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2011 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing

A Fast Image Coding Algorithm Based on Lifting


Wavelet Transform
Xuechun Wang, Shenxiao Liu, Fang Han
School of Information Engineering
Huanghe Science and Technology College
Zhengzhou 450006, China
AbstractIn order to make the image compression algorithm
have higher compression ratio and better image recovery
quality, based on SPIHT algorithm analysis, an efficient
image coding algorithm FSPIHT(Fast Set Partitioning In
Hierarchical Trees) has been proposed The algorithm
introduces the lifting wavelet and a wavelet basis (V9/3)
based on human visual system, the classification of LIS (the
List of Insignificant Sets) is deleted in the new compression
algorithm, the hierarchical trees in wavelet decomposition
are coded equally from son generation to grandson
generation. The experimental result proves that the rebuilt
image of this algorithm has better visual effect and
moreover improves coding speed.

disadvantages which could be further optimized, specifically


reflecting in: (1) the complicated convolution is needed in
the process of wavelet transform; (2) human visual
system(HVS) is not considered; and (3) the algorithm is too
complicated to achieve in hardware.

Keywordslifting wavelet transform; human visual system;


SPIHT; image coding

II. A WAVELET BASIS BASED ON HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM IN


LIFTING WAVELET TRANSFORM ALGORITHM

I.

INTRODUCTION

Since there is great image data quantity, in order to


make transmission and storage of image data possible and
reduce communication cost, the data must be compressed.
Since the wavelet has the multi-resolution feature, the
wavelet transform is to decompose the image into different
frequency sub-bands while the human eye has different
response for different frequency band information. At this
point, the wavelet is similar to the humans visual
system[1~3]. Therefore, the wavelet transform has been
widely applied in image compression fields. The lifting
wavelet transform algorithm does not use Fourier transform
and compress based on Fourier transform size in the way to
constitute wavelet but completes the transform for digital
signal through a series of steps including simply split,
predict and update. It gets popular for having fast
calculation, able to complete wavelet transform to save
internal memory, transform image in any size, conveniently
constitute integer to integer wavelet, etc[4,5].
For tree distribution feature of the image data after
wavelet transform, Shapiro proposes Embedded Zerotree
Wavelet (EZW) scheme, later A.Said and W.A.Pearlman
propose (Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees, SPIHT)
based on zerotree coding thought. The algorithm takes the
zerotree structure as basis to effectively complete the
embedded code through measures of set definition (Sets in
Type A and Type B), set division, etc. It is simple in the
structure, supports multi-code rate and moreover has higher
signal-to-noise ratio and better image recovery quality,
which is considered as one of the best image transform
coding algorithms now. However, theory analysis and
experimental result indicate that this algorithm has certain

978-1-4244-9306-7/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

A new image coding algorithm (Fast SPIHT, FSPIHT) is


proposed in this paper. This algorithm takes SPIHT as basis,
introduces wavelet transform by comprehensively
considering human visual system, cancels classifying LIS
table, uniformly codes according to wavelet space tree order
of first son generation and then grandson generation and
reduces system cost to overcome disadvantage of SPIHT to
certain extent.

A.

Lifting wavelet transform algorithm


The basic concept of lifting wavelet transform algorithm
is to resolve each grade of filtering operation in Mallat
algorithm into basic constitution module and complete
wavelet transform by steps, so, wavelet transform is
decomposed into splitting, prediction and update processes,
shown in Figure 1.

(a)

Mallat algorithm

(b) Lifting algorithm

Figure 1.

Mutual relationship between Mallat algorithm and lifting


algorithm

Splitting means to divide input signals into the following


two groups according to its ordinal parity:

X 00 ( n ) = x ( 2 n ) X 10 (n) = x(2n + 1)

594

(1)

Prediction means to apply the filter P on even signal


P
X 00 (n)
to get the predicated value of odd signal X1 (n) , and
0
then minus the predicated value and odd signal X 1 (n) to
1
get predicated error of odd signal X 1 (n)

X 1P ( n ) = p k X 00 ( n k )
k

p
0
1
X 1 (n) = X 1 (n) X 1 (n) (2)

Update means to apply filter U on the predicted value of


odd signal to get predicated value

X 0P ( n)

of even

1
signal X 1 (n) s and then make correction for even signal.

X 0P ( n ) =

X 11 ( n k )

X 01 ( n) = X 00 (n) X 0p (n)

(3)

The ranges of k in formulas (2) and (3) are


corresponding to orders of filters P and U respectively.
Any group of wavelet filter (h(n),g(n)) in Mallat
algorithm could get another group or many groups of
predicted filter (P) and updated filter (U) through
factorization and conduct predict and update operation for
many times after split. Figure.1(b) only shows a group of
filter. The final result is:

x0 (n) = X 01 (n)

1
x1 ( n) = X 1 ( n)

(4)

Obviously, fast lifting wavelet transform has the


advantages of fast calculation, complete wavelet transform
in current position thus to save internal memory and
transform image in any size, etc.
B.

Wavelet with HVS (V9/3)


HVS plays a key role in quality evaluation of the
reconstructed image. By observing certain visual
phenomenon with human eye combined with the research in
visual physiology and psychology, etc, it is found that
recovery of the images visual distortion not only depends
on the whole mean-square error but also on the frequency
distribution of this distortion space. HVS provides
mathematical model for peoples visual system to feel
external environment[6,7]. The model is built according to
sensitivity of peoples visual system to color and luminance,
based on this, the mathematical model is (Contrast
Sensitivity Function, CSF). The sensitivity feature of human
eye to space frequency has been described. Its function
model is:
TABLE I.
Image
Lena
Baboon

H ( f ) = 2.6(0.192 + 0.114 f )e ( 0.114 / f )

1.1

Among that, f is image space frequency, f =

(5)

( f x2 + f y2 ) ,

f x and f y are images space frequency in horizontal and


vertical direction respectively.
It is known from CSF function model that HVS has
different sensitivity to different space frequency while
images wavelet decomposition has multi-resolution ratio
feature. Different wavelet decomposition levels represent
different space frequency feature. The most sensitive zone is
concentrated at the range from 0.025 to 0.125 in the
normalization space frequency. Correspondingly, peoples
eyes are most sensitive to the frequency composition in the
third and fourth sections in wavelet decomposition.
Therefore, after wavelet transform, the more concentrated
the energy in those two decomposition levels is, the more
matching between wavelet and HVS.
In Reference[8], Hu et al. constitute a kind of compact
biorthogonal wavelet with visual feature (hereinafter refer to
V9/3 wavelet), taking match extent between wavelet
transform result and HVS as starting point. This wavelet is
the same with Daubechies9/7, both of which have the
biorthogonal wavelet with compact support feature and
linear phase feature, fit for digital images compression
application. Its corresponding low-pass and high-pass filter
group is:

1 19 61 19 1 1
1
1 1
2hn =
, , , , , , , ,

160 80 8 80 80 80 8 80 160
~
1 1 1
2hn = , ,
4 2 4
Since V9/3 wavelet is constituted taking CSF based on
human eyes visual feature as optimization condition, so,
with the same compression ratio, it has better visual effect.
The distribution of coefficient energy adopting different
wavelets in various decomposition levels after wavelet
transform is shown in Table I(Lena represents image with
smooth region and Baboon represents image with abundant
details)It is seen that more energy has been concentrated in
the third and fourth decomposition levels when adopting
V9/3 wavelet is used to make decomposition, particularly in
image with abundant details, so when V9/3 wavelet is used
to conduct digital images compressing code, more sensitive
elements of HVS could be kept to get better visual effect,
which is consistent with the later experimental result.

THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF IMAGES WAVELET COEFFICIENTS

Wavelet

First Class

Second Class

Third Class

Fourth Class

Fifth Class

Sixth Class

V9/3

0.0054

0.0126

0.0247

0.0533

0.0757

0.8283

D9/7

0.0071

0.0099

0.0161

0.0314

0.0365

0.8991

V9/3

0.0080

0.0151

0.0138

0.0125

0.0117

0.9391

D9/7

0.0093

0.0098

0.0060

0.0049

0.0047

0.9653

Daubechies and Swelden point out any wavelet


transform could find the corresponding lifting format. Using
the method to seek the biggest common factor and dividing
in multinomial, the deduced lifting decomposition algorithm
corresponding to the wavelet basis is:

x( 2n) + x( 2n + 2 )

Y( 2n + 1 ) = x( 2n + 1 )
2

Y( 2n 3 ) + 19Y( 2n 1 ) 19Y( 2n + 1 ) + Y( 2n + 3 )
Y( 2n) = x( 2n) +
80

595

(6)

The corresponding lifting reconstitution algorithm is:


x( 2n) + x( 2n + 2 )

x( 2n + 1 ) = Y( 2n + 1 ) +
2

Y( 2n 3 ) + 19Y( 2n 1 ) 19Y( 2n + 1 ) + Y( 2n + 3 )
x( 2n) = Y( 2n)
80

(7)

In fast image coding algorithm in this paper, V9/3


wavelet with lifting format is used to transform coding for
digital image, thus to avoid weighting operation for wavelet
coefficient after wavelet transform using CSF, also achieve
weighting effect and reduce complexity of the whole coding
algorithm.
III. FAST AND EFFICIENT CODING ALGORITHM FSPIHT
In embedded wavelet compression code, the typical
algorithm is EZW, coding algorithm based on zerotree
proposed by Shapiro. Its further improvement is hierarchical
set division coding algorithm SPIHT given by A.Said, etc.
SPIHT algorithm is considered as one of the best image
compression
algorithms
now.
Images
wavelet
decomposition forms a tower structure. Certain region for
images space has been left to form a quadtree structure in
wavelet decomposition.
In SPIHT coding, the panel point in LIS is divided into
type A and type B. Among those, A indicates offspring of
the panel point which may be important while B indicates
offspring of the panel point which is unimportant but the
later grandson generation may be important. In the next bit
layer coding, the importance of grandson generation is
firstly judged. Through statistics, images coefficient after
wavelet transform is mostly non-zero, so, simplification
purpose is not achieved to divide LIS into Type A and Type
B. Moreover, encoders cost has been greatly increased due
to the classification and the judgment of the panel point in
each LIS, so, through experiment, an optimized coding
algorithm has been given. The specific algorithm is

S ()

is defined as:
described as below, where n
1 max C i , j 2 n

S n () = (i, j)

{ }

(8)

n = log 2 max C i , j
(i , j )
, set LSP

(1) Initialization, input


as empty table, put all panel points (i, j) in the highest layer
into LIP table and put panel point with descendant node in
LIS table
(2) Ordering process
For all panel points(i, j) in LIP table:

{ }

output
If

S n (i, j )

S n (i, j ) =1, move the panel point (i, j) in

LSP table and output i , j ;


For all panel points (i, j) in LIS table:
Origin
image

Lifting wavelet
transform(V9/3)

Wavelet
coefficients
Figure 2.

S ( D(i, j ))
output n
If Sn (D(i, j))=1, for all panel points (k, l) in
O(i, j):
output

S n (k , l )
If

table and output


table;

S n (k , l ) = 1
C k ,l

If

, add panel point (k, l) in LSP

S n (k , l ) = 0

, add panel point (k, l) in LIP

If L(i, j) is non-null, put all panel points in O(i,


j) at the end of LIS table and directly delete(i, j) from LIS;
otherwise, directly delete (i, j) from LIS
(3) Detailing process. For all panel points (i, j) in LSP
table, remove panel points appearing in final ordering
Ci, j
process, output No. n most important position in

(4) Quantization step size update, decrease 1 from n and


move to (2).
In the original SPIHT coding algorithm, when
conducting cycle treatment for LIS table and the panel point
(i, j) in LIS is type B, firstly output importance code element
of grandson generation L (i, j) to judge whether the panel
point is important or not. If it is indeed important, add
offspring panel point O (i, j) in LIS and set as Type A, then
delete panel point (i, j) from LIS. This algorithm adopts
first-classification-and-recycle method and increases
classification and judgment in each recycle. Obviously,
encoders cost has been increased and the operational speed
and efficiency have been decreased.
In the new FSPIHT coding algorithm, when conduct
recycle disposal for LIS table, directly judge whether L (i, j)
has grandson generation or not after completing treatment of
(i, j)son generation panel points. If there is no grandson
generation, delete panel point (i, j) from LIS; if there is
grandson generation, add all son generation points O(i, j) in
LIS and then delete panel point (i, j) from LIS So,
classification judgment for panel points in LIS is
unnecessary but the uniformed coding is needed according
to first son generation and then grandson generation wavelet
space tree order in the process to combine panel points in
Type B to A panel point after treatment and alternation for
panel point in Type B. By doing so, more meticulous
embedded code stream structure could be obtained and the
increased system cost for judging classification for LIS is
also decreased. Meanwhile, the output judgment code
element is also saved when dealing with panel point in Type
B. So, the improved FSPIHT algorithm is simpler and faster
than SPIHT process to improve coding efficiency.
Fast image coding algorithm process based on lifting
wavelet and human visual system is shown in Figure 2.

FSPIHT

Arithmetic
coding

Bitstream

Image coding algorithm block diagram

IV EXPERIMENT RESULT AND ANALYSIS


In order to verify high efficiency of FSPIHT image

coding algorithm mentioned in this paper, taking


5125128bit standard image Lena and Baboon as an
example, five-level decomposition and reconstruction

596

experiment have been conducted to make comparison with


SPIHT algorithm. Among that, in decomposing and
reconstructing wavelet, the V9/3 wavelet described in the

(a) Original image

third section is used in FSPIHT and common Daubechies9/7


wavelet is used in SPIHT. The Experimental results is as
below.

(b) SPIHT reconstructed image

(a) Original image

(b) SPIHT reconstructed image

(c) FSPIHT reconstructed image

(c) FSPIHT reconstructed image

Figure3. Compression comparison for standard image (Lena, Baboon)


TABLE II PSNR AND CODING TIME FOR THE STANDARD IMAGE CODED AT DIFFERENT BIT RATES
Image
Lena
Baboon

0.125bpp

0.25bpp

0.5bpp

1.0bpp

SPIHT

FSPIHT

SPIHT

FSPIHT

SPIHT

FSPIHT

SPIHT

FSPIHT

31.09dB
0.91s
23.03dB
1.12s

30.23dB
0.65s
21.88dB
0.78s

34.11dB
1.26s
24.55dB
1.43s

32.95dB
0.84s
23.79dB
1.01s

37.21dB
1.67s
27.02dB
1.95s

37.89dB
1.09s
27.71dB
1.34s

40.44dB
1.89s
31.00dB
2.57s

41.17dB
1.20s
32.29dB
1.78s

It is seen from Figure3: the reconstructed image with


algorithm in this paper has better quality without producing
any diamond effect; since V9/3 wavelet, constituted taking
visual feature of human eye CSF as optimization condition,
is used, under the same compression ratio, image recovery
quality in FSPIHT algorithm is superior to that in SPIHT.
More detailed information has been kept, particularly
obvious for image Baboon with abundant details; according
Table 1: the closer the PSNR of the reconstructed image to
SPIHT, the less time the coding compression time is, which
is consistent with the actual analysis.

application prospect.
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. CONCLUSION
A fast image coding method based on lifting wavelet and
HVS has been proposed, taking coding efficiency
improvement and improvement of visual effect of the
compressed reconstructed image as starting point, through
comprehensively introducing fast lifting wavelet transform,
comprehensively considering HVS, and further simplifying
improvement for SPIHT, etc. Experiment result indicates
that the improved algorithm is a kind of efficient image
compression algorithm and its its key features such as better
image recovery quality and faster coding speed are superior
to those of SPIHT coding algorithm. It has certain

[5]

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[7]
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