Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 142

2016

: .
: .
: .
: .
: ) ( .
: .



) (2008 7
750
.
20
50 .



.
2008 75
.
1897 0.52 1960 0.22
1975 0.16 ) (2006 0.10
) 4 2 420 5 20 X
5 20 ( .
)
(


.
.

.
.

: .


.
)
( ) (
.
.
.
:

.
:

.

.
) (

Humid regions
. Arid and semi-arid regions



.



.



.


.


.

.
:
-1
-2

Salt-affected soils
Calcareous soils

-3

Sandy soils


2006
850 )
( .

%97
.
1 250 ) 2 (
% 2.5 1970
12.2


.


.


Salt affected soils

.

.



.

-1 Soil Salinity


.
.
Forming Processes
) ( .
.


:
-1 Readily soluble salts

) ( NaCl ) ( MgCl2
) (CaCl2 ) ( Na2SO4 )
( MgSO4 ) ( Na2CO3
.
-2 :
Sparingly soluble salts or Insoluble salts
) ( CaSO4 ) ( MgCO3

) ( CaCO3
.
.
- Carbonates
Carbonic acid


.
:
-1 ) :Calcium carbonate (CaCO3
) 0.0131/ (
0.14 / )
). ( Ca(HCO3
) (
pH 0 10.2 - 10
pH . 8.5 - 7.9


: -

.

) . ( % 15 7

.
)
( % 80
.
.
7-5 .


. Quantitative
-2 ) :Magnesium carbonate ( MgCO3

.
pH 0 . 10

Dolomite .
-3 ) : Sodium carbonate ( Na2CO3

.


Na2CO3.H2O .Na2CO3.10H2O

) 178/(
pH 12
.
Dispersion
Destruction

. % 0.1 0.5

:
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

2 NaHCO3


.

.

Na2CO3. NaHCO3 . 2H2O NaHCO3
.

:
CaCO3 + Na2SO4

Na2CO3 + CaSO4


8 .

.
-4 Potassium carbonate ( K2CO3 ) :



.
)( :Sulphates

.

:
-1

) :Calcium sulphate ( CaSO4


) 1.9/ ( .


.
CaSO4.2H2O
CaSO4.H2O .

.

.
.

.
-2 ) : Magnesium sulphate ( MgSO4

MgSO4. 7H2O
.
) 262/(
.

.
-3 ) : Sodium sulphate ( Na2SO4


.



) (
)
(
. Mirabilite Na2
SO4.10H2O
) Thenardite ( Na2SO4

)(
) Glauberite (CaSO4. Na2SO


)( .
-4 ) Potassium sulphate ( K2SO4


.
.
) ( Chlorides
.

.
) ( :
-1 ) : Calcium chloride (CaCl2


.
) 500 - 400/ ( .

Solonchak like :
x]2Na + CaCl2

x]Ca +2NaCl



.

.
-2 ) : Magnesium chloride ( Mg Cl2

.
) 353/ (

.
)
( .

.

.
.
-3 ) :Sodium chloride ( NaCl

.

) 264/ (
% 5 -2

.
.


.
-4 ) Potassium chloride ( KCl



.


.
.

.
Granallite
) (MgCl2. KCl. 6H2O
.
) ( Nitrates
HNO3
. ) ( % 0.05


50
.%
% 0.1 0.07

.
Anaerobic conditions

NH3 . N2
) ( Borates
H3BO3


.

Kovda :
-1 : Continental

Run-off
) Igneous Rocks (
Secondary Rocks )
(.
-2 : Marine


150/
.
-3 : Delta

.
.
-4 : Artisan

.
-5 : Anthropogenic



.
): ( Walter, 1961
:
Caspian
Sea Great salt lake
.
-

.
- Aeollic Sedimentation
.
): (Kelly, 1950


) (


) ( .

Soil material


:
- : Geomor phology

.
)( : Hydrogeology


.
)( : Hydrology

.
)( : Climate
.
:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .


.

