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Far Eastern University Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation

Gross A Introduction: General Plan & Construction of the Body


Alvin Vibar, M.D.
ANATOMY
The science of the structure and function of the body
Divided into two:
Clinical Anatomy study of the macroscopic structure and
function of the body in relation to the practice of medicine
and other health services
Basic Anatomy study of minimal amount of anatomy
consistent with the understanding of the overall structures
and function of the body
ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATIVE TO POSITION
Anatomical Position:
Standing erect, with the upper limbs by the sides and the face and
palms of the hands directed forward.

Horizontal Transverse Plane


Planes at right angles to both the median and the coronal planes,
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Superior and Inferior denotes the levels relatively high or low
with reference to the upper and lower ends of the body,
respectively
Other Terms Relating to Position:
Palmar and Dorsal surfaces used in place of anterior and
posterior surfaces in describing the hand, respectively
Plantar and Dorsal surfaces used in place of the upper and
lower surfaces of the foot, respectively
Proximal and Distal describe the relative distances from the
roots of the limbs, nearer or farther away from the axial part of
the body
Superficial and Deep relative distances from the structure
from the surface of the body
Internal and External relative distance of a structure from the
center of an organ or cavity
Ipsilateral and Contralateral refers to the same side and
opposite side of the body, respectively
Supine and Prone position whether body is lying on the back
or lying face down, respectively
ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATIVE TO MOVEMENT
Joint site where to or more bones come together
Synarthroses immovable joints
Amphiarthroses slightly movable joints
Diarthroses - freely movable joints
Flexion a movement that takes places in a sagittal plane,
movement towards the body
Extension straightening the joint and usually takes place in a
posterior direction, movement away from the body
Lateral flexion movement of the trunk in the coronal plane
Abduction movement of a limb away from the midline of the
body in the coronal plane
Adduction movement of a limb toward the body in the coronal
plane

Median Sagittal Plane


A vertical plane passing through the center of the body, dividing
it into equal left and right
Paramedian planes situated to one or the other side of the
median plane and parallel to it, produces unequal left and right
Medial structure situated nearer to the median plane
Lateral structure that lies farther away from the median plane
Coronal Frontal Plane
Imaginary vertical planes at right angles to the median plane, it
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Anterior and Posterior used to indicate the front and back of
the body, respectively. To describe the relation of two
structures, one is said to be anterior or posterior to the other
insofar as it is closer to the anterior or posterior surface of the
body

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In the fingers and toes, abduction is applied to the spreading of these


structures and adduction is applied to the drawing together of these
structures.

Rotation movement of a part of the body around its long axis


Medial rotation movement that results in the anterior surface
of the part facing medially
Lateral rotation movement that results in the anterior surface
of the body facing laterally
Pronation of the forearm medial rotation of the forearm in
such a manner that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly
Supination of the forearm lateral rotation of the forearm from
the pronated position so that the palm of the hand comes to
face anteriorly
Circumduction combination in sequence of the movements of
flexion, extension, abduction and adduction

Protraction and Retraction forward and backward movement


of the jaw at the temporomandibular joint
Inversion and Eversion movement of the foot so that the sole
of the foot faces medial or the lateral direction, respectively
BASIC STRUCTURES
SKIN
Divided into two parts:
Epidermis superficial part, stratified epithelium
Dermis deep part, dense connective tissues containing
many lymphatic and blood vessels, and nerves
FASCIAE
Divided into two parts which lie between the skin and the
underlying muscles and bones:
Superficial fascia or subcutaneous tissue, a mixture of
loose areolar and adipose tissue that unites the dermis of
the s kin to the underlying deep fascia
Deep fascia membranous layer of connective tissue that
invests the muscle and other deep structures
Retinacula thickened portion of the deep fascia that forms
restraining bands in the region of the joints. Holds the underlying
tendons in position or to serve as pulleys around which the tendons
may move

MUCOUS MEMBRANE
Lining of the organs or passages that communicate with the
surface of the body
Consists essentially of a layer epithelium supported by a layer of
connective tissue, the lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa present in the connective tissue of smooth
muscles
A mucus membrane may or may not secrete mucus on its
surface
SEROUS MEMBRANE
Lines the cavities of the trunk and are reflected onto mobile
viscera lying within these cavities
Consist of smooth layer of mesothelium supported by a thin
layer of connective tissue
Parietal layer serous membrane limiting the wall of the cavity
Visceral layer covering of the viscera
Serous exudate small amount of serous liquid found on slit-like
intervals: the pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavities. It
lubricates the surfaces of the membranes and allows the two
layers to slide readily on each other

BLOOD VESSELS
Arteries valve-less vessels that transports blood from the heart
and distribute it to the various tissues of the body by means of
their branches
Arterioles smallest arteries
Anastomoses joining of the branches of the arteries
Anatomic end arteries vessels whose terminal branches do not
anastomose
Functional end arteries vessels whose terminal branches
anastomose

Veins vessels that transport blood back to the heart, many of


them possess valves
Venules smallest veins
Tributaries smaller veins that unite to from larger veins,
which commonly join with one other to from venous
plexuses
Venae comitantes pair of veins that accompanies
medium-sized arteries, usually located on both sides
Portal vein veins from the gastrointestinal tract that do
not go directly to heart but instead enters the liver and
form capillary-like vessels called sinusoids
Capillaries microscopic vessels in the form of a network
connecting the arterioles to the venules

Additional notes of the Gross Anatomy Transes are taken from


th
Snells Clinical Anatomy (By Regions) 9 Edition.

Arteriovenous anastomoses direct connections that occur


between the arteries and veins without the intervention of capillaries

Sesir urnebion aohoso rhaenagon issa!


And now your watch begins

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