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CompTest2006

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Progressive Damage Modeling In Fiber-Reinforced


Materials

Ireneusz Lapczyk, Juan Hurtado

Copyright 2006 ABAQUS, Inc.


Copyright 2005 ABAQUS, Inc.

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Outline

Overview of Damage Model for Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Example

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damage Model for Fiber-Reinforced Materials: Overview


The damage in the material is anisotropic
Four different failure modes are taken into account: fiber tension, fiber
compression, matrix tension, matrix compression
The behavior of the undamaged material is linearly elastic
The model must be used with elements with a plane stress formulation (plane
stress, shell, continuum shell, and membrane elements)
Post-localization response is regularized (Crack Band Model)
The model can be used in conjunction with a viscous regularization scheme to
improve the convergence rate in the softening regime

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damage Initiation (Hashins criteria)


MODE I: fiber tension

MODE III: matrix tension



f I = 11T + 12L ,
X
S

where 0 1

(1)

MODE II: fiber compression

11

(2)

f II = C
X

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(3)

MODE IV: matrix compression

S L , S T , X T , X C ,Y T ,Y C

f III

12
= 22
+ L
T
Y

material strengths

f IV

2
22 Y C
= T + T
2 S 2 S

2
2

1 22
+ 12L
C
S
Y

(4)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damaged Material Response (Matzenmiller, Lubliner, Taylor)

Effective Stress

= M

(1)

M damage operator

1
1 d
f

M= 0

0
1
1 dm
0

1
1 d s

d f , d m , d s damage variables

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(2)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damaged Material Response, cont.


Damaged Compliance Matrix:
1

(1 d )E
1
f

H = 12

E1

21

E2
1
(1 d m )E 2
0

(1 d s )G
0

(1)

E1 , E 2 , G s undamaged moduli

12 , 21 Poisson' s ratios

Damaged Elasticity Matrix:

(1 d f )E1

1
C = (1 d f )(1 dm )12E2
D

0
where

(1 d )(1 d )
f

(1 dm )E2
0

21 1

D(1 ds )G
0

D = 1 (1 d f )(1 d m ) 12 21 > 0

d s = 1 (1 d ft )(1 d fc )(1 d mt )(1 d mc )


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(2)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damaged Material Response, cont.


Gibbs Free Energy:
11
1 11
+
G=
2 E1 1 d ft
1 d fc

+ 1
2E2

2
22 2

22

+
1 d mt
1 d mc

2

12 11 22 + 12

E1
G (1 d s )

is Macauley bracket operator, defined for every as =

where

(1)
)

Energy Dissipation:
number mod es

D =

Yi di 0

i =1

where

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Yi =

G
are thermodyna mic forces
d i

(2)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damage Evolution

The modeling approach is a generalization of that used to model cohesive


elements, which is based on the work of C. Davila and P. Camanho
The evolution law is based on the energy dissipated during the process
Linear material softening is assumed

equivalent
stress

eqf ( eq eq0 )
d =
eq ( eqf eq0 )

A
B

C
0

o
eq

Figure 1.
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f
eq

equivalent displacement

(1)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Equivalent Displacements and Stresses

Fiber Tensile Mode

eqft =

Fiber Compressive Mode

eqfc = 11

Matrix Tensile Mode

eqmt =

Matrix Compressive Mode

where

and Lc

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mc
eq

11

22

+ 122

+ 122

22

ij = Lc ij
is the characteristic length

11 11 + 12 12
eqft
11 11
eqct =
eqfc
eqft =

eqmt =

2
12

eqmc =

22 22 + 1212
eqmt
22 22 + 1212

eqmc

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Damage Evolution: Procedure


Evaluate the initiation criterion,

fI
eq , eq

Compute equivalent displacement and stress,

Compute equivalent displacement and stress at the onset of damage

0 =
eq

Store

eq
fI

and eq0 =

eq
fI

eq0 and eq0

Compute equivalent displacement at full damage

eqf =

2G If

eq0

Update the damage variable

f
0

eq
eq
eq
d I = max d I ,OLD ,

eq eqf eq0

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Mesh Dependence
Example: uniaxial tension

Figure 1. Bar subjected to axial load

Figure 2. Localization of deformation

the energy dissipated is specified per unit volume


the results are mesh dependent
deformation localizes into one layer of elements

Figure 3. Force-displacement for different discretizations

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Mesh Dependency, cont.


The energy dissipated is regularized using Crack Band Model (Bazant and Oh)
The energy dissipated, Gf, is expressed per unit area instead of per unit volume
Characteristic length, Lc, is introduced, computed as
Lc = AI, where AI is the area at an integration point
The post-localization stress-displacement response is computed correctly

Figure 1.
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12

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

13

Viscous Regularization

Generalization of the Duvaut-Lions regularization model

1
dft =
d ft d ft

ft

1
dmt =
d mt d mt

mt

1
d fc =
d fc d fc

fc

1
dmc =
d mc d mc

mc

(1a-b)

ft, fc, mt, mc - are viscosities


d ft , d fc , d mt , d mc - are used to compute damaged stiffness matrix

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(2a-b)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

14

Viscous Regularization, cont.

Updating Regularized Damage Variables

d Iv

t 0 + t

t
d
I + t I

t0 + t

I
I + t

d Iv

t0

where I denotes a damage mode

(1)

Jacobian

= Cd +

d Iv
t
=
d I I + t

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C d d I t

v
d I I + t

(2)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

15

Viscous Regularization, cont.


Damage Energy

E D =

(C d ) t

+ (C d ) t

0 + t

t 0 + t

(1)

t0

free energy

Viscous Energy Dissipation

EV =

(C d ) t

C d0 = C d0 (d I )

( )

C d = C d d Iv
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+ (C d ) t

0 + t

(C )
0
d

t0

( )

+ C d0
2

t 0 + t

(2)

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Output
Initiation Criteria Variables
HSNFTCRT tensile fiber Hashins criterion
HSNFCCRT compressive fiber Hashins criterion
HSNMTCRT tensile matrix Hashins criterion
HSNMCCRT compressive matrix Hashins criterion

Damage Variables
DAMAGEFT tensile fiber damage
DAMAGEFC compressive fiber damage
DAMAGEMT tensile matrix damage
DAMAGEMC compressive matrix damage
DAMAGESHR - shear damage

Status
STATUS element status (1 present, 0 removed)

Energies
Damage energy (ALLDMD,DMENER,ELDMD,EDMDDEN)
Viscous regularization (ALLCD, CENER, ELCD, ECDDEN)

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

17

Example: Failure of Blunt Notched Fiber Metal Laminates

Plate Geometry
1/8 part model

50 mm
x
z

d = 4.8 mm

1.406 mm
300 mm

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Example: Failure of Blunt Notched Fiber Metal Laminates

Through-thickness view of the laminate

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Example: Results

Figure 1. Fiber damage pattern


Figure 2. Load-displacement curve

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Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Example: Results

Figure 1. Matrix tension damage pattern

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Figure 2. Matrix compression damage pattern

20

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

21

Example: Energy dissipation

Figure 1.

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Figure 2.

Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

22

Example: Results

Blunt Notch Strength (MPa) for Different Viscosities

Numerical Results (SC8R, 0 angle)

Experimental Results
(De Vries, 2001)

f=0.001

f=0.0005

f=0.00025

466.6

461.3

454.2

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