:


.
:
( Capillary movement of water

Tension
.

.
.
.

)
(
.

:
-1 :

.

. Kovda
15 -10/ 2.5 -2 .
2 1/ 1.5 1
.



.
) (2 :


Hydromorphus
.

.
1
.
)( : Vaporation :



.
:
-1
.
-2 .


Kovada

. -:

-1 0.1 -0.01 /
.
-2 0.3 0.2 /
.
-3 0.7 0.5 /
.
-4 3 0.5 /
.
-5 5 2.5 /
.
-6 30 20 /
.
3 0.5 /
30 20
/ .

.
pH
" "
.


.

) 0.3 /(



9 10 .



.


Primary and Secondary Salinization



Drainage
Restricted drainage
.

. Hard pans


.
Natural Conditions
) (
Primary Salinization


. Secondary salinization


:
- :
) (Kovda, 1964




.

:
-1
.
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .


.
- :




.

:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
Kovda
15 5 -

20 10


.

:
-1 ) (


.
-2

.




.




.
Cation exchange

.
:
X]NH4 + NaCl X

[Na + NH4Cl


.

.
:
-1 :




.
Hydrolysis
Activity .
2 :


.


radius

Hydrated

.

.

:
+

H+ > Ba++ > Ca++ > Mg++ > K+ = NH4+ > Na+ > Li

. Lyotropic series
Ease of release
1 1.2
1.8 2.2 05.4
.
3 :

adsorb
) ( .
Cation exchange capacity
100 .
.
:
5 20 - 0 3
100/ .
1 - 0.5 30
100 / .
:
100 100 /
.
) ( 100 /30
.
10 100 / .
.
:
Peat 150 100 /.
161 100 /
385 .100 /

)
(
.





.

.


.



.



% 50

%100
.



. :
-1 :
) % 85 80
( .

.
-2 Hilgard : Bertholet

:
Na CO3 + CaSO4
Na2CO3 + CaCl2

CaCO3+ Na2SO4
CaCO3 +2NaCl

.
.

.
Kovda

.

.
-3 Mondesir : Kelly



:
Na2 + H2CO3

H2+ Na2CO3

-4 :

) (
.
-5 :
Desulfurication
. :
- .
- .
- .
- Desulfovibrio desulfuricans
.
.
:
Na2S +2 CO2
Na2CO3 + H2S

Na2SO4 + 2C
Na2S + CO2 + H2O


.
.
Bower, Ogata
.

:
-
.
) (
.

.
-
.

.
.Loess
-
.
-

.
-
.

.


.
-

.


Formation processes of Salt-affected soils
) (Sigmond
:
-1 : Salinization

.

.
-2 Alkalinization :
) (
.
-3 Desalinization :



B
Solonetz
B

B B C
ESP A CEC B, C

B A .

-4 ):Solodization (Degradation

) ) A
SiO2 . B
B
)
. (Solod
-5Regradation :
Solod
.

.
.
:

- : Magnesium solonetz

B
.
Nikiforoff
3:1 4:1.


.
- :


.



.
.



:
-1 :Permeability
,



.
.

.

.
) (Kelly, 1951
.




.


.


.
.
-2 : Structure
Solonetz

Prismatic or Columener Structure


.

.


.
.
Pans
Impervious


.
Iron
pan Humus
.Podzol

)( Sesquioxide pan
.


.
Arid and
Semiarid


.
30-5
.



.
Sub soiler
.


Biological component of the soil
%0.2
Soil fauna
Soil microflora
.

.

. Nitrifying
Bacteria Nitrogen fixers
.

.
Lipman and Foxler

Nitrogen fixing
bacteria .
Ammonifing bacteria

.
100

1000 .
Greaves, Cater and Goldthrope
.
2500 5000
.
Sulfure oxidizing bacteria
.
Cellulose

Aerobic

decomposing bacteria
.

Native soil organic matter

Added organic matter .
Activity of enzymes

. ) Inhibit (

Activate
. .


.

