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SHIP DESIGN

15. HYDRODYNAMIC DESIGN OF SHIPS


Ship designers attempt to relate their technical decisions to the resultant economic consequences.
Concurrently, ships are specialized to meet specific design functions effectively. This has diversified the
hull form. Accordingly, present shipbuilding technology, must cope with demands implicit in the designs
of various types of hull form. Under these circumstances, it is difficult to develop the hull form best
meeting the needs of a customer if only the conventional standard series tabulations or statistical
methods are depended upon. It is also inefficient to conduct the conventional series tests on the new
hullforms since new ship types are now produced one after another in rapid succession.
There can be no absolute terms of optimum form. The designer must make many compromises. Even in
terms of resistance one form may be beter than another at one speed but inferior at another speed. The
shape of a ship hull is determined by many competing influences. For ease of construction, it should be a
rectangular box; for adequate transverse stability, it must be wide; for adequate strength as a beam being
bent in a longitudinal plane, it must be deep. All these factors influence the shape of a hull, but often the
primary factor is the dynamic interaction of the hull with the water. The interactions that govern the
resistance of the hull to steady forward motion--a resistance that determines the choice of propulsive
power--usually demand the greatest attention from the naval architect. While the minimization of
resistance is a common design goal for all ship types, other hydrodynamic performance characteristics
such as seakeeping and manoeuvrability performance may be more important for some ship types such
as passenger vessels and surface warships.
The most important problems in ship hydrodynamics involve steady or unsteady motion with a constant
forward speed. The first problem is the prediction of wave making resistance and steady flow
characteristics to the propeller. The unsteady motions are related to seakeeping characteristics of the
vessel.
Despite the fact that ships have been designed and built for a long time, ship hydrodynamics which deals
with the complex interactions between the ship and the sea is still far from being a mature technology.
Traditionally, the hydrodynamic design of ships, tend to rely upon the largely idealized model of the
smooth ship moving on a straight course at constant speed on a calm water surface. This model of an
ideal ship's trial can be well approximated in the common towing tank tests. Model tests involve a one-off
scale model representation of the design and currently are regarded as the most reliable hydrodynamic
performance prediction approach. Most tests can provide resistance, propulsion, seakeeping, and
maneouvring data. However, model tests are relatively expensive and time consuming, and are therefore
normally undertaken at the final stages of design. At this stage the designer have little freedom to change
the hull form.
Depending on the variations in the world trade the type, capacity and speed of ships change. These
changes require efficient hull forms and propulsion systems. Besides the demand for higher speeds and
reduced fuel consumptions there is also an increasing demand for low wash, seakeeping comfort and
manoeuvrability.

15.1

SHIP DESIGN

15.1. Resistance
In designing a new ship, we need at an early stage an answer to two questions: How much power shall
we need to derive the ship at the specified speed? And how must we shape our underwater hull to
reduce this power to the minimum?
The effective power absorbed in driving a ship through the water is equal to the speed multiplied by the
total resistance. For a given speed, the problem reduces to predicting the resistance for a range of
possible hull forms and the selecting the best shape while satisfying other requirements such as those for
carrying capacity and stability.
The classical theory of hydrodynamics has shown that a body deeply immersed in fluid of zero viscosity
experiences no resistance. No matter how the streamlines may be deflected as they pass the body, they
return to their undisturbed state a long way downstream of the body (see Fig. 15.1) and the resultant
force on the body is zero. There will be local forces acting on the body but these will cancel each other
out when integrated over the whole body. These local forces are due to the pressure changes
occasioned by the changing velocities in the fluid flow.

Figure 15.1. Flow around a submerged body


In a practical case the fluid is viscous and a deeply immersed body would suffer a frictional drag. In
addition, when the body approaches a free surface, the pressure variations around the body can manifest
themselves as elevations or depressions of the water surface. That is to say, waves are formed on the
surface. This process upsets the balance of pressures acting on the body which results in a drag force.
The magnitude of the drag force is related to the energy of the wave system created. The total resistance
of a ship moving on a calm water surface has several components. They are: skin frictional resistance;
viscous pressure resistance; and wave-making resistance. There are also additional resistance
components such as the air resistance and appendage resistance.
15.1.1. Frictional Resistance
The water through which a ship moves has viscosity which is a property of all practical fluids. When a
body moves through a viscous fluid which is otherwise at rest, a thin layer of fluid adheres to the surface
of the body and has no velocity relative to the body. At some distance from the body the fluid remains at
rest. The variation of velocity of the fluid is rapid close to the body but reduces with increasing distance
from the body. The region in which there is a rapid change in velocity is termed the boundary layer.
The definition of boundary layer thickness is to some extent arbitrary since in theory it extends to infinity.
It is common practice to define the thickness as the distance from the surface of the body at which the
velocity of the fluid is 1 per cent of the body velocity. Due to the velocity gradient across the boundary
layer, the fluid is in shear and the body experiences a resistance which is termed the frictional resistance.
If the fluid velocity is v at distance y from the body the shear stress in the fluid is given by
dv

dy
This applies to the case of laminar flow in which each fluid particle follows its own streamline path with no
mass transfer between adjacent fluid layers. The shear in this case is due solely to molecular action.
Laminar flow conditions are only likely to apply at relatively low Reynolds' numbers.
15.2

SHIP DESIGN

At higher Reynolds' numbers the steady flow pattern breaks down and is replaced by a more confused
pattern which is termed turbulent flow. The value of Rn at which this breakdown in flow occurs is termed
the critical Reynolds' number, and its actual value depends upon the smoothness of the surface and the
initial turbulence present in the fluid. For a smooth flat plate breakdown occurs at a Reynolds' number
5
6
between 3 x 10 and 10 . In turbulent flow, the concept of a boundary layer still applies, but in this case,
besides the molecular friction force, there is an interaction due to the momentum transfer of fluid masses
between adjacent layers. The critical Rn for a flat surface is a function of L the distance from the leading
edge. Ahead of a point defined by L as follows:
VL
Rn

the flow is laminar. At distance L transition begins and after a certain transition region, turbulence is fully
6
established. For a flat surface, the critical Reynolds' number is approximately 10 . For a curved surface,
the pressure gradient along the surface has a marked influence on transition. Transition is delayed in
regions of decreasing pressure, i.e. regions of increasing velocity. Use is made of this fact in certain
aerodynamic low drag forms such as the 'laminar flow' wing. The gain arising from retaining laminar flow
is shown by the fact that a fiat plate suffers seven times the resistance in all turbulent as opposed to all
laminar flow. The thickness of the turbulent boundary layer is given approximately by
1
x

0.37R L 5
L
where L is the distance from the leading edge and RL is the corresponding Reynolds' number. For
example, at 15 m/s, with L = 150m, x is about 0.75 m. Even in turbulent flow, the fluid particles adjacent
to the body's surface are at rest relative to the body.

Figure 15.2. Effect of roughness


For a rough surface, resistance follows the smooth curve as Reynolds' number is increased until a certain
value and it then breaks away and eventually becomes horizontal, i.e. the drag coefficient becomes
independent of Rn and drag varies as the square of the velocity. The rougher the surface the smaller the
value of Rn at which the breakaway occurs..
For convenience, the frictional resistance of a ship is usually divided into two components. The first
component is that resistance which would be experienced by a 'flat plate' of equivalent surface area. The
second component is the increased frictional resistance occasioned by the actual form of the ship and
this component is known as the fictional form resistance.
Hull roughness is a complex subject. It depends on a wide range of features, each varying with time in a
different way. The plating, as built, will have an inherent roughness, welding deposits and distortion due
to fabrication. Distortions will increase in service due to water loading and damage. The paint films will
gradually break down and corrosion will occur. Marine fouling can occur quite rapidly in some areas of the
world. The effect of a given value of roughness is to add a constant increment to the skin friction
resistance coefficient. The ITTC 1978 recommends the following formula
1

3
k

S
CF 105 0.64 103
L

15.3

SHIP DESIGN
where kS is the hull roughness and L is the ship waterline length. For a newly built hull, k S, typically has a
value in the range 80-150 m. Such a value gives CF 0.0004which is commonly used in practical
resistance estimation. The actual value of k S will depend on the preparation and coating of the hull
plating. Roughness tends to increase in service, the amount depending on paint type and corrosion
prevention measures. Increase of roughness might typically be in the range 10-70 m/year, leading to a
power increase of perhaps 1-7% per year to sustain the same ship speed.
At slow speeds there is little wave making and friction predominates; in a slow cargo ship it may represent
80% or even 90% of the total resistance. At such speeds it pays the designer to minimise the wetted
area. The ships displacement or under water volume is more or less fixed by the specified cargo carrying
capacity: the designer therefore seeks the form of least surface area for a given volume. The ultimate in
this direction, the sphere, is clearly not practical, but the designer will approach it as closely as he can
and will favour the short fat ship. In the early days of sailing cargo ships length-to-beam ratios of 3 or so
were common, with near-circular sections.
15.1.2. Viscous Pressure Resistance
Consider a body immersed in a real fluid, like sea water. A boundary layer will at once form, thin at the
bow and getting thicker towards the stern. The streamlines towards the stern are displaced slightly
outwards compared with those at the bow. Even astern of the body the lines are still spread outwards by
the boundary layer travelling downstream as the frictional wake. As a result there is a net drag force on
the body. This resistance, arising from the thickening of the boundary layer is called the form resistance.
Form resistance is entirely distinct from the skin friction resistance which enters the hull through shear
stresses (i.e. pressures) acting at right angles to the surface.
Another part of the viscous pressure resistance will be due to the generation of vortices from form
discontinuities such as the turn of the bilge. Form Pressure energy lost to the sea is thus seen as waves
and as eddies or vortices. Examination of the energy dissipated in the wake and in the waves may enable
some of the resistance due to form to be calculated. That due to the transfer of energy between wave and
wake is sometimes isolated for examination and is called wave breaking resistance.
In a well designed ships hull form resistance is usually very small and is likely to be most significant in full
bodied ships. In predicting hull resistance from model experiments, form resistance is usually lumped
together wavemaking under the heading residuary resistance, and is so assumed to follow the same
scaling laws as the wavemaking resistance.
From the boundary layer theory it is known that a convex curvature has a stabilising effect which reduces
the boundary layer thickness and hence reduces the viscous losses whereas a concave curvature does
exactly the opposite. Therefore from the purely skin friction point of view V-form sections are preferable.
15.1.3. Wave-Making Resistance
It is common experience, that a body moving across an otherwise undisturbed water surface produces a
wave system. This system arises from the pressure field around the body and the energy possessed by it
must be derived from the body. As far as the body is concerned the transfer of energy will manifest itself
as a force opposing the forward motion. This force is termed the wave-making resistance.
Wave making is not the only kind of pressure resistance.Other components exist, known variously as
form drag, separation drag, eddy making resistance, appendage drag, air resistance, augment of
resistance due to propeller interaction with the hull and so on. These resistance components normally blk
small beside the wave making resistance and are often luped together with wave making under the
convenient overall title of residuary resistance, meaning, in effect, all resistance which is not due to skin
friction.
A submerged body also experiences a drag due to the formation of waves on the free surface, the
magnitude of this drag reducing with increasing depth of submergence until it becomes negligible at deep
submergence. This typically occurs at depths equal to approximately half the length of the body. An
exception to this general rule can occur with submarines at sea if they are moving close to the interface
between two layers of water of different density. In this case, a wave system is produced at the interface
resulting in a drag on the submarine. A gravity wave, length A, in deep water moves with a velocity C
defined by
g
C2
2
15.4

SHIP DESIGN
Because the wave pattern moves with the ship, C must be equal to the ship velocity V and A being a
length measurement can, for dimensional analysis, be represented as proportional to the ship length L for
V2
V
a given speed. Thus it is seen that of the non-dimensional parameters deduced earlier it is
or
gL
gL
which is significant in the study of wave-making resistance. As stated in the section on fluid dynamics, the
V
V
quantity
is usually designated the Froude number. In many cases, the simpler parameter
is used
L
gL
for plotting results but the plot is no longer non-dimensional.
Hydrodynamically, the ship can be regarded as a moving pressure field. Kelvin considered
mathematically the simplified case of a moving pressure point and showed that the resulting wave pattern
is built up of two systems. One system is a divergent wave system and the other a system of waves with
crests more or less normal to the path of the pressure point. Both systems travel forward with the speed
of the pressure point.

Figure 15.3. Wave system associated with moving pressure point


The wave system associated with a ship is more complicated. To a first approximation, however, the ship
can be considered as composed of a moving pressure field sited near the bow and a moving suction field
near the stern. The bow produces a wave pattern similar to that produced by Kelvin's pressure point with
a crest at the bow. The stern on the other hand produces a wave system with a trough at the stern.nIf the
line of maximum height of crests of the divergent system is at a, then the wave crests at these positions
subtend an angle of approximately 2 to the ship middle line.

Figure 15.4. Ship wave pattern

2V 2
. The transverse
g
waves increase in width as the divergent waves spread out. The total energy content per wave is
constant, so that their height falls progressively with increasing distance from the ship. In general, both
divergent systems will be detectable although the stern system is usually much weaker than that from the
bow. Normally, the stern transverse system cannot be detected as only the resultant of the two systems is
visible astern of the ship.
The two transverse wave systems, i.e. at bow and stern, have a wave-length of

In some ships, the wave pattern may be made even more complex by the generation of other wave
systems by local discontinuities in the ship's form. Since at most speeds both the bow and stern systems
are present aft of the ship, there is an interaction between the two transverse wave systems. If the
systems are so phased that the crests are coincident, the resulting system will have increased wave
height, and consequently greater energy content. If the crest of one system coincides with the trough of
the other the resulting wave height and energy content will be less. The wave-making resistance,
15.5

SHIP DESIGN
depending as it does on the energy content of the overall wave system, varies therefore with speed and
also effective length between the bow and stern pressure systems. Again, the parameters V and L are
important. The distance between bow and stern pressure systems is typically 0.9L. The condition that
crests or troughs of the bow system should coincide with the first trough of the stern system is therefore
g
V2

0.9L N
For N = 1, 3, 5, 7, etc., the troughs will coincide and for N = 2, 4, 6, etc., the crests from the bow system
coincides with the trough from the after system as in Fig. 15.5. If there were no interaction between the
bow and stern wave systems, the resistance would increase steadily with speed. Because interaction
occurs at speeds discussed above, the actual resistance curve will oscillate about the curve as indicated.
A 'hump' occurs when N is an odd integer and a 'hollow' when N is an even integer. It is to be expected
that the most pronounced hump will be at N = 1, because the speed is highest for this condition and this
hump is usually referred to as the main hump. The hump associated with N---3 is often called the
prismatic hump as its influence is greatly affected by the prismatic coefficient of the form considered.

