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Dyeing & Printing Notes

DYEING
1) Dye- is described as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is applied.

The dye is usually used as an aqueous solution & may require mordant to improve the fastness of the
dye to the fiber.
2) Mordant- substance having affinity for both the fiber & the dye i.e. form a bond between fiber
&dye.
There are different types of dyes which are applicable to different fibers.
Like the dyes which are used for cellulosic fibers may not give good affinity when applied to the
protein fibers.
3) Colorfastness- refers to the color ability to remain unchanged.

Different dyes of different colors have different degrees of fastness to various conditions.

Different factors which affect fastness- perspiration, salt water, crocking, dry cleaning,
atmospheric gases etc.

4) Optical Brighteners/ Fluorescent whiteners

Use to enhance the appearance of the fabric.

The whiteness is caused by absorption of ultra violet light & reflection of visible blue light.

5) Color Flare- when the color may appear to match in one light (e.g. day light) but will not match
in another light (tube light)
6) Level describes the color that looks the same through out the product.
7) Pigments- are insoluble color particle that are held on the surface of a fabric by a binding agent.
Pretreatment Processes Pretreatment processes consist of cleaning operations to rid the fabric of all soil and additives that
have accumulated during the weaving or knitting process.
Desizing- removal of starch from the fabrics which is applied
during manufacturing or finishing of fabrics.
These processes are usually the first treatments a fabric
undergoes after leaving the loom or knitting machine, and are
required before any dyeing, printing, or finishing can be
accomplished.
Pretreatment processes may also include bleaching.
Fabrics to be dyed in light to medium shades, as well as most prints, are first bleached.
Bleaches are required to obtain pure whites because natural fibers are rarely pure white in their
natural state; they are usually slightly yellowish or grayish.
The Dyeing Process The medium most often used to dissolve or disperse dyes for
application to textiles is water.

Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh

Dyeing & Printing Notes


The dye solution, called the dye liquor, is agitated or circulated to increase the migration of the dye
to the fiber surface.
The attraction or affinity of the dye for a particular fiber is influenced by several factors.
Different dye types are attracted chemically or physically to specific fibers.
Fibers often undergo swelling in aqueous dyeing processes, increasing dye absorption.
For hydrophobic fibers that do not swell in water, organic solvents can be used as swelling agents or
carriers for the dye.
Mordants can be added to increase the acceptance of dyes
Dyebath additives such as these are classed as dye auxiliaries.
Exhaustion is the amount of transfer of dye from the bath to the fiber which is there with addition of
Salt.
A concern in dyeing is how evenly distributed the dye is in the fiber, a characteristic known as
levelness.
Low leveling will result in a streaked appearance of the fabric.
Classification of dyes:
Natural Dyes
Synthetic dyes
A)

Natural DyesObtained from different natural sources such as plants, animals & different insects.

Indigo, Logwood, Tyrian Purple, Henna , Saffron

Indigo- from a plants belong to the genus Indigoferae, the leaves of which yield a yellow juice that
rapidly turns blue when exposed to air.

Tyrian Purple- from species of fish & small insects. Highly priced so also called Royal Purple.

Turkey Red- from roots of madder

Logwood- produces Navy blue & black shades

Mineral provide such as Prussian blue, iron buff

B) Synthetic Dyes1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Direct Dyes
Vat dyes
Sulphur dyes
Disperse dyes
Azoic dyes
Reactive Dyes
Basic dyes
Acid dyes

1) Direct Dyes These dyes are for the cellulosic fibers from the aqueous solution.
The fabric or the yarns are dip in the water at low temperature & then the solution is boiled, while
stirring the yarns or fabric so that it picks up the dye uniformly to give even dyeing effect.
Salt is added which forced the color out of the solution into the fiber.
2) Basic dyes- Acrylic fibers, nylon, polyester
3) Acid dyes- Wool, silk, Nylon
Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh

Dyeing & Printing Notes


4) Sulphur Dyes-Cotton & Linen
5) Disperse dyes- Acetate fibers, used on most synthetic fibers
6) Vat dyes- fastest for cotton, linen , rayon. Also applied to wool, nylon, polyester with use of mordant.
7) Azoic dyes- Cotton
Dyeing the Yarns Different fibers take dyes in differing amounts. Linen will dye a slightly different color than cotton,
even if they are originally the same color.
Rayon takes dye vigorously and will dye up in saturated colors.
Mercerized cotton will dye into more brilliant colors than non-mercerized cotton.
Most dyeing is performed either by the finishing division of vertically integrated textile companies,
or by specialty dye houses. ( Converters)
Dyeing can be performed using continuous or batch processes.
In batch dyeing, a certain amount of textile substrate, usually 100 to 1,000 kilograms, is loaded into
a dyeing machine, with a solution containing the dye.
In continuous dyeing processes, textiles are fed continuously into a dye range at speeds usually
between 50 and 250 meters per minute.
Continuous dyeing accounts for about 60 percent of total yardage of product dyed in the industry.
Selection of dyeing Method
Textiles may be dyed at any stage of their development from fiber to Fabric:
Stock dyeing at fiber stage
Top dyeing- in the combed stage
Yarn dyeing- after fiber are spun into yarns
Piece dyeing- fabric is dyed
Solution or Dope dyeing- before synthetic fibers are extruded through the spinneret
Garment dyeing- after certain apparels are knitted.
1) Stock dyeing In this the packing the stock of fibers in large vats & circulating the
dye liquor through the mass at elevated temperatures.
Advantage- The color will penetrate into the fibers & do not crock
readily.
Disadvantage
The dyed fibers does not spin readily as
they lose some flexibility but can be rectify
by adding lubricants in final rinsing.