- Physicochemical changes

)0 ( .
:
-1 Total count of soil
microorganisms .
-2 ) Streptomyces (
.
-3 forming

Spore

microorganisms .
-4 Azotobacter
.
-5 Clostridium )
( .
-6 Nitrifires
.
-7 Cellulose decomposers
.

-8 matter

organic

of

Rate

decomposition .
-9 Formation of nodules

.
-10
Ammonification
Nitrification .

Salt balance
-1 : Scofied, 1940
)) Scofied, 1940

.
:
Salt input

Salt output = Salt balance

)SB = (Vinf.w Cinf.w) - (Veff.w Ceff.w


Where:
Veff.w = Volume of effluent ( drainage) water.
) (
Vinf.w = Volume of influent (irrigation) water
) (
Ceff.w = Soluble salt concentration of effluent water

Cinf.w = Soluble salt concentration of influent water

= Salt balance SB
Scofield

Salt output

. Salt output
-2 Wilcox and Resch :
) (Wilcox and Resch salt
balance index
Output salts Input
:salts
output salts
------------------ = Salt balance inxdex
Input salts

-3 :Szabolcs, 1972
) (Szabolcs, 1972
) ( :
)b= a + ( d+ cv/Mtfs . 10-5
:
= b
100/ .
= a
100/ .
= C /.

= V /3.
= M .
=tfs .
=d )
( 100/ .
-4 : Kaddah and Rhoades 1976
( ) Kaddah and Rhoades 1976
Total salt balance ) (
Specific ions balance
Choloride balance
:
Viw .Ciw+Vgw.Cgw+ Sm+ Sf = Vdw.Cdw+ Sp + Sc Ssw Xc
Where:
= volume of irrigation water (applied

Viw
water-tail).

= volume of drainage water. Vdw


= volume of ground water. Vgw
Ciw = salt concentration of irrigation water.

Cdw = salt concentration of drainage water.

Cgw= salt concentration of ground water.

Sm = amount of salts brought into soil solution by
mineralization (mineral weathering).

.
Sf = amount of salts brought into soil solution by fertilizers
and amendments.
.
Sp = amount of salts precipitated in the soil.
.
Sc = amount of salts removed from soil by crops.
.
= change in soluble salts.

Ssw

.
Xc= changes in exchangeable cations.
.


Sc, Sp, Sf, Sm )( ) Sf+ Sm
(Salt input ) Sc +Sp Salt
(output
:
Viw X Ciw + Vgw X Cgw = Vdw XCdw Ssw Xc

:
Viw X Ciw = Vdw XCdw Ssw Xc
Vgw X Cgw
.

Steady state Quasi- steady


:
soil salinity 0
:
Viw X Ciw = Vdw XCdw
Specific ion balance

.
mobile
Precipitation Dissolution Fixation
. Exchange reactions
-5 : Massoud 1977
)) Massoud 1977 :
) D Cd + N Cn +T+ )- ( I Ci + P Cp + G Cg + A Ca + M + F
(W
Se Ce R Cr = S
:

= Ci .

= P

= Cp .

= G

= Cg .

= A

= Ca .

= D

= Cd .

= N

= Cn .

=Se

= Cn .

= R = Surface run-off Cr
.
= F .
= T .
= W .
= S .
S
.




.

-2
Classification of salt-affected soils

Soil classification


.
American system
)(According to Richards,1954

: : Saline soils :

4/ 25
% 15
. 8.5






)( .

.


Soil material

.
)
( :
-1 :
2/.
-2 :
4.0 2.0/

-3 :
8.0-4.0/
-4 :
16.0-8.0/
-5 :
16.0/
: ) (:
Saline- sodic (saline alkali) soils

4/ 25 .
% 15 . 8.5


.
: ) ( :
Non saline sodic or alkali soils
% 15

4/
25 . 10.0 -8.5

.
) Black
(alkali
) ( Solonts


.

.
pH
. 10
Alkali
Sodic
.


