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4/20/2007

8_5 Filter Implementation

1/1

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

and

is to “realize” each individual lumped element with

approximations in our lumped element

8.5 all filters with make Filter Implementations Reading Assignment: p p . 4 0 5
8.5

8.5

8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5 all filters with make
8.5 all filters with make

all filters with

make

Filter

Implementations

Reading Assignment: pp. 405-411

Q:

So, we

now know

how to make any and

lumped elements—but this is a microwave

You said

that lumped elements where

difficult to

implement at microwave frequencies. You

said that

distributed elements were used

components.

elements!?!

to make microwave

A:

with distributed

There are many,

many

ways to make microwave

The first of these

realizations is:

A: with distributed There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations
A: with distributed There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations
A: with distributed There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations
A: with distributed There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations
A: with distributed There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations

engineering course!

There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations is: engineering course!
There are many, many ways to make microwave The first of these realizations is: engineering course!
first of these realizations is: engineering course! filters the most straightforward these solutions.
filters the most straightforward these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities .
filters the most straightforward these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities .
filters the most straightforward these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities .

filters

the

most straightforward

these

solutions.

or

or

or

microstrip

Kuroda’s Identities.

filters the most straightforward these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert

then insert

these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert Pe rhaps and

Perhaps

and

these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert Pe rhaps and
these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert Pe rhaps and
these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert Pe rhaps and
these solutions. or microstrip Kuroda’s Identities . then insert Pe rhaps and

So how do we make a filter with distributed

and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
and So how do we make a filter with distributed   elements. transmission line sections, H
  elements. transmission line sections,
 

elements.

transmission

line

sections,

  elements. transmission line sections,
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily
  elements. transmission line sections, H O : R ICHARD ’ S T RANSFORMATIONS To easily

HO: RICHARDS TRANSFORMATIONS

To easily

stripline circuit, we must apply one of

implement Richard’s Transforms

HO: KURODA

S IDENTITIES

in a

stripline circuit, we must apply one of implement Richard’s Transforms HO: K URODA ’ S I
stripline circuit, we must apply one of implement Richard’s Transforms HO: K URODA ’ S I
stripline circuit, we must apply one of implement Richard’s Transforms HO: K URODA ’ S I
stripline circuit, we must apply one of implement Richard’s Transforms HO: K URODA ’ S I

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

1/7

Richard’s Recall the input impedances of circuited short-circuited and open- . transmission line stubs s
Richard’s Recall the input impedances of circuited short-circuited and open- . transmission line stubs s
Richard’s Recall the input impedances of circuited short-circuited and open- . transmission line stubs s
Richard’s Recall the input impedances of circuited short-circuited and open- . transmission line stubs s

Richard’s

Recall the input impedances of

circuited

short-circuited and open-

.

transmission

line

stubs

s Z = jZ tan β in 0
s
Z
=
jZ
tan
β
in
0

open- . transmission line stubs s Z = jZ tan β in 0 o Z =−

open- . transmission line stubs s Z = jZ tan β in 0 o Z =−
o Z =− j Z cot β in 0
o
Z
=−
j Z cot β
in
0

Note

lumped

that the input im

elements!

tan β in 0 o Z =− j Z cot β in 0 Note lumped that

pedances

are

tan β in 0 o Z =− j Z cot β in 0 Note lumped that

purely reactive—just

However,

have a much different

the reactance of lumped

like

inductors and capacitors

form

to that

of

mathematical

of lumped like inductors and capacitors form to that of mathematical transmission line stubs: Transformations

transmission

line

stubs:

Transformations

transmission line stubs: Transformations Z 0 Z 0 , β , β Z = j ωL

Z

0

Z

0

,β

,β

Z = j ωL L − j Z = C ωC
Z = j ωL L − j Z = C ωC
Z = j ωL L − j Z = C ωC
Z = j ωL L − j Z = C ωC
Z = j ωL L
Z
=
j ωL
L
− j Z = C ωC
j
Z
=
C
ωC

