Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

Anti-aliasing filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 of 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-aliasing_filter

Anti-aliasing filter
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is a filter used before a signal sampler to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to
approximately or completely satisfy the sampling theorem over the band of interest. Since the theorem states
that unambiguous reconstruction of the signal from its samples is possible when the power of frequencies above
the Nyquist frequency is zero, a real anti-aliasing filter trades off between bandwidth and aliasing. A realizable
anti-aliasing filter will typically either permit some aliasing to occur or else attenuate some in-band frequencies
close to the Nyquist limit. For this reason, many practical systems sample higher than required to ensure that all
frequencies of interest can be reconstructed, a practice called oversampling.

Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Optical applications
Audio applications
Oversampling
Bandpass signals
Signal overload
See also
References

Optical applications
In the case of optical image sampling, as by image sensors in digital cameras, the anti-aliasing filter is also
known as an optical low-pass filter, blur filter, or AA filter. The mathematics of sampling in two spatial
dimensions is similar to the mathematics of time-domain sampling, but the filter implementation technologies
are different. The typical implementation in digital cameras is two layers of birefringent material such as
lithium niobate, which spreads each optical point into a cluster of four points.[1]
The choice of spot separation for such a filter involves a tradeoff among sharpness, aliasing, and fill factor (the
ratio of the active refracting area of a microlens array to the total contiguous area occupied by the array). In a
monochrome or three-CCD or Foveon X3 camera, the microlens array alone, if near 100% effective, can
provide a significant anti-aliasing effect,[2] while in color filter array (CFA, e.g. Bayer filter) cameras, an
additional filter is generally needed to reduce aliasing to an acceptable level.[3][4][5]
The Pentax K-3 from Ricoh introduced a unique sensor-based anti-aliasing filter. The filter works by micro
vibrating the sensor element. The user can turn the vibration on or off, selecting anti-aliasing or no
anti-aliasing.[6]

Audio applications
Anti-aliasing filters are commonly used at the input of digital signal processing system's analog to digital
converter; similar filters are used as reconstruction filters at the output of such systems, for example in music
players. In the latter case, the filter prevents imaging, the reverse process of aliasing where in-band frequencies

10/4/2016 9:35 PM

Anti-aliasing filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2 of 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-aliasing_filter

are mirrored out of band.

Oversampling
A technique known as oversampling is commonly used in audio ADCs. The idea is to use a higher intermediate
digital sample rate, so that a nearly-ideal digital filter can sharply cut off aliasing near the original low Nyquist
frequency, while a much simpler analog filter can stop frequencies above the new higher Nyquist frequency.
Because analog filters have relatively high cost and limited performance, relaxing the demands on the analog
filter can greatly reduce both aliasing and cost. Furthermore, because some noise is averaged out, the higher
sampling rate can moderately improve SNR.
Alternatively, a signal may be intentionally oversampled without an intermediate frequency to reduce the
requirements on the anti-alias filter. For example, CD audio typically extends up to 20 kHz, but is sampled with
a 22.05 kHz Nyquist rate. By oversampling by 2.05 kHz, both aliasing and attenuation of higher audio
frequencies can be prevented even with less than ideal filters.

Bandpass signals
Often, an anti-aliasing filter is a low-pass filter; however, this is not a requirement. Generalizations of the
NyquistShannon sampling theorem allow sampling of other band-limited passband signals instead of baseband
signals.
For signals that are bandwidth limited, but not centered at zero, a band-pass filter can be used as an anti-aliasing
filter. For example, this could be done with a single-sideband modulated or frequency modulated signal. If one
desired to sample an FM radio broadcast centered at 87.9 MHz and bandlimited to a 200 kHz band, then an
appropriate anti-alias filter would be centered on 87.9 MHz with 200 kHz bandwidth (or pass-band of
87.8 MHz to 88.0 MHz), and the sampling rate would be no less than 176.2 MHz, but should also satisfy other
constraints to prevent aliasing.

Signal overload
It is very important to avoid input signal overload when using an anti-aliasing filter. If the signal is strong
enough, it can cause clipping at the analog-to-digital converter, even after filtering. When distortion due to
clipping occurs after the anti-aliasing filter, it can create components outside the passband of the anti-aliasing
filter; these components can then alias, causing the reproduction of other non-harmonically-related frequencies.

See also
Spatial anti-aliasing
Sampling (signal processing)

References
1. Adrian Davies and Phil Fennessy (2001). Digital imaging for photographers (Fourth ed.). Focal Press.
ISBN 0-240-51590-0.
2. S. B. Campana and D. F. Barbe (1974). "Tradeoffs between aliasing and MTF". Proceedings of the Electro-Optical
Systems Design Conference 1974 West International Laser Exposition San Francisco, Calif., November 5-7,

10/4/2016 9:35 PM

Anti-aliasing filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3 of 3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-aliasing_filter

1974. Chicago: Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Inc. pp. 19.
3. Brian W. Keelan (2004). Handbook of Image Quality: Characterization and Prediction. MarcelDekker.
ISBN 0-8247-0770-2.
4. Sidney F. Ray (1999). Scientific photography and applied imaging. Focal Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-240-51323-2.
5. Michael Goesele (2004). New Acquisition Techniques for Real Objects and Light Sources in Computer Graphics.
Books on Demand. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-8334-1489-3.
6. "Pentax K-3". Retrieved November 29, 2013.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anti-aliasing_filter&oldid=730038595"


Categories: Digital signal processing Linear filters Electronic filter applications Anti-aliasing
This page was last modified on 16 July 2016, at 09:12.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may
apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered
trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

10/4/2016 9:35 PM