Figure 15.5.a. Interaction of bow and stern wave


s
systems

Figure 15.5.b. Humps and hollows in wavemaking resistance curves

Froude number values corresponding to the humps and hollows are shown below.
N

Fn

0.9
0.54

0.9
0.38
2

0.9
0.31
3

0.9
0.27
4

Clearly, a designer would not deliberately produce a ship whose normal service speed was at a 'hump'
position. Rather, the aim would be to operate in a 'hollow', although other considerations may be
overriding in deciding on the length of the ship.
r troughs of the b

15.6

SHIP DESIGN
15.1.4. Performance Standards for Ship Resistance
Moor ve Small presented a statistical analysis of model test results for a lage number of single screw
merchant vessels. The results were presented in the form of charts of for a ship of the standard BSRA
dimensions
LBP
= 400 feet
(121.92 m)
B
= 55 feet
(16.764 m)
T
= 26 feet
(7.925 m)
For a series of speeds and a range of LCB position (LCB) and block coefficient (C B) covering the
following range
V
= 0.50 - 0.90
LCB (LBP%) = 2.00A - 2.50F
CB = 0.625 - 0.825
L
For each model, the resistance data were reduced to for a standard ship of 400 feet by Froudes
friction coefficients method. Curves of are then plotted on a speed base, and values read off at speed
length ratios of 0.50, 0.55, 0.60 ..., 0.90. These values were then corrected to apply to ship dimensions of
400 x 55 x 26 feet by the use of Mumfords indices. For each speed length ratio, the values of for the
standard dimensions were plotted against block coefficient in nine groups, each group covered a band of
LCB position. A typical average curve is shown in Figure 15.6.

Figure 15.6. Typical average

curve for10 knots V / L 0.50

Table 15.1. for the standard dimensions (10 knots V / L 0.50 )


LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800
0.825

2.00
A
0.643
0.645
0.650
-

1.75
A
0.644
0.645
0.649
-

1.50
A
0.645
0.645
0.648
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800
0.825

2.00
A
0.640
0.642
0.646
-

1.75
A
0.643
0.643
0.647
-

1.50
A
0.645
0.645
0.648
-

1.25
A
0.646
0.645
0.648
0.657
-

1.00
A
0.647
0.645
0.648
0.656
-

0.75
A
0.647
0.645
0.647
0.654
0.668
-

0.50
A
0.647
0.645
0.646
0.652
0.665
-

0.25
A
0.649
0.645
0.646
0.650
0.661
0.683
-

0
0.649
0.645
0.646
0.649
0.659
0.678
-

0.25
F
0.650
0.645
0.646
0.648
0.656
0.671
0.700
0.746
-

0.50
F
0.650
0.645
0.645
0.646
0.653
0.667
0.695
0.739
-

0.75
F
0.650
0.645
0.644
0.645
0.650
0.664
0.690
0.731
-

1.00
F
0.645
0.642
0.643
0.648
0.660
0.684
0.724
0.790

1.25
F
0.645
0.642
0.642
0.647
0.658
0.680
0.719
0.784

1.50
F
0.645
0.641
0.640
0.645
0.654
0.676
0.715
0.777

1.75
F
0.645
0.640
0.640
0.644
0.653
0.675
0.710
0.771

2.00
F
0.640
0.644
0.654
0.675
0.710
0.768

2.25
F
0.640
0.645
0.654
0.675
0.710
-

2.50
F
0.640
0.646
0.657
0.677
0.712
-

2.00
F
0.651
0.652
0.661
0.683
0.722
0.789

2.25
F
0.651
0.652
0.660
0.680
0.719
-

2.50
F
0.650
0.650
0.656
0.677
0.717
-

Table 15.2. for the standard dimensions (11 knots V / L 0.55 )


1.25
A
0.646
0.645
0.648
0.655
-

1.00
A
0.646
0.645
0.648
0.655
-

0.75
A
0.647
0.646
0.648
0.654
0.666
-

0.50
A
0.647
0.646
0.648
0.653
0.665
-

0.25
A
0.650
0.647
0.648
0.653
0.664
0.680
-

0
0.652
0.650
0.649
0.653
0.663
0.679
-

0.25
F
0.653
0.650
0.649
0.653
0.661
0.676
0.701
0.737
-

0.50
F
0.656
0.651
0.650
0.653
0.660
0.676
0.699
0.733
-

0.75
F
0.657
0.652
0.650
0.653
0.659
0.674
0.696
0.731
-

1.00
F
0.652
0.650
0.652
0.658
0.670
0.693
0.729
0.791

1.25
F
0.653
0.650
0.652
0.657
0.667
0.691
0.728
0.790

1.50
F
0.655
0.651
0.651
0.654
0.664
0.687
0.726
0.790

1.75
F
0.656
0.652
0.651
0.654
0.664
0.684
0.723
0.789

15.7

SHIP DESIGN
Table 15.3. for the standard dimensions (12 knots V / L 0.60 )
LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800
0.825

2.00
A
0.658
0.653
0.655
-

1.75
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
-

1.50
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800
0.825

2.00
A
0.680
0.676
0.674
-

1.75
A
0.680
0.676
0.676
-

1.50
A
0.680
0.676
0.676
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800
0.825

2.00
A
0.684
0.684
0.684
-

1.75
A
0.684
0.684
0.684
-

1.50
A
0.684
0.684
0.684
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775
0.800

2.00
A
0.689
0.687
0.687
-

1.75
A
0.690
0.688
0.691
-

1.50
A
0.690
0.689
0.693
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725
0.750
0.775

2.00
A
0.686
0.688
0.690
-

1.75
A
0.689
0.690
0.696
-

1.50
A
0.691
0.693
0.700
-

LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700
0.725

2.00
A
0.716
0.737
0.765
-

1.75
A
0.717
0.738
0.768
-

1.50
A
0.719
0.740
0.771
-

1.25
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
0.669
-

1.00
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
0.667
-

0.75
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
0.667
0.690
-

0.50
A
0.659
0.655
0.657
0.667
0.687
-

0.25
A
0.660
0.658
0.659
0.667
0.685
0.720
-

0
0.660
0.658
0.660
0.667
0.682
0.711
-

0.25
F
0.661
0.659
0.660
0.667
0.679
0.702
0.738
0.784
-

0.50
F
0.662
0.659
0.660
0.666
0.677
0.698
0.725
0.760
-

0.75
F
0.662
0.659
0.660
0.666
0.676
0.692
0.712
0.745
-

1.00
F
0.660
0.660
0.665
0.673
0.687
0.707
0.735
0.775

1.25
F
0.660
0.661
0.665
0.672
0.685
0.705
0.731
0.776

1.50
F
0.660
0.661
0.664
0.670
0.681
0.703
0.740
0.794

1.75
F
0.661
0.661
0.664
0.670
0.680
0.705
0.756
0.836

2.00
F
0.664
0.668
0.680
0.712
0.777
0.900

2.25
F
0.664
0.668
0.680
0.717
0.803
-

2.50
F
0.664
0.667
0.679
0.723
0.843
-

2.00
F
0.682
0.689
0.712
0.759
0.850
1.066

2.25
F
0.682
0.689
0.713
0.768
0.886
-

2.50
F
0.681
0.689
0.716
0.779
0.926
-

2.00
F
0.727
0.754
0.794
0.865
1.007
1.243

2.25
F
0.730
0.760
0.806
0.893
1.076
-

2.50
F
0.734
0.767
0.822
0.932
1.161
-

2.00
F
0.777
0.844
0.940
1.049
1.161

2.25
F
0.782
0.858
0.964
1.092
1.231

2.50
F
0.787
0.873
0.992
1.141
1.309

Table 15.4. for the standard dimensions (13 knots V / L 0.65 )


1.25
A
0.680
0.676
0.677
0.684
-

1.00
A
0.680
0.676
0.677
0.684
-

0.75
A
0.680
0.676
0.677
0.684
0.703
-

0.50
A
0.680
0.676
0.677
0.684
0.703
-

0.25
A
0.679
0.676
0.678
0.684
0.701
0.744
-

0
0.679
0.676
0.678
0.684
0.700
0.735
-

0.25
F
0.678
0.676
0.678
0.684
0.699
0.727
0.773
0.841
-

0.50
F
0.678
0.676
0.678
0.684
0.697
0.720
0.759
0.820
-

0.75
F
0.678
0.676
0.678
0.684
0.696
0.716
0.751
0.806
-

1.00
F
0.676
0.679
0.683
0.695
0.714
0.747
0.800
0.885

1.25
F
0.676
0.679
0.683
0.693
0.712
0.747
0.800
0.890

1.50
F
0.676
0.679
0.683
0.693
0.712
0.748
0.809
0.920

1.75
F
0.676
0.679
0.683
0.693
0.712
0.753
0.827
0.977

Table 15.5. for the standard dimensions (14 knots V / L 0.70 )


1.25
A
0.683
0.684
0.685
0.687
-

1.00
A
0.682
0.684
0.686
0.689
-

0.75
A
0.682
0.684
0.687
0.692
0.704
-

0.50
A
0.682
0.684
0.688
0.695
0.708
-

0.25
A
0.681
0.684
0.689
0.697
0.712
0.754
-

0
0.681
0.684
0.690
0.698
0.717
0.754
-

0.25
F
0.680
0.684
0.691
0.702
0.720
0.756
0.814
0.911
-

0.50
F
0.680
0.684
0.694
0.705
0.724
0.757
0.815
0.896
-

0.75
F
0.678
0.684
0.695
0.707
0.729
0.761
0.815
0.888
-

1.00
F
0.684
0.697
0.711
0.733
0.765
0.816
0.886
1.005

1.25
F
0.684
0.698
0.714
0.738
0.769
0.819
0.894
1.030

1.50
F
0.684
0.700
0.720
0.745
0.777
0.829
0.914
1.075

1.75
F
0.684
0.702
0.721
0.748
0.784
0.845
0.950
1.146

Table 15.6. for the standard dimensions (15 knots V / L 0.75 )


1.25
A
0.690
0.690
0.696
0.714
-

1.00
A
0.690
0.691
0.698
0.720
-

0.75
A
0.691
0.693
0.701
0.723
0.771
-

0.50
A
0.691
0.694
0.704
0.728
0.775
-

0.25
A
0.692
0.697
0.706
0.732
0.781
-

0
0.692
0.696
0.708
0.737
0.787
-

0.25
F
0.693
0.698
0.711
0.742
0.791
0.851
0.917
0.988

0.50
F
0.694
0.699
0.714
0.748
0.797
0.854
0.917
0.982

0.75
F
0.694
0.699
0.716
0.752
0.801
0.859
0.921
0.986

1.00
F
0.702
0.720
0.757
0.808
0.868
0.932
0.998

1.25
F
0.703
0.722
0.762
0.818
0.882
0.950
1.020

1.50
F
0.705
0.724
0.766
0.826
0.898
0.978
1.060

1.75
F
0.707
0.726
0.771
0.834
0.918
1.008
1.106

Table 15.7. for the standard dimensions (16 knots V / L 0.80 )


1.25
A
0.694
0.696
0.706
0.760
-

1.00
A
0.696
0.699
0.712
0.766
-

0.75
A
0.700
0.704
0.718
0.774
0.890
-

0.50
A
0.701
0.706
0.725
0.779
0.894
-

0.25
A
0.704
0.712
0.732
0.791
0.899
-

0
0.708
0.718
0.739
0.798
0.904
-

0.25
F
0.710
0.725
0.749
0.808
0.912
1.053
-

0.50
F
0.719
0.734
0.760
0.821
0.921
1.052
-

0.75
F
0.731
0.746
0.772
0.833
0.930
1.056
-

1.00
F
0.759
0.788
0.849
0.941
1.061
-

1.25
F
0.775
0.804
0.866
0.957
1.072
1.197

1.50
F
0.796
0.824
0.883
0.972
1.087
1.215

1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50


F
F
F
F
0.820
0.848
0.905
0.998
1.119
1.268
-

Table 15.8. for the standard dimensions (17 knots V / L 0.85 )


1.25
A
0.723
0.742
0.775
-

1.00
A
0.725
0.746
0.781
-

0.75
A
0.729
0.749
0.787
0.859
-

0.50
A
0.737
0.756
0.796
0.869
-

0.25
A
0.748
0.766
0.806
0.880
-

0
0.759
0.778
0.817
0.890
-

0.25
F
0.773
0.790
0.833
0.905
1.006

0.50
F
0.790
0.808
0.850
0.921
1.016

0.75
F
0.813
0.829
0.872
0.943
1.032

1.00
F
0.855
0.900
0.968
1.058

1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50


F
F
F
F
F
F
0.887
0.932
1.009
1.107
-

15.8

SHIP DESIGN

Table 15.9. for the standard dimensions (18 knots V / L 0.90 )


LCB
CB
0.625
0.650
0.675
0.700

2.00
A
0.824
0.862
0.897
-

1.75
A
0.834
0.866
0.900
-

1.50
A
0.847
0.876
0.907
-

1.25
A
0.862
0.887
0.918
-

1.00
A
0.879
0.902
0.932
-

0.75
A
0.898
0.920
0.949
0.989

0.50
A
0.919
0.943
0.972
1.013

0.25
A
0.942
0.966
0.996
1.043

0
0.967
0.994
1.028
1.076

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
0.992
1.021
1.059
1.114
-

The curves of average not only provide a quick estimate of the effective horsepower but also a
standard with which to compare the results of subsequent model tests, and an indication of the change in
effective horsepower which would results from variation in the basic parameters.
Example 15.1. Compare with average attainment the results of a model of a single screw ship with
following particulars:
LBP
B
T
CB
LCB
S

= 141.732 m
= 19.812 m
= 8.382 m
= 0.706
= 0.98 LBP% (fwd)
2
= 4002 m (wetted surface area)

Model test results for this ship are as follows

V/ L

0500

0.550

0.600

0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850

0.656

0.667

0.688

0.699

0.712

0.760

0.877

1.004

A skin friction correction is needed because of the difference in length


0.175

S V

2 / 3 L
Froude skin friction coefficients (O) are given in the following table as a function of ship length

- 400 = 0.979O O 400

L(m)

L(m)

L(m)

L(m)

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10
13

0.1550
0.1553
0.1467
0.1401
0.1347
0.1300
0.1258
0.1212
0.1196
0.1172
0.1151
0.1133
0.1117
0.1101
0.1086
0.1073
0.1062
0.1050
0.1041
0.0993

17
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
76
80
84
88
92

0.0949
0.0927
0.0902
0.0882
0.0867
0.0854
0.0842
0.0832
0.0824
0.0817
0.0810
0.0803
0.0797
0.0792
0.0787
0.0781
0.0777
0.0773
0.0769
0.0765

96
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190

0.0762
0.0758
0.0754
0.0750
0.0746
0.0743
0.0739
0.0736
0.0732
0.0729
0.0726
0.0723
0.0721
0.0718
0.0715
0.0713
0.0710
0.0708
0.0705
0.0703

195
200
205
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370

0.0701
0.0698
0.0696
0.0694
0.0690
0.0687
0.0684
0.0680
0.0677
0.0674
0.0671
0.0668
0.0666
0.0663
0.0660
0.0658
0.0655
0.0653
0.0650
0.0648

For the standard vessel

O 400 0.0743 121.92 120

For the new vessel

O 0.0729 141.732 140

400 = - 0.9790.07280 0.07415

4002
166172 / 3

0.0739 0.0743
0.07415
125 120

0.0726 0.0729
0.07280
145 140

0.175

15.9

SHIP DESIGN

V/ L

0500

0.550

0.600

0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850

400

0.656
0.665

0.667
0.676

0.688
0.697

0.699
0.708

0.712
0.721

0.760
0.769

0.877
0.885

1.004
1.012

The standard dimensions of the new ship are

121.92
19.812 17.04 m
141.732

121.92
8.382 7.21m
141.732

The ratio of breadth and draught are

T
7.21

0.910
T400 7.925

B
17.04

1.016
B 400 16.764
The required Mumford correction is

1 =

400 /
B 400

2
3

T400

V/ L

0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
080
0.85

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

0.54
0.55
0.57
0.58
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.67

2
3

B
400

1.004
1.004
1.004
1.004
1.004
1.004
1.004
1.004

2
3

400
1.012
1.011
1.009
1.008
1.006
1.004
1.003
1.000

2
3

400
0.665
0.676
0.697
0.708
0.721
0.769
0.885
1.012

1
0.655
0.666
0.688
0.700
0.714
0.763
0.879
1.008

Valuesof average 400 are lifted from Tables 15.1 15.9 at the required CB and LCB giving the following
comparison

V/ L

0500

0.550

0.600

0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850

0.655
0.643

0.666
0.653

0.688
0.665

0.700
0.684

0.714
0.714

0.763
0.769

0.879
0.866

1.008
0.985

Average 400

Figure 15.7 presents average total resistance coefficients (C T) based on Moors average resistance data.
These results are valid for standard single screw BSRA cargo ship with dimensions L BP =121.92 m,
B=16.764 m and T=7.925 m. Similar results based on BSRA methodical series are shown in Figre 15.8.
Figure 15.9 presents Admiralty coefficents based on a large number of model test results conducted at
Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA). The Admiralty coeffients are given as a function of a coefficient as
follows:

C1

1/ 3 VS
Dn

Where [m ] is displacement, VS[kn] service speed, D [m] propeller diameter and n [min ] the
revolutions per minute.
3

-1

15.10

SHIP DESIGN

Figure 15.7. Total resistance coefficients based on Moors average data.

