leads the improvement of

the EDS for a wide class of vehicles, including passenger cars.

Thus, in order to show how in-depth and versatile the novel

EDS module is in terms of performance and operability, two

more distinct control approaches were also tested: one classical

modified PID controller is outlined [28] [29] and one neuro-

At the end, simulated and experimental results, both performed in HELVIS-Sim simulation environment and HELVIS

mini-HEV are respectively presented and analyzed.

l2 cos1

l2 cos2

+

+ l1

2

2

!

P4 (t)

1

P3 (t)

+

+

b

m Vcgx + bcg

Vcgx 2cg

2

!

CF sin1

Vcgy + l1 cg

1

b

m

Vcgx + 2cg

!

CF sin2

Vcgy + l1 cg

2

b

m

Vcgx cg

Vcgy l2 cg

2 b2

Vcgx

4 cg

g

V cgx = Vcgy cg

L

A. Vehicle Dynamic & Kinematic Modeling

The EDS formulation is based on a 2D rigid body dynamic

model [7]. Figure 1 illustrates the body diagram of a front

steering rear traction hybrid electric passenger vehicle and

Table I shows all parameters that are involved in such model.

(1)

V cgy

2Vcgx CR

= Vcgy cg

m

gl2

(sin1 + sin2 )

2L

!

CF cos1

Vcgy + l1 cg

+

1

m

Vcgx + 2b cg

!

Vcgy + l1 cg

CF cos2

2

+

m

Vcgx 2b cg

Fig. 1. Body diagram of a front steering rear traction hybrid eletric passenger

vehicle.

TABLE I

TABLE OF THE VARIABLES INVOLVED IN THE MODEL

Variable

l1

l2

L

g

m

Iz

CF

CT

b

r

1,2

Rcg

Ro

Ri

Vcg

V3

V4

3

4

cg

U1..4

S1..4

P1..4

Description

Distance between center of gravity/mass and front axle (m)

Distance between center of gravity/mass and rear axle (m)

Distance between axles (m)

Coefficient of friction (-)

Gravitational acceleration (m/s2 )

Vehicle mass (kg)

Moment of inertia over z axis (kg m2 )

Slip coefficient of the front wheels (-)

Slip coefficient of the rear wheels (-)

Axles length (distance between wheels) (m)

Tire radius (m)

Steering angles (rad)

Instantaneous maneuver radius (m)

Distance between the curve center and the outside wheel (m)

Distance between the curve center and the inside wheel (m)

Linear velocity of the vehicle at its CG (m/s)

Linear tangent velocity of the left wheel (m/s)

Linear tangent velocity of the right wheel (m/s)

Angular velocity of the left wheel (rad/s)

Angular velocity of the right wheel (rad/s)

Vehicle angular velocity around the turning center (rad/s)

Wheel longitudinal forces (N )

Wheel lateral forces (N )

Power applied to the wheels (W )

following dynamic equations that represent the kinematic

behavior of the car:

(2)

mgbl2

mgl1 l2

cg =

(cos2 cos1 )

(sin1 + sin2 )

4LIz

2LIz

!

b

P3 (t)

P4 (t)

+

b

2Iz Vcgx + bcg

Vcgx 2cg

2

!

CF

Vcgy + l1 cg

b

+

2

l1 cos2 + sin2

b

Iz

2

Vcgx 2cg

!

CF

b

Vcgy + l1 cg

+

l

cos

sin

1

1

1

1

b

Iz

2

Vcgx + 2cg

!

2Vcgx l2 CR Vcgy l2 cg

+

2 b2

Iz

Vcgx

4 cg

(3)

individually applied to both rear actuators and therefore, in

practice, show how the control action will change the dynamic

behavior of the vehicle. Considering exclusively the EDS

problem, the desired angular velocities for both rear wheels

must to be calculated and it can be obtained from two of

the kinematic parameters which are the velocity of the car Vx

and the maneuver radius Rcg respectively. The first one can be

extracted from Eq. 1 and the second can be calculated from the

steering angles which are related to the Ackerman Geometry,

whose formalism is described in [23]. Finally, the calculated

angular velocities of both rear wheels can be determined by

using Eqs. 4 and 5 [7].