.
Russian system
Accordind to kovda, 1961
,kovda
) (

.
:
-1 : Salt Crust

% 60 -50 5-3
100 -50 .

.

:
-
.
- Residual .
:
- : Calcareous Crust

% 70 -50

.

.

.
- : Gypsum Crust


.

20-10
100 -50
.

.
-2 : Solonchak soils

) -
30 40
( % 2 -1

% 3 .

:
- : Sodic solonchak soils


,10.5 9.5
.
- : Sulphate solonchak soils



.
- : Chloride solonchak soils



.
- : Nitrate solonchak soils

.

.



.
:
- ): Active (contemporary

. -0.5
3.0


3-2.
- : Residual or dry

10
.
pseudo sand
-20
% 30 .% 50
-3 : Solonchak-like soils
% 0.8-0.3
) (
%60-30 .


.
-30
100 .% 0.8 -0.3
-4 ) ( Solontz



100 30.
:
) A (Eluvial 20 5 .
) B (Illuvial 10 5
Columnar or prismatic
%0.1 9
% 50 20 .
C
.

.
:
- :
8 3

.
B C
.
A
Crusty 5 3 A
15 10
.
( : Steppe solonetz soils

30 20
.
A
Chestnut soil Sherozem
Serozem .
-5 :


.
% 0.08 % 15 -1
. 9.0 8.5

.
-6 : Takyer :



.
5 3
% 1.5 0.5
30 20 Alluvial

30 10 .


10 9
.


Orders
Suborders Great groups
Subgroups Families Types
. Aridisols
: Aridisols

Argilic Gypsic
Calcic Salic :
- : Orthids


Salorthids
50


Terraces .

. Solonchak
- :Argids

Natrargids
Durargids
. Nadurargids

-3

.


Salinity hazard

Alkalinity hazard
.


.



400

12000 ) 12000 400/ (






35000 410000
.


) 0.01 ( )1 ( )
0.2 (.

)1.9-1.3
( .

.


:
-1 ) (

.Salinity hazard
-2
. Alkalinity hazard

-3 )
(Residual bicarbonate



.


.

Alkalinity hazard

) (
.
-4 .
-5 .
-6 Silt .
-7
.
-8 .
-9 .
-10 .



.
:

- :

.
:



0.5 0.2 /
.

2 1 /
.

7 3 /
.

- :
1954

) (56
:
-1 : C1

0.25 /
160


.
-2 : C2
0.75 0.25 /
500 160 .


.
-3 : C3
2.25 0.75 /
1500 500 .

Diagram for the classification of irrigation waters




.
-4 : C4
2.25/
1500


.
1955 Thorne and Peterson
) ( :





/
0.25
0.75 0.25
2.25- 0.75
4.00 2.25
6.00 4.00



.
.

)
(

.

.


.
/

) %50

(
-
4
-1
- -
10
- - --
- -
-
12
.
4
-2

6

.

10

12
-3
Bormuda grass Satt grass
18


-4
- - -
.


.



.


)
250 -200 (


.

.
) (




.
) Leaching
(requirement
.
:
( X 100


L. R. ) = -----------------------------


) ( :
%



/
0.1
0.25
0.75
2.25
5.00

4
/

8
/

12
/

16
/

2.5
6.2
18.8
56.2
-----

1.2
3.1
9.4
28.1
62.5

0.8
2.1
6.2
18.8
41.7

0.6
1.6
4.7
14.1
31.2

:
0.75 /

8 /
) % X100 = 9.4 ( 8 / 0.75
.

:
-1


.
-2 ) (


.


) (


.




.
Kovda
6000 - 5000
12000
.
.


.
:
-1 3 2 /
.
-2 5 4 / 5 4
.
-3
.
:
.





.
.

:
-1

) ( .
-2 .
-3
150 200

.
-4

.
-5 .
-6 .
-7 .
-8 .


Alkalinity hazard





.


)+(
.




.

