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# CompTest2006

compTest2006

compTest2006

Materials

Outline

Example

## Damage Model for Fiber-Reinforced Materials: Overview

The damage in the material is anisotropic
Four different failure modes are taken into account: fiber tension, fiber
compression, matrix tension, matrix compression
The behavior of the undamaged material is linearly elastic
The model must be used with elements with a plane stress formulation (plane
stress, shell, continuum shell, and membrane elements)
Post-localization response is regularized (Crack Band Model)
The model can be used in conjunction with a viscous regularization scheme to
improve the convergence rate in the softening regime

## Damage Initiation (Hashins criteria)

MODE I: fiber tension

## MODE III: matrix tension

f I = 11T + 12L ,
X
S

where 0 1

(1)

11

(2)

f II = C
X

(3)

## MODE IV: matrix compression

S L , S T , X T , X C ,Y T ,Y C

f III

12
= 22
+ L
T
Y

material strengths

f IV

2
22 Y C
= T + T
2 S 2 S

2
2

1 22
+ 12L
C
S
Y

(4)

## Damaged Material Response (Matzenmiller, Lubliner, Taylor)

Effective Stress

= M

(1)

M damage operator

1
1 d
f

M= 0

0
1
1 dm
0

1
1 d s

d f , d m , d s damage variables

(2)

## Damaged Material Response, cont.

Damaged Compliance Matrix:
1

(1 d )E
1
f

H = 12

E1

21

E2
1
(1 d m )E 2
0

(1 d s )G
0

(1)

E1 , E 2 , G s undamaged moduli

12 , 21 Poisson' s ratios

## Damaged Elasticity Matrix:

(1 d f )E1

1
C = (1 d f )(1 dm )12E2
D

0
where

(1 d )(1 d )
f

(1 dm )E2
0

21 1

D(1 ds )G
0

D = 1 (1 d f )(1 d m ) 12 21 > 0

(2)

## Damaged Material Response, cont.

Gibbs Free Energy:
11
1 11
+
G=
2 E1 1 d ft
1 d fc

+ 1
2E2

2
22 2

22

+
1 d mt
1 d mc

2

12 11 22 + 12

E1
G (1 d s )

## is Macauley bracket operator, defined for every as =

where

(1)
)

Energy Dissipation:
number mod es

D =

Yi di 0

i =1

where

Yi =

G
are thermodyna mic forces
d i

(2)

Damage Evolution

## The modeling approach is a generalization of that used to model cohesive

elements, which is based on the work of C. Davila and P. Camanho
The evolution law is based on the energy dissipated during the process
Linear material softening is assumed

equivalent
stress

eqf ( eq eq0 )
d =
eq ( eqf eq0 )

A
B

C
0

o
eq

Figure 1.

f
eq

equivalent displacement

(1)

eqft =

eqfc = 11

eqmt =

## Matrix Compressive Mode

where

and Lc

mc
eq

11

22

+ 122

+ 122

22

ij = Lc ij
is the characteristic length

11 11 + 12 12
eqft
11 11
eqct =
eqfc
eqft =

eqmt =

2
12

eqmc =

22 22 + 1212
eqmt
22 22 + 1212

eqmc

## Damage Evolution: Procedure

Evaluate the initiation criterion,

fI
eq , eq

0 =
eq

Store

eq
fI

and eq0 =

eq
fI

eqf =

2G If

eq0

## Update the damage variable

f
0

eq
eq
eq
d I = max d I ,OLD ,

eq eqf eq0

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## Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Mesh Dependence
Example: uniaxial tension

## the energy dissipated is specified per unit volume

the results are mesh dependent
deformation localizes into one layer of elements

11

## Mesh Dependency, cont.

The energy dissipated is regularized using Crack Band Model (Bazant and Oh)
The energy dissipated, Gf, is expressed per unit area instead of per unit volume
Characteristic length, Lc, is introduced, computed as
Lc = AI, where AI is the area at an integration point
The post-localization stress-displacement response is computed correctly

Figure 1.

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## Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

13

Viscous Regularization

1
dft =
d ft d ft

ft

1
dmt =
d mt d mt

mt

1
d fc =
d fc d fc

fc

1
dmc =
d mc d mc

mc

(1a-b)

## ft, fc, mt, mc - are viscosities

d ft , d fc , d mt , d mc - are used to compute damaged stiffness matrix

(2a-b)

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d Iv

t 0 + t

t
d
I + t I

t0 + t

I
I + t

d Iv

t0

(1)

Jacobian

= Cd +

d Iv
t
=
d I I + t

C d d I t

v
d I I + t

(2)

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Damage Energy

E D =

(C d ) t

+ (C d ) t

0 + t

t 0 + t

(1)

t0

free energy

## Viscous Energy Dissipation

EV =

(C d ) t

C d0 = C d0 (d I )

( )

C d = C d d Iv

+ (C d ) t

0 + t

(C )
0
d

t0

( )

+ C d0
2

t 0 + t

(2)

## Progressive Damage Modeling in Fiber-Reinforced Materials

Output
Initiation Criteria Variables
HSNFTCRT tensile fiber Hashins criterion
HSNFCCRT compressive fiber Hashins criterion
HSNMTCRT tensile matrix Hashins criterion
HSNMCCRT compressive matrix Hashins criterion

Damage Variables
DAMAGEFT tensile fiber damage
DAMAGEFC compressive fiber damage
DAMAGEMT tensile matrix damage
DAMAGEMC compressive matrix damage
DAMAGESHR - shear damage

Status
STATUS element status (1 present, 0 removed)

Energies
Damage energy (ALLDMD,DMENER,ELDMD,EDMDDEN)
Viscous regularization (ALLCD, CENER, ELCD, ECDDEN)

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Plate Geometry
1/8 part model

50 mm
x
z

d = 4.8 mm

1.406 mm
300 mm

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Example: Results

19

Example: Results

20

21

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

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Example: Results

## Numerical Results (SC8R, 0 angle)

Experimental Results
(De Vries, 2001)

f=0.001

f=0.0005

f=0.00025

466.6

461.3

454.2