Figure 15.8. Total resistance coefficients based on BSRA methodical series.

Figure 15.9. Average Admiralty coefficients based on HSVA model tests.

15.11

SHIP DESIGN
15.1.5. Effect of Speed, Size, Main Dimensions and Hull Form Parameters on Resistance
a) Speed
Based on the most elementary resistance equation, it can be shown that the total resisatnce of a ship is
proportional with V 2 2 / 3 , where V represents the shipss speed. It is clear from this expression that a
reduction in speed brings an immediate and proportionately large reduction in resistance. In a slow speed
ship in which skin friction predominates in the ship resistance, a10% reduction in speed will bring about
20% reduction in resistance. In a high speed ship in which wave making becomes a significant part of the
resistance, this reduction could increase to 30% or more.
If the unit cost of fuel increases, the economic speed will be reduced. If, on the other hand, crew costs,
building costs, interest rates and insurance increase, the economic speed is increased. If the freight rate
is high the greatest profit will be obtained at a speed somewhat greater than the most economic speed.
Where freight rates only just cover costs, however, it pays to operate at the most economic speed.
b) Ship Size
Increasing ship size brings many benefits for resistance with the Froude number reducing for a given
speed, bringing both the possibility of the use of a fuller block coefficient and of a reduction in the
resistance per DWT.
Slimness can be defined by the ratio of the length to the cube root of the volume of displacement (this is
Froudes circular M) L / 1/ 3 or in terms of a volumetric coefficient which is the volume of displacement
divided by the cube of the length / L3 . For a given length, greater volume of displacement requires
steeper angles of entrance and run for the waterline endings. Increase in volumetric coefficient or
reduction in circular M can be expected, therefore, to lead to increased resistance. Generally in high
speed forms with low block coefficient, the displacement length ratio must be kept low to avoid excessive
resistance. For slow ships this is not so important.
There is no benefit in increasing L / 1/ 3 above about 5.2 for ships with block coefficient of 0.75 or more,
for block coefficients between about 0.60 and 0.75 the L / 1/ 3 value should be increased to about 5.6
with ittle advantage in increasing beyond this. For block coefficients finer than 0.60 it is probably desirable
to aim for an L / 1/ 3 of about 6.0, with further apparent gains to be made by increasing this towards 7.0.
c) Main Dimensions
For a required displacement an increase in length reduces the Froude number which, in turn, generally
reduces the wavemaking resistance. Where the wavemaking resistance is a major part of the total
resistance, a long slender ship tends to show to advantage but the smaller wteed surface of a short,
beamy, deep, full bodied ship of the same displacement can be advantageous where frictional resistance
is the main component. Fast ships require larger length to beam ratio than slow ships.
Generally resistance increases with increase in breadth to draught ratio within the normal working range
of this variable. This can again be explained by the angles at the ends of the waterlines increasing and
causing a greater disturbance in the water. With very high values of beam to draught ratio the flow around
the hull would tend to be in the vertical plane rather than the horizontal. This could lead to a reduction in
resistance.
d) Hull Form Parameters
Fullness may be represented by the block or prismatic coefficient. For most ships resistance will increase
as either coefficent increases. This is reasonable as the full ship can be expected to create a greater
disturbance as it moves through the water. There is evidence of optimum values of the coefficients o
either side of which the resistance might be expected to rise. This optimum might be in the working range
of high speed ships but is usually well below practical values for slow ships. Generally the block
coefficient should reduce as the desired ship speed increases. The following relation, proposed by
Townsin, represents a relationship between the block coefficient and the Froude number:

23 100
CB 0.7 0.125 tan1
Fn
4

15.12

SHIP DESIGN

In moderate speed ships, power can always be reduced by reducing block coefficient so that machinery
and fuel weights can be reduced. However, for given overall dimensions, a lower block coefficient means
less payload. A balance must be struck between payload and resistance based on a study of the
economics of running the ship.
Capital Cost

Operational Cost

Hull
Most expensive way to
increase displacement

Machinery
Reduces power and cost

Reduces

Increase B

Increases cost (but less


proportionately than L)

Increases power and cost

Increases

Increase D
and T

Cheapest dimensions to
increase; reduces cost

Reduces power and cost

Reduces

Increase CB

Cheapest way to increase


displacement and deadweight

Can cause rapid increase


in power

Increases

Increase L

The main effect is on wavemaking resistance and choice of prismatic is not therefore so important for
slow ships where it is likely to be chosen to give better cargo carrying capacity. For fast ships the
desirable prismatic coefficent will increase with speed to length ratio.
Even when the main hull parameters have been fixed it is possible to vary the distribution of displacement
along the ship length. This distribution can be characterized by the longitudinal position of the centre of
buoyancy (LCB). For a gven block coefficient the LCB position governs the fullness of the ends of the
ship. As the LCB moves towards one end that end will become fuller and the other finer. There will be a
position where the overall resistance will be minimized. This generally varies from just forward of
amidships for slow ships to about 10% percent of the length aft of amidships for fast ships. In considering
the distribution of displacement along the length the curve of areas should be smooth. Sudden changes
of curvature could denote regions where waves or eddies will be created.
Slow speed vessels are not great wave makers, and so can have quite bluff bows. We thus have forms
which are very full forward and relatively fine aft, leading to a centre of buoyancy which is well forward of
amidships. In fast surface ships we need to reduce the angle of entry at the bow to minimise wave
making, while less change is required at the stern. The centre of buoyancy thus moves aft, and will be
found well abaft amidships in fast ships like frigates.

Figure 15.10. Position of LCB single screw ships for optimum performance
In high speed ships with low block coefficient there is usually no parallel middle body. In ships of
moderate and high block coefficient, parallel middle body is needed to avoid the ends becoming too full.
15.13

SHIP DESIGN
For a given block coefficient, as the length of parallel middle body increases the ends become finer and
vice versa. Thus there will be an optimum value of parallel middle body for a given block coefficient.
Slow to moderate speed ships tend to have U shaped sections in the forebody and V shaped sections aft.
It can be argued that the U sections forward keep more of the ships volume away from the waterline and
so reduce wave making.
15.1.5. Bulbous bow
The principle of the bulbous bow is that it is sized, shaped and positioned so as to create a wave system
at the bow which partially cancels out the ships own bow system, so reducing wave making resistance.
This can only be done over a limited speed range and at the expense of resistance at other speeds. Many
merchant ships operate at a steady speed for much of their lives so the bulb can be designed for that
speed. It was originally applied to moderate to high speed ships but has also been found to be beneficial
in relatively slow ships such as tankers and bulk carriers and these ships now often have bulbous bows.
The effectiveness of the bulb in the slower ships, where wavemaking resistance is only a small
percentage of the total, suggests the bulb reduces frictional resistance as well. This is thought to be due
to the change in flow velocities which it creates over the hull.
The first decision to be taken in relation to the bow is whether to fit a normal or a bulbous bow. A normal
bow is cheaper to manufacture and a bulbous bow should only be fitted if doing so will reduce the
resistance and thereby either increase the speed or reduce the power required and with it the fuel
consumption. Figure 15.7 shows the range of Froude numbers and block coefficients at which such an
improvement is likely to be obtained when operating at the load draught.

Figure 15.11. The combinations of Froude number and block coefficient at which a bolbous bow is likely
to be advantageous.
This diagram indicates the area which is of practical concern and it can be sen that bulbous bows:

Are advantageous for fast ships with CB values less than 0.625 and Fn greater than about 0.26;
Present no advantage for ships with CB values between 0.625 and 0.725 unless these are
overdriven
Are again advantageous for CB values between 0.725 and 0.825, but probably not for C B values
over 0.825.

It is worth noting that at all block coefficents, bulbous bows show to best advantage on overdriven ships
and are often disadvantageous on ships which are relatively fine for their speeds.
It must be emphasized that this analysis refers only to the load draft condition. It is generally accepted,
however, that bulbous bows can offer their greatest advantage in the balast condition, particularly on full
lined ships with block coefficients in excess of 0.75. In general it appears that if a bulbous bow is not
advantageous at the load draft, it will only become advantageous in balast if the ship is operated at or
near its full power giving a speed in balast at least 10% or say 2 knots or so, more than the loaded
15.14

SHIP DESIGN
service speed. Fuel economy often keeps balast speeds down to, or lower than, the loaded service
speed, and the argument for a bulbous bow is reduced. Overall economy may require a balance between
designing for optimum performance fully loaded and in balast condition.
A bulbous bow will generally help to reducing pitching, but on the other hand it is more likely to cause
slamming.
Utilisation of a bulbous bow serves towards the improvement of hull performance when properly designed
and shaped. For high speed ships a bulbuos bow emerges as a natural choice whereas in full forms the
aim for its use is the avoidance of wave breaking.
a) Bulb forms and parameters
Bulbous bows come in a variety of shapes and sizes. One main division is that between a fully faired bulb
and one in which there is a sharp knuckle line between the bulb and a normal bow configuration (added
bulb). The added bulb is generally simpler to manufacture and seems, on full lined ships, to give at least
as good results as the faired bulb.
The next division is between bulbs which project as rams significantly forward of the fore perpendicular,
and those with little or no such projection. Ram bows also vary in the vertical positioning of the forward
projection, which in some designs commence near the waterline and in others are well submerged.
One of the principal criteria applied to the design of a bulbous bow is its sectional area at the fore
perpendicular (ABT) and depending on the shape of the cross section one can differentiate three main
bulb types:

- Type
O-Type
- Type

Figure 15.12. Bulb types, - Type, O-Type, and - Type. Small circles represent the sections centroid.
The O-Type is suitable for full as well as fine forms with both U-shaped and V-shaped sections. When the
section becomes circular and not fully submerged there is a danger of slamming. A -bulb acts quite
similar to a circular bulb, however, its efficiency reduces with increasing depth of submersion. A -bulb is
suitable for ships with limited draught variations. Its effectiveness is quite high and is more suitable for Vshaped frames. This bulb is known to be quite seakindly. In all cases, the bulb should not emerge in the
ballast condition so that its most forward point lies on the water surface.
b) Bulb design methods
The size of the bulb and its distance from the water surface are the primary factors that affect the wave
system it generates. The longitudinal position of the bulb centroid relative to the ship affects the phase
difference between the wave system produced by the bulb and the hull. The extent of the wave systems
and their interference depends on the speed. Where a bulb is used a shoulderless form is preferred. For
low L/B ratios and slow speeds, attention should be paid primarily to the reduction of form resistance.
Consequently:

The bulb should be designed to improve the flow in the buttock direction,
For less important wave elimination, the bulb should generate both sine and cosine waves (i.e.
nearly elliptic shaping)
15.15

SHIP DESIGN

There is no set method of defining bulb geometry in terms of bulb parameters.


Holtrops Method

RW - A c1c 2c5g exp m1Fnd m4cos Fn2

With
1.07961

T
c1 2223105c3.78613

7
B
AT
c 5 1 0.8
BTCM
B
c7 = 0.229577
L

90 iE 1.37565

0.33333

when

B
< 0.11
L

B
c7 =
L

when

B
0.11 < < 0.25
L

L
c7 = 0.5 0.0625
B

when

B
> 0.25
L

In these expressions c2 is a parameter which accounts for the reduction of the wave resistance due to the
action of a bulbous bow. Similarly c5 expresses the influence of a transom stern on the wave resistance.
In the expression AT represents the immersed part of the transverse area of the transom at zero speed. In
this figure the transverse area of wedges placed at the transom chine should be included.

c 2 exp 1.89 c3

The coefficient that determines the influence of the bulbous bow on the wave resistance is defined as

c 3 0.56

A1.5
BT
BT(0.31 ABT TF hB )

where hB is the position of the centre of the transverse area ABT above the keel line and T F is the forward
draught of the ship.
In the formula for the wave resistance, F n is the Froude number based on the waterline length L. The
other parameters can be determined from:
L
L
= 1.446CP 0.03
when
< 12
B
B
L
= 1.446CP 0.036
when
> 12
B
m1 = 0.0140407

1 3
L
B
1.75254
4.79323 c16
T
L
L

c16 = 8.07981CP 13.8673CP + 6.984388CP


c16 = 1.73014 0.7067CP
2

-3.29

m4= c150.4exp (-0.034Fn

when
when

CP < 0.80
CP > 0.80

for
for
for

L / < 512
3
512 < L / < 1727
3
L / > 1727

c15 = 1.69385
1/3
c15 = 1.69385 + (L/ 8)/2.36
c15 = 0.0

d = -0.9

15.16

SHIP DESIGN
The half angle of entrance, iE, is the angle of the waterline at the bow in degrees with reference to the
centre plane but neglecting the local shape et the stem. If iE is unknown, use can be made of the following
formula
0.34574
0.16302
L 0.80856

1 CWP 0.30484 1 CP 0.0225lcb0.6367 LR


iE 1 89 exp
100 3
L
B

Where
LR
0.06CP lcb
1 CP
L
4CP 1
A re-analysis was made of the wave resistance and the following wave resistance formula was derived for
the speed range Fn 0.55 .