%15

% 70-60






:

Na
) ----------------------=Sodium Adsorption ratio ( S A R
Ca++ + Mg++/2
SAR 10 SAR
18 10
SAR 26 -18
SAR 26
.
SAR
E S P
:
( (SAR 1475 0.0+ 0.0126 - ) +1 /

=100 ( - 0.0126 +0.01475 SAR

ESP

SAR = 10 E S P 13
SAR = 18 E S P 20
SAR = 26 E S P 91

%70
1500
500

.
.
) (



:
Ca CO3 + H2o + CO2

)Ca (H CO3


.
Residual Sodium carbonate

.


) (1954
56 :
-1 (S1) :

.

.
-2 (S2) :


.
.
-3 (S3) :


.
-4 (S4) :


.


:
-1 :
2.5 /.
-2 :
2.5 1.5 /.
-3 :
1.5 /.


) 3 (

.
4 3

.

:

0.33
0.67 0.33
1.0 0.67
1.25 1.0
1.25

1
2
3
4
5

1.0
0.67
2.0 1.0
1.33 0.67
3.0 2.0
2.0 1.33
3.75 3.0
2.5 2.0
3.75
2.5


:
- :

.
- :
- -
.
- :

.

.

.


) (Ayers , 1975
.

:
-1 .

-2 .

-3

.
-4 pH .
Ayers :
-1

No problems


.
-2

-3


.
Ayers :
- ) ( L. R .
- .Adjusted S.A.R
:
Na
][1+(8.4-pHc
= Adjusted SAR
)2/(Ca+Mg

Na, Ca, Mg / . pHc


.

.
:

-1 ) (
.
-2
.
-3
.

.



)( ) /(
3.0
3.0 0.75
0.75
)(
-1 ) /(
0.2
0.5
0.5
Adjusted S A R -2
9
9-6
6
)(
-1 :
Adjusted S A R -
9
9-3
3
- ) /(:
10
10 - 4
4
- ) (:
10.0 2.0
2.0 0.5
0.5
-2 ) (:
- /:
------ 3
3
- ) /(:
------- 3
3
)( - Miscellaneous
-1) ( /:
10
10 - 5
5


-2 ) /( :
8.5
8.5 1.5
1.5
-3 8.4 6.5

-4

.


0

Leaching
Saline Sodic
Amendments
) ( .



.


.
:
- : :
-1 :

.
-2 :



.
-3 :

.

.
.
-4 :
pH
.
: :
1 :


.
-2 :

.
Sub-irrigation
.

.
:
.

) (
) ( .
)
(
.
.

.


Soil salinity diagnosis
)
( .


Quantatative
.
:
-1 . Total soluble salts
-2 . Soluble ions
-3 . Exchangeable cations
-4 . pH
-5 )( .
Gypsum requirements .
-6 .
-7 . Permeability
-8 . Infiltration rate
-9 . pF - curves

.


.
:
-1
. Sub-soiling
-2 ) (
.

-3
.
-4
.
-5 ) (

.
-6
.
3 2 .

.


:
-1 )( Physical (Mechanical) Techniques
:

.

.
.
150 30
Stratified soil

.



.
Solonets



.


:
A
B2/C
B1

A
B1
B2/C

) (

.
-1

: Biological Techniques

:
-1 .
-2 CO2
.


.

CO2
.
) (

.
-3 : Chemical techniques
Amendments
.

.

)( :
-
)( .
- .
- .
.
-2

: Hydro-techniques

.
.
.

-3

: techniques Electrical

.

1500

37000 .
.




.

.
.



.





.



.

.
.


.
.




.
Kovda
:
-1
) 3 2.5( .
-2 ) (
4 0.3.
-3 3 2/

.

:

- 1 .
- 2 .
- 3 .
-4 .
-5 .
- 6
.



.

.
:
:
-1
.
-2
.
-3

.
-4

.


.
:
- Leaching intensity

.
- : Leaching rate


.




.

.
5 + 5
30 5 Subsoiler
5 -1 .
.
.Weirs


1000 500
/ . 500
/ ) (
. )
( 1000 - 500 / .

