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Review Sheet for Living Environment Final

1) Name and explain the steps of the scientific method.


1)
Observation: observations of the world around us lead scientists to
questions that have to be answered
2)
Problem/Questions: Develop a question/problem based on observations
that can be solved by conducting a test
3)
Research: Research topic of interest to determine what has been
discovered to date. Scientists want to build knowledge upon existing info
4)
Hypothesis: Predict possible answer to question or problem base on
research; an educated guess about the relationship b/w the independent
(changing) and dependent (measured) variable
5)
Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure, include a detailed
materials' list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable) Must need a
control group known as a no treatment group or experiments selected group
6)
Organize data by tables, analyze using graphs
7)
Collect and analyze results: include table, graphs and photographs;
modify procedure if needed
8)
Repeat to confirm the results
Validity of Experiment:
a)
control group
b)
Repeat and get same data
c)
increase sample size
d)
limit only to one independent variable
9)
Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis;
make recommendation for further study and possible changes in procedure
10) Communicate Results: Be prepared to present the project to an
audience. Expect questions from the audience
2) Compare and contrast Dependent vs. independent variables.
Independent variable (manipulated variable) is the variable being tested
(intentionally varied by the experimenter) whereas the dependent variables
are the variables that are affected/ the result of the independent variable.
3) Identify the taxonomic groups- which are the most general? The
most specific?
In order from least to most specific:
Domain, kingdom, phylum, chess, order, family, genus, species
4) Know the characteristics of the major kingdoms and domains.

Domains:

a) Archea (Only kingdom is archaebacteria)


Prokaryotic
Unicellular
Live in extreme environments
b) Bacteria (Only kingdom is eubacteria)
Unicellular
Prokaryotic
Common bacteria
c) Eukarya (includes all of the eukaryotic kingdoms: protista, fungi, plantae,
animalia)

The Kingdoms of Eukarya


a)
Protista
Unicellular or colonial
Many have cell walls
Can be plant-like, animal-like or fungus-like
b)
Fungi
Cell walls made of chitin
Multicellular
External heterotrophs
Decomposers
c)
Plantae
Cell walls of cellulose
Autotrophic
Multicellular
d)
Animalia
Multicellular
No cell walls
Internal heterotrophs
5) Name the parts of an atom.
Protons: positively charged in center
Neutrons: uncharged in center
Electrons: negatively charged in orbit around nucleus

6) Explain how bonds are formed.


Ionic bonds are formed when one atom gives electrons away to another. This
gives that atom a negative charge and the other a positive one, attracting

them together. Covalent bonds are formed when electrons are shared equally
or unequally. The electrons orbit around both atoms. Hydrogen bonds are
formed by the attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial
electric charges of opposite polarity and almost always involves hydrogen.
7) What is an ion? Isotope?
An ion is a charged atom or molecule; an atom or molecule that has either an
excess of electrons or has lost electrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same
elements but with different masses due to a difference in the number of
neutrons.
8) Compare and contrast the three types of bonds.
An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic
attraction between two oppositely charged ions. A covalent bond is a form of
chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons
between atoms. A hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen
atom with an electronegative atom.
In order from weakest to strongest: hydrogen bond, ionic bond, covalent bond
9) Compare and Contrast organic and inorganic materials
All organic compounds contain carbon. They are all made by living things.
They usually also have hydrogen and or oxygen.
10) Name the organic compounds, their building blocks and their
functions (and examples)
Carbohydrates are made by monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) and
disaccharides (sucrose). They are used for energy, production, storage, and
structure. Lipids are used for waterproofing (waxes), the cell membrane
(phospholipids), energy storage (fats), and hormones (steroids).
They are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol (besides
phospholipids which contain two fatty acids with a phosphate head and a
glycerol, giving them a hydrophobic and hydrophilic side). Nucleic acids are
made of nucleotides (ribose/deoxyribose, phosphate group and nitrogenous
bases). DNA has deoxyribose, is stable, and has the bases adenine, guanine,
thymine and cytosine; it determines genetic information. RNA has ribose, is
unstable, has uracil instead of thymine, can be used as an enzyme. Nucleic
acids are used as genetic materials and short-term energy carrier molecules
in the cell as well as intracellular messengers. Proteins are made of amino
acids. Proteins carry out life functions such as enzymes, antibodies,
messages, structure and transport. Amino acids have a central carbon
attached to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, and a variable
group.

11) Compare and contrast dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.