RW -B c17c 2c5g exp m3Fnd m4cos Fn2

where
-1.3346
c17 6919.3CM
3
L
0.326869

B
m3 7.2035
L

2.00977

T

B

1.40692

2
B

0.605375

For the speed range of 0.55 Fn 0.40 the following interpolation formula is suggested:

R W R W A 10Fn 4

R W B R W A
1.5

The additional resistance due to the presence of a bulbous bow near the surface is determined from
.5
0.11exp 3PB2 Fni3 A1BT
g
RB
2
1 Fni

Where the coefficient PB is a measure for the emergence of the bow and Fni is the Froude number based
on the immersion

PB

0.56 ABT
TF 1.5hB

and

Fni

g TF hB 0.25 ABT 0.15V 2

Example 15.2 : Calculate the resistance characteristics for a single screw ship with the following
particulars by using Holtrops method.
Length between perpendiculars
Breadth
Draught
Displacement volume
Speed
LCB
Transverse bulb area
Centre of bulb area above BL
Midship section coefficient
Waterplane area coefficient
Prismatic coefficient
Wetted surface area
Transom area
Wetted area of appendages
Stern shape parameter
Propeller diameter
Number of propeller blades

L BP
B
T

V
ABT
hB
CM
CWP
CP
S
AT
SAPP
Cstern
D
Z

: 205 m
: 32 m
: 10 m
3
: 37500 m
: 25 knots
: % 0.75 L k
2
: 20.0 m
: 4.0 m
: 0.980
: 0.750
: 0.5833
: 7381.45 m
2
: 16.0 m
2
: 50.0 m
: 10.0
: 8.00 m
:4

15.17

SHIP DESIGN
Solution
V
25 0.5144
Fn

0.286
gL
9.81 205

RW - A c1c2c5g exp m1Fnd m2cos Fn2

0.06 0.5833 ( 0.75)

L R 2051 0.5833
81.385 m
4 0.5833 1

LR
0.06CP lcb
1 CP
L
4CP 1

0.34574
0.16302
L 0.80856

1 CWP 0.30484 1 CP 0.0225lcb0.6367 LR


iE 1 89 exp
100 3
L
B

0.16302
0.34574
205 0.80856
37500

0.30484
0.6367 81.385

iE 1 89 exp
1 0.75
1 0.5833 0.0225 0.75

100

32

2053
32

degrees
iE 12.08

32
c7 =
0.1561
205
1.07961

T
c1 2223105c3.78613

7
B
c 5 1 0.8

c 3 0.56

1.07961

90 iE 1.37565 2223105 0.15613.78613 10


32

90 12.081.37565 1.398

AT
16
1 0.8
0.9592
BTCM
32 10 0.98

A 1.5
BT
BT(0.31 A BT TF hB )

0.56

201.5

32 10 0.31 20 10 4

0.02119

c 2 exp 1.89 c3 exp(1.89 0.02119) 0.7595


= 1.446CP 0.03

L
205
1.446 0.5833 0.03
0.6513
B
32

c16 = 8.07981CP 13.8673CP + 6.984388CP 8.07981 0.5833 13.8673 CP2 6.984388CP3 1.3809
2

1 3
L
B
1.75254
4.79323 c16
T
L
L
205
375001/ 3
32
0.0140407
1.75254
4.79323
1.3809 2.1274
10
205
205

m1 = 0.0140407

c15 = 1.69385

m 2 c 15 CP2 exp 0.1Fn2 1.69385 0.58332 exp 0.1Fn2 0.17087


d = -0.9

RW 1.398 0.7595 0.9592 37500 1.025 9.81exp - 2.1274 0.2868-0.9 0.17087cos 0.6513 0.2868-2
RW 557kN

Without bulbous bow c 2 1 and hence the wave making resistance for the ship with no bulbous bow
RW 733.4 kN

The additional resistance due to the presence of a bulbous bow near the surface is determined from
15.18

SHIP DESIGN

.5
0.11exp 3PB2 Fni3 A1BT
g

RB

1 Fni2

Where the coefficient PB is a measure for the emergence of the bow and Fni is the Froude number based
on the immersion

PB

0.56 ABT
TF 1.5hB

PB
Fni

RB

Fni

and

0.56 A BT
TF 1.5hB

g TF hB 0.25 ABT 0.15V 2

0.56 20
0.6261
10 1.5 4
V

1 Fni2

9.8110 4 0.25 20 0.15 25 0.5144

g TF hB 0.25 A BT 0.15V 2
.5
0.11exp 3PB2 Fni3 A 1BT
g

25 0.5144

0.11exp 3 0.62612 1.50843 201.5 1.025 9.81

1 1.50842

1.5084

0.049kN

So the reduction in wave making resistance due to the bulbous bow is


RW 733.4 557 0.049 176.449kN

(24%)

The total resistance without bulbous bow is 1969.7 kN, so the reduction in total resistance due to the
bulbous bow is about 9%.
Krachts Method
Kracht employs six parameters to define bulb geometry
The breadth parameter is the maximum breadth BB of bulb area ABT at the FP divided by the beam
BMS of the ship

BB
B MS

C BB

The length parameter is the protruding length LPR normalized by the LBP of the ship

C LPR

L PR
L BP

The depth parameter is the height ZB of the foremost point of the bulb over the baseline divided by the
draught TFP at the FP

C ZB

ZB
TFP

The cross section parameter is the cross sectional area ABT of the bulbous bow at the FP divided by
the midship section area AMS of the ship

C ABT

A BT
A MS
15.19

SHIP DESIGN

The lateral area parameter is the area of ram bow ABL in the longitudinal plane normalized by AMS

C ABL

A BL
A MS

The volumetric parameter is the volume PR of the protruding part of the bulb divided by the volume
of the displacement WL of the ship

C PR

PR
WL

In the application of Krachts method the choice of bulb parameters are achieved by the use of a set of
graphs as demonstrated by Figures 15.9 to 15.15. The curves have been constructed by reanalysing a
large number of old model test results, and this material has been complemented where necessary with
new model tests.
Kracht defined a power specific bulb effect, or power reduction factor, as follows
P
P 1.0 W
P0
In this form the bulb effect is the power difference of the ship without P0 and with bulb PW related to the
poer of the bulbless ship. In order to separate the different friction resistance components of ships without
and with bulb in accordance with Froudes method, the total delivered power is regarded as composed of
a frictional part and a residual part, as follows:
PD PR PF
If the propulsive efficiency D is known, the residual power can be calculated as the difference between
total and frictional power, and a residual power reduction factor can be defined as follows:

PR 1.0

PRW
P
PFW
1.0 DW
PR0
PD0 PF0

Example 15.3. Find properties and advantage of a bulbous bow for the following ship.
LBP
= 167 m
Fn
= 0.24
LBP/B = 6.09
VS
= 9.71 m/s
2/3
B/T
= 3.0
S/
6.236
CB
= 0.7
D 0.7
PD
= 17700 kW (Propeller power of bulbless ship)
Sbulb 1.025 S without
Solution
From diagram 15.13 C B - C PR

CPR 0.0025

From diagram 15.13 C B - C ZB

C ZB 0.65

From diagram 15.14 C PR - CLPR

CLPR 0.031

From diagram 15.14 C PR - C BB

CBB 0.15

From diagram 15.15 C PR - C ABL

C ABL 0.11
C ABT 0.1

From diagram 15.15 C PR - C ABT

The residual power reduction coefficient ( CPR ) as a function of the length parameter ( CLPR ) is shown
in Figure 15.16. From this figure for Fn= 0.24

CLPR 0.031

CPR 0.3
15.20

SHIP DESIGN

2 / 3 940m 2
CF

104.6 kgs 2 / m 4

0.075

LogRn 2

0.001437

C PR

Rn

VL
1.365 109

PD
C
S
F 2 / 3 1.0264
1

D
V 3 2 / 3
2

C
S 1
PD 1 CPR CPR F 2 / 3 V 3 2 / 3 14900 kW
D

2
So the bulbous bow provides a 16% reduction in engine power.

Figure 15.13.

Figure 15.14.

Figure 15.15.
15.21

SHIP DESIGN

Figure 15.16.

15.2. Propulsion
15.2.1. Afterbody Section Forms and Flow to Propeller
Sterns have to be considered in relation to the following roles:

The accomodation of the propeller(s) with good clearances that will avoid propeller excited vibration
problems,
The provision of good flow to the rudder(s) to ensure both good steering and good course stability,
The termination of the ships waterlines in a way that minimises separation and therefore resistance,
The termination of the ships structure in a way that provides the required supports for the
propeller(s) and rudder(s) plus the necessary space for steering gear, stern mooring and towage
equipment etc. and is economical to construct.

Where the propeller diameter (D) on a single screw ship is of normal size in relation to the draft, i.e. D/T is
approximately 0.75, the main consideration is ensuring good flow to the propeller, with a figure of
0
0
between 28 and 30 being about the maximum acceptable slope of waterline within the propeller disc
area. Keeping to such a figure tends to force the LCB forward on a full bodied ship.
15.2.2. Propeller Diameter and Clearances
A larger propeller with slower rpm has generally higher efficiency. An indication of the gains to be
obtained using lower rpm is provided by Emersons approximate formula for propulsion efficiency.
N L
D 0.84
10000
where N [rev/min] and L [m]. This formula roughly predicts a 5% increase in efficiency for a 50% reduction
in rpm.
The ability to use a low rpm depends on whether the larger propeller dimater which, for a given engine
power, must accompany this, can be accommodated within a stern aperture which must be related to the
draught of the ship.
Where the propeller is large in relation to the draught of the ship, a number of options exist. First, the
propeller can be fitted in such a position that the lower tip is below the keel of the ship. This is a common
practice on warships but merchant ship owners are generally reluctant to expose propeller tips below the
line of keel, because the draught to the propeller tip in its lowest position would have to be considered as
the ships draught for navigation in restricted waters; because of the cost of damage to a propeller and
because of dry docking problems. A second design technique which enables a relatively large propeller to

15.22

SHIP DESIGN
be fitted is the use of designed trim or a raked keel. This is commonly used in small ships notably tugs
and fishing vessels.
Lloyds recommended minimum clearances as a fraction of the propeller diameter for a four bladed
propeller are:
Tip to sternframe arch
Sternframe to leading edge at 0.7R
Trailing edge to rudder at 0.7R
Tip to top of sole piece

: 1.00K
: 1.50K
: 0.12
: 0.03

where

L 2.56CB P

K 0.1
0.3

3050
L2

Where P=power in kW. The recommended clearance for a four bladed propeller on a twin screw ship is
1.00K.
Where the propeller is large in relation to the draft of the ship, a number of options exist.
Where the propeller is large in relation to the draught of the ship, a number of options exist:

The propeller can be fitted in such a position that the lower tip is below the line of the keel. This is
common practice on warships, but merchant ship owners have been reluctant to allow this because of
possible damage to the propeller in shallow water and possible additional dry docking problems and
costs.
The ship can have a designed trim or raked keel. This is commonly used in small ships, notably tugs
and fishing vessels. It is also used for the same reason on warships, even large twin-screw vessels.
A tunnel type form can be used. This form is successfully used on shallow draught river craft.

It is very desirable from a resistance point of view that the stern lines above the propeller should be
continued to form a cruiser stern, which is immersed at the operating draughts. A cruiser stern should
extend aft sufficiently to cover the rudder but there is no need for there to be any significant immersion at
the end of the waterline which may cause eddies particularly if the cruiser stern is terminated by a flat
transom as has become fairly general practice in recent years. The top of the rudder should follow the
lines of the stern with only the necessary clearance. Keeping the stern immersion to the desirable
waterline position has the added advantage of permitting the greatest possible propeller diameter for a
given draught.
In merchant ships transoms were first adopted for cost saving reasons, but once adopted the flat transom
concept was progressively developed to provide more deck area for mooring equipment, to provide
stowage for a tier of containers or to facilitate moving the accommodation further aft. It was also found
that a considerable gain in KM could be obtained by the wider waterlines in the stern.
A transom stern can greatly improve the static stability of a ship by increasing the KM but if advantage is
taken of this to permit more top weight, the ship may have inadequate stability when it suffers the big loss
in KM which can occur when the stern comes out of water when the ship is pitching in a seaway
(broaching).
In warships the transom stern was introduced not for cost cutting reasons but because it improved the
hydrodynamic performance giving a less turbulent wake particularly at high speeds. As in merchant ships,
the resulting increase in KM was appreciated for stability reasons and the additional deck area because it
improved the arrangement. In fact in present warship practice the full midship beam is often maintained
right to the transom and from upper deck level to very nearly the waterline. A further development in the
sterns of high speed ships is the transom wedge or flap illustrated in Figure. This reduces the high stern
wave that used to build up at the stern and thereby reduces resistance.
Table 15.10. Submergence of transom stern
Froude number Submergence of transom stern
<0.3
Above water
Slightly submerged
0.3
% 10-15 of draught submerged
0.5
>0.5
% 15-20 of draught submerged
15.23

SHIP DESIGN

In vessels which are fast in relation to their length a transom stern may reduce total resistance. At low
speeds the transom drags along behind it the usual turbulent water, but as speed increases the flow
shoots aft from the bottom as well as the sides, leaving the transom dry. The greater part of the turbulent
wake disappears.
To work properly a transom must have sharp square edges all around. On occasion transoms have been
given radiused corners, for aesthetic or other reasons. The result is that separation is no longer clean;
water is drawn round the corners to fall into a confused tumbling mass pulled along behind the transom at
all speeds. This kind of flow augments the hull drag because of the suction around the curved corners.
Transom corner separation is completely stable, and there is no interference with steering due to the
separation wandering about. In transom-sterned craft the rudder is usually below the transom, well
immersed in the streamline flow, and possibly benefiting from the propeller race as well.
Separation occurs if the flow of water approaching the stern breaks away from the surface of the hull and
throws off a trail of large eddies behind the ship, causing a large increase in drag. This happens if the
stern is too bluff; that is, if the waterlines slope in too steeply towards the stern post. A rule of thumb
sometimes used is to limit the inward slope of waterlines to 20 degrees relative to the centre line. Slope in
buttock and diagonal lines should also be limited. This results in one of the classic ship design conflicts;
the designer wants to place his engine room as close to the stern as possible, but if he puts it too close
the beam required for the machinery pushes the lines out so that the critical slope is exceeded, flow
separates and the ship fails to reach her designed speed.
In a hull form which has been steepened so that the flow is almost but not quite separating, we may have
flow conditions which are barely stable, and where a minor disruption can cause the flow to separate.
Here it is particularly important for the plating to be smooth, with no discontinuities in direction or
curvature. In such cases fairness of the hull form becomes important. Note that unfairness alone does not
cause separation, but it can trigger separation is other conditions are favourable.