Vcg q 2

b

2

Rcg l2

(4)

3 =

Rcg r

2

b

Vcg q 2

2

Rcg l2 +

4 =

Rcg r

2

(5)

model ability to predict the vehicles accelerations from the

power that is applied to each wheel (which is very useful to

simulation evaluation), it represents only an indirect measurement. In practical terms, the vehicle speed can be easily read

from the CAN bus network embedded in the real scale car. The

maneuver radius can be estimated by placing an IMU (Inertial

Measurement Unit) close to the CG (Center of Gravity) of the

vehicle. Real time IMU reading ensures the accuracy of the

system even at small slip situations. This procedure is feasible

and has been commonly accomplished in many experiments

in SENA Project in Mobile Robotics Laboratory [1]. Such

sensor fusion has proved to be useful and has been widely used

in many mechatronics applications, including transportation

systems.

III. C ONTROL S YSTEMS D ESIGN & T HE N EW C ONTROL

A RCHITECTURE

The most important element of the EDS design is the control

system that act over the adjustment of the electric wheels

angular speeds. It is essential that the control system quickly

provides the actuators with the correct amount of current in

order to produce the least possible error and the least overshoot

so that the wheel can roll without sliding. A great variety of

control approaches based on different techniques match the

EDS problem [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22].

Thus, in this work three different control approaches has been

proposed [7], as follows:

equations;

Artificial intelligence approach, through the use of the

neuro-fuzzy controller;

Robust approach, through the use of the optimal H

controller;

The implementation of a modified PID controller considers

the rearrangement of the recurrence equations for a discrete

PID controller, as described in [28], in order to improve

the quality of the process response. One weighting variable

is added to the proportional gain, as well as filters are

implemented into both derivative and integrative terms [29].

It also considers the positional form with backward difference

approximation to the integrative term (I) and Tustin approximation to derivative term (D), whose control laws for proportional, integrative and derivative terms can be respectively

represented by:

P (k) = Kp [r(k) y(k)];

I(k) = I(k 1) +

Kp T

e(k 1)

Ti

(6)

(7)

D(k) =

2Kp Td N

2Td T N

D(k 1) +

(y(k) y(k 1))

2Td + T N

2Td + T N

(8)

to the integral action and Td is related to the derivative action.

Variable r(k) is the reference (desired) value, y(k) is the

process output signal and e(k) refers to the error. Variable

T is the sample time, N is a scalar such that the realizability

of the controller is ensured (in practice, values in the interval

of 3 N 20 are commonly used). Proportional action

fine tunning is achieved by inserting a parameter over the

reference signal [28] so that considerable improvement in both

steady state error and transitory response are observed.

The reset-windup effect occurs over the integrative action,

and could be suppressed through the implementation of an

anti-reset-windup filter [28]. Regarding the derivative action,

it can also present an unexpected behavior regarding to the

systems stability in determined circumstances, e.g., high frequencies. At this point, derivative contribution adds a rising

gain to the plant, which is commonly referenced as quick

derivate effect. In this case, an anti-quick derivate filter is

implemented in order to decrease the closed loop gain. It turns

out that, from the derivative part in the PID controller (Eq. 8),

the presence of one pole in the infinity is observed, which

implies in the indefinite growth of the derivative gain as the

frequency raises. That turns the system significantly unstable

due to the saturation of the control output. The anti-quick

derivate filter aims to add a pole to the derivative equation, in

order to improve the controllability of the plant.

B. A.I.-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

The design of a neuro-fuzzy controller is based on two

distinct and very well defined stages [30] and is inspired in

combining the benefits of the knowledge extraction provided

by the fuzzy logic plus the low computational cost offered by

the ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), which yields a very

efficient class of controllers.

The first stage regards the design of a fuzzy controller,

involving fuzzification, inference and defuzzification, which

originates a fuzzy control surface, consisting of two input and

one output variables. The second stage consists in the process

of training a neural network that can be able to learn how

the fuzzy controller behaviors. Figure 2 illustrates all distinct

parts that composes the design of the neuro-fuzzy controller.

Phase (A) comprehends the establishment of the rule base,

fuzzification, inference and defuzzification, so that the fuzzy

control surface is generated (B). The vectors containing all

data that define the fuzzy control surface are then sent to the

ANN (C). It is expected that the neural network can reproduce

the very same fuzzy control surface (D).