Dehydration synthesis is the removal of a hydrogen atom from one molecule
and an OH from another, forcing them to form one molecule as well as
forming a molecule of water. Hydrolysis is the addition a water molecule to a
molecule, forcing it to break into two separate molecules.
>Why are they are considered to be complimentary reactions.
The products of dehydration synthesis are the reactants of hydrolysis, while
the reactants of dehydration synthesis are the products of hydrolysis.
12) Why are enzymes said to be specific? What determines their
specificity?
Enzymes are specific because they only bind to specific active sites. The 3-D
shape of the enzyme determines it specificity and its shape is determine by it
order of amino acids which is determined by it DNA sequence.
13) Name the conditions that effect enzyme specificity.
1)
2)
3)

pH
Temperature
Substrate and Enzyme Concentration

14) Explain how DNA is able to control the activities of a cell.


DNA is the brains of the cell and tells it what to do. There is no actual
"control". The arrangement of proteins on the gene determines how a cell is
structured and what it does.
15) Name and explain the life functions
The life functions are reproduction, growth and development, the need for
materials and energy, response to the external environment, homeostasis,
change over time, formation of cells. Reproduction is the creation of a new
organism nd there are two types. Asexual reproduction is when one parent
produces one offspring that is genetically identical to it. Sexual reproduction
is when two parents produce an offspring and is a combination of the genetic
material of both of its parents. It is the only life function that is not necessary
for the survival of an individual. Growth and developments are the life
functions by which an organism increases in size. In unicellular organism,
growth is simply an increase in cell size. In multicellular organisms, growth is
an increase in the number of cells. In multicellular organisms growth is
accompanied by cellular specialization where certain cells or groups of cell
take on a specific shape and function. Growth is not unlimited. The need for
material and energy includes five steps. Metabolism is the combination of all
the chemical reaction that occur in the body. Synthesis is the process by
which organisms combine simple substances chemically into more complex

substance. Assimilation is the process by which substances are incorporated


into living things. Nutrition is the process by which an organism takes in
materials from the external environment and changes then into forms they
can use, nutrients. Response to the environment is the life function of
regulation where an organism responds to a stimulus or a signal that may be
external or internal. In unicellular organism this is done by the cell membrane
and nucleus. In multicellular organisms the endocrine and nervous system
are responsible for regulation. Homeostasis is how organisms maintain a
stable internal environment. Homeostasis is accomplished in transport,
excretion and gas exchange. Transport is the life function responsible for the
movement of substances around a cell or around a body. In unicellular
organisms transport is accomplished by the moving of the intracellular fluid.
In some multicellular organisms this is accomplished by the circulatory
system. Excretion is the life function responsible for the removal of metabolic
wastes from the body. Gas exchange is the life function responsible for the
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the
environment. In unicellular organisms and simple animals, gas exchange
occurs directly though the cell membrane. In plants, gas exchange occurs
through openings in the leaves called stomates. In complex organisms this is
accomplished by the respiratory system. Change over time is the life function
of evolution or the ability of a group of organisms to change over time. It
occurs in a population. Evolution is possible because of genetic material such
as DNA. All organisms are made of cells.
16) Name Parts of Cell theory
All living things made of cells.
Cells come from cells.
Cells are smallest living things.
17) Name and functions of all cell organelles
Plasma membrane: Selectively permeable, determines what enters and
leaves the cell
Cytoplasm: Fluid that fills the inside of the cell.
Ribosomes: Dont contain membrane and are made of RNA and proteins,
site of protein production.
Nucleus: Surrounded by the nuclear envelope, contains the DNA.
Nucleolus: The inside of the nucleus; it is the location where ribosomes are
made.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Transport system within the cell. Many ribosomes
are on its walls.
Golgi complex: Where things are modified and sorted for storage or
transport out of the cell.
Vacuole: Large fluid filled sac with a membrane. It is needed for storage. In
plants, it helps hold the body up.
Lysosome: Sac surrounded by a membrane containing enzymes. Digestion
in unicellular organisms, destroys invaders, and breaks down old cells.
Centrioles: Are only found in animals and are responsible for proper cell
division.

Mitochondria: Have a double membrane and its own DNA. This is the
location of aerobic respiration.
Chloroplast: Double membrane, has its own DNA, is needed for
photosynthesis.
Cell Wall: Present in plants and algae, provides support and protection.
> How do these organelles work together to carry out homeostasis?
They carry out all of the life functions. A vacuole fuses with a lysosome, which
digests the contents of the vacuole. The nucleus creates DNA, which is copied
by RNA which gives that info to the ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum
which produce proteins with that info. They are then often sent to the Golgi
complex.
18) List the levels of organization of living things from smallest to
largest
cell tissue organ organ system organism species population
community ecosystem biosphere
19) Compare and Contrast Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Nutrition
Autotrophic - self
Heterotrophic - from other sources
20) What is ATP? How does it store energy?
ATP is a short-term energy carrier. ATP is formed by the bonding of a
phosphate group with ADP. The energy is stored in the third phosphate, the
last phosphate that joins with ADP to form ATP.
21) Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy in the form of radiation into
chemical energy in the form of glucose. Respiration is the process by which
energy stored in the bonds of glucose is released in the form of ATP.
>Identify where these processes occur
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. Respiration occurs in the cytoplasm
as well as the mitochondria.
>What are the raw materials
Photosynthesis: 6 CO2 +6 H2O + Sunlight
Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O2
>What are the final products
Photosynthesis: C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Cellular Respiration: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
>Why they are considered to be complimentary reactions.

The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration, while


the reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration.
22) Explain the steps of the light reactions and the dark reactions
>Identify where these processes occur
Light reactions occur in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. Dark
reactions occur in the stroma of chloroplasts.
>What are the raw materials
Light reactions: Light Energy + 2 H2O
Dark reactions: 6 RuBP + 6 CO2
>What are the final products
Light reactions: NADPH + ATP
Dark reactions: C6H12O6
23) Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration that does not require oxygen. It
occurs in the cytoplasm and in all prokaryotic organisms as well as yeast.
Aerobic respiration is a form of respiration that can only occur in the presence
of oxygen. It occurs in the mitochondria and in eukaryotic organisms. In both
however, glycolysis occurs where C6H12O6 + 2 ATP + 2 G3P form 2 pyruvic
acid + 2 ATP + 2 NADH.
24) What is the purpose of fermentation? What are the end
products?
Fermentation is necessary for the regeneration of NAD+ for glycolysis. The
end products of alcoholic fermentation are ethyl alcohol, CO2 and NAD+. The
end products of lactic acid fermentation are lactic acid and NAD+.
25) Explain the steps of cellular respiration
>Identify where these processes occur
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of
the mitochondria. The electron transport system occurs in the inner
membrane of the mitochondria.
>What are the raw materials
Krebs cycle: 2 Pyruvic acid
Electron Transport System: 2 FADH2 + 10 NADH
>What are the final products
Krebs cycle: 2 ATP + 2 FADH2 + 8 NADH + 6 CO2
Electron Transport System: 32 ATP + 6 H2O

Location and function of stomata and guard cells.


Scattered through the lower epidermis are small openings called stomata. It
is through these holes that CO2 enters the lead and oxygen and water vapor
exit. Each stomate is surrounded by a pair of guard cells. When they swell the
stomates open and when they shrink the stomates close. Plants respond to
change in temperature and humidity by opening or closing their stomates.
Identify 4 Steps of Heterotrophic Nutrition
Ingestion (taking in materials)
Digestion (breakdown of complex molecules)
Absorption (nutrients are incorporated)
Egestion (removal of undigested materials)
Compare and contrast mechanical and chemical digestion.
Chemical digestion is done by enzymes making a conformational change to
somethings shape. Mechanical digestion is a physical mashing that often
makes it easier for enzymes to attach (increases surface area).
Know the digestive processes and accessory organs (if applicable) in hydra,
grasshopper and earthworm.
Hydra:
The tentacles push food into the gastrovasuclar cavity. The cells of the
endoderm release enzymes into the cavity that break down the food that
then diffuses into the cells where further digestion occurs.
Grasshopper:
Food goes from the mouth (mechanical digestion) through the esophagus to
the crop (temporary storage), into the gizzard (mechanical digestion) into the
stomach (chemical digestion and absorption).
Earthworm:
Into the mouth, through the pharynx and esophagus, into the crop (storage),
into the gizzard, into the intestine (chemical digestion and absorption).
Organs and stages of human digestion. What is digested where? By what
enzyme?
In the mouth, swallowing and break large polysaccharide into smaller ones
occurs. Saliva provides lubrication of food. Food travels into the esophagus
and then into the stomach where mechanical digestion and the breakdown of
proteins by pepsin occurs.
Food in the form of chyme travels into the small intestine (Break down of
starch into maltose by amylase. Polypeptides break down into dipeptides by
trypsin and chymotrypsin. Break down of lipids by lipase which is helped by
bile, the emulsifier. Those come from the pancreatic juice. Bile is from the
liver. The intestinal juice itself has carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase that
complete protein digestion. Maltase and others break disaccharides into
monosaccharides.) After absorption out of the small intestine, food goes to
the large intestine and out the anus.
Explain how gas exchange, excretion and nervous regulation are
accomplished in the hydra, earthworm and grasshopper. (be sure to identify if

these structures are dorsal or ventral)


In the hydra gas exchange occurs across the cell membrane of the ectoderm
and endoderm because they are in constant contact with their environments.
In the earthworm, gas exchange occurs across the skin which is the
respiratory surface and into the capillaries that lay behind it. In the
grasshopper, gas exchange occurs across the tracheoles which penetrates
the cells and serve as a site of diffusion, But before reaching the tracheoles.
Air must first travel through the spiracles located in the thorax and abdomen
and through the trachea and then in to the tracheal tubules.
Excretion in the hydra occurs via diffusion. In the earthworm, excretion occurs
in the nephridia, the filtering unit, where wastes enter the nephridia through
the nephrostome and then travel into the long convoluted tubule where there
are blood vessels. Metabolic wastes are also delivered here. This also serves
as the site of diffusion of necessary material. At the end of reabsorption only
waste materials remain and these are collected in the long convoluted tubule
and are emptied into the environment via the nephridiopore in the form of
urine. In the grasshopper, wastes from the blood enter the excretory organ
known as the Malphigian tubules via diffusion. These tubules are in direct
contact with the blood because of the open circulatory system. Body fluids
are drawn into the tubules by osmosis due to the large potassium
concentration inside of the tubule. Body fluids re-enter the body free of
nitrogenous wastes, while the wastes are emptied into the intestines where
water and nutrients are reabsorbed and wastes is excreted in the form of uric
acid.
Hydra has no centralized nervous system. Nervous cells run between the
layers of cells that make up the hydra. When an impulse is received by one
part of the hydra, all of the cells of the hydra receive the impulse and there is
coordinated response by the organism. The earthworm contains and
organized nervous system, a central and peripheral nervous system. The
central nervous system is made of the brain and a pair of ventral nerve cords.
The nerve cords enlarge into ganglia in each segment. The ganglia are a
bunch of cell bodies and interneurons that relay and coordinate nerve
impulse. The brain is two fused ganglia. The peripheral nervous system is
made of nerves that branch off the central nervous system and connect to all
parts of the body. The peripheral nervous system contains the sensory and
motor neurons. The grasshopper is made of the brain in the head region and
two ventral nerve cords that run off it with ganglia. Nerves branch out from
the ganglia making up the peripheral nervous system and connecting to all
parts of the body. The sense organs are more highly developed in the
grasshopper than the earthworm.
Trace the pathway of air in the respiratory system.
nose nasal cavity nasal passages pharynx trachea bronchi
bronchiole tubules alveoli
Why is it important to breathe through the nose?
It warms and filters the air that is breathed.
Name and explain 2 disorders of the respiratory system.
Asthma is characterized by the constriction, inflammation, and excessive

lining of mucus of the airways often in response to one or more triggers


cause by allergens. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the membranes lining the
bronchi nd the excessive production of mucus. Symptoms of bronchitis
include coughing up extra mucus, difficulty breathing and a runny nose.
Emphysema is characterized by the destruction of structure supporting the
alveoli and the capillaries feeding the alveoli. The small airways collapse
during exhalation blocking the airflow and trapping air in the lungs.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by a bacterial, viral or
fungal infection. The type of infection determines the fatality.
Name and identify the functions of the parts of the nephron.
A nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Part of the nephron is found in
the cortex and part is found in the medulla. Also found in the cortex is a
group of capillaries that form a tight-ball called the glomerulus. The
glomerulus is surrounded by Bowmans capsules, a double-walled, cup
shaped structure which is the beginning of the nephron.
Explain how urine formation occurs in the kidney.
Urine is formed in the pelvis of the kidney as a result of mixing urea with
water and other materials.
Where is water reabsorbed? Nutrients? Ions?
Nutrients, water and ions are reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule.
What does ADH do in the kidney?
Dehydration stimulates the production of ADH which increases the
permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct resulting in more water
being retained. Because more water is retained there is an increase in the
concentration of water in the blood. This halts the production of ADH which
decreases the permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct resulting in
less water being retained.
Name and identify the functions of the parts of the neuron.
The cell body of a neuron contains the nucleus and all organelles. This is
where all life functions are carried out. It acts as the integrating center of the
neuron and determines if an impulse will be initiated.
Compare and contrast the central and peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. It is
made of interneurons, synaptic bulbs of sensory neurons and cell bodies of
motor neurons. The central nervous system controls most of the activities of
the body and has three levels of protection: bone (skull and spinal column),
meninges (triple layer of connective tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (cushions
the brain and spinal cord). The peripheral nervous system is composed of all
the neurons which branch out from the brain and the spinal cord. It is made
of sensory neurons and motor neurons. The peripheral nervous system is
made up of the somatic and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous
system controls voluntary movement and is made of neurons that connects
the central nervous system to the sense organs. The autonomic nervous
system controls involuntary movement. It is made of neurons that connect

the central nervous system to the internal organs of the body and controls
heart rate, breathing, blood flow, digestion and hormone secretion from
glands. The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is
responsible for flight or fight response. The parasympathetic nervous system
is responsible for body activities and returns the body to normal after the
flight or fight response.
Identify the functions of the parts of the brain.
The brain is composed of the hindbrain, midbrain and the forebrain. The
hindbrain is composed of the medulla, pons and cerebellum. The medulla
controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and swallowing. The pons
controls the stages of sleep, rate and patterns of breathing. The cerebellum
controls the coordination of body movements. The midbrain is composed of
the auditory relay center, reflex of the eye and the reticular formation. The
reticular formation is the processing center for the senses. It filters sensory
inputs before they reach the conscious part of the brain. It controls what you
process. The forebrain, also known as the cerebrum, is composed of the
thalamus, limbic system and the cerebral cortex. The thalamus carries
sensory information to the cerebral cortex or the limbic system. The limbic
system controls the basic and primitive emotions, drives and behavior. The
limbic system is composed of the hypothalamus, the amygdala and the
hippocampus. The hypothalamus is the major coordinating center of the
brain. The amygdala is the ancient part of the brain that controls the
primitive emotions and emotion recognition. The hippocampus controls
emotions but is also needed for the formation of long-term memory. The
cerebral cortex is divided into the left and right hemisphere. They are
connected by the corpus callosum. The cerebral cortex contains folds and
convolutions which increase surface area. It is gray in appearance due to a
large volume of cell bodies. It is the largest part of the brain (2/3) and is
divided in half into the right and left hemisphere (right art, left math). It
controls sensory, motor and associative responses. It receives and interprets
sense impulses and starts impulses responsible for voluntary movement and
the position of limbs. It is responsible for memory learning and thought.
Identify the functions of the parts of the eye and the ear.
The wall of the eye has three layers. The sclera is the white of the eye and
gives it its shape. The cornea is the transparent structure that bulges out and
contains no blood vessels. It is needed to focus light. The limbus is where the
cornea meets the sclera. The middle of the eye contains the iris, the colored
part of the eye, and many blood vessels. The iris regulates the amount of
light that enters by determining the size of the pupil. The pupil lies on the
lens which helps to focus light on the back of the eye. Most of the eye is filled
with a clear gel called the vitreous humor. Light projects through the pupil
and lends to the back of the eye. The inside lining of the eye is converted by
special light-sensing cells which together form the retina. The retina converts
light into electrical impulses. The macula is a sensitive area within the retina
that gives central vision. It is located in the center of the retina and contains
the fovea. Behind the eye, the optic nerve carries these impulses to the
brain. Eye color is created by the amount and type of pigment in the iris. The

retina contains two types of photoreceptors which are rods and cones. There
are more rods than cones which are more sensitive than the cones but are
more sensitive to color. The cones provide the eyes sensitivity and they are
more concentrated in the yellow central spot known as the macula. In the
center of that region is the fovea centralis. A 0.3mm diameter rod-free area
with very, thin densely packed cones. There are three different types of
cones: red, green and blue which provide the eyes color sensitivity. In the
photo-excitation process the, the rhodopsin protein absorbs light and is
excited to a high electronic state. Upon the photo-excitation process, the
retinal part of rhodopsin undergoes a conformational change. Rhodopsin
dissociated from the opsin protein. This change in geometry initiates a series
of events that eventually causes electrical impulses to be sent to the brain
along the optic nerve.
The ear translates vibrations in the air into vibrations in fluids and finally into
an impulse. There are three regions in the ear: the external ear, middle ear
and inner ear. The external ear contains the pinna and external auditory
canal which collects sound waves and channels them to the middle ear. The
middle ear contains the eardrum and auditory ossicles. The inner ear
contains the nerve fibers that will initiate the sensory impulse. Sound enters
the outer ear and causes the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to vibrate. This
causes the auditory ossicles: the malleolus, the incus and the stapes to
vibrate. These small bones pass the vibration down the air-filled Eustachian
(auditory) tube to the membrane at the entrance of the inner ear. The inner
ear has three parts: the vestibule, the semi-circular canals and the coiled
cochlea. The vestibule contains the fluid filled sacs that are associated with
equilibrium. The three semi-circular canals are also filled and lined with hair
whose movements help determine the rate and direction of movement. The
coiled cochlea connected to the stapes by the oval window. The amplified
vibrations from the auditory ossicles are transferred to the fluid within the
cochlea through the oval window. This causes the movement in the hairs
lining the cochlea which in turn stimulates the sensory receptors.
Name and identify the sense receptors.
Thermoreceptors are receptors for heat. Mechanoreceptors are receptors for
touch, pressure and vibration (sound and balance). Photoreceptors are
receptors for light. Chemoreceptors are receptors for taste and odor. Pain
receptors are receptors for pain.
Compare and contrast specific and non-specific defenses.
Nonspecific defenses are the responses of immunity that fights of all
pathogen. This form of immunity includes the 1st line of defense and the 2nd
line of defense. Specific defenses respond and fight against only one
pathogen. An example would be the attack of Killer T-cells against one
pathogen which they are able to find by its antigen on its surface. Once the
Killer-T cells has been activated by the Helper T-cells it fights against that
specific pathogen.
Explain how the inflammatory response works.
1)
Pathogen enters the body tissues and causes damage

2)
Damaged cells and mast cells release protein messengers called
histamine which attach to adjacent capillaries and cause them to leak
allowing white blood cells and clotting factors to enter the site of infection.
3)
Macrophages exit the blood stream at the site of infection using
amoeboid movements to squeeze out.
4)
Macrophages come to the site of infection and eat damages cells, all
foreign particles and some healthy cells.
5)
Pathogen in the vacuoles are digested using the digestive enzymes of
the lysosomes
6)
The antigen on the pathogen is displayed on the membrane of the
macrophages
7)
Once the area has been cleaned the macrophages die forming pus or
mucus at the site of infection.
Compare and contrast cell mediated and hummoral immunity.
The hummoral immune response is the aspect of immunity that is mediated
by secreted antibodies produced by B lymphocytes or B-cells. Secreted
antibodies bind to antigens on the surfaces of invading microbes which flags
them for destruction. Hummoral immunity involves substances found in the
body fluids and is activated once the pathogen enters the blood stream.
1)
Antigen from the pathogen is displayed on the membrane of
macrophages.
2)
Antigen attaches to the Helper T-cell receptor, activating it against the
pathogen (usually occurs during inflammatory response).
3)
Immature B-cell encounters a pathogen, ingests it by phagocytosis and
then digests it using the lysosome.
4)
The antigen no displayed on the membrane of the B-cell attaches to a
receptor on an activated Helper T-cell
5)
Once the Helper T-cell determines that the antigen is foreign tit releases
cytokine a protein that attaches to and activates the B-cell
6)
The activate B-cells divide into plasma cells which produces the
antibodies and memory cells which will remain in the blood long after the
infection has ended.
7)
The antibodies released from Plasma B-cells travel through the blood
and attach to the antigens on the surface of the pathogens
8)
Macrophages ingest and then digest using the lysosome, all molecules
surrounded by antibodies
The cell-mediated immune response relies on lymphocytes and not
antibodies. It starts when a T-cell binds to and activated macrophage and
then becomes a Helper T-cell, which helps regulate the production of
antibodies by B-cells. Helper T-cells activate Killer T-cells which transfer
protein into the cell membrane of a pathogen causing fluids to leak out of the
membrane. This rapid loss of materials causes the cell to rupture and die.
1)
Helper T-cell is activated by binding to the antigen of a pathogen found
on the surface of a macro phage
2)
Killer T-cell recognizes an antigen on the surface of a macrophage
3)
Helper T-cell releases cytokines which activates the Killer T-cell
4)
Killer