15.2. Seakeeping Performance


Seakeeping is that aspect of the overall performance of a ship concerned with its behaviour in rough
weather. Seaworthiness reflects the capability of the ship to survive all hazards at sea, such as collision,
grounding, fire, as well as heavy weather effects related to the environment in general and waves in
particular. While seaworthiness deals with the extremes, seakindliness usually refers to those qualities
of the ship related to the less violent responses due to wind and waves.
Most ships are designed to operate in an environment which can be hostile due to winds and waves.
Regardless of their type or size the operational effectiveness of ships will be degraded by the adverse
effects of the environment. Therefore, the technological success of a ship design hinges upon a good
seakeeping design. It should be the objective of the designer to minimize this degradation and ensure
that the safety of personnel and equipment on board is achieved.
Conventional ship design techniques are based on the assumption that ship performance can be treated
from the calm water viewpoint only. However, the operational effectiveness of many types of vessels is
dependent upon their seakeeping performance. Consequently, in todays competitive environment it is
becoming increasingly important for ship designers to demonstrate that their proposed design has good
seakeeping performance characteristics. Today it is widely accepted that seakeeping is a consideration
that can affect the final decision because it can affect the systems cost (or profit) through
voluntary/involuntary speed reduction. Hence its profit earning capability and/or ability to perform its
mission is degraded.
It is important to observe that the sea establishes an absolute scale for marine vehicles. The distributions
of wave heights and lengths are the same for all vessels sharing a sea area for operations. The way the
various vessels meet and respond to those waves depends strongly on their dimensions. The sea that is
giving fits to a small tug or fishing vessel may go all but unnoticed by a passing supertanker. Conversely,
the structure of a supertanker may be stressed by a swell that, while awesome to view, may have little
effect on the operations of the smaller vessels.
In general the operability is increased by larger principal dimensions. Obviously economic considerations
impose limitations on the principal dimensions, particularly length. In order to establish a rough economic
parity for purposes of design comparions to be applied to a particular class of vessel, it is necessary to
establish constraints on length, or perhaps, with equal rationality, constraints on displacement.
15.24

SHIP DESIGN

15.2.1. Ship Motions and Related Ship Responses


A ship in waves experiences motions in all six degrees of freedom, three rotational; roll (rotation about a
longitudinal axis), pitch (rotation about a transverse axis), yaw (rotation about a vertical axis), and three
translational heave
(vertical motion), sway (transverse motion) and surge (longitudinal motion
superimposed on the steady propulsive motion). All six are unwanted except in the special circumstance
where yaw is necessary in changing course.
z
Heave
Yaw

Pitch
y

Sway

Roll
Surge
x
Figure 15.17. Ship motions
a) Heave, Pitch and Roll
Heave, pitch and roll require particular mention because they are the three motions with hydrostatic
restoring forces (and moments), and therefore possess natural response periods and the potential for
resonant behaviour. Heave tends, in almost all cases, to be weel damped, so resonant heave is usually
not a problem. However, for a surface effect ship (SES) natural heave oscillations can be excited due to
high encounter frequency between the vessel and waves. The compressed air in the cushion causes
heave resonance. Heave motion is also important for offshore drilling vessels.
Pitch likewise is usually well damped. Pitch damping is maximised by full waterplane development in the
ends (high CWP) and relatively high beam-to-draught ratios overall. Pitch motion is one of the main
concerns in head and bow seas. A strong pitch motion is usually followed by deck wetness or bow
slamming which are generally of greater importance.
Roll creates problems in a number ways. It can cause structural damage to fittings and equipment. It can
cause people to thrown into bulkheads and equipment, resulting in injuries. Roll also affects the ability of
the crew to perform their duties efficiently. In a warship, most weapon and sensor systems have roll
limitations which severely hamper the capability of the warship to carry out its prescribed mission.
The problem of rolling is usually regarded as one of inadequate damping. As the only underdamped
motion, rolling exhibits true resonant behaviour and may therefore respond to angular displacements far
in excess of the fluid displacement field that excites the motion. Traditional remedies have included bilge
keels and antiroll tanks, both of which perform well at slow speeds, and passive and active antiroll
stabilizer fins, which are most effective when moving at speed.
b) Vertical and Transverse Accelerations
A key factor affecting the ability of crew to properly function is the level of vertical accelerations to which
they are subjected. Also the passenger comfort is closely related to the vertical acceleration levels. It is
known that vertical accelerations together with roll motion are the main cause of seasickness.

15.25

SHIP DESIGN
Transverse accelerations on the ship by combined sway and roll motions can cause a shift of cargos like
ore or grain. Sea-fastenings of containers at deck can collapse by too large accelerations and vulnerable
cargos like fruits can be damaged.
c) Deck Wetness
Deck wetness is defined as occurring when the bow of a vessel plunges into a wave and the water rises
above the edge of the deck at the bow and washes aboard. Deck wetness is an important seakeeping
phenomenon, which frequently causes voluntary reductions in ship speed, and threatens ship stability
and structural integrity. In extreme conditions, the frequent shipping of water may lead to the capsize of
the vessel; in more moderate conditions the loss of the vessel is unlikely, but frequent deck wetness may
still cause damage to exposed fittings and deck cargo and make the upper deck untenable for the crew.
d) Slamming
When the forefoot of the ship emerges, an impact can occur at the instant of re-entry. At certain level of
intensity the hydrodynamic impact of the forebottom can be noticed by the crew as a bang and a
deceleration in the foreship, followed by a shudder through the hull girder. That is, a longitudinal twodimensional vibration, also called whipping. Slamming under the forebody has long been recognized as
imposing a limit on the performance of many classes of ships. Cases are reported of ships experiencing
bow structural damage due to severe bottom slamming. Moreover, the psychological effect on a ship
operator of severe slamming is such as to demand a reduction of speed or a change of course and this
subjective reaction will differ from individual to individual.

Figure 15.18. Slamming and deck wetness


e) Wave Loads
When a ship proceeds into waves, the distribution of pressure over the hull changes continuously. To
maintain dynamic equilibrium, the ship changes its position accordingly. The Newtons second law
describes the maintenance of equilibrium between the externally applied force and the inertial force.
While such an equilibrium condition applies to the entire ship, it does not necessarily apply to a portion of
the ship body. The unbalance between the inertia and the external forces on that portion of the ship is the
load to be borne by the structure.
f) Capsizing
In extreme cases excessive rolling may lead to ship capsize. This is especially so for small vessels in
breaking beam waves. Larger vessels are more at risk in quartering and following seas to broaching.
15.2.2. Seakeeping Considerations in Ship Design
The operational requirements are not unique for all marine vehicles, but vary with type, missions and
ocean routes. For instance, the operational requirement for a typical merchant ship, primarily intended
to operate between fixed ports, is chiefly determined by the desire to ensure an optimum fixed-time portto-port operation. This requirement implies the attainment of proper speed and minimum course changes.
The winds and waves continuously impose restrictions on these two variables both directly and indirectly.
The direct influence is reflected in an involuntary decrease in ship speed, through increased resistance
and/or reduction of propulsive efficiency. The indirect influence is manifested by the voluntary changes in
speed and course made by the captain of the ship. The orders issued will be consistent with the need to
maintain satisfactory levels of wave-induced phenomena such as slamming, water on deck, and
accelerations and motions. Thus the seakeeping performance assessment on board ship will be the
subjective judgement by the captain based on previous experience.
15.26

SHIP DESIGN

MAX CALM
WATER
SPEED

SPEED AT FULL
POWER

SPEED

SPEED (POWER LIMITED)

MAX ATTAINABLE
SPEED

SPEED (MOTION LIMITED)

SEA STATE
Figure 15.19. Speed reduction in a seaway.
Figure 15.19 qualitatively illustrates how attainable speed varies with increasing sea state number. It
shows both the involuntary speed reduction, caused by added resistance and reduced propulsive
efficiency, and the voluntary speed reduction caused by extreme effects such as deck wetness.
Seakindliness cannot be expressed as a single quality. A seakindly vessel should ship little water, should
pitch and roll only moderately, should not loose too much speed in rough weather, et cetera. The
importance of each of these factors has to be balanced one against the other. In order to simplify the
problem the different aspects of seakeeping can be studied under the four major categories of
Habitability, Operability, Mobility and Survivability. Each of the characteristics in the indicated categories
is shown in Table 15.11.
Table 15.11. Characteristics degrading seakeeping performance
Habitability
Crew fatigue and
inefficiency
Personnel injury
Combination of
absolute motion,
velocity and
accelerations

Slamming

Low morale
Reduced task
proficiency
Passenger discomfort

Propeller emergence

Voluntary speed
reduction
Voluntary course
change

Structural fatigue failure

Damage to deck
mounted equipment
Damage to deck
cargo
Work restrictions due
to loss of deck access

Voluntary speed
reduction
Voluntary course
change

Bow structural failure

Fear of damage to
main machinery

Voluntary speed
reduction

Main engine failure

Personnel fatigue

Fear of structural
damage
Equipment failure, e.g
of sonar

Reduced visibility from


bridge
Dampness in
accomodation
Leisure restriction due
to loss of access
Increased
maintenance
Vibration

Survivability
Structural failure of hull

Fear of capsize

Personnel injury

Mobility
Added wave
resistance
Voluntary speed
reduction
Voluntary course
change
Reduced propulsive
efficency

Fatigue damage to
minor structure
Movement of loose
gear
Whipping vibration

Increased
maintenance due to
vibration damage
Personnel injury
Deck Wetness

Operability
Cargo damage and
movement
Equipment
inoperability
Reduced sensor
efficiency
Fatigue damage to
main hull
Crew motion sickness

Equipment damage or
loss
Cargo damage

Capsize
Main engine failure

Impact failure of plating

Severe icing leading to


capsize

15.27

SHIP DESIGN

15.2.3. Seakeeping Performance Assessment


Seakeeping came of age as a discipline of applied hydrodynamics in the mid 1950s with the emergence
of strip theory and linear superposition for the analytical prediction of ship motion in irregular seas.
Subsequent advances led to the development of more sophisticated software capable of assisting ship
design.
Linear ship motion theory can, to a large extent, be used to describe vertical plane wave induced motions
and loads on a ship in a seaway, and has been extensively used in structural analysis as well as
operational studies of ships. Linear theory has its limitations however, comparisons with full scale
measurements have shown good agreement even in quite rough weather where the basic assumptions of
the theory are violated.
15.2.3.1. Mathematical Representation of a Seaway
The outstanding visible characteristic of waves in the open ocean is their irregularity. The study of wave
records will confirm the irregularity of the sea in both time and space. However, one is equally impressed
by the fact that over a fairly wide area and often for a period of a half-hour or more the sea may maintain
a characteristic appearence, that is, it is stationary. At other times or places the sea condition will be quite
different, and yet there will again be a characteristic appearence.
It is this tendency which has encouraged many to seek mathematical description which allow for different
but steady statistical parameters. Hence, for most problems of behaviour of ships and floating structures
at sea attention can be focused on describing the surface waves as a random, or stochastic, process
under short-term statistically stationary conditions.
The linear model, in its simplest form, assumes a normal or Gaussian stochastic process that (over
periods of time that are long enough for analysis, but not so long that significant changes in weather
occur) is stationary in time and space, i.e. the statistical properties remain unchanged. The model
assumes that at any location and at any instant the surface of the sea is the result of the linear
superposition of many progressive regular harmonic wave trains of random amplitude, wave frequency
and phase.
The sea spectrum has the advantage of characterizing the condition of a given seaway without regard to
its behaviour at an exact location in space or instant in time. Ideally, measured spectra for the specific
area of interest are preferred. However, the limited availability of such precise wave data has led to the
use of mathematical descriptions for the actual spectra. The usual input parameters required to generate
the theoretical spectrum include wave height and period, though other additional parameters such as
fetch, or the spectral width parameter may help generate a more realistic spectral shape. Probably the
best known spectral formulation is that of Pierson and Moskowitz (1964) for fully developed seas, that
is
A
B
S () 5 exp 4


with the significant wave height, HS , used to specify the parameters A and B through the
relationships
g2
A 0.0081g 2
and
B 0.032 2
HS
where g is the gravitational acceleration.
Thus, in this case the shape of the spectrum is controlled by a single parameter, the significant wave
height. The modal frequency, m , becomes a fixed value for a given significant wave height. That is,
1/ 4

4
m B
5
The variation of the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum for with significant wave height and wave frequency is
shown in Figure 15.20.

15.28

SHIP DESIGN
7

SPECTRAL DENSITY

Hs=3 m
Hs=4 m
Hs=5 m
Hs=6 m

0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

WAVE FREQUENCY

Figure 15.20. Pierson-Moskowitz Energy Spectrum for Different Sea States.


15.2.3.2. Ship Responses in Regular Waves
The general form of the basic linearised coupled equations of motion in the six rigid degrees of freedom
using body axes is
6

k ( t )
jk

Fj ( t )

j = 1, 2,,6

k 1

k is the acceleration in
where M jk is a component of the generalised inertia matrix for the ship, and
the kth mode which can be expressed as

k 2e k e iet

Here k is the complex amplitude of ship response in the k direction. Taking account of the various
force components the equations of motion can be written as
th

2
e

jk

A jk i e B jk C jk k FjI FjD

j = 1, 2, , 6

k 1

th

where M is the mass of the ship, M jk is the mass moment of inertia in the j mode due to motion in the k

th

mode. In principle there are 36 distinct hydrodynamic inertia and wave damping coefficients but geometric
symmetry makes for a powerful reduction in number. For hulls with port-starboard symmetry the nonzero hydrodynamic coefficients have either an even-even or an odd-odd combination of i, j indices,
indicating that the longitudinal motions are not coupled with the lateral ones. Furthermore, for a ship in the
free surface, with port-starboard symmetry, the only nonzero linear hydrostatic restoring coefficients are:

C33 , C35 , C 44 , C53 , C55

with

C35 C53

For an arbitrarily shaped vessel the six equations of motion must be solved simultaneously. However, for
the case of an unrestrained ship with port-starboard symmetry the six equations may be uncoupled into
two distinct sets of equations; one set comprises of the coupled surge, heave, and pitch equations and
another set corresponds to the three coupled sway, roll, and yaw equations. If it is assumed that the hull
form is slender and also posseses lateral symmetry, it can be argued that the transverse hydrodynamic
forces are more dominant than the longitudinal forces and so the surge motion can be considered (at first
order) to be negligible compared with the five other modes of motion. Thus, surge can be disregarded.
Obtaining numerical values for the complex motion amplitudes, k , requires assignment of values to the
coefficients M jk , A jk ,B jk and C jk and the exciting force amplitudes FjI , FjD before the equations of
motion can be solved. The mass matrix, M jk , and the hydrostatic restoring forces, C jk , are readily
evaluated. The Froude-Krilov exciting force can also be found by a direct integration of the incident wave
potential over the wetted surface of the ship hull. The major effort in determining the ship motions is to
15.29

SHIP DESIGN
perform the calculations needed to find the coefficients of added mass, fluid damping and the diffraction
exciting forces.
15.2.3.3. Ship Responses in a Seaway
The magnitude of the motions in seas of varying severity can then be predicted, utilizing wave spectra
representative of the selected operational sea area. The sea environment is assumed to consist of longcrested irregular seas. In most cases only ship motions in sea states 4, 5 and 6 are considered. The
performance of operations in lower sea states is generally not considered to be degraded
sufficiently to warrant elaborate analysis. The extreme sea states, 8 and greater, are usually not
considered because the frequency of occurence of these sea states is very small. The response
spectrum for a stationary ship is obtained by calculating for a number of discrete frequencies
2

S j (, ) j (, ) S ()
where j (, ) is the response amplitude operator for response j as a function of wave frequency and
heading, and S () is the wave spectrum.
Figure 15.21 illustrates how the response of a ship to the seaway can be predicted. At each wave
length of the spectrum, the value of the sea energy density is multiplied by the RAO. This is
repeated over the entire range of wavelengths to determine the ship response energy spectrum. This
procedure is again repeated for each response under consideration.
1,0

Heave amplitude / Wave amplitude

0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

Wave frequency

0,5

Spectral density

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,0
0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

2,5

3,0

Wave frequency

Response spectrum

0,3

0,2

0,1

0,0
0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

Wave frequency

Figure 15.21. Prediction of Seakeeping Responses in Irregular Seas.


15.30

SHIP DESIGN
The significant value gives a measure of the response of a vessel to the seaway. The significant value of
a response can be calculated by the following relationship

R1/ 3

S()RAO d
2

where is the wave frequency, S() is the wave spectral density function, and RAO is the response
amplitude operator or the transfer function.
The shape of the spectrum of a vessel's response tells the analyst what frequencies are important
contributers to the response variance. Thus the response spectrum may allow inferences to be made
about why a response variance is what it turned out to be, or how a vessel might be modified for better
performance. Note that there will be no response when either there is no input at that frequency
S (, ) 0 or there is no response to any input at that frequency j (, ) 0 . Resonance behaviour

becomes serious whene there is both significant input in S and resonant response in j .
Traditionally, the magnitudes of response are estimated in terms of quantities that have some
connection with the qualitative aspect of waves or response to waves (visible crests, troughs,
amplitudes etc). Such estimates are made by multiplying the square root of response variance (the RMS
response) by a constant that is derived from the theory for the probability density of the maxima of a
stationary zero-mean Gaussian random process. Hence, it may be assumed that all of the formulas and
constants used for wave heights apply to response double amplitudes. Hence;

Average response amplitude

: 1.25 m0

Significant response amplitude

: 2.0 m 0

Average of 1/10 highest response amplitudes

: 2.55 m0

The greatest response amplitude expected on the average in samples of size (N) of independent
observations of apparent response amplitudes are
N
100

Maximum response amplitude

1000

3.85 m0

10,000

4.45 m0

3.25 m0

Example 15.4. Heave RAOs for a typical ship proceeding in bow seas (157.5 degrees) at a Froude
number of 0.2 are given below. The spectral density functions ( S () ) for the sea are are also given in
the table. Calculate the significant heave amplitude.

(rad/sec)

e (rad/sec)

0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85

0.295
0.365
0.439
0.517
0.598
0.682
0.770
0.862
0.958
1.057
1.160
1.267
1.376

RAO(m/m)

S () m sec

S Z () m sec

0.00
0.20
2.04
4.27
4.98
4.50
3.62
2.75
2.06
1.53
1.14
0.86
0.65

0.000
0.200
2.044
4.530
5.702
6.480
5.388
1.760
0.515
0.088
0.009
0.001
0.000

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.03
1.07
1.20
1.22
0.80
0.50
0.24
0.09
0.03
0.00

TM
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

m0 RAO2S ()d
O

Product
0.000
0.400
4.088
9.060
11.403
12.960
10.776
3.520
1.030
0.176
0.018
0.002
0.000

53.434

h
0.05

53.434 1.336 m
2
2

Significant heave amplitude = 2.0 m 0 =2.3 m

15.31

SHIP DESIGN
15.2.3.4. Empirical Methods to Predict Ship Responses in Irregular Seas
Look-up Tables
Loukakis and Chryssostomidis contains the results of computations on 72 hull forms taken from Extended
Series 60, based on head seas described by the one parameter ITTC spectrum. The input data and
results are non-dimensionalized and the influence of ship form is accounted for by using length/beam,
beam/draught and block coefficient as arguments in the tables. Ship speed is expressed as Froude
number and sea condition is expressed as non-dimensional significant wave height. Calculations were
carried out at five Froude numbers using the strip theory of Salvasen et al. The ranges of parameters are
as follows:
CB
L/B
B/T
Fn
H1/3/L

0.55
5.5
2.0
0.1
0.015

to
to
to
to
to

0.90
8.5
4.0
0.3
0.1

Empirical Equations Based on Model Test Data


Moor and Murdey ( ) published the results of seakeeping test on 43 models of actual ship designs in
irregular head seas. Estimates of heave, pitch and added thrust, torque and rate of rotation are available
by means of regression equations. The parameter ranges are as follows
CB
L
Beaufort
Heave Z A 0 A 1C WP

0.55
121 m
5

0.88
305 m
8
k yy
L
T
V
A 2 CB A 3 A 4 A 5LCB A 6
A7
B
L
L
L

Pitch

A 0 A 1C WP A 2 CB A 3

where
L
B
T
kyy
V

: Length
: Beam
: Draught
: Pitch radius of gyration

to
to
to

k yy
V
L
L
V

A 4 A 5 LCB A 6
A7
A 8

B
T
L
L
L
CB
CWP
LCB

: Block coefficient
: Waterplane area coefficient
: Longitudinal centre of buoyancy
from midships percent of LBP

: Speed length ratio (V[knots], L[feet])

L
Table 15.2. A coefficients for heave for various lengths and Beaufort numbers.
Beaufort
No
5

LBP
(feet)
400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000

A0

A1
-0.18
0.96
2.06
2.38
2.18
1.56
0.49
1.69
3.17
3.12
5.31
1.46
0.85
3.41
3.80
10.92
6.06
2.53
3.13
4.60

A2
-13.30
-12.54
-9.66
-5.29
-2.67
-18.19
-20.50
-18.71
-12.36
-7.90
-21.65
-24.91
-26.17
-20.94
-15.18
-24.68
-28.14
-31.72
-31.20
-25.12

A3
4.62
3.63
2.01
(0.63)
(0.04)
6.52
7.11
5.38
(2.40)
(1.11)
7.69
8.91
8.72
(5.07)
(3.08)
8.42
9.72
11.36
9.33
(6.10)

(0.100)
0.175
0.191
0.146
0.097
(0.066)
(0.145)
0.234
0.244
0.197
(0.073)
(0.140)
0.235
0.344
0.307
(0.061)
(0.109)
(0.180)
0.321
0.403

A4

A5
78.6
65.4
41.8
13.6
(0.3)
108.0
115.9
97.0
48.9
22.9
124.5
146.5
149.0
100.7
60.3
135.4
162.8
183.6
169.7
118.3

A6
0.205
0.204
0.163
0.083
0.035
0.262
0.306
0.299
0.201
0.122
0.327
0.371
0.409
0.349
0.244
0.413
0.440
0.473
0.512
0.413

A7
23.5
19.2
13.6
6.5
2.4
31.5
34.6
29.3
17.7
10.5
33.1
42.8
43.8
31.0
21.6
33.6
45.0
53.4
48.7
36.9

3.83
2.50
1.25
(0.02)
-0.49
5.79
5.31
3.70
1.29
(0.15)
7.10
7.75
6.89
3.62
1.72
7.96
9.21
9.65
7.26
4.33

15.32

SHIP DESIGN
Table 15.3. A coefficients for pitch for various lengths and Beaufort numbers.
Beaufort
No
5

LBP
(feet)

A0

400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000
400
500
600
800
1000

A1
3.65
3.96
3.38
2.03
1.17
5.33
5.07
5.12
3.66
2.34
6.89
5.59
5.49
4.94
3.57
8.74
7.17
6.16
5.95
4.89

A2

-16.19
-12.39
-8.21
-3.59
-1.61
-22.33
-19.72
-15.32
-7.87
-4.25
-26.65
-24.45
-21.45
-13.28
-7.83
-30.59
-28.17
-25.93
-19.68
-12.83

A3
9.10
6.97
4.43
1.86
0.85
12.53
11.17
8.58
4.15
2.25
15.00
13.78
12.11
7.25
4.13
17.25
15.79
14.62
11.09
6.98

A4
0.222
0.203
0.165
0.078
0.038
0.260
0.264
0.247
0.160
0.090
0.317
0.315
0.309
0.243
0.155
0.357
0.339
0.335
0.300
0.236

A5
-0.0510
-0.0329
-0.0167
-0.0037
-0.0001
-0.0745
-0.0604
-0.0407
-0.0139
-0.0052
-0.0923
-0.0803
-0.0652
-0.0310
-0.0138
-0.1056
-0.0952
-0.0844
-0.0553
-0.0291

A6

-0.069
-0.068
-0.057
-0.032
-0.018
-0.095
-0.093
-0.085
-0.058
-0.037
-0.110
-0.104
-0.101
-0.083
-0.057
-0.124
-0.113
-0.113
-0.104
-0.082

A7

14.8
5.0
(0.2)
-1.7
-1.7
25.2
15.7
6.1
(0.9)
-1.9
31.3
25.5
16.5
(3.1)
(-0.4)
36.5
32.1
26.2
10.9
(2.8)

A8

7.60
5.76
3.76
1.40
0.40
9.09
8.86
6.94
3.38
1.62
10.41
10.79
9.93
6.11
3.28
11.54
11.33
11.36
9.00
5.77

-5.14
-4.24
-2.99
-1.28
-0.47
-5.89
-6.11
-5.11
-2.78
-1.44
-6.59
-7.09
-6.88
-4.68
-2.70
-7.26
-7.25
-7.50
-6.46
-4.44

Values in brackets are statistically non-significant


Example 15.5. Estimate the responses of a 73,000 DWT tanker in a seaway corresponding to Beaufort 7
(H1/3=5.1m) using Moor and Murdeys equations. Main particulars of the vessel are given below
LBP
B
T
CB
CWP
LCB
kyy
V
Heave

Pitch

236.22 m
34.29 m
13.79 m
0.795
0.885
2% fwd
54.76 m
12.5 knots

Z A 0 A 1C WP A 2 CB A 3

A 0 A 1C WP

k yy
L
T
V
A 4 A 5LCB A 6
A7
B
L
L
L

k yy
V
L
T
V

A 2 CB A 3 A 4 A 5 LCB A 6
A7
A 8

B
L
L
L
L

The coefficients A for L=236.22 m and Beaufort 7 are given below.

Heave
Pitch

A0

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

A7

A8

3.41
4.94

-20.94
-13.28

5.07
7.25

0.344
0.243

100.7
-0.031

0.349
-0.083

31.0
3.1

3.62
6.11

-4.68

These quantities together with given data are inserted into equations to give

Z 6.56 ft 2.00 m
2.39 degrees
These values are significant heave and significant pitch double amplitudes. They are related to RMS
values by a factor of 4, giving.
RMS Heave = 0.5 m
RMS Pitch = 0.596 degrees
From the tables the RMS responses shown below are obtained
Response
Heave
Pitch

RMS
From Tables
0.469 m
0.647 deg

From Equations
0.500 m
0.596 deg
15.33

SHIP DESIGN

15.2.3.5. Evaluation of Seakeeping Performance


Although several methodologies have been developed to predict the seakeeping performance of ships at
the design stage, the subject is complicated by the fact that seakeeping performance depends greatly on
the mission that each ship is called upon to perform. With the assumption that a sea based system
operating for a specific mission is completely effective in calm water, seakeeping performance capability
can be defined as the rate of the ship's mission accomplished in rough seas. In evaluating the
seakeeping performance capability the mission requirements must be translated into seakeeping
performance requirements and integrated into the design process.
For all vessels carrying cargo, the mission is simply to proceed from one port to another in an economic
manner. For cargo liners, this means attaining a scheduled average sea speed in all seasons. For bulk
carriers, it means either minimization of transit time or attaining minimum operating cost. These mission
requirements can be translated into seakeeping performance requirements which involve questions of
voluntary and involuntary speed reductions due to rough weather.
For an ASW frigate, for example, one of the mission requirements is the safety of crew members who
are in a helicopter launch-recovery operation subject to hazardous ship motions. The translation of this
mission requirement into a seakeeping performance requirement can be achieved by defining appropriate
motion and acceleration levels beyond which the mission could not be accomplished.
The assessment of a marine vehicles seakeeping performance is based on the character of its
oscillations in the sea states it is expected to encounter during its operating life. The seakeeping
performance of given design in a specified sea environment is related to four factors

The wave response characteristics of the ship which depend on the size, dimensions, form, and
weight distribution characteristics,
The nature of the sea environment,
The ships speed and heading which determine how the ship will encounter the environment.
Quantitative and qualitative requirements for seakeeping performance, based upon the intended
mission of the vessel.

The way these components interact will determine the seakeeping performance of the vessel. Knowledge
of the sea environment and ship response alone is not sufficient to determine the mission success or the
survivability of the ship. It is necessary to determine what magnitude of response will cause degradation
of performance, or in the extreme, loss of the ship. The result of this evaluation is the determination of
limiting response criteria which are mission dependent
a) Seakeeping Criteria
Seakeeping criteria are the objective expression of the subjective performance used to limit a vessels
performance in heavy weather.
Slamming Criteria
Slamming is the phenomenon that occurs when the bow of a ship emerges from the water and re-enters
with considerable impact, frequently causing a shudder throughout the ship. A slam is defined as occuring
when the forefoot and the first 15 per cent of the keel aft of the bow emerges from the water and then
re-enters with a vertical velocity relative to the water surface greater than a certain threshold
value. Typical slamming criterion is 30 slams per hour.
Deck Wetness Criteria
Several authors recommended a maximum acceptable frequency of occurence of bow submergence.
Typical deck wetness criterion is 30 wetness per hour.
Acceleration Criteria
Vertical and lateral accelerations are of major importance for ship habitability because of their strong
association with the incidence of seasickness. The U.S. Navy criterion is 0.2g rms at the bridge. Conolly
(1974) stated that an rms value of 0.23g would impose impossible conditions .... to live and work for
a protracted period. Karpinnen (1987) gives a tentative scale for vertical acceleration, shown in
Table 15.8, which may be used for estimating the maximum acceptable magnitude for different
activities on board and for the comfort of the crew and the passengers.
15.34

SHIP DESIGN

Vertical rms
acceleration
0.275g
0.200g
0.150g
0.100g

0.050g

0.020g

Table 15.8. Limiting criteria for vertical acceleration Karpinnen(1987)


Description
Simple light work. Most of the attention must be devoted to keeping balance. Tolerable
only for short periods on high speed craft.
Light manual work by people adapted to ship motions. Not tolerable for longer periods.
Quickly causes fatigue.
Heavy manual work by people adapted to ship motions:
for instance on fishing vessels and supply ships.
Intellectual work by people reasonably well adapted to ship motions. (i.e., scientific
personnel on ocean research vessels. Cognitive/manual work of a more demanding
nature. Long term tolerable for the crew. The international standard for half an hour
exposure period.
Passengers on a ferry. The international standard for two hours exposure period.
Causes symptoms of motion sickness in approximately 10 per cent of unacclimatized
adults.
Passengers on a cruise liner. Older people. Close to the lower threshold below which
vomiting is unlikely.

b) Percent Time Operability


In US Navy practice seakeeping is assessed as Percent Time Operability (PTO). This is the
percentage of time that specific motion limits are not exceeded, and it depends on certain assumptions
of frequency of occurence of sea states, probability of various speed/heading combinations etc. The
ship heading, ship speed, and the sea condition define a three-space which is commonly referred to as
the operability cube. Motion predictions, are performed for each point in the cube. These motion
predictions are compared to a set of performance criteria which determine the limits for 100%
performance of the ship's mission, given that particular sea condition. This procedure requires the
following three steps:
Figure 15.22 illustrates the speed polar graph display. Constant ship speeds are indicated upon the
concentric circles, and constant ship headings along the radial lines.

