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SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 8 )

Non-Hydrocarbon Fats
1. Fatrs are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
2. Fats (lipids / triglycerides) are belonging to the group in ester.
3. Natural esters are formed from glycerol and fatty acids.
Name of fat

Molecular formula of ester

Lauric acid*
Palmitic acid*
Stearic acid*
Oleic oxide **
Linoleic
acid***
Linolenic
acid***

CH3(CH2)10COOH
CH3(CH2)14COOH
CH3(CH2)16COOH
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH

Types of
fatty acids
Saturated
Saturated
Saturated
Unsaturated
Unsaturated

CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated

* Saturated: C-C single bonds


** Unsaturated (monounsaturated): C=C double bonds
*** Unsaturated (polyunsaturated): C=C double bonds
4. Animal fats have higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.
5. Plant oils have higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids.
6. Physical properties of fats

Types of fatty acids


Bonding
Melting point
Sources
Cholesterol
State at room temperature

Saturated
C-C single bonds
single
higher
animals
high
solid

Unsaturated
C=C double bonds
double
lower
plants
low
liquid

Fats (animal) in general are solids at room temperature and acted as:

thermal insulator
protective cushion to protect the vital organ

provide energy and stored in body

carry Vitamin A, D, E, K (insoluble in water)

Example: butter, fish oil (liquid in room temperature)

Fats (plant) are called oils. Oils are liquids at room temperature.

Example: olive oil, peanut oil, palm oil and bran oil

7. Chemical properties of fats

Unsaturated fats can be converted into saturated fats by hydrogenation (additional


reaction) in 200C and 4 atm in the presence of nickel catalyst.
Example: production of margarine from sunflower oil of palm oil.

8. Effect of fats
Fatty food produce high energy but high consumption of fatty food will results:

obesity
raise the level of cholesterol

deposition will cause block the flow of blood which lead to stroke and heart attack.

9. Palm oil

It is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits.


Palm oil extracted from the pulp of the fruits.

Steps in extraction of palm oil:


1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
2. stripping
3. digestion (crushing the husk and fruit and separate the oil by heating)
4. squeezed out the oil
5. extraction (separate the oil from water)
6. purification the oil (palm oil is treated with phosphoric acid and then steam is passed
through to separate the acid)
7. vacuum
Palm kernel oil extracted from the kernel or seed.
Steps in extraction of palm oil:
1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
2. stripping
3. crushing the husk and fruit

4. extracting kernel oil


5. purification (purify the oil from kernel)
Goodness in palm oil:

higher proportion of unsaturated fats.


easy to digest and absorb.

rich in vitamin A (carotenoid)

rich in vitamin E (tocophenols and tocotrienols)

resist oxidation in high temperature.