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

2/7

we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)
we can say in In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors)

we can say in

In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors) are functions with respect
In other words, the impedance of lumped elements (capacitors and inductors) are functions with respect
In other
words, the impedance of
lumped
elements
(capacitors
and
inductors)
are
functions with
respect
to frequency
general
that,
for
example:
s
o
Z
≠ Z
Z
≠ Z
in
L
in
C
However,
for a
given
lumped
element (
(with
a given
Z
and
length )
the
functions
will
0
precisely
one
frequency!
For
example,
satisfies
this equation
for
a given
L,Z ,
and
:
0
j ω L
= tan β
j
Z
c
0
c
ω c
= tan
j
Z
0
v p
or similarly
satisfies
this equation:

. Therefore,

there is one frequency—let’s call it

j

ω

c

j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β
j Z cot β

j Z cot β

transmission line stubs

different

—that

− j ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C
− j ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C

L or C) and a given stub

be equal at

ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and
ω c j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and

and

j Z cot β transmission line stubs different —that L or C ) and a given
L or C ) and a given stub be equal at and =− c ω c
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  
=− c ω c v p ω C   0 ⎡ Z cot ⎢  

=−

c

ω

c

v

p

ω C

 

0

Z cot

 

0

v

p

π

ω

c

c ⎤ =− j ⎥ ⎦ ⎥ To make things easier, line stub to λ
c
=−
j
To make things easier,
line stub
to
λ
8 , where:
c
2
λ
=
=
c
β c
make things easier, line stub to λ 8 , where: c 2 λ = = c
make things easier, line stub to λ 8 , where: c 2 λ = = c

let’s set the length of our transmission

let’s set the length of our transmission
make things easier, line stub to λ 8 , where: c 2 λ = = c

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

3/7

Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?

Q:

Why

=λ

c

8

?

Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
Q: Why = λ c 8 ?
A: Well, for one reason, =π 4 and therefore β c tan ( π 4
A:
Well, for one reason,
4 and
therefore
β c
tan
(
π
4
)
=
1.0
!
This of
course
greatly
simplifies
our earlier
results:
j
π ⎞
π
j ω L
= j
Z tan
= Z
j
cot
c
0
0
⎝ 4 ⎠
ω C
⎝ 4 ⎠
c
= j
Z
= Z
j
0
0
Therefore,
if we
wish to
build
a short-circuited stub
with the
same
impedance
as an
inductor L at
frequency ω , we
set
the
c
characteristic
impedance
of the stub
transmission
line
to be
Z
L :
0
c
s
Z
=
j ω L
=
Z
Z
=
ω L
L
c
in
0
c
λ
c
=
8
Likewise,
if we
wish to
build
an open-circuited stub
with the
same
impedance as
an capacitor
C at frequency
ω ,
we
set
the
c
characteristic
impedance
of the stub
transmission
line
to be
Z
= 1
ω C
:
0
c
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be
frequency ω , we set the c characteristic impedance of the stub transmission line to be

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

4/7

= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =
= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =
= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =
= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =
= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =
= λ c 8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z =

=

λ

c

8

1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z = C c in 0
1
o
Z
=−
j
ω
C
=
Z
Z
=
C
c
in
0
ω C
c
8 1 o Z =− j ω C = Z Z = C c in 0

We

call

these two results Richard’s

Transformations

.

However,

Transformations

lumped

inductors!

it is important

do not

to remember

that Richard’s

result in perfect

elements—the stubs

Instead, the

equal—at

transformation

only one

frequency (

ω ).

c

We

and

can use Richard’s transformations

capacitors

element filter

design.

lowpass filter

of a lumped design, the

frequency

ω

c

replacements

frequency.

for

is perfect—the impedances are

In fact, for

is the filter’s cutoff

do not behave like capacitors and

to replace the inductors

Using these stubs to

result in a filter

replace inductors and

that of

response similar to

capacitors will

the

lumped

element

design—a low pass filter

with cutoff frequency

ω

c

.

similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c
similar to capacitors will the lumped element design—a low pass filter with cutoff frequency ω c

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

5/7

However, the behavior of the filter in the stopband will be very For at the
However, the behavior of the filter in the stopband will be very For at the
However, the behavior of the filter in the stopband will be very For at the
However,
the behavior
of the filter
in
the
stopband will be
very
For
at the
However, the behavior of the filter in the stopband will be very For at the
However, the behavior of the filter in the stopband will be very For at the

element

1 ) is:

λ 2

λ 2

λ 2 different from the lumped elemen where the stub response will t design. of ω

different from the lumped elemen

where the stub

response

will

t design.

of

ω=

(high) frequencies

, the filter

transmission!

be that

0 —near

frequencies , the filter transmission ! be that 0 —near Figure 8.37 (p. 411) distributed-element low-pas

Figure

8.37

(p.