Figure 15.22. Speed Polar Plot


Having plotted speed polar graphs for each response under consideration and given the limiting
seakeeping performance criteria for each response, the seakeeping operating envelopes (SOEs) can
then be developed by weighting the individual conditions in accordance with the frequency of
occurence and the importance of the overall performance aspect considered. SOEs are displayed in
speed polar format. In order to highlight the limiting ship response contours, these regions of the
speed polar plot (i.e., those combinations of speed and heading) are shaded in which one or more of
the seakeeping performance criteria are exceeded. SOEs are developed, as illustrated in Figure 15.23.

15.35

SHIP DESIGN
for each sea condition (i.e., for each combination of significant wave height and modal period) and set of
performance criteria.

Figure 15.23. Seakeeping Operating Enveleopes


Operability Indices: Although SOEs are a very graphic method of displaying seakeeping
performance,
ship
system seakeeping performance assessment requires a concise quantitative
measure of performance. Operability Indices (OIs) have been defined to serve this purpose. OIs
express performance in percent of time for a given sea condition. An OI of 100% indicates that each
combination of speed and heading is possible without exceeding any of the established seakeeping
performance criteria. As the sea conditions become more severe, an increasingly larger percentage of
speed and heading combinations is rendered inoperable (i.e., the shaded area of the SOE becomes
increasingly larger).
15.2.3.6. Ship Design for Seakeeping
In general the operability is increased by larger principal dimensions. Obviously economic considerations
impose limitations on the principal dimensions, particularly length. In order to establish a rough economic
parity for purposes of design comparions to be applied to a particular class of vessel, it is necessary to
establish constraints on length, or perhaps, with equal rationality, constraints on displacement.
Waves of higher frequencies (and shorter lengts), are of course much more common than their opposites.
Furthermore, with the exception of swell conditions the short wave lengths are also present during the
storm conditions where the long wavelengths are found. Operability is achieved by designing hulls which
are insensitive to the short wavelengths. This may be accomplished by diminishing the net wave forcing
functions acting on the hull. Increases in length or beam result in spanning more short wavelengths and
the result is a striking reduction in forcing function. Increasing draught will reduce vertical forcing
functions by moving the bottom surfaces below the perturbation field of the short waves, but it will not be
notably effective by itself in reducing horizontal plane motions such as sway.

15.36

SHIP DESIGN

15.3. Manoeuvering Performance


All ships must be able to control their speed and follow an intended course when in transit. Additionally,
when entering congested waterways or harbours, they must be able to position themselves accurately.
To achieve this ships must have the means of producing ahead and astern thrust, turning moments and
lateral thrust. The last two are provided by rudders of various types assisted, in some cases; by lateral
thrust units at the bow and/or stern. Ahead and astern thrust is usually provided by the main propulsion
system. Because rudders are usually sited close to the propulsors there will exist an interaction between
the two. Where more than one shaft is fitted, a turning moment can be produced by going ahead on one
shaft and astern on the other.
The IMO Standards for ship manoeuvrability identify significant qualities for the evaluation of ship
manoeuvring characteristics.
Inherent dynamic stability: A ship is dynamically stable on a straight course if it, after a small
disturbance, soon will settle on a new straight course without any corrective rudder. The resultant
deviation from the original heading will depend on the degree of inherent stability and on the magnitude
and duration of the disturbance.
Course-keeping ability: The course-keeping quality is a measure of the ability of the steered ship to
maintain a straight path in a predetermined course direction without excessive oscillations of rudder or
heading. In most cases, reasonable course control is still possible where there exists an inherent dynamic
instability of limited magnitude.
Initial turning/course-changing ability: The initial turning ability is defined by the change-of-heading
response to a moderate helm, in terms of heading deviation per unit distance sailed (the P number) or in
terms of the distance covered before realizing a certain heading deviation (such as the "time to second
execute" demonstrated when entering the zig-zag manoeuvre).
Yaw checking ability: The yaw checking ability of the ship is a measure of the response to counterrudder applied in a certain state of turning, such as the heading overshoot reached before the yawing
tendency has been cancelled by the counter-rudder in a standard zig-zag manoeuvre.
Turning ability: Turning ability is the measure of the ability to turn the ship using hard-over rudder. The
result being a minimum "advance at 90 change of heading" and "tactical diameter" defined by the
"transfer at 180 change of heading". Analysis of the final turning diameter is of additional interest.
Stopping ability: Stopping ability is measured by the "track reach" and "time to dead in water" realized in
a stop engine-full astern manoeuvre performed after a steady approach at full test speed. Lateral
deviations are also of interest, but they are very sensitive to initial conditions and wind disturbances.
15.3.1. Directional Stability and Control
Most ships, perhaps, are "dynamically stable on a straight course" (usually referred to as simply
"dynamically stable") with the rudder in a neutral position close to midship. In the case of asingle screw
ship with a right-handed propeller, this neutral helm is typically of the order = -1 (i.e., 1 to starboard).
Other ships which are dynamically unstable, however, can only maintain astraight course by repeated use
of rudder control. While some instability is fully acceptable, large instabilities should be avoided by
suitable design of ship proportions and stern shape.
The general analytical criterion for dynamic stability may be formulated and evaluated with the
appropriate coefficients of the mathematical model that describes the ships motion. The linearized
equations of motion for a controls-fixed vessel is

- Yv v + (m - Yv )v - (Yr mV)r - (Yr mx G )r = 0


- N v v - (N v - mx G )v - (N r - mx G V)r + (I z - Nr )r = 0
Where m is the mass and xG the longitudinal cenre of gravity. Y and N indicate sway force and yaw
moment. v and r represent sway velocity and yaw rate and the dot represents accelerations. The solution
of these equations yield the sway velocity and yaw rate as follows:

15.37

SHIP DESIGN

v = v 1e 1t v 2 e 2 t
r = r1e 1t r2 e 2 t
Where v1, v2, r1 and r2 are the integration constants and, 1 and 2 are the stability indices. These
solutions can be sunstituted into the equations of motion to get the following secon degree equation.
2

A + B + C = 0
where

A = I z Nr m Yv Yr mx G Nv mx G
B = -Yv Iz Nr m Yv Nr mxGV - Yr mVNv mxG Nv Yr mxG
C = Yv Nr mx G V Nv Yr mV
And the roots of the equation are

1,2

1 B
4C
B

2 A
A
A

Directional stability condition requires that the both roots must be negative which require C/A>0 or B/A>0
Then the condition for directional stability becomes
Nr mx G V N v

C = Yv Nr mx G V Nv Yr mV 0

Yr - mV
Yv
This condition can be nondimensionalized as follows:
Nr mx G Nv
or

C = Yv Nr mx G Nv Yr m 0
Yr m
Yv
where
x
Yv
Yr
Nv
Nr
m
m =
Yr
Nr
x G G
Yv
Nv

L
L4 V
L3 V
L3
L3 V
L2 V
2
2
2
2
2
It is seen that the directional stability characteristics of a vessel can be determined by using its mass, the
centre of gravity and four manoeuvring derivatives. Main difficulty here is the prediction of manoeuvring
derivatives. For the early design studies the following empirical equations are recommended:
Wagner Smitt [1]

Norrbin [2]

C B
T
Yv 1.69 0.08 B
T
L

C B
T
Yr 0.645 0.38 B
L
T

T
Yv 1.59
L
T
Yr 0.32
L
2

T
N v 0.62
L
2

C B
T
Nv 0.64 0.04 B
L
T

2

T
N r 0.21
L

C B
T
Nr 0.47 0.18 B
L
T

Inoue [3]

Clarke [4]
2

B
T
Yv 1 0.4CB
L
T

1
B
B
T
Yr 2.2 0.08
2
L
T
L

1
T
T
Nv 2.4
2
L
L

1.4
B
T
Yv 1
CB
L

T

1
T
Yr
2
L
2
T
Nv

L
2

1.04 4 T
T
Nr

L
L

1
B
B
T
Nr 0.039 0.56
4
T
L
L

15.38

SHIP DESIGN

Khattab [5]
2

2.3 1.466
B 0.00102 L
T
Yv

CB

L
T

1.0328 0.11
B 0.00004 L
T
Yr

CB

L


T
1.758 0.00768 CBL2 0.0008 L
T
Nv

BT
T
L
2

1.3192 0.68228CB 0.00019 L


T
Nr

Ankudinov [6]
2
2

T
CBB
C B

Yv K y 0.25
1.5 B 3.45

L
T
T
2
2
C B T

T
Yr 0.30 B Yv
L L
L

CB
T
Nv 0.75 0.04 B
T
L
2
2

CB
T
C B
Nr K y 0.03 B 0.15 B 0.5
T

L
T
where

CBB
for
Ky 1
5
T
CBB
5T
for
5
Ky
T
CBB
Large ocean going ships spend most of their transit time in the open seas, steering a steady course. They
can use tugs to assist with manoeuvring in confined waters so the emphasis will probably be on good
directional stability. Poor inherent directional stability can be compensated for by fitting an auto pilot but
the rudder movements would be excessive and the steering gear would need more maintenance. For
ships such as short haul ferries the designer would aim for good rudder response to help the ships avoid
collision and to assist berthing and unberthing. A change of trim will have a marked effect mainly on the
location of the centre-of-pressure of the side force resulting from sway. A ship with a stern trim is likely to
be much more stable than it would be on an even draught.

Example 15.6. Main particulars and manoeuvring derivatives for Esso Osaka are given below. Determine
the directional stability performance.

L
B
T

V
xG

: 325 m
: 53 m
: 22 m
: 321220 t
: 7.7 knot
: 10.36 m

Yv
Yr
Nv
Nr

: -0.02048
: 0.00595
: -0.007867
: -0.00353

m
C = Yv Nr mx G Nv Yr m 0
0.01826
3
L
2
C = -0.02048- 0.00353 0.01826 0.0319 0.0078670.00595 0.01826 0.00000126
Ship has no directional stability.

xG

xG
0.0319
L

m =

15.39

SHIP DESIGN
15.3.2. Turning Ability of a Ship
As the rudder is put over, there is a force which pushes the ship sideways in the opposite direction to
which it wishes to turn. As the hydrodynamic forces build up on the hull the ship slows down and starts to
turn in a steadily tightening circle until a steady state speed and radius of turn is reached. Radius of
turning circle of a ship can be estimated by using the following linear equations:

- Yv v + (m - Yv )v - (Yr m)r - (Yr mx G )r = Y


- Nv v - (Nv - mx G )v - (Nr - mx G )r + (Iz - Nr )r = N
where is the rudder angle, Y and N represent the hydrodynamic derivatives for the rudder. Then the
radius of turning circle is
- L Yv Nr mx G Nv Yr m
r


Yv N Nv Y

Example 15.7. Main particulars and manoeuvring derivatives for Mariner cargo ship are given below.
Find the radius of turning circle for a rudder angle of 15 degrees.

L
B
T

: 160.93 m

V
xG

: 16840 t

: 23.2 m
: 7.5 m
: 15 knot
: % 2.3L

xG
0.023
L

Yv
Yr
Nv
Nr
Y
N

: -0.01160
: 0.00499
: -0.00264
: -0.00166
: 0.00278
: -0.00139

m
0.00798
3
L
2
- L Yv Nr mxG Nv Yr m
r


Yv N Nv Y

xG

m =

160.94 0.01160 0.00166 0.00798 0.023 0.002640.00499 0.00798


0.01160(0.00139) 0.002640.00278

15
180
r 448 m and the turning diameter is D 896 m

Nomoto showed that second order manoeuvring equations could also be written as a pair of decoupled
second order equations in r and v

T1T2r T1 T2 r r K KT3

T1T2 v T1 T2 v v K v K v T4

The K and T coefficients are given as follows

mNr Iz Yr mx G Nv mx G
Yv Nr mx G V Nv Yr mV
Y mNr mx G V Yv Nr Iz Nv Yr mx G Nv mx G Yr mV
T1 T2 v
Yv Nr mx G V Nv Yr mV
T1T2

Yv

T3

Y Nv mxG N Yv m
Nv Y Yv N

Nv Y Yv N
Yv Nr mxG V Nv Yr mV

T4

Y Nr Iz N Yr mxG
Y Nr mxGV N Yr mV

15.40

SHIP DESIGN
The first equation, T1T2r T1 T2 r r K KT3 can be used to derive the following simple first
order differential equation which describes the change of yaw rate, r, with the rudder angle, :

Tr r K
where T T1 T2 - T3 . Here K can be seen to be a measure of turning ability since the steady turning
rate ( r 0 ) is r K . The T is a measure of course stability (better for low T) and response to helm
K
(better for low T ), i.e. r
when r C. The heading change per unit rudder angle in one ship length
T
can be obtained from Nomotos equation as follows:
1
1

T1 T3
T2 T3
T1
T2

P
K 1 T1 T2 T3
T1e

T2 e

T1 T2
T1 T2

This is a useful index of turning ability. Clarke [8] recommends a design value of at least 0.3. Note that
0
P=0.3 is roughly equivalent to a 10 heading change in one ship length when the rudder is placed hard
0
over to 35 . Norrbin suggests a simpler derivation for the turning index.
1 K
P

2 T
Norrbin suggests P>0.3 but for karge tankers P could be as low as 0.2. Schoenherre [9] recommends the
following empirical formula for turning radius

r K
ARCn cos
where
: radius of turning circle [m]
r
3
: ships displacement volume [m ]

: rudder angle [derece]

2
: rudder area [m ]
AR

The coefficient, C n , is a function of the rudder angle

Cn

0.811sin
0.195 0.305 sin
3

K is given in the following table as a function of displacement volume [m ], waterline length [m], and
2
underwater projection area [m ]

SL
K

0.050

0.055

0.060

0.065

0.070

0.080

0.090

0.100

0.110

0.120

0.130

0.140

0.150

1.410

1.285

1.100

0.960

0.845

0.670

0.550

0.460

0.400

0.370

0.355

0.345

0.340

Thieme [10] proposes the following empirical formula for the turning radius of cargo ships:
r 0.125L1.67
where L represents the waterline length.
Lyster and Knight [11] developed some empirical formulae for estimating ship turning characteristics
based on regression of statistical data for both twin and single screw ships.
Steady turning diameter (STD) for single screw ships

STD
C
Trim
B 194
SpCh
SpCh
A
4.19 203 B 47.4
13
35.8
(ST 1) 3.82
(ST 2) 7.79 B
L

L
L

LT
LT
LT
Steady turning diameter (STD) for twin screw ships

STD
C
Trim
B 188
SpCh
V
A
3.727 197 B 41.0
4.65
218
(NR 1) 3.20 A 25.56 B
L

L
L

LT
LT
L
where
15.41

SHIP DESIGN

: Length [m]
: Draught [m]

Sp
NR
AB

: Rudder angle [degrees]


: Rudder span [m]
: Number of rudders
: Underwater projection area of bulbous bow

B
CB
Trim
Ch

: Breadth [m]
: Block coefficient
: Trim [m]
: Rudder chord [m]

Advance, Transfer and Speed Loss at steady turning can be estimated as follows.
Single screw
Twin screw
Advance/Length
TD
TD
0.519
1.33
1.1 0.514
L
L
Transfer/Length
TD
TD
0.497
0.065
0.357 0.531
L
L
Speed Loss (VT/V0)
TD
TD
0.074
0.149
0.543 0.028
L
L
Example 15.8.
particulars.
L
T
V

Estimate the turning radius for a rudder angle of 15 degrees for Mariner with the following
: 160.93 m
: 7.5 m
: 15 knot

Linear theory

r 448m

Schoenherr

r K

Thieme

r 0.125L1.67

ARCn cos

Lyster and Knight

AR

: 23.2 m
: 16840 t
2
: 29 m

for =15 deg Cn=0.766 and K=0.61 and r=464 m bulunur.


r= 605 m for maximum rudder angle

r=537 m

15.3.3. Tests required by the Standards


15.3.3.1. Turning tests
A turning circle manoeuvre is to be performed to both starboard and port with 35 rudder angle or the
maximum design rudder angle permissible at the test speed. The rudder angle is executed following a
steady approach with zero yaw rate. The essential information to be obtained from this manoeuvre is
tactical diameter, advance, and transfer.

