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MEE437 OPERATIONS RESEARCH

Fall Sem 2016-17


Unit 2: Sequencing problem and Project Scheduling -CPM/PERT

Lecture 9: Sequencing Problems

Siva Prasad Darla


sivaprasaddarla@mail.com

Introduction to Sequencing Problems


The selection of an appropriate order for a series of jobs to be performed
on a finite number of service facilities is called sequencing.
Objective: To determine the optimum order (or sequence) of performing
the jobs in such a way that the total elapsed time is minimum.
Classifications:
1. n jobs and two machines
2. n jobs and m machines
3. Two jobs and m machines (not in syllabus)

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Sequencing Algorithm
There are n jobs, each of which is to be processed through two machines say M 1 and M2
in order M1-M2.
Step1: Examine the Mi1s and Mi2s for i=1,2,..n and find Min i, {Mi1, Mi2}.
Step2: (i) If the minimum be Mk1for some i=k, process the kth job first of all.
(ii) If the minimum be Mr2for some i=r, process the rth job last of all.
Step3: (i) If there is a tie for minima Mk1 = Mr2, process the kth job first of all and rth one
in the last.
(ii) If the tie for the minimum occurs among the Mi1s, select the job
corresponding to the minima of Mi2s and process it first of all.
(iii) If the tie for the minimum occurs among the Mi2s, select the job
corresponding to the minima of Mi1s and process it last of all.
Step4: Cross off the jobs already assigned and repeat steps 1 to 3, placing the jobs next
to first or next to last until all the jobs have been assigned.

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n jobs through 2 machines


There are n jobs, each of which is to be processed through 2 machines say M 1 and
M2,.Mm in the order M1-M2.
. Step1:

Apply the sequencing algorithm to determine the optimal sequence of n jobs


through two machines.
Step2: Calculate the total elapsed time for the optimum sequence of the jobs.

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n jobs through m machines


There are n jobs, each of which is to be processed through m machines say M 1,
M2,.Mm in the order M1-M2-.-Mm
.

Step1: Find Min i Mi1, min i Mim and max of each of Mi2, Mi3,.Mim-1 for i=1,2,..n .
Step2: check the conditions
(i) Min i Mi1 Max i Mij for j=2,3,.m-1
(ii) Min i Mim Max i Mij for j=2,3,.m-1
Step3: If both the conditions of step2 are not satisfied, method fails, otherwise go to
next step.
Step4: Convert the m machines problem in to two machines problems by introducing
two fictitious machines G and H such that
MiG = Mi1 + Mi2 + .+Mim-1
and MiH = Mi2 + Mi3 + .+Mim
Step5: Now apply sequencing algorithm to determine the optimal sequence of n jobs
through two fictitious machines obtained in step4.
Step6: Calculate the total elapsed time for the optimum sequence of the jobs.

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MEE437 Operations Research

Lecture 10: Introduction to Project Scheduling CPM/PERT

Siva Prasad Darla


sivaprasaddarla@mail.com

Project
A project is a temporary endeavour involving a connected sequence of
activities and a range of resources, which is designed to achieve a
specific and unique outcome and which operates within time, cost
and quality constraints and which is often used to introduce change.

Characteristic of a project
A unique, one-time operational activity or effort
Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities
Established to achieve specific objective
Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited
Typically has its own management structure
Need leadership

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Project Planning

Resource Availability and/or Limits


Due date, late penalties, early completion incentives
Budget
Activity Information
Identify all required activities
Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each
activity
Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create
interrelationships

Project Scheduling and Control Techniques


Gantt Chart
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
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History of CPM/PERT
Critical Path Method (CPM)
E I Du Pont de Nemours & Co. (1957) for construction of new
chemical plant and maintenance shut-down
Deterministic task times
Activity-on-node network construction
Repetitive nature of jobs

Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

U S Navy (1958) for the POLARIS missile program


Multiple task time estimates (probabilistic nature)
Activity-on-arrow network construction
Non-repetitive jobs (R & D work)
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Project Network
Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific
techniques which can be used for the planning, management and
control of projects

Use of nodes and arrows


Arrows
An arrow leads from tail to head directionally
Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a
part of the work.
Nodes
A node is represented by a circle
- Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or
finish.

Activity
A task or a certain amount of work required in the project
Requires time to complete
Represented by an arrow
Dummy Activity
Indicates only precedence relationships
Does not require any time, effort
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Project Network

Event
Signals the beginning or ending of an activity
Designates a point in time
Represented by a circle (node)
Network
Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes
and arrows
Activity-on-arrow (AOA)
arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in
time
Activity-on-node (AON)
nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence
relationships
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AOA Project Network for House


Lay
foundation
3

3
2

Build
house

0
1

Design house
and obtain
financing

Dummy

Order and
receive
materials

3
1

Select
paint

Finish
work

Select
carpet

AON Project Network for House


Lay foundations

Build house

4
3

2
2
Start

Finish work

7
1

1
3

Design house and


obtain financing

3
1

5
1

Order and receive


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Select paint
materials

Finish

6
1
Select carpet
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Situations in network diagram


B

A must finish before either B or C can start


C

A
C

both A and B must finish before C can start

both A and B must finish before either of C


or D can start

A must finish before B can start

Dummy

both A and C must finish before D can start

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Concurrent Activities
3

Lay foundation

Lay
foundation

3
2

Order material

Dummy
2

Order material

(a) Incorrect precedence


relationship

(b) Correct precedence


relationship

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Questions to prepare activity network

Is this a Start Activity?


Is this a Finish Activity?
What Activity Precedes this?
What Activity Follows this?
What Activity is Concurrent with this?

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MEE437 Operations Research

Lecture 11: Critical Path Method (CPM)


Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
Siva Prasad Darla
sivaprasaddarla@mail.com

CPM calculation
Path
A connected sequence of activities leading from
the starting event to the ending event

Critical Path
The longest path (time); determines the project
duration

Critical Activities
All of the activities that make up the critical path

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Forward Pass
Earliest Start Time (ES)
earliest time an activity can start
ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors
Earliest finish time (EF)
earliest time an activity can finish
earliest start time plus activity time
EF= ES + t

Backward Pass

Latest Start Time (LS)


Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time
LS= LF - t
Latest finish time (LF)
latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical
path time
LF = minimum LS of immediate
predecessors
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CPM analysis

Draw the CPM network


Analyze the paths through the network
Determine the float for each activity
Compute the activitys float (or total float)
float = LS - ES = LF EF
float of activity (i, j) = LFj ESi - tij
Float is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its
completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays completion of
the project
Find the critical path is that the sequence of activities and events where there
is no slack i.e.. Zero slack
Longest path through a network
Find the project duration is minimum project completion time
Free float
Free float of activity (i, j) = ESj ESi tij

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PERT
PERT is based on the assumption that an activitys duration
follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value
Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of
an activitys duration distribution:
pessimistic time (tp ) - the time the activity would take if
things did not go well
most likely time (tm ) - the consensus best estimate of the
activitys duration
optimistic time (to ) - the time the activity would take if things
did go well
Mean (expected time):

te =

tp + 4 tm + to
6
2

Variance: Vt =
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tp - to
6

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10

PERT analysis
Draw the network.
Analyze the paths through the network and find the critical path.
The length of the critical path is the mean of the project duration
probability distribution which is assumed to be normal
The standard deviation of the project duration probability
distribution is computed by adding the variances of the critical
activities (all of the activities that make up the critical path) and
taking the square root of that sum
Probability computations can now be made using the normal
distribution table.

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Probability computation
Determine probability that project is completed within specified time x
x-
Z=

where = tp = project mean time


= project standard mean time
x = (proposed ) specified time

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MEE437 Operations Research

Lecture 12: Project cost (or) Project crashing

Siva Prasad Darla


sivaprasaddarla@mail.com

Cost consideration in project


Project managers may have the option or requirement to crash the
project, or accelerate the completion of the project.
This is accomplished by reducing the length of the critical path(s).
The length of the critical path is reduced by reducing the duration
of the activities on the critical path.
If each activity requires the expenditure of an amount of money to
reduce its duration by one unit of time, then the project manager
selects the least cost critical activity, reduces it by one time unit,
and traces that change through the remainder of the network.
As a result of a reduction in an activitys time, a new critical path
may be created.
When there is more than one critical path, each of the critical
paths must be reduced.
If the length of the project needs to be reduced further, the process
is repeated.
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Project Crashing
Crashing
reducing project time by expending additional resources
Crash time
an amount of time an activity is reduced
Crash cost
cost of reducing activity time
Goal
reduce project duration at minimum cost

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Activity crashing

Crash
cost

Crashing activity
Slope = crash cost per unit time
Normal Activity

Normal
cost

Normal
time
Crash
time

Activity time
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Time-Cost Relationship

Crashing costs increase as project duration decreases


Indirect costs increase as project duration increases
Reduce project length as long as crashing costs are less than
indirect costs

Time-Cost Tradeoff
Min total cost =
optimal project
time

Total project cost

Indirect
cost

Direct cost

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time

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Benefits of CPM/PERT

Useful at many stages of project management


Mathematically simple
Give critical path and slack time
Provide project documentation
Useful in monitoring costs

CPM/PERT can answer the following important


questions:
How long will the entire project take to be completed? What are the
risks involved?
Which are the critical activities or tasks in the project which could
delay the entire project if they were not completed on time?
Is the project on schedule, behind schedule or ahead of schedule?
If the project has to be finished earlier than planned, what is the best
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Limitations to CPM/PERT

Clearly defined, independent and stable activities


Specified precedence relationships
Over emphasis on critical paths
Deterministic CPM model
Activity time estimates are subjective and depend on judgment
PERT assumes a beta distribution for these time estimates, but
the actual distribution may be different
PERT consistently underestimates the expected project
completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical

To overcome the limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be


performed on the network to eliminate the optimistic bias
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For more details of Project Management


Refer Project Management by Siva Prasad Darla, VIT University, Vellore.
search in www.knowledgebiz.org

sivaprasaddarla@vit.ac.in

Reference
1. Operations Research: An Introduction, Hamdy A Taha, Prentice Hall
2. Operations Research, Kanti Swarup, P K Gupta, and Manmohan, Sultan Chand
3. Project Management, Helen S Cooke and Karen Tate, McGraw Hill

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2.21 Determine the optimum project duration and cost of the project
for the following data:
Normal
Crash
Activity
Time Cost
Time Cost
(days) (Rs.)
(days) (Rs.)
1-2
8
100
6
200
1-3
4
150
2
350
2-4
2
50
1
90
2-5
10
100
5
400
3-4
5
100
1
200
4-5
3
80
1
100
Indirect cost is Rs. 70 per day.

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8
0

10

18 18

2
4

3
4

5
10

31

10 15

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16

8
0

10

18 18

2
4

3
4

5
10

10 15

Project duration = 18 days


Total cost(min.) = Direct cost + Indirect cost
= 580 + 18*70
= 1840

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Activity
1-2
1-3
2-4
2-5
3-4
4-5

Normal
Time Cost
(days) (Rs.)
8
100
4
150
2
50
10
100
5
100
3
80

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Crash
Time Cost
(days) (Rs.)
6
200
2
350
1
90
5
400
1
200
1
100

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Slope
50
100
40
60
25
10

34

17

8
0

FF=0
4

8
10

18 18

2 FF=0
FF=1
5

10

FF=5

10 15

Critical activity (1-2) is selected for compression.


Crash limit of activity (1-2) = 8-6 = 2
FF limit for activity (1-2) = 1, corresponding activity (3-4) i.e. its FF.
Compression limit for critical activity (1-2) = min ( Crash limit, FF limit)

Compression limit = min (2, 1) = 1

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7
0

35

10

17 17

2
4

3
4

5
9

4
9

14

Project duration = 17 days


Total cost(min.) = Direct cost + Indirect cost
= [580+(18-17)*50] + 17*70
= Rs.1820

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18

7
0

1 FF=0
4

7
10

17 17

2 FF=0
FF=0

3
4

3
FF=5

5
9

14

Compression limit for critical activity (1-2) = 1,


since crash limit of activity (1, 2) is 1 (=7-6), it is not necessary
to compute the FF-limit.

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6*

7
0

37

10

16 16

2
4

3
4

5
8

4
9

13

Project duration = 16 days


Total cost(min.) =[630+1*50] + 16*70
= Rs.1800
Activity (1. 2) is reached its crash limit.

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19

6*

7
0

8
FF=0
4

6
10

16 16

2 FF=1
FF=0

3
4

3
FF=4

5
8

13

Critical activity (2-5) is selected for compression.


Crash limit of activity (2-5) = 10-5 = 5
FF limit for activity (2-5) = 4, corresponding activity (4- 5) i.e. its FF
Compression limit = min ( 5, 4) = 4
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6*

7
0

39

10

12 12

2
4

3
4

5
4

4
9

Project duration = 12 days


Total cost(min.) =[680+4*60] + 12*70
= Rs.1760

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20

6*

7
0

FF=1
4

3
4

6
10

12 12

2
3

5
4

Path 1-2-5 , crash limit of activity (2,5) =1


Path 1-3-4-5, crash limit of activity (4, 5) = 2
Crash limit = min crash limit = 1
since crash limit is 1, the FF-limit need not be computed.
Compression limit = 1
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6*

7
0

FF=1
4

3
4

5*
6

5
4

41

10

11 11

2
3

4
9

Project duration = 11 days


Total cost(min.) =[920+1*60 +1*10] + 11*70
= Rs.1760
Optimal duration of project = 11 days and its min. cost= Rs.1760
* Signifies that activity has reached its crash limit.
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Computer Software
for Project Management

Microsoft Project (Microsoft Corp.)


MacProject (Claris Corp.)
PowerProject (ASTA Development Inc.)
Primavera Project Planner (Primavera)
Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.)
Project Workbench (ABT Corp.)

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