411)

distributed-element low-pas filter

of Example 8.5.

Q:

So

why does

the filter response match the

the passband?

example,

lumped

A:

first

note that

Series

To see why, we the Taylor

To see why, we

the Taylor

approximation for tan φ and

cot

φ when

φ is small

(i.e.,

perfect

φ

and cot φ when φ is small (i.e., perfect φ length becomes a multiple of Amplitude

length becomes a multiple of

Amplitude responses of lumped-element and

1

tan φ

φ

and

cot φ

1 for

φ
φ

and ≈ 1 tan φ ≈ φ and cot φ 1 for φ φ and φ
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .
and φ is expressed in radians .

and

φ is expressed in radians.

response

so well

in

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

6/7

The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance of our Richard’s transformation some arbitrary frequency ω is: ⎛ λ ⎞ s
The impedance
of our Richard’s transformation
some
arbitrary frequency
ω is:
λ
s
Z
(
ω )
= j Z tan
β
c
in
0
8 ⎠
⎛ ⎞
ω
λ
= tan
j
(
ω
L
)
c
c
v
8
⎜ ⎝ ⎠
p
⎛ ⎞
ω
= tan
j
(
ω
L
)
π
c
ω
4
⎝ ⎠
c
Therefore,
when
ω ω
(i.e., frequencies
in
c
low-pass filter!),
we can approximate this
ω π
s
Z
(
ω )
=
j (
ω L tan
)
in
c
ω
4 ⎠
c
ω π
≈ j ω L
c
ω
4
c
π
= j
ω
L
⎝ 4
⎞ ⎟ when ω
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π
π ⎞ ≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π

impedance as:

≈ j ω L ⎜ ⎟ c ω 4 ⎝ ⎠ c ⎛ π = j
shorted stub the passband of
shorted stub the passband of
shorted stub the passband of
shorted stub the passband of

shorted stub

the passband of

c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance

at

a

c ⎛ π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance
π = j ω L ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎞ ⎟ when ω ⎠ impedance as: shorted
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the

ω

c

ω c pass- that the
pass- that the

pass-

that the

pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
ω c pass- that the
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to
Compare this to a lumped inductor impedance: = j ωL Z L very close to

Compare

this

to a lumped inductor impedance:

= j ωL Z L very close to the lumped less than ω (i.e., all
= j ωL
Z L
very close to
the lumped
less than
ω
(i.e., all
frequencies of
the
c
band)!
Since the value π 4 is relatively close

Since the value π 4 is

relatively close

to one,

we find

Richard’s

Transformation shorted

stub has an

input

low-pass filter

element inductor for all frequencies

element inductor for all frequencies

impedance

Transformation shorte d stub has an input low-pass filter element inductor for all frequencies impedance

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Richards Tranformation

7/7

− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-

j

ω

c

C

− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-

ω

c

pass-

− j ω c C ω c pass-
− j ω c C ω c pass-
capacitor results are approximately the same for all approximately : Similarly, we find that the
capacitor results are approximately the same for all approximately : Similarly, we find that the

capacitor

results are approximately the same for all

approximately:

Similarly, we find that the Richard’s circuit stub has an input impedance of − ω
Similarly, we
find that
the
Richard’s
circuit stub has an
input
impedance of
− ω
j
π
o
Z
(
ω
)
=
cot
⎛ ⎞
in
ω ω
C
4
⎝ ⎠
c
c
⎜ ⎝ ωπ
1
⎛ 4 ⎞
=
j ω C
π ⎠
Again, when compared
to the lumped element
impedance:
1
=
Z C
j ωC
we find
that
band
frequencies (i.e., when
ω
ω
).
c
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies
to the lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies

when ω

lumped element impedance: 1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when

transformation open-

1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).
1 = Z C j ωC we find that band frequencies (i.e., when ω ω ).