EC .


.

:

.

, :
1 : Rozov
Rozov
:
M = FC - m + n FC
:
= M / .
=FC /.
=N

2 0.5

.
/

= M
.

2 : Volobuyev
Volobuyev :
Q = Q 1 + Q2 + Q3
:
= Q .
= Q1 .
Q1 :
Q1 = M -m
= M :

= m .

= Q2 .
Q2 :
Q2 = P - M
= P :
Q3

= M .

. Q3 = n p
n
.
-3 : Drenge
Drenge 5
10 .
200 100 .

% 80 10 10
. %90 20 10
.
) 200 ( 8/ 4
/ 100 .
Drenge
.
-4 : Kovda
:
Y = 400 X ( n1 . n2 . n3 )+- 100
:
= Y .
= X 2 .
=n1 .
n1= 0.5 = 1
=2
= n2 .
2.5 -1.5 n2 = 3
5 2

n2 = 1.5

10 7 n2 = 1
= n3 .
n3 = 1

n3 = 2

n3 = 3

: Reeve

:
1
Diw =Ds -------------- + 0.15
)5(C/Co
:
= Diw ) (
= Ds ) (
C

= .

= Co .




.


.

.


:
1
.

.
2


.

:
H-h
)N = M - m + ------------ (1000
Zo
:
= N / .
= M ) (

/ .
= m

/.
= H .
= h
= Zo . H , h



.


.

.


.




.
.
SAR
.

.
.

.

SAR .

Amendments
)(

.
:
-1 ) (CaCl2
) (CaSO4.2H2O .
-2

.
-3

.
) (
.
:
Clay] Na2 + CaSO4 Clay] Ca + Na2SO4
Clay] Na2 + CaCl2 Clay] Ca + 2NaCl
.

.
) ( .


.
:
30100/
12 100/
1.1/ .3 %90
%10 30 .

100
=
= 100= 9 /( x10 30 ) 12100/
9 ) (%100
9 = 86
:
X 0.086 = 0.774 9 100/
%90 :
X (100 )/90 = 0.86 0.774 100/ %90
30 = =

10-

10 x 30 x 101x

4200x

1286
30 =
= x 106 x 68 1386 100/ 0

= x11.919 6-10

1/4
.


:

100/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

/
15
30
0.9
1.7
1.7
3.4
2.6
5.2
3.4
6.9
4.3
8.6
5.2
10.3
.6
12.0
6.9
13.7
7.7
15.5
8.6
17.2


. H2O 2. CaSO4%80
%2
100 .

,


.
sGypsum requirement
.
) (

.
.


.



.
1 :

)(CaSO4.2H2O
)(CaCl2.2H2O
))CaCO3
(( S
)(H2SO4
)FeSO4.7H2
(O
Al2(SO4)3.1
8H2O

1.0
0
0.8
5
0.5
8
0.1
9
0.1
9
1.6
2
1.2
9

) (
)
pH (7 pH
:
pH

CaCO3

6.21

)/(
19.13

6.50

14.4

7.12

7.10

7.85

2.70

8.60

1.10

9.20

0.82

10.12

0.36



:
- :
-1
:
60 -40 .
"

"

20

"

"

"

"

10

"

"

"

"

1500

"

"

"

"

300

"

"

"

"

50

"

"

"

"

20

"

"

100 20 15

40 60
.
-2
.

.
) ( :
-1

.
-2

.
-3

.
-4
.
-5
.

-6
.
)( :
-1
.
-2



.
-3 )
(

.
-4 .
)( :
-1
.
-2
.
-3
) (
.
-4
.

-5 .
-6 .
-7
.



:
-1
.
-2 )
.......(.
-3
.
-4 .


.
-5 ) 5 (.
-6 )

(
.
-7 )
(




:
) ( :


.
) ( :
:
- ) (
.
-


pH 5 : 1 50 : 1
50 : 1 : 1
5

pH .
50 : 1 ) (

) (
.
- :



.
:
. .
.
.
.
) (:

15 -10
5

.
) 20(


.

.
3-2

.

.


.
) ( :


.


.
) ( :


.
) ( :



.


.




.


.
% 50
12 44
3.7 = 44/12 .



.



35 )
( 2 .

+

.


.



.

.


Kelly
Cynodon dactylon .


.
:
Rohodes grass ( chloris gayana) .
Rye grass ( Lolian pernne) .
Sudan grass ( Sorgham valgare sudanense) .
Melilutus alba .
2

-5
% 60


.


.
:


" "

.



.

:
-1 .
-2 .

-3 150.
-4 .

.

.
.


150 .

.



.
.


.
:

-:
:
-1 .

-2 .

150




.

.

.

:
-1

Germination .
-2 .
.

0.3. . 15..
. 15
. .
.
Osmotic pressure
.
5
15. .
10

.


.


.
-3

.
) (

.

.

.

.

.

- :

((.S.P
.



.

.
.



.



.



.
.

.



.

- :

.

.

) ( .


.

:
:

:
-1 :



.
-2 :

% 50
) (

% 50
.


% 50 :

25
2 -
4-2
8-4
16 - 8
16

4 /
% 50
.
% 15

.


Calcareous Soils
.
" "
% 0.5 .% 70

.
:
:
-1
Dolomite Calcite


.
-2
B B
10 200
.
-3 B
C
A .
-4 A , B
3
.

-5 Polyhedric
Angular .
.
-6



. ) / /(
.
-7
.
.
-8 Crust
.
-9 pH
8.5 8.2
. 9.8 9.5
-10 .
15 100 /
.
-11
.
.

- Aridisols (Argids and

)Inceptisols (Xerochrepts
)Orthids

)Mollisols (Rendolls and Xerisols) - Alfisols (Xeralfs


classification
. Soil






.
.
.
:
-1 pH:
pH - 7.5

10

pH
.
-2 :

. 365.0
-3 :


.


.
-4 :

-


.
-5 :

.
.
-6 :

Crust


.
.


Limeinduced chlorosis
.


:
-1 .
-2
.
-3 .
-4 .
-5
.
-6
.

.
:
-

.
-

.
(

.




.


.



.


Sandy soils


.


.


%85
. %10 :
- :
:
-1 ) -32
(%42 .
-2 ) % 6 -4
(
% 20 -16
.
-3 Infiltration rate
200 -10 / ) 150
( .
-4
.

-5
.
- :
:
- ) (
.

.
.
-2

.
-3 )
( 10-6/
100 .
-4 500 200 5-3
.

.
-5 5 100 /
0.25 100 / .

.

-6 ) 0.015 0.008
( % ) .( % 0.002 0.001


.
-7
.
- :
:
-1 ) (



.
-2
.
-3
.
-4

.
:
Order : Entisols

.
Order : Pasamments

Group:Torripsaments
.
. Soil classification



:
-1 :

10/


.
-2 :
)
- ( % 30
.




.


.

.
60


.
Bentonite

.


60 60

.
-3 :

:
-
.

-
) (
.
:
:
-1

.
-2 ) K , P, N (
.
-3
Slow release fertilizers
Sulfur coated urea
Pellets
Urea form
Oxamid . Thiourea


:
.
: .
.

.
) (




.
:
-1
.
.
-2 )
(

.
-3
.
-4
.
-5
.
:
:


.


.
.

.


.
:
:
- :

:
-1
.
-2 .
-3
1.5 1 .
-4 Saccarum
:
Acacia Cyanophylla
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Eucalyptus gomphocephal
:
Acacia cuclors

Acacia cyanophylla

.


. :
-1 Peach grass 5 3
.
-2
.
-3
.
:

5 2 16 2
.
15 25 .
- :
50 2.7 / 2
2.5/ 1.6/
.
- :

.
.

- :



Sphagntum

.
-----------


Soil Degradation
) (Desertification
""

" "
.



.


-1 :

.
.
-2 :


.






. " ".

.



. :
- :
-1
.
-2
.
-3
.
-4 .
-5 :
* .
*
.
*

25

.
* .
-6 .
-7 .
- :
-1
.
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .


-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
-5 .
-6 .
-7 .
-8 ) ( .
-9 .
-10 .

:
-1 : :
- :

.
-
.
- .
:
)
(EC / 25
/ .
- / .
pH .
/ .
-2 : :
- Crust .
-
.
-
.
:

/ / / .

- /
/ / .

/ / 3 .
/ / .

:
- ) ( /
/.
-
/ 2 /
.
-
/ 2 / .
-3 ) (:

.

.
:
-1 .
-2
.
-3 .
:


.

.
:
-1
.
-2
.
-3

.
-4 .


:
-1 .
-2
.
-3 .
) 8/81 : (1981
-1
.
. .

-2
.
-3
.
-4

.
-5
.
-6

.... .
-7 :
- .
-
.
-
.
- .
-8
.

.
-9
.


:
-1 .
-2

.
-3 .
-4






.

)
6

(.
:
:
-1 :
Screening device
) 15X3(

25

.
-2 :

Cased portion
.

.

.

" "

:
- :
-1
.
-2 .
- :
:
-1 .
-2
/ .
-3
.
- :
:
-1
.

-2 :
.
-3
)
(.
- :

:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .

25
:
-1 : Sand pumping
) (

) ( )
(
.
:
-
.
- .

- Sieve analysis

.
-

.
-2 : Well inefficiency
%80
:
)( -
:

:
*
.
* .
* .
)( :

:
. . . -3 :

30-25

:
-
:


.
- :

:
.
Cascading :
) (
.
Well Development

.

Compressor )
( .


.
:
-1
.
-2 .
-3
.
Pumping Test
Drawdown
12.
) (
.
:
-1 .
-2 .


)( . .
.


: -:
-1
) (.

) (1963

-2 .
)(1969
-3 .
(1969
- 4 .
(1976

. .
. .
. .

-5 .
)(1979

)
)

. .

-6 .
(1992

. .

-7 .
(1993

. .

-8
)(1994

. . . .

: -:
1- Abd-elsalam, A. (1973). Sandy soil in Egypt. FAO/UNDP Seminar on
sandy soils , Cyprus.
2- Arar, A. (1972). Regional Seminar on calcareous soils. FAO Soil
Bul. No. 21.

3- Arar, A. (1973) Regional seminar on sandy soils. FAO/UNDP Seminar


on sandy soils , Cyprus.
4- Balba, A.M. (1968). Some Aspects of fertility of the highly calcareous
soils. Soil sci. soc. Egypt. Symposium on calcareous soils,
Alexandria,
Egypt.
5- Balba, A.M. (1973). Organic and inorganic fertilization of sandy soils.
FAO/UNDP Seminar on sandy soils in the Near East and north Africa,
Cyprus.
6- Hanson, B., S. R.Grattan, and A. Fulton.(1999). Agriculture salinity
and drainage. Oakland: University of California Division of Agriculture
and Natural Resources Publication 3375.
7- Kovda, V.A.; Muratova, V.S. and Zakharina, G.V. (ed.).(1967).
Amelioration of salt affected soils . IZD, Nauka, Moskova.
8- Szabolcs, I. (1971). European solonetz soils and their reclamation.
Akademia, Kiado, budapest, Hungary.
Internet website
http://www.osuextra.com
www.ext.colostate.edu
-: :
1- Black, C.A.; Evans, D.D.; White, J.L.; Ensminger, L.E. and Clark,F.E.
(eds.) (1965). Methods of Soil Analysis: Parts 1 and 2, American
Society of Agronomy, Madison Wisconsin, USA.
2- Page, A.L.; Miller, R.H.; and Keeney, D.R.(eds.) (1982). Methods of
Soil Analysis: Parts 1 and 2, American Society of Agronomy,
Madison,
Wisconsin, USA.