Figure 15.24. Turning circle


15.42

SHIP DESIGN
1. the advance which is the longitudinal displacement of the ship's centre of gravity until 90 change of
heading.
2. the transfer which is the lateral displacement of the ship's centre of gravity from the original path.
Usually transfer is quoted for 90 change of heading.
3. the tactical diameter which is the value of the transfer for 180 change of heading although this is not
the maximum transfer. It is usual to quote a tactical diameter to length ratio, TD/L. Modern frigates at
high speed and full rudder turn with a TD/L of about 3. For smaller turning circles such as may be
required of a mine countermeasures vessel lateral thrust units or azimuthing propellers would be
used. A value of 4.5 would be regarded as good for most merchant ships but a value greater than 7
as very poor.
4. the diameter of the steady turning circle. The steady state is typically reached at some point between
90 and 180 change of heading.
5. the steady speed on turn. Due to the fore and aft component of the hydrodynamic forces the ship
slows down during the turn. Unless engine power is increased it may be only 60 per cent of the
approach speed. The steady speed is reached as the diameter steadies. If a ship does need to
reverse direction, as might be the case of a frigate hunting a submarine, the time to turn through 180
is likely to be more important than a really small diameter of turn. Because of the loss of speed on
turn such ships would choose a lesser rudder angle to get round quickly and to avoid the need to
accelerate so much after the turn.
6. the turning rate. The quickest turn might not be the tightest. A frigate would turn at about 3 per
second. Half this rate would be good for merchant ships and values of 0.5-1 would be more typical.
7. the pivoting point. This is the foot of the perpendicular from the centre of the turning circle to the
middle line of the ship, extended if necessary. This is the point at which the drift angle will be zero
and it is typically about | of the length from the bow.
8. the angle of heel during the turn. A ship typically heels in to the turn as the rudder is initially applied.
On the steady turn it heels outwards, the heeling moment being due to the couple produced by the
athwartships components of the net rudder and hull hydrodynamic forces and the acceleration force
acting at the centre of gravity which is caused by the turning of the ship. It is countered by the ship's
stability righting moment.
15.3.3.2. Zig-Zag tests
A zig-zag test should be initiated to both starboard and port and begins by applying a specified amount of
rudder angle to an initially straight approach ("first execute"). The rudder angle is then alternately shifted
to either side after a specified deviation from the ships original heading is reached ("second execute" and
following).
Two kinds of zig-zag tests are included in the Standards, the 10/10 and 20/20 zig-zag tests. The
10/10 zig-zag test uses rudder angles of 10 to either side following a heading deviation of 10 from the
original course. The 20/20 zig-zag test uses 20 rudder angles coupled with a 20 change of heading
from the original course. The essential information to be obtained from these tests is the overshoot
angles, initial turning time to second execute and the time to check yaw.

Figure 15.25. Zig-zag manoeuvre

15.43

SHIP DESIGN
The important measurements from the manoeuvre, Figure 15.25, are:
(1) the overshoot angle. This is the amount the heading increases by after the rudder is
reversed. Large angles would represent a ship in which the helmsman would have difficulty in
deciding when to take rudder off to check a turn. Values of 5.5 and 8.5 would be reasonable
aims for ships at 8 and 16 knots respectively, varying roughly with speed. The angle does not
depend upon ship length.
(2) the times to the first rudder reversal and the first maximum heading change. It has been
1
suggested that for reasonable designs, times to change heading by 20 would be of the order
of 80 to 30 seconds for a 150 metre ship over the range 6 to 20 knots. The time would be
roughly proportional to length.
(3) the steady overshoot angle and the period of the cycle once a steady condition is reached.
15.3.3.3. The Spiral Manoeuvre
This is a manoeuvre aimed at giving a feel for a ship's directional stability. From an initial straight course
and steady speed the rudder is put over say 15 to starboard. After a while the ship settles to a steady
rate of turn and this is noted. The rudder angle is then reduced to 10 starboard and the new steady turn
rate noted. This is repeated for angles of 5S, 5P, 10P, 15T, 10T and so on. The resulting steady rates
of turn are plotted against rudder angle.

(a)

(b)
Figure 15.26. Spiral manoeuvre

If the ship is stable there will be a unique rate of turn for each rudder angle. If the ship is unstable the plot
has two 'arms' for the smaller rudder angles, depending upon whether the rudder angle is approached
from above or below the value. Within the rudder angles for which there is no unique response it is
impossible to predict which way the ship will turn, let alone the turn rate, as this will depend upon other
disturbing factors present in the ocean. The manoeuvre does not give a direct measure of the degree of
stability, although the range of rudder angles over which response is indeterminate is a rough guide. To
know the minimum rudder angle needed to ensure the ship turns in the desired direction is very useful.
15.3.3.4. The Pull-Out Manoeuvre
This manoeuvre is also related to the directional stability of the ship. The rudder is put over to a
certain angle and held until the ship is turning at a steady rate. The rudder is returned to amidships
and the change in the turn rate with time is noted. For a stable ship the turn rate will reduce to zero
and the ship takes up a new steady straight line course. A plot of the log of the rate of turn against
time is a straight line after a short transition period. If the ship is unstable the turn rate will not
reduce to zero but there will remain some steady rate of turn. The area under the plot of turn rate
against time gives the total heading change after the rudder angle is taken off. The smaller this is
the more stable the ship.
If the ship is conducting turning trials it will be in a state of steady turning at the end of the run. If the
rudder is centred the pull-out manoeuvre can be carried out immediately for that speed and rudder
angle.
15.44

SHIP DESIGN
15.3.3.5. Stopping Tests
A full astern stopping test is used to determine the track reach of a ship from the time an order for full
astern is given until the ship is stopped dead in the water.
The "crash-stop" or "crash-astern" manoeuvre is mainly a test of engine functioning and propeller
reversal. The stopping distance is essentially a function of the ratio of astern power to ship displacement.
A test for the stopping distance from full speed has been included in the Standards in order to allow a
comparison with hard-over turning results in terms of initial speed drop and lateral deviations.

15.4. Manoeuvering Devices


The near-universal device for such directional control and turning ability is a rudder (or rudders) fitted to
the stern and activated by an electrohydraulic steering engine mounted within the hull just above. The
rudder is an appendage that has a cross section much like an airfoil and that develops lift when it is
turned to produce a nonzero angle of attack relative to the water. For a given angle of attack, rudder lift is
proportional to the square of the water velocity relative to the rudder. Therefore, the preferred position for
a rudder is within the high-velocity wash generated by a propeller. In the case of a multi-propeller ship,
multiple rudders may be fitted (one behind each propeller) in order to take advantage of high water
velocity.
Manoeuvering at very low speeds is a special problem, since low water velocity means insufficient lift
developed by the rudder. For this reason, many ships are fitted with a "bow thruster," a propeller mounted
in a transverse tunnel near the bow. This thruster can push the bow sideways without producing forward
motion. If a similar thruster is fitted near the stern, a ship can be propelled sideways--or even rotated in
place, if the two thrusters act in opposite directions.
15.4.1. Rudder types
Conventional rudders
These have a streamlined section to give a good lift to drag ratio and are of double-plate
construction. They can be categorized according to the degree of balance. That is how close the
centre of pressure is to the rudder axis. A balanced rudder will require less torque to turn it. They are
termed balanced, semi-balanced or unbalanced.

Figure 15.27. Balanced, unbalanced and semi-balanced rudder


Special rudders
A number of special rudders have been proposed and patented over the years. The aim is usually to
improve the lift to drag ratio achieved. A flap rudder, Figure 15.28, uses a flap at the trailing edge to
improve the lift by changing aerofoil shape. Typically, as the rudder turns, the flap goes to twice the angle
of the main rudder but in some rudders the flaps can be moved independendy. A variant is the Flettner
rudder which uses two narrow flaps at the trailing edge. The flaps move so as to assist the main rudder
movement reducing the torque required of the steering gear.

15.45

SHIP DESIGN

Figure 15.28. Flap rudder


The Kitchen rudder
This rudder is a two-part tube shrouding the propeller and turning about a vertical axis. For ahead
propulsion the two halves of the tube are opened to fore and aft flow. For turning the two halves can
be moved together to deflect the propeller race. The two halves can be moved to block the propeller
race and reverse its flow.

Ahead

Turning to port

Astern

Plan views

Figure 15.29 Kitchen rudder


Vertical axis propeller
This type of propeller is essentially a horizontal disc carrying a number of aerofoil shaped vertical
blades. As the disc turns the blades are caused to turn about their vertical axes so that they
create a thrust. For normal propulsion the blades are set so that the thrust is fore and aft. When
the ship wishes to turn the blades are adjusted so that the thrust is at an angle. They can
produce lateral thrust even at low ship speed.

Figure 15.30 Vertical axis rudder

15.46

SHIP DESIGN
Lateral thrust units
It is sometimes desirable to be able to control a ship's head and course independendy. This situation
can arise in mine countermeasure vessels which need to follow a certain path relative to the ground in
conditions of wind and tide. Other vessels demanding good positional control are offshore rigs. This
leads to a desire to have the ability to produce lateral thrusts at the bow as well as the stern. It has
been seen that bow rudders are likely to be ineffective because of their proximity to the neutral point.
The alternative is to put a thrust unit, usually a contra-rotating propeller, in a transverse tube. Such
devices are called lateral thrust units or bow thrust units when fitted forward. Their efficiency is
seriously reduced by a ship's forward speed, the thrust being roughly halved at about two knots. Some
offshore rigs have dynamic positional control provided by a number of computer controlled lateral
thrust units.

15.5. Modifying the Manoeuvring Performance


As with other aspects of ship performance it is difficult, and sometimes dangerous, to generalize on
the effect of design changes on a ship's manoeuvring qualities. This is because so many factors
interact and what is true for one form may not be true for another. Broadly however it can be expected
that:
(1) Stern trim improves directional stability and increases turning diameter.
(2) A larger rudder can improve directional stability and give better turning.
(3) Decrease in draught can increase turning rate and improve directional stability. This is perhaps
due to the rudder becoming more dominant relative to the immersed hull.
(4) Higher length to beam ratios lead to a more stable ship and greater directional stability.
(5) Quite marked changes in metacentric height, whilst affecting the heel during a turn, have litde
effect on turning rate or directional stability.
(6) For surface ships at a given rudder angle the turning circle increases in diameter with
increasing speed but rate of turn can increase. For submarines turning diameters are litUe
affected by speed.
(7) A large skeg aft will increase directional stability and turning circle diameter.
(8) Cutting away the below water profile forward can increase directional stability.
By and large the hull design of both a surface ship and a submarine is dictated by considerations
other than manoeuvring. If model tests show a need to change the manoeuvring performance this
would normally be achieved by modifying the areas and positions of the control surfaces and skegs.

15.47

SHIP DESIGN

15.48

SHIP DESIGN

Homework Assignment 14.


Explain the following seakeeping and manoeuvring concepts
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

80020904
80030114
80030117
80040101
80040102
80040108
80040111
80040132
80040133
80040136
80040137
80040304
80050101
80050102
80050103
80050104
80050105
80050106
80050107
80050108
80050110
80050112
80050113
80050115
80050120
80050121
80050122
80050123
80050125
80050132
80050134
80050191
80060103
80060104
80060106
80060121
80060127
80060133
80060134
80060139
80060802
80070109
80070137
990084202

RAO (Response Amplitude ..)


RMS ( Root Mean )
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
MSI (Motion Sickness ..)
MII (Motion Induced )
SOE (Seakeeping Operating ..)
PTO (Percent Time ..)
OI (Operability ..)
Slamming
Deck wetness
Added wave resistance
Jonswap spectrum
ISSC spectrum
ITTC spectrum
Pierson Moskowitz spectrum
RAO (Response Amplitude ..)
RMS ( Root Mean )
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
MSI (Motion Sickness ..)
MII (Motion Induced )
SOE (Seakeeping Operating ..)
PTO (Percent Time ..)
OI (Operability ..)
Slamming
Deck wetness
Added wave resistance
Jonswap spectrum
ISSC spectrum
ITTC spectrum
Pierson Moskowitz spectrum
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
MSI (Motion Sickness ..)
MII (Motion Induced )
SOE (Seakeeping Operating ..)
RAO (Response Amplitude ..)
RMS ( Root Mean )
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
MSI (Motion Sickness ..)
MII (Motion Induced )
SOE (Seakeeping Operating ..)
PTO (Percent Time ..)
OI (Operability ..)
Slamming
Deck wetness

IMO standards fur turning ability


IMO standards for stopping
IMO standards for Zig-Zag manoeuvre
Schottel Pump jet
Voith Schneider Propulsion
Bow thruster design
Minimum rudder area
Course-keeping ability
Course-changing ability
Yaw checking ability
Dieudonne spiral manoeuvre
Bech spiral manoeuvre
Schilling Dmen
Becker rudder
Shutter rudder
Retractable thruster
IMO standards fur turning ability
IMO standards for stopping
IMO standards for Zig-Zag manoeuvre
Schottel Pump jet
Voith Schneider Propulsion
Bow thruster design
Minimum rudder area
Course-keeping ability
Course-changing ability
Yaw checking ability
Dieudonne spiral manoeuvre
Bech spiral manoeuvre
Schilling Dmen
Becker rudder
Shutter rudder
Retractable thruster
IMO standards for stopping
IMO standards for Zig-Zag manoeuvre
IMO standards fur turning ability
RAO (Response Amplitude ..)
RMS ( Root Mean )
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
RMS ( Root Mean )
SMM (Subjective Motion .. )
Minimum rudder area
Course-keeping ability
Course-changing ability
Yaw checking ability

15.49