Jim Stiles

4

ω

c

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

1/7

with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of

with its

change!

with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
with its change! Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of
Kuroda’s We find that Kuroda’s Identities can be very the implementation of Rich ard’s

Kuroda’s

We

find that

Kuroda’s

Identities can

be very

the

implementation of

Richard’s

practicable.

Kuroda’s Identities essentially

port networks.

the

matrices.

By

equivalent, we mean that

same

In other

equivalent in

(e.g.,

a circuit, and

the

its scattering matrix) of

behavior and

the

Q:

Why

would we want to

do this?

A:

Because one of

the equivalent may

implement!

circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not
circuit will not

circuit will not

Q: Why would we want to do this? A: Because one of the equivalent may implement!
Q: Why would we want to do this? A: Because one of the equivalent may implement!

Identities

transformations more

words, we can replace one two-port network

scattering/impedance/admittance/transmission

characteristics

be more practical to

useful in making

provide a list of equivalent two

they have precisely

characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
characteristics be more practical to useful in making provide a list of equivalent two they have
provide a list of equivalent two they have precisely For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform
For example, we can use Kuroda’s Identities to: 1) Physically separate transmission 2) Transform

For

example,

we can

use

Kuroda’s Identities

to:

1)

Physically separate transmission

2)

Transform

series stubs into

shunt

3)

Change

impractical

characteristic

more realizable

ones.

stubs.

line stubs.

shunt 3) Change impractical characteristic more realizable ones. stubs. line stubs. impedances into

impedances into

shunt 3) Change impractical characteristic more realizable ones. stubs. line stubs. impedances into

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

2/7

are

are network, constructed with a and first
are network, constructed with a and first
are network, constructed with a and first
are network, constructed with a and first

network, constructed with a

and

first

a very ambiguous the Four Kuroda’s identities are provided in book . confusing table (Table

a very ambiguous

the

Four
Four

Four

Four Kuroda’s identities are provided in book . confusing table (Table two identities to 8.7) in

Kuroda’s identities are

provided in

book.

confusing table (Table

two identities to

8.7) in your

be the most useful.

Port

1

We will find

Z 01 Z 02
Z
01
Z
02

Note

that the length of

the

stub and

the

identical,

but the characteristic

impedance

of each are

different.

Consider

the

following

two-port

length of

transmission

line, and an

open-circuit shunt stub:

Port 2

transmission line

The first Kuroda identity

states that

the two-port

open -circuit shunt stub: Port 2 tr ansmission line The first Kuroda identity states that the
The first Kuroda identity states that the two-port network above is precisely the same two-port
network
network
network
network

network

network
network above is precisely the same two-port network as this one:
network above is precisely the same two-port network as this one:

above is precisely the same two-port network

as this

one:

network above is precisely the same two-port network as this one:
network above is precisely the same two-port network as this one:

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

3/7

network: Thus, we can Z 2 n 02 = 1 + Z Z 01 01

network:

Thus, we

can

Z 2 n 02 = 1 + Z Z 01 01 2 n Z 02
Z
2
n
02
= 1
+
Z
Z
01
01
2
n
Z
02
2
n
we can Z 2 n 02 = 1 + Z Z 01 01 2 n Z

we can Z 2 n 02 = 1 + Z Z 01 01 2 n Z

Port 1

Port 2

replace

the first

Note

this equivalent

circuit uses a

short-circuited series

this equivalent circuit uses a short -circuited series The second of Kuroda’s Identities states that this

The second of

Kuroda’s Identities

states that this two

structure in some circuit with

port

states that this two structure in some circuit with port stub. the one above, and the

stub.

the

one above,

and

the

behavior

that circuit will

not change in

the

least!

stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!
stub. the one above, and the behavior that circuit will not change in the least!