1) Fuzzification, Inference and Defuzification: Fuzzy logic

executes a rule-based controller, instead of a model-based one.

This approach is useful because even if a reliable model is

available, non-linearities often raise in maneuvers [7]. The

controller inputs are the angular speed error (E) and its

were used in the defuzzification process [33]. Thus, the final

result of the design of a fuzzy controller is illustrated in Fig.

4.

controller.

Fuzzification involves the representation and the decision

making based on linguistic notations, as for inputs (E, dE) as

well as for outputs (dU ). In our work, it is determined through

the following variables:

NM: Negative Medium

NS: Negative Small

Z: Zero

PS: Positive Small

PM: Positive Medium

PL: Positive Large

functions for E, dE and dU because when compared with

other shapes (trapezoidal and triangular), they presented the

best response. Mandani method was used to the inference

process and a set of 49 rules were established, as one may

observe on Fig. 3. The decision making procedure was based

in those rules. Each combination between each value of E and

dE corresponds to a particular control level dU .

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

Artificial Neural Networks present a satisfactory performance

in terms of low computing cost. In particular, feedforward

ANN are indicated in classification problems, where each input

vector is associated to an output vector [30]. This affirmation

perfectly meets the problem of controlling the electric wheels

since there is a corresponding control output dU to each couple

error-derivative E-dE. Thereby a four-layered feedforward

ANN was designed with (Nc /2) + 3 hidden layers where Nc

is the number of inputs. Such configuration presents superior

performance compared to a three-layered feedforward ANN

regarding the number of parameters that are necessary for the

training process. Regarding the NN inputs and outputs, a pair

(k)

(k)

of inputs x = (x1 , x2 ) was considered, representing the

(k)

error E and its derivative dE. Also, the output y = y1 ,

representing the increase/decrease in the control action [32],

was also considered. A MATLABTM toolbox was used employing the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. it is important

to highlight that the training performance was in compliance

with MSE (Mean Square Error) criteria.

3) The Neuro-Fuzzy Controller: When the ANN training

process is well succeeded, both control surfaces must be

very similar (remember that the fuzzy control surface was

reconstructed by the ANN). Figure 5-(a) shows the fuzzy

control surface itself, obtained from the implementation of the

fuzzy controller, whereas Fig. 5-(b) shows the surface provided

by the ANN after the training process. It is clear that the

four-layered feedforward neural network has reconstructed the

original surface. This indicates that the ANN could successfully learn how to eventually provide the EDS with the proper

control actions, as if it is in charge of a essentially fuzzy-based

controller.

The accuracy of the ANN can be quantified by comparing

the then reconstructed control surface and the original one

obtained by the fuzzy system. The MSE (Mean Square Error)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5. Obtained fuzzy control surface (a) the reproduced surface after the

training process of the feedforward ANN.

5 105 .

C. Robust Optimal H Controller

The synthesis of the optimal H controller was based on

[24], [25], [26] and [27], considering the fact that the plant

is stabilizable and detectable. Thus, the resulting augmented

plant Gap , the respective block diagram is represented in Fig.

6.

of S are low at low frequencies so that noises/disturbances

rejection can be guaranteed, that is, |We S| 1. On the other

hand, R gains must be low at high frequencies to achieve the

same noise rejection level, that is, |Wu R| 1. The previous

two robustness criteria are directly related to: 1) stability

against model parametric variations, 2) stationary error 0,

3) robustness even with open-loop uncertainties and variations,

4) robustness against noises which are inserted into the plant.

Actually, the sensitivity function must ideally satisfy the peak

sensitivity Ms and also the bandwidth b , so that the following

relation must be respected:

s

(10)

|S(s)| s

Ms + b

The closed-loop value for the bandwidth is such that b

n . Also, for a good control design it is desirable that Ms does

not reach high values. Values for both bandwidth and peak

sensitivity are chosen empirically, observing the frequency

responses and the natural frequency of the plant. Thus, the

best values are Ms = 160 and b = 50. Thus, both weighting

functions obtained through the -iteration algorithm and the

robustness criteria are given by Eqs. (11) and (12) as follows:

We (s) =

0.00625s + 50

s + 0.05

(11)

s+1

(12)

0.1s + 9 108

From Eqs. (11) and (12) and all previous described

procedures, the following controller K is achieved:

Wu (s) =

K(s) =

Fig. 6.

Augmented plant of the EDS module, representing the transfer

function Tzw .

MatlabTM toolbox, through which the value is reduced until

the optimal value of opt is achieved so that, at the end of the

procedure, both error and control action weighting functions

(We and Wu , respectively) and the controller K(s) itself are

obtained. Thus, the norm of the closed loop transfer function

Tzw between w and z1,2 must satisfy the following condition:

We S

= We S <

Tzw =

(9)

Wu KS

Wu R

the controller K . Values from min = 0.05 to max =

150 where used for the iterative process. The value of

achieved is 0.1366, which is in compliance to the optimal

H aims to minimize the norm of the transfer function

Tzw . Sensitivity function was given by S while R is the

transfer function between the control action and the reference

input. In order to guarantee stability and robustness relative to

s3 + 7776s2 + 3.061 107 + 1.508 106

(13)

Generally, the drivers throttle input is intuitively added to

the control signal, in an attempt to simply superimpose the

control actions computed by the EDS. Such control architecture and strategy were proposed in [18] and is shown in Fig. 7.

In the case of HELVIS EDS, the H controller acts as a filter,

degrading the drivers acceleration input, turning any attempt

to impose new acceleration commands into a noise [12].

Figure 8 shows the exploded view of the proposed architecture, which matches the EDS application with robust controllers. The kinematics block

calculates

T the desired left and

right rear angular speeds ld rd

based on reading the

T

states of the state vector Vx Vy x Vx Vy x x y z

.

In practice, the drivers throttle command is considered as

the representation of the desired speed of the vehicle (which,

in turn, represents the angular speeds of the wheels). Similar to

the calculus of the desired angular speeds based on the speed

of the car Vx and on the maneuver radius (through reading data

from IMU), the kinematics block calculates r and l using

Eqs. 4 and 5. These results are used in order to provide the

controllers with r and l as if they were the reference values

Drivers Inputs

Controller

+

+

Throttle

Input

Acceleration

Steering

HELVIS

Kinematics

Motor

To

Dynamics

Blockset

EDS

HELVIS

Dynamics

Fig. 7. Unsuitable feedback block diagram due to the high ability of noise

rejection by the H controller.

Steering

Angles

T

), since Vx in both equations is represented by

( ld rd

. The states of the speeds are provided by the

dynamics block

c c c c T

i

i

e

e

delivered to the

from both voltage and current

l r r l

motors, which allows the estimation of the power involved

T

[Pl Pr ] for each wheel. As for the IMU data, it provides

the EDS with real measurements regardless of a possible tire

slipping, which turns the overall system more accurate and

robust.

The control loop is then rearranged so that the throttle input

is the signal with highest priority. However, the subtraction of

the desired speeds, provided by the kinematics and based on

the dynamics of the vehicle, ensures that the drivers throttle

command is assured. Thus, in practice, the controller senses

the resulting error:

d

c

e = 2l,r l,r

l,r

Steering

Command

Control

System

Control

System

Driver

Driver

Left

Motor

Right

Motor

Encoder

Encoder

Fig. 8.

(14)

5

4.5

Throttle Input

HELVIS Control Architecture

Conventional Architecture

T

Where lc rc

is the vector with the measured values

for both rear wheels angular speeds.

The efficiency of the the new proposed control architecture

over the conventional one could be attested in a bench test

experiment where the performance of both approaches could

be evaluated. As this paper is related and focused on robust

controllers, both the new architecture and the conventional

one were submitted to such experiment with the optimal

H controller in charge of the EDS, while the driver input

command was subject to observation. Figure 9 shows that,

in fact, the throttle input is rejected as a noise, when the

architecture of Fig. 7 is employed. Indeed, any attempt to

request new acceleration inputs (continuous curve) will be

degraded (dotted curve), since it is considered an external

disturbance. Regardless of the magnitude of the throttle input

command, the H controller always acts in order to minimize

such disturbance, converging the throttle signal to a minimum

value.

That is, the architecture proposed in Fig. 7 cannot be

applied to our case ultimately. The figure still shows that

the proposed architecture in this work preserves the throttle

command imposed by the driver, which is input intact to the

kinematics block (dashed curve).

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1

Time (s)

Fig. 9. Behavior of the throttle input signal using the novel proposed HELVIS

control architecture.

All following tests concerning the proposed architecture

for the EDS as well as the three control approaches are

first evaluated in simulation environment and then analyzed

through experimental tests. Thus, a simulation toolbox and a

low scale HEV are next presented.

A. The HELVIS mini-HEV Platform

As both dynamic and kinematic models for the vehicle are

parametrized and the calculus of the desired angular speeds

are essentially linear, which allows the scalability of the EDS

platform named HELVIS (Hybrid Electric Vehicle In Low

Scale), which has been successfully constructed and has been

presented in VPPC 2011 [8].

The HELVIS platform, Fig. 10, is a low scale rear electric

traction series HEV endowed with a steering mechanism (that

is in compliance with Ackerman Geometry). The vehicless

EDS is part of a 2WD/RWD (Two-Wheel Drive/Rear-Wheel

Drive) electric drive train [11], composed by two DC motors

each one with planetary gears which can deliver 10W of power

to each rear wheels. The general architecture of the HELVIS

drive train is shown in Fig. 11. It can be classified as a

series hybrid drive train, since an electrical coupler handles

the power incoming from two distinct sources, in this case,

the battery and the generator [10]. In this configuration, the

ECU (Electronic Control Unit) deals with many functional

tasks, e.g., incoming data from sensors, battery SOC (State of

Charge), IC engine RPM and, obviously, the EDS powering

and data processing. Some of the most important constructive

parameters of the HELVIS platform are listed in Table II.

DC Motors

IC-Engine

Magnetic

Encoder

Generator

Steering

Mechanism

HELVIS mini-platform.

Fig. 10.

TABLE II

HELVIS CONSTRUCTIVE PARAMETERS .

Variable

mass

wheelbase (distance between axles)

track (distance between wheels)

center of mass (x)

center of mass (y)

radius of the wheels

moment of inertia

Value

4

335

214

107

55

60

0.087475

Unit

Kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

Kg m2

briefly presented [9]. HELVIS-Sim is a parametric simulator

that emulates, among many other functions, the HELVIS

platform EDS module. Besides, as the simulation architecture

is basically constructed over a set of blocks, SimulinkTM

perfectly fits to this project, since it eases the insertion of brand

new blocks and also the integration to our dSpaceTM real time

interface board to run the experimental evaluation of HELVISSim [8]. In this paper, the focus is on the control of the EDS

module. HELVIS-Sim considers the drivers input commands,

vehicle both dynamics and kinematics, sensors, actuators,

control systems, signal conditioning, and other functions. It

is important to emphasize that this simulator allows users to

experience different classes of controllers in the torque split

up problem.

The HELVIS-Sim EDS architecture is displayed in Fig. 12.

In this figure, one may observe that the EDS related modules

are displayed, such as torque and wheel speed calculation,

control system, motor dynamics, kinematics & dynamics,

drivers commands, and steering mechanism.

V. E VALUATION OF R ESULTS FOR THE EDS C ONTROL &

N EW A RCHITECTURE

In the case of EVs/HEVs, a simulation tool can be even

more useful if one considers the fact that EVs/HEVs component parts are not easy to be obtained since those types of

vehicles are not as trivial as conventional vehicles are. In this

context, a simulation tool can aid engineers and students in the

development and manufacturing of specific pieces for general

and also for a specific function in an EV/HEV. Henceforth, an

control architecture over the conventional one, the EDS has

been set up with the proposed architecture. Then, it was

submitted to both simulated and experimental tests. The EDS

performance could be evaluated while the three previously

designed controller were individually applied.

Two situations were observed, both for simulation and

experimental tests, as follows:

EDS

Forces

Torque &

Wheel Speed

Calculation

Frictional

Forces

HELVIS

Dynamics

Control

Module

Accelerations

Sensor Transfer Function

Throttle

Motors

Dynamics

HELVIS

Kinematics

Steering

Command

Drivers Inputs

Performance

Analysis

Anti-Slip

Control

EDS Controller

Evaluation

Trajectory

Control

Fig. 14. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Fig. 12. General architecture and functional blocks of HELVIS-Sim simulation environment.

with both sides steering and maximum steering angle;

Case II: Gradual attenuation of the acceleration percentage from 2 m/s following sinusoidal pattern with both

sides steering and maximum steering angle;

1) Case I: Acceleration of the platform from zero to 2 m/s

with both sides steering and maximum steering angle: Figure

13 shows the results obtained from the control of the EDS by

the modified PID controller, where it is visible that the system

adjusts the rear wheels speeds as the maneuver occurs. One

may also observe a minimum value for the steady state error

and quick response. Figure 14 shows the expanded view of

the response of the rear wheels angular speeds.

Fig. 15. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

Fig. 16. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Fig. 13. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

the EDS by the neuro-fuzzy controller. A millisecond-order

response delay occurs as the steering maneuver runs, although

the steady state error is not present. Figure 16 illustrates the

expanded view of the response of the rear wheels angular

speeds.

the optimal H controller. Both steady state error and time

delay are not sensed as the vehicle is subject to steering. The

expanded view of the response of the rear wheels angular

speeds can be observed in Fig. 18.

2) Case II: Gradual attenuation of the acceleration percentage from 2 m/s following sinusoidal pattern with both sides

steering and maximum steering angle: Figure 19 shows the

responses of the adjustment of both rear wheels angular speed

Fig. 17. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

Fig. 18. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Both steady state error and response delay are not observable.

The expanded view of the response of the rear wheels angular

speeds can be observed in Figure 20.

Figure 21 shows the results of the control of the EDS by

neuro-fuzzy controller during the steering maneuver and also

the speed variation. A millisecond-order delay is noted. As a

result of it, a very small steady state error is also perceptible.

Figure 22 shows the expanded view of the response of the rear

wheels angular speeds.

Figure 23 shows the results obtained from the optimal H

controller. It is seen that the controller provides high accuracy

and quickness in response, which eliminates both steady state

error and response delay. Figure 24 shows the expanded view

of the response of the rear wheels angular speeds by the

optimal H controller.

An important quantitative analysis can be drawn based

on Tab. III data. This table presents the steady error, time

delay and overshoot mean values acquired in HELVIS-Sim

simulations. Such review can reveal important data which can

significantly determine the choice of the controller that best fits

the EDS application. In this case, all three controllers present

satisfactory values for the three parameters under analysis, although the optimal robust H controller performance presents

the best overview at all. Thus, it can also be concluded that

the novel proposed architecture perfectly matches the EDS

problem, turning it possible to embed different controllers.

Fig. 19. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

Fig. 20. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a speed

on sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

Fig. 21. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

TABLE III

C ONTROL P ERFORMANCE Q UANTITATIVE C OMPARISON TABLE IN

S IMULATION (M EAN VALUES ).

Controller

PID

NF

H

0.8%

0.8%

0.1%

18

35

6

Overshoot (%)

0.02

0.034

0.003

Experimental results followed the very same inputs previously used to the simulated evaluation of the EDS from

HELVIS-Sim environment. Communication between the real

Fig. 22. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a speed on

sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

10

increases and the vehicle steers, the controller follows the

desired values for the calculated/desired angular speeds. Moreover, the EDS alternates the module of the reference signal,

as the vehicle changes the steering direction, which is also

followed by the controller.

Figure 26 shows the expanded view of the response of

both measured rear wheels angular speeds. It is possible to

observe that, indeed, the modified PID controller appropriately

responds to the demands of controlling the actuators. It is

also observed that both time delay and steady state error are

minimum and acceptable.

Figure 27 reflects the behavior of the EDS under the adjust

of the neuro-fuzzy controller. It is notable that the control

of the actuator is satisfactorily accomplished. Low levels of

steady state error and overshoot are observed. The expanded

view in Figure 28 shows that the control actions drive both

measured angular speeds to correctly follow the reference as

the vehicles speed changes and the steering maneuver occurs.

The resulting curves for both rear wheels angular speeds

controlled by the optimal H controller can be observed in

Figure 29. In this case the noise suppression can be clearly

noted. Especially in Figure 30, one may note that, in fact, the

optimal H controller is able to reject noises and disturbances

that can eventually or purposely be inserted into the control

plant. Neither steady state error nor time delay response are

observed. Moreover, high control effort is observed, especially

at low frequencies.

Fig. 23. HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the proposed EDS module,

adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

Fig. 25. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

Fig. 24. Expanded view of the HELVIS-SIM simulation response for the

proposed EDS module, adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a speed on

sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

EDS and the control module was achieved by using a high performance dSpaceTM 1103 optical fiber interface board. Control

of both motors was individually accomplished through two

different PWM channels whose duty cycle is of approximately

12kHz which is reasonable to a real time application such as

the EDS control.

Once again, the following cases were evaluated:

1) Case I: Figure 25 shows the EDS response whereas

the modified PID controller adjusts both rear wheels angular

the control of the modified PID controller. As in Case I, it

is noted that the controller provides the EDS with sufficient

control actions accordingly to project specifications. The low

frequency responses and the consequent control effort is observed in Figure 32, which does not result in any deterioration

in the attempt to maintain the speed of the actuator.

Figure 33 shows the control responses of the EDS by the

neuro-fuzzy controller. The controller appropriately follows

the reference values for the angular speeds resulting in a

quasi-zero steady state error and no significant overshoot

levels. When it comes to the time delay response, it is neither

observed (Fig. 34). The system responds appropriately even at

low frequencies, and the control effort also keeps the wheels

Fig. 26.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Fig. 27. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

11

Fig. 29. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a constant speed and steering

maneuver.

Fig. 30.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Fig. 28.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a constant

speed and steering maneuver.

Finally, Figure 35 shows the EDS response by applying

the optimal H controller for the same case. The control

robustness can be noted, such that the noise that is inserted

into the process is suppressed. The expanded view of the

control responses can be seen in Figure 36. It is observed

that the H presents a high ability to reject the external

disturbances. Furthermore, the control effort and the controller

precision leads the EDS to a quasi-zero steady state error and

Fig. 31. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

it is noted from Tab. IV that all three controllers present

very satisfactory mean values during experimental tests. This

fact directly reflects the vehicle performance since the combination of low levels of steady state error, time delay and

overshoot guarantees a more stable and more maneuverable

car. Moreover, it expresses the accuracy of the overall EDS

while working with the novel proposed architecture, which

proves that it can embed controllers from various classes and

Fig. 32.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the modified PID controller, to a speed on

sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

Fig. 33. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller , to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

12

Fig. 35. Experimental response for the HELVIS platform EDS module,

adjusted by the optimal H controller , to a speed on sinusoidal pattern and

steering maneuver.

Fig. 36.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the optimal H controller, to a speed

on sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

VI. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 34.

Expanded view of the experimental response for the HELVIS

platform EDS module, adjusted by the neuro-fuzzy controller, to a speed

on sinusoidal pattern and steering maneuver.

approaches.

TABLE IV

C ONTROL P ERFORMANCE Q UANTITATIVE C OMPARISON TABLE D URING

E XPERIMENTS (M EAN VALUES ).

Controller

PID

NF

H

0.12%

0.18%

0.07%

7

12

5

Overshoot (%)

0.032

0.048

0.0045

work directly and deeply contributes to the development of

EVs/HEVs regarding improvements in the power train/traction

system. Although other control approaches can handle the

problem of the electronic differential control even with MIMO

systems, the focus of this research is to allow the design

of an electric wheel, which can independently replace the

conventional rear wheel in conventional passenger vehicles.

The proposed architecture is grounded in the fusion between

a high performance IMU sensor and kinematic and dynamic

parametric models, which turns the design of the EDS perfectly scalable to other 4WD rear traction vehicles. Despite

the fact that all tests have been run in a low scale vehicle, it is

feasible to be embedded in a full scale electric and Ackermanbased rear traction vehicle. Both simulated and experimental

results show that the novel control architecture presents good

results, regardless of the type and nature of the controller.

Therefore, the resulting EDS system is extremely flexible in

terms of control. Furthermore, it presents a general in-depth

solution to be used with any kind of control system, in any

circumstances. In terms of visibility, the proposed architecture

module allows clear vision of how the information flows into

the context of the EDS module.

As for the HELVIS platform and HELVIS-Sim simulation

They can potentially help spreading the new paradigms of a

new and cleaner transportation paradigm.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors would like to thank Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

(CPFL) and Fundaca o para o Incremento da Pesquisa e do

Aperfeicoamento Industrial (FIPAI) for the financial support

for this research.

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