High cost
2) Yarn Dyeingo The purpose of yarn dyeing is to have dye stuff penetrate to the fibers in the core of the yarn.
o To create interesting checks, stripes with different colored yarns in weaving process.
o Different Methods:
Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh

Dyeing & Printing Notes

Skein / Hank dyeing


Package dyeing
Warp beam dyeing
Space dyeing

i) Hank Dyeing- in this skeins or hanks of yarns are made


Loose arrangement of yarns allows excellent dye penetration.
The hanks are hung on a stand & immersed into large container containing the dye liquor.
Skein-dyed yarn is used for bulky acrylic and wool yarns.

(ii) Package Dyeing Yarns are wound on small perforated spools, cones, tubes called as a Package.
These are immersed in a tank wherein the dye is forced through packages.
The dye is then pressured back through the packages toward the center to fully penetrate the entire
yarn.

(iii) Warp- beam Dyeing

Yarns are wound onto a perforated warp beam,


in a tank with dye solution.

immersed

(iv) Space dyeing


Knit- deknit method is used
The yarns are knitted on either a circular or flat bed machines.
The knitted cloth is then dyed & then deknitted, alternating dyed & un -dyed spaces appear.
3) Piece Dyeing The great bulk of dyed fabric in the market is dyed in the piece.
Advantages: Levelness, Penetration , Overall fastness
Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh

Dyeing & Printing Notes


Fabrics may be dyed whether it is made of one kind of fiber or of blends of different fibers or
combination of different yarns.
When the fabric is made of one kind of fiber or yarn then dyeing is uncomplicated as one appropriate
dye is used.
When the fabric contains a blend of fibers or combinations of different yarns then special procedures
are required which employ different dyes that are specific for the particular fibers used.
a) Cross Dyeing- is a piece dyeing of a fabric made of fibers from different generic groups like protein
and cellulose.
Each fiber type bond with different dye class.
E.g. cots wool fabric dyed with red acid and blue direct dye.

b) Union Dyeing- another type of piece dyeing.


It produces fabric in a solid color.

Dyes of the same hue but of a type suited to each fiber to be dyed are mixed together in the same
dye bath.
E.g.- all solid color blend fabrics

There are several methods of piece dyeing:


Beck dyeing
Jig dyeing
Pad dyeing
Beam dyeing
(i) Beck dyeing / Box dyeing The fabrics pieces are sewn end to end making lengths of
materials of upto 1000 yards.
The fabric in a rope like form is dyed in relaxed condition.
The rope moves over rail onto a reel which immerses it into
the dye.
The process is repeated as many times as possible to dye
the material uniformly.
Original softness & fullness of fabric is retained
(ii) Jig Dyeing In this method fabric is placed under tension.
It is held on rollers in full width rather than in the rope
form as it passes through the dye bath.
Less costly than beck dyeing.
Cannot be done on soft fabrics, knitted or stretch fabrics.
This reduces fabric tendency to crack or crease
Jig dyeing equipment can handle 250 kg of fabric.

Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh

Dyeing & Printing Notes


(iii) Jet Dyeing Fabric can be jet-dyed [at up to 500 kg] by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye
solution are forced through it at high pressures.
The dye is continually recirculated as the fabric is moved along the tube.
(iv) Pad dyeing

dyes the fabric at full width.

The fabric is passed through a trough containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force
the dye into the cloth and squeeze out the excess

4) Solvent or Dope Dyeing In this process addition of dye pigments to the solvent solution of the synthetic fibers before extruded
from the spinneret.
Have high degree of color fastness.
5) Garment Dyeing

Used for hosiery, sweaters as they are made with


single component.
In this method a large number of pieces are loosely
packed into large nylon net bag. These bags are put
into tub with dye solution.

Dyeing Defects:
1) Barre- is a horizontal shaded band running across the width of the fabric.

Cause- by variations the size of filling yarn or difference in tension of warp or filling yarns
2) Bleeding- is a loss of color when dyed fabric is wetted or immersed in water.
The water becomes colored & causes the discoloration of other fabrics.
3) Crocking- Some dyes tend to crock, or rub off on fabrics or other material with which they come in
contact.
Cause- inadequate washing subsequent to dyeing
4) Shading- is the variation in color either horizontally or vertically. Cause- due to uneven tension on the
fabric
5) Off shade- refers to a color that does not exactly match the standard or prepared sample.
6) Shade bar- is a horizontal bar of different hue running across the fabric.
7) Stained fabric- indicates a discoloration caused by the foreign substance, dirt, oil on the fabric being dyed.
8) Streaked fabric- indicates either a stain or uneven dyeing caused by folds in the fabric during the dyeing
process.
9). Migration- is shifting of color to the surrounding area or to an adjacent area.
10.) Frosting- occurs when the colored portion of fibers or yarns are abrade.

Prepared by: Ms Anshu Singh Choudhary, HOI, Amity University Madhya Pradesh