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

4/7

Z 01 Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n
Z 01 Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n
Z 01 Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n
Z 01

Z 01

Z 01 Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n Z
Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n Z 01
Z 02
Z
02
Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n Z 01  

Z 02 Port 1 Port 2 this two-port network: Port 1 2 n Z 01  

Port 1

Port

2

this two-port network:

Port 1

2

n Z

01

 

n 2

=

1 +

Z 02

Z 01

Port

2

n

2

Z 02

Is precisely identical to

Jim Stiles

Z 02 Z 01 Port 2 n 2 Z 02 Is precisely identical to Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

5/7

With useful when we replace the series regard to Richard’s Transformation , these identities with

With

useful when we replace the series

regard

to Richard’s Transformation

, these identities

with shorted

are

inductors

stubs.

these identities with shorted are inductors stubs . To see with distributed example, why this is
these identities with shorted are inductors stubs . To see with distributed example, why this is
these identities with shorted are inductors stubs . To see with distributed example, why this is

To see

with distributed

example,

why

this is

useful when implementing a lowpass filter

consider

this

third

order filter

elements,

realized using Richard’s Transformations:

L L 1 3 C 2
L
L
1
3
C
2
realized using Richard’s Transformations: L L 1 3 C 2 ω L ω L c 1
ω L ω L c 1 c 3 1 ω C c 2 λ c
ω L
ω
L
c
1
c
3
1
ω C
c
2
λ
c
8
λ c 8
λ
c
8
using Richard’s Transformations: L L 1 3 C 2 ω L ω L c 1 c
using Richard’s Transformations: L L 1 3 C 2 ω L ω L c 1 c

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

6/7

Note

design!

that we have

a few

problems

in terms

of implementing this

of all

the

stubs are ideally

we build that?

We

could

infinitely

close

to each other—

physically separate them, but

close to each other— physically separate them, but First how do this would introduce some that
close to each other— physically separate them, but First how do this would introduce some that
close to each other— physically separate them, but First how do this would introduce some that
close to each other— physically separate them, but First how do this would introduce some that

First

how do

this would introduce

some that would mess up our filter response! stubs are difficult to construct in like
some
that would
mess
up our filter response!
stubs
are
difficult to
construct in
like
shunt stubs much better!
problems, we
first add
a short length
of
line
( Z
and
8
) to the beginning
and
end
of
0
c
filter:
λ
ω L
ω L
λ
c
c
c
1
c
3
8
8
Z
Z
0
0
λ
λ
c
c
8
1
ω C
8
c
2
λ
c
8

transmission line

length between

them

Secondly, series

microstrip/stripline—we

To solve these

transmission

the

line length between them Secondly, series microstrip/stripline—we To solve these transmission the

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/20/2007

Kurodas Identities

7/7

Note adding these lengths only results in a phase shift in the filter response—the transmission
Note
adding these
lengths
only results in a phase
shift
in
the
filter response—the
transmission and
reflection functions will
lengths only results in a phase shift in the filter response—the transmission and reflection functions will
lengths only results in a phase shift in the filter response—the transmission and reflection functions will
lengths only results in a phase shift in the filter response—the transmission and reflection functions will
lengths only results in a phase shift in the filter response—the transmission and reflection functions will
remain the unchanged . Now we can use the second of with shunts : series

remain

the
the

the

unchanged.

Now we can use the second of

with shunts

:

series stubs

Kuroda’s

Identities to

λ λ c c 8 8 2 n ω L 2 n ω L 1
λ
λ
c
c
8
8
2
n ω L
2
n
ω
L
1
c
1
3
c
3
2
1
ω C
2
n Z
n
Z
c
2
1
0
3
0
λ
λ
λ
c
c
c
8
8
8

Z

Z

2

= 1

+

0

n

3

2

=

1 +

0

1

     

n

ω

c

L

1

ω L

c

3

where:

Now this

is

separated,

a

realizable filter!

the

they are all shunt stubs.

Note

and

three stubs are

replace

Note

that a specific

numerical

example (example 8.5)

of this

procedure is

given

on pp.

409-411 of

your

book.

a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your
a specific numerical example (example 8.5) of this procedure is given on pp. 409-411 of your

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS