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6 vues11 pagesThree-dimensional Numerical Modelling of Drilling of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastic Composites

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Three-dimensional Numerical Modelling of Drilling of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastic Composites

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Three-dimensional Numerical Modelling of Drilling of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastic Composites

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COMPOSITE

M AT E R I A L S

Article

of drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced

plastic composites

2014, Vol. 48(10) 12091219

! The Author(s) 2013

Reprints and permissions:

sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav

DOI: 10.1177/0021998313484947

jcm.sagepub.com

Abstract

Drilling is a key factor in the manufacturing of holes required for the assemblies of composite laminates in aerospace

industry. The quality of holes can be controlled by the choice of tool geometry and process parameters. Simulation of

drilling process is an effective method in optimizing the drill geometry and process parameters in order to improve hole

quality and reduce the drill wear. In this research, we have developed three-dimensional finite element model for drilling

carbon fiber-reinforced. A three-dimensional progressive intra-laminar failure model based on the Hashins theory is

considered. Also, an inter-laminar delamination model which includes the onset and growth of delamination by using

cohesive contact zone was developed. It is shown that the induced thrust force, torque, damaged area and delamination

are predicted very well with the given drill geometry and process parameters. The delamination area resulted from

drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer was predicted successfully using the developed model. The current finite

element model using three-dimensional elements and improved damage models showed much better capability in

simulation of the drilling process of CFC compared to the previous model using shell elements.

Keywords

Drilling, carbon fiber-reinforced composites, delamination, finite element analysis

Introduction

The potential of composite materials was rst realized

by aerospace and defense industries. During the past

decades, demand for the composite materials has

increased in a variety of industries including aerospace,

automotive, marine, civil, chemical and biological

equipments and sports. Owing to the versatile features

and sophisticated characteristics of constituents, composites contribute to superior nal properties in dierent

applications. Particularly, ber-reinforced composite

laminates have become one of the most interesting

groups of materials, due to their unique properties

such as high specic strength, high specic stiness,

low thermal expansion, good corrosion resistance and

low weight.

The need for high-performance and lightweight

structures has provided a strong development of berreinforced polymer composite laminates. Fiberreinforced composite laminates commonly used in

industries mainly include carbon ber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates.1 Owing to the

advantages of ber-reinforced composite laminates,

conventional metallic materials are being replaced

including aerospace, aircraft and defense. Particularly

in aerospace industry, an increasing use of composite

laminates can be seen in structural components. CFRP

composite laminates are used in wing boxes, horizontal

stabilizers, vertical stabilizers and wing panels.1 The use

of composite laminates in primary structures has

enabled a considerable weight reduction. Typical examples of extensive application of composite laminates can

be seen in the latest models of Boeing and Airbus airplanes.1 Approximately 30% of external surface area of

Boeing 767 consists of composite laminates,2 whereas

the amounts of composite laminates used in both

Boeing 787 Dream-liner and Airbus A350 are over

50% of the whole weight.35

1

Medical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Karabuk

University, Karabuk, Turkey

2

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queens University

Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast, UK

Corresponding author:

Elaheh Ghassemieh, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

Queens University Belfast, Ashby Building, Belfast, UK.

Email: E.Ghassemieh@qub.ac.uk

1210

near-net shape, machining is often needed to fulll tolerance requirements for the assembly needs. Among

machining processes, drilling is most frequently used

to make holes for assemblies of dierent parts with

screws, rivets and bolts.6 To ensure high strength and

load capacity in the assemblies, damaged-free and precise holes must be obtained.

Some characteristics of composite laminates such as

non-homogeneity, anisotropy, highly abrasive and hard

reinforced bers, and coexistence of hard abrasive bers

with soft matrix, make composites components dicult

to machine.7,8 The most frequent drilling-induced

defects are delamination, ber pull-out, inter-laminar

cracking or thermal damages in addition to other

minor damages.9,10 These damages can aect not only

the load-carrying capacity of laminated parts but also

strength and stiness, fatigue life and long-term performance of the composite structure, thus reliability.11,12

Rapid tool wear can be a signicant factor on the extent

of damage due to the very abrasive bers.13 Moreover, it

increases the number of tool changes that aect the production cycle and the nal cost.

Among the problems caused by drilling, delamination is considered the major damage in the drilling

of ber-reinforced plastic composites. Delamination

aects the structural integrity and long-term reliability

of the composite components severely. It was reported

that delamination-induced and hole quality problems

causes approximately 60% of all part rejections in aircraft industry.14,15 Therefore, delamination causes signicant loss since drilling is often a nal machining

operation during assembly of laminated composite

components.

In the past, drilling of composite materials has been

simulated as two-dimensional (2D) and 3D orthogonal

cutting using nite element (FE) analysis. This is due to

the complexity of machining process, stress and delamination analysis of laminated composites.16,17 FE stress

and failure analyses have been conducted using maximum stress and Tsai-Hill criteria owing to the limited

capabilities of computer processors and FE tools.

Latest advances in computational processors and

improved FE formulations have allowed the development of complicated and more realistic 3D models to be

solved with improved computational eciency. In

recent years, numerical predictions of delamination

and critical thrust force have been performed in drilling

of laminated composites.1820 The onset of delamination is modeled by virtual crack extension (VCE)

method17,18 and cohesive zone elements (CZE).19,20

The latter approach of CZE overcomes some of the

diculties of the former methods of VCE. For example

a pre-dened crack front is not required in CZE. These

elements use a failure criterion that combines aspects of

softening process, and a fracture mechanics-based

approach to predict the growth of delamination,

which is governed by the inter-laminar through-thickness stress components. However, these studies suer

from some signicant drawbacks such as lack of a progressive damage model for intra-laminar and interlaminar properties. Moreover, the complex geometry

of drill bit and machining process parameters such as

feed rate and cutting speed have not been taken into

account. In our more recent work, the inuence of cutting parameters have been studied in a mesoscale FE

modeling by using a real 3D twist drill bit in the drilling

of CFRP with continuum shell elements and CZE

approach.21 Whilst this model showed considerable

improvement compared to the past simulation work

in the area of drilling of CFC, still the use of shell

elements imposed some unreal assumptions.

Considering that the drilling process is a fully 3D process with the load being imposed in the third direction,

application of the shell elements and the associated

inter-laminar and intra-laminar damage models could

be far from the real process.

Therefore, it seemed an obvious improvement to the

previous model would be considering 3D solid elements

and damage models. This is the challenge we have

taken in the current research reported here. The current

work investigates the drilling of CFRP using a 3D FE

analysis coupled with cohesive contact zone by using

3D solid elements. Thrust force, delamination onset

and growth and progressive failure analysis are

included and results are compared.

Model development

Stress model

Orthotropic material properties were assigned to each

unidirectional (UD) composite lamina according to the

ber orientation by using a pre-dened local coordinate

system. Linear elastic material behavior was assumed

prior to any damage for each element and it can be

calculated as below.

3

0

0

6 E2 E3

E2 E3

E2 E3

11

6

6

6 7 6 12 13 32 1 31 13 32 31 21

6 22 7 6

0

0

6 7 6 E E

E3 E1

E3 E1

3 1

6 7 6

6 7 6

6 33 7 6 13 12 23 23 13 21 1 12 21

6 76

0

0

6 7 6

E1 E2

E1 E2

6 12 7 6 E1 E2

6 7 6

6 7 6

0

0

0

2G12 0

6 31 7 6

4 5 6

6

6

0

0

0

0 2G31

23

4

2

0

0

0

0

0

72 3

7 "11

7

76 7

7 6 "22 7

76 7

76 7

76" 7

7 6 33 7

76 7

76 7

7 6 "12 7

76 7

76 7

7 6 "31 7

74 5

7

7 "

5 23

2G23

1211

where

1 xy yx yz zy zx xz 2xy yz zx

Ex Ey Ez

FTm

in Table 1.

! "

2

22

223

2

1 j22 33 j

f,C

f

22

223

!2

!2

2

1 2

1

2

f

23 22 33 f,T

12 13

23

12

!2

22 33 2

The intra-laminar damage initiation criteria for berreinforced plastic composites in 3D case are based

on Hashins theory.24 The initiation behaviour is

assumed to be orthotropic. The initiation criteria

consider four dierent damage initiation mechanisms

namely ber tension, ber compression, matrix

tension and matrix compression as expressed by

equations (3)(6).

Fiber tension 11 4 0

FTf

11

!2

12

f,T

11

!2

13

f

12

!2

3

f

13

11

FC

f

!2

4

f,C

11

2 1

23 32

3 6 E2 E3

2

6

11

6

6 22 7 6 12 13 32

7 6 E E

6

7 6

6

3 1

6 33 7 6

7 6 13 12 23

6

6 7 6

6 12 7 6 E E

1 2

7 6

6

4 31 5 6

0

6

6

23

4

0

0

E2 E3

1 31 13

E3 E1

23 13 21

E1 E2

0

0

E2 E3

32 31 12

E3 E1

1 12 21

E1 E2

0

0

FTm

!2

f,T

22

1

f

23

1

f

12

22 33 2

!2

!2

2

23

22 33

2

2

12

13

2G12

0

0

2G31

0

0

3

72

3

7 "11

7

7 6 "22 7

76

7

76

7

7 6 "33 7

76

7

76" 7

7 6 12 7

76

7

7 4 "31 5

7

7 "

23

5

2G23

where

1

T represent compression and tension, f superscript symbolizes failure, respectively. and are the normal and

shear stresses, respectively. Standard tests are performed on bre and matrix and the damage parameters

for dierent modes of failure are measured by the

manufacturer of the CFRP composite.1822 This is

given in Table 2. It should be noted that Hashins

damage model has been recognized as one of the

most capable models in analysis of the anisotropic composite materials as it considers various failure modes

that could occur in these types of materials and also

it includes the interaction of these modes. Therefore, it

has been used by many researchers in order to model

the failure behaviour of composites.

When the Hashins criteria have been fullled in any

mode, damage has initiated. In this study, a sudden

degradation criterion is applied for the evolution of

the intra-laminar damage in any mode.

E1 E2 E3

E1 x E1 1 df

E2 y E2 1 df 1 dm

E3 z E3 1 df 1 dm

G12 G12 1 ds

G31 G31 1 ds

G23 G23 1 ds

1212

E1 (GPa)

E2 (GPa)

E3 (GPa)

G12 (GPa)

G13 (GPa)

G23 (GPa)

12

13

23

112

8.2

8.2

4.5

4.5

0.3

0.3

0.4

f ,t

11

(MPa)

f ,c

11

(MPa)

f ,t

22

(MPa)

f ,c

22

(MPa)

f ,t

33

(MPa)

f ,c

33

(MPa)

f

12

(MPa)

f

13

(MPa)

f

23

(MPa)

1900

1000

84

250

84

250

60

110

110

The damage variables of stiness matrix for a particular mode can be dened as reported in equation (9)

df

8

0

>

>

>

>

<1

>

0

>

>

>

:

1

8

0

>

>

>

<1

dm

>0

>

>

:

1

if 11 i0

and

FTf h1,

if 11 i0

and

FTf 1,

if 11 0 and

FC

f h1,

if 11 0 and

FC

f 1,

if 22 33 i0

and

variable, d, is expressed below.

d

FTm h1,

v

u it

uX

m t

2i

12

quadratic stress criterion reaches a value of 1 as

shown in equation (13) where D is the damage initiation

variable.

ds 1 1 df 1 dm

failure)

it 2

X

i

in

approach is implemented in this study. The approach

is similar to the cohesive element approach proposed by

Alfano and Criseld.25 The bi-linear tractionseparation law ensures a linear elastic response up to delamination initiation, followed by a linear softening phase

as the delamination grows. Normal stress, n, and shear

stresses, s and t, are dened for surface-based cohesive behavior using the following governing equations.

i

i n,s,t

in

if 22 33 0 and FC

m 1,

Ki i D 5 1

Ki i 1 d D 1

11

m fm om

if 22 33 i0

and FTm 1,

if 22 33 0 and FC

m h1,

fm m om

i0

i n,s,t

13

mixed-mode energy criterion in this study. Total fracture energy at the completion of delamination is the sum

of normal and tangential fractures energies based on a

power law energy criterion as dened in equation (14).

The exponential constants; , , , are set to 1.6.17

Gn

GC

n

Gs

Gt

C C

Gs

Gt

14

i n,s,t

10

Z

Gi

and separation for normal and shear directions,

respectively.

The second component of the damage involves the

specication of the evolution of the damage. This can

be done using a softening criterion after damage initiation as expressed in equation (11). In this study,

1

i @i , Gci i0 fi ,

2

i n,s,t

15

C

C

The critical fracture energies (GC

n , Gs , Gt ), tractionseparation stiness modulus (Kn, Ks Kt) and maximum

contact stresses (n0 , s0 , t0 ) are given in Table 3 26 for

normal and shear directions. The data is obtained by

performing double cantilever beam (DCB), end notch

exure (ENF) and mixed mode bending (MMB).

1213

n0 (MPa)

s0 (MPa)

t0 (MPa)

GnC (N/mm)

GsC (N/mm)

GtC (N/mm)

Kn (N/mm3)

Ks (N/mm3)

Kt (N/mm3)

60

110

110

0.33

1.209

1.209

106

106

106

Element Size 2 mm

Element size 1 mm

Graded Mesh

( 0.26 mm & 1 mm )

Figure 1. Finite element (FE) model of drilling of carbon fiberreinforced polymer (CFRP).

3D FE modeling was performed using the commercial

FE package, Abaqus v6.9. FE model, boundary and

loading conditions are shown in Figure 1. All degrees

of freedom were constrained at the xed end of the

laminate to simulate the fully clamped laminate end.

Similarly, the drill is constrained in x and y directions

(ux uy urx ury 0) to model the drilling process

parameters. Rotational and translational velocities

were applied to the drill body as spindle speed and

feed rate, respectively. The heat generation is ignored

since high amount of coolant has been used in the

experiments to keep the temperature close to the

room temperature.

Each composite layer, 40 mm 40 mm 0.26 mm

dimensions of length, width and thickness, respectively,

was modeled separately and was discretised with one

element in the thickness direction. Reduced-integrated

8-noded brick elements (C3D8R) were used in the laminated workpiece to reduce computational time and

cost. In order to investigate the eect of mesh size on

the outputs, 2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.26 mm element

sizes used in-plane directions. Due to the large stress

gradients and potential damage at the boundary of the

hole, the mesh was rened in the hole vicinity with an

aspect ratio of 1.0 in the latest model. The density of

mesh was reduced outside of this region in the workpiece to reduce solution time as this area was less critical in the analysis. A maximum aspect ratio of 4.0 was

used away from the hole region. Zero thickness, surface-based cohesive contact was used between each

polymer (CFRP) workpiece.

occur. The meshes of the laminated CFRP workpieces

are shown in Figure 2. The size of the rened area in

Figure 2 is twice the size of the nominal drill diameter.

The size of the damaged area is roughly 1.5 times of the

drill diameter. Therefore, the rened area covers safely

the area of interest. In our initial model, we had used

larger rened area to assess the area of large stress gradients. Then, we reduced the rened area to the high

stress concentration area only to avoid large number of

elements.

Perfect bonding was assumed between the lamina at

the beginning of the process and the friction coecient

was assumed to be zero between the plies after the separation. However, these assumptions would have some

eects on the FE predictions. A surface-to-surface kinematic contact algorithm was dened to model the interaction between the surfaces of the CFRP workpiece

and the cutting tool. Pure Lagrangian contact algorithm was used for the penetration, so the surface of

the tool is set to be the master object and the surface of

the workpiece is assumed to be the slave object. The

coecient of friction is set equal to 0.15, which was

obtained from pin on disk tests.

1214

each UD composite lamina according to the ber orientation by using a pre-dened local coordinate system as

explained in our previous study.21 The stacking

sequence of the workpiece is [90/45/0/45]2s, which

means total 16 plies with a nal thickness of 4.16 mm.

Linear elastic material behavior was assumed for each

composite lamina prior to damage and material nonlinearities were not taken into account (i.e. non-linear

shear stressstrain behavior). However, it must be

noted that they may have relative importance on the

FE estimations.

Drill was modeled in Solidworks CAD environment

and imported into the FE software. The drill was

assumed as rigid body to reduce the computational

time; 3-node triangular facet rigid body elements were

used in the drill. The twist drill has 8 mm in diameter

with 140 point angle and 30 helix angle. The CFRP

composite workpiece was drilled at 457 mm/min feed

rate and 4500 r/min spindle speed (113 m/min cutting

speed).

cantilever beam

An important computational step is the verication of

the proposed numerical model for mixed-mode delamination propagation for non-UD laminates. For this

purpose, a FE model has been developed to analyze

the asymmetric double cantilever beam (ADCB) test

and compared with the previous study.27 The crack

interface was chosen to be 0/45 and the eort was particularly focused on delamination in mode I owing to

the signicance of thrust force in drilling of CFRP.

The 3D composite laminate was modeled in order to

investigate the delamination prediction capability of the

current FE model. The stacking sequence of the test

specimen was 0/45/45/45/45/0//45/0/45/0/45/

45/45/45/0/45/0/45, where // indicates the delamination surface as in the previous study.27 The material

behavior and material properties were the same as in

the drilling model explained above. The ADCB FE

model and the test data of the specimen are given in

Figure 3 and Table 4, respectively. The specimen was

xed at one end and loaded at the other end with an

increasing traction force. The resulting force and displacement are given in the result and discussion section.

of asymmetric double cantilever beam (ADCB) test specimen.

L (mm)

B (mm)

t (mm)

a0 (mm)

170

20

4.68

85

(equal ow rate of 2.4 L/min). Experiments were

repeated 5 times and the results reported are all mean

values. The diameter was chosen 8 mm as it is one of the

most common required hole size in aircraft industry.

The tests were performed at 457 mm/min feed rate

and 4500 r/min spindle speed (113 m/min cutting

speed).

The induced thrust force and torque during machining were measured using the dynamometer (Kistler

9255B). Dynamometer was charged and the signals

were collected by a data acquisition system which

included a multi-channel charge amplier (Model

5017) and Kistler Dynoware software. The charge amplier converted the induced signals, which were proportional to the applied force, to voltage and these voltage

signals were gathered through the data acquisition

system. The resulting signals were converted to the

force by the calibrated data in the software.

Measurements were obtained with a frequency of

1000 throughout drilling of holes.

The delamination was observed by an optical

microscope.

Drilling tests

Drilling trials were conducted using Mori Seiki SV-500

milling machine with maximum 10.000 r/min. All tests

were carried out involving high-pressure cooling

through tool coolant holes; 5% emulsion of Hocut

795B cutting uid was applied in wet cutting

Figure 4 shows the stress distribution and the delamination after the ADCB test. As shown in the gure, both

arms have identical displacement at the end of the

simulation. The simulations were performed until the

1215

Figure 4. Stress distribution and delamination of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) specimen and asymmetric double cantilever beam (ADCB) test.

34.2

30

25

Force (N)

1600

33.6

32.5

35

20

15

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

10

0.18

0.26

0.5

0

Experiment

FEA_1mm

FEA_0.26mm

element analysis (FEA) runs and the average experimental data.27

length.

As plotted in Figure 5, the results of FE models are

in good agreement with the experimental result. The

average critical forces are slightly underestimated as

32.5 and 33.6 N for 1 mm and 0.26 mm in-plane element

sized tests specimens, respectively. This means dispersions are 4.88% and 1.67% compared to the experimental test results. The good correlation of the

outputs conrms that the delamination onset and

growth of CFRP laminates can be predicted reasonably

during drilling and this gives condence about the

assumptions made in the present study.

Results of drilling

Mesh convergence study. One of the signicant factors in

FE simulations is the size eect. In order to investigate

size eect and decide the optimum size for the drilling

Figure 6 plots the estimated thrust force versus element

size. The optimum results can be obtained from the

simulation with 0.26 mm where the aspect ratio is 1 in

the hole vicinity. As it can be seen from the gure, the

results change signicantly with the element size. This

proves the inuence of the elements size on the outputs.

There is not much change between the 0.26 mm and

much ner mesh of 0.18. This conrms the choice of

0.26 mm mesh as the optimum size in terms of accuracy

of the results and reduced computation time.

It should be noted that several factors could aect

the accuracy of the simulation results such as more

realistic friction model, improved damage model, inclusion of thermal and wear eect and including the

deformation of the drill.

Force and torque. Figure 7(a) and (b) shows the experimental and simulated thrust force and torque in drilling

of CFRP at 457 mm/min feed rate and 4500 r/min spindle speed (113 m/min cutting speed), respectively. The

reported FE results for the model uses element size

1216

thrust force in the experimental trial was 230 N,

whereas the FE model estimated 227 N. The experimentally measured torque was 0.29 N.m compared to the

torque value predicted as 0.30 N.m by the FE simulation. This shows that the FE model estimated the thrust

force and torque accurately with 1.3% and 3.5% deviation from the test results, respectively. The estimation

of thrust force is slightly improved compared to our

previous model21 due to the use of real 3D solid elements. The diversity in the previously reported model was

2.17% with the use of continuum shell elements.21 This

gave the condence about the capability of the FE

model in its prediction of the thrust forces and torque

values for the future works.

Damage and delamination. Figure 8(a) and (b) shows

entrance

delaminations

for

experimentally

observed and FE estimation after drilling of CFRP at

457 mm/min feed rate and 4500 r/min spindle speed,

respectively. The white areas in Figure 8(a) and (b)

(a)

which is called entrance delamination at the outer

surface of the workpiece, whereas the red area in

Figure 8(b) shows the delamination propagation

between two layers, which can cause loss of the strength

in the structural performance. Delamination factor is

the parameter used to quantify the delamination extent

and it is dened as the delaminated diameter divided by

the nominal diameter. The damage area predicted reasonable and the entrance delamination factor has been

predicted as 1.3 with the use of 3D elements. The

experimentally obtained entrance delamination factor

was 1.2. The diversity of the delamination factor compared to the experimental result is only 8%. Our previous model with continuum shell elements predicted

the delamination factor of 1.4.21 Therefore, some

improvement in the prediction of the FE model is

obtained by the current model. The speed of the drilling

process may have an inuence on the crack propagation, thus delamination parameters may need to be

checked at high-speed tests.

(b)

0.5

400

Experiment

FEA

FEA

0.4

Torque (N.m)

300

Thrust Force (N)

Experiment

0.45

350

250

200

150

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

100

0.1

50

0.05

0

0

Depth (mm)

Depth (mm)

Figure 7. Drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) (a) thrust force (b) torque.

Figure 8. Entrance delamination (a) experimental (b) finite element in mixed mode failure.

1217

the stress distributions of the CFRP workpiece during

the drilling process are shown in Figure 9(a) and 9(b).

Stress is induced in the workpiece as the drill cuts the

workpiece material surface. As it can be observed from

Figure 9(a), the highest stresses are induced around the

centre of the hole where the drill pushes the material.

The induced Mises stress is estimated up to 1.2 GPa,

whereas after the drilling the residual stress on the

workpiece is estimated 60 MPa in some local places as

shown in Figure 9(a) and 9(b), respectively.

The dominant mode of failure is matrix failure. Due

to the penetration and cutting action of the drill, the

matrix fails easily compared to the bers. Figure 10

shows the matrix failure under tension mode after drilling of CFRP. This matrix crack could contribute to

delamination initiation and growth, which results in

ber buckling.

to indicate this provides much more accurate results.

The 2D models or the simplied geometry 3D models

are not able to capture all the drilling process features.

The model could be used in design of the process and

drill bit.

The delamination onset and growth have been veried with ADCB test. The mesh renement has signicant eect on the prediction of thrust force by the

model. Mesh optimization has been performed to reassure an ecient use of computational time versus

accuracy of the outputs of the FE model.

Conclusion

A 3D FE model is developed which predicts the onset

and growth of intra-laminar and delamination damage

in CFRP composite laminate induced by drilling. The

failure modes such as ber breakage and matrix cracking were calculated in a progressive failure analysis

using Hashin criteria developed for 3D solid elements.

Surface-based cohesive behavior which uses bi-linear

traction-separation was embedded between each layer.

Currently, there is no record of 3D model of drilling

with inclusion of the real drill geometry and process

parameters in the open literature. Since the drilling

polymer (CFRP).

Figure 9. Workpiece stress distribution (a) at 0.4 s (half the thickness drilled) (b) after drilling at 08 s (through the thickness drilled).

1218

been compared with drilling tests. The current model

using 3D elements and improved intra-laminar failure

and mixed mode delamination models show better capability in predicting the drilling forces and torques and

the induced delamination in comparison to previous

model.

The current model eectively captures the onset of

any failure modes by developed complete 3D progressive failure analysis and incorporated with delamination onset and growth. Damaged area, delamination,

induced thrust force and torque are predicted very well.

Acknowledgement

Authors greatly acknowledge the provision of materials by

Airbus and the access to the drilling facilities of the

Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at

University of Sheeld. The funding of the PhD scholarship

of Mr. Ozden Isbilir under supervision of Elaheh Ghasemieh

supplied by the Ministry of National Education of the

Republic of Turkey is highly appreciated.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Funding

The only funding source for this research has been the PhD

scholarship of Ozden Isbilir by Ministry of National

Education of the Republic of Turkey who has performed

this research under supervision of Elaheh Ghasemieh.

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List of abbreviations

D

df, dm, ds

"

E

G

f, t

f, c

FC

f

Stress

Shear stress

Damage initiation variables

Damage evolution variables in fiber,

matrix and shear mode

Normal strain

Shear strain

Elasticity modulus

Shear modulus

Poissons ratio

Strength of the material in tension in

any direction

Strength of the material in compression

in any direction

Hashins damage initiation criterion in

fibre mode in compression

FTf

FC

m

FTm

u

ueq0

ueqf

G

C

C

GC

,

G

,

G

n

s

t

Kn, Ks, Kt

n0 , s0 , t0

n, s, t

L

B

t

a0

fibre mode in tensile

Hashins damage initiation criterion in

matrix in compression

Hashins damage initiation criterion in

matrix in tensile

Displacement

Equivalent displacement at the damage

initiation

Equivalent failure displacement

Fracture Energy

The critical fracture energies

traction-separation stiffness modulus

Maximum contact stresses for normal

and shear directions.

Separations in delamination

The length of ADCB specimen

The width of ADCB specimen

The total thickness of ADCB specimen

Initial crack length in ADCB test

Friction coefficient

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