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Kinetic Molecular Theory states that gas particles are in constant motion and exhibit

perfectly elastic collisions. Kinetic Molecular Theory can be used to explain both Charles' and
Boyle's Laws. The average bkinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is directly
proportional to absolute temperature only.

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the BoyleