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Nuchal Scutes

Gular
Humeral

Marginal Scutes

Pectoral
Neural Scutes
Abdominal
Femoral
Costal Scutes

Anal

Pygal Scutes

Nuchal plate
Epiplastron

Endoplastron

Costal plates
Hyoplastron
Vetebral /
Neural plate

Bridge

Hypoplastron
Post neural plate
Xiphiplastron

Pygal plate

TRUE HORN
- Hollow
- Keratinized epidermis
- Never shed

FALSE HORNS
- present in only males
- attached to the bones
- not hollow

SCALES

Ganoid Scale
Sturgeons
Paddlefish
Garpike

Ctenii

Ctenoid Scale
Usually found in spiny fin rays

Placoid
- Found in fishes with
soft fin rays; salmon
and carps

- Found in
cartilaginous fishes;
sharks, rays

Cycloid

FEATHERS
Degenerated
Barbules

Shaft

Terminal
Barbules
Root

Barbules

Barbs

Quill

Superior umbilicus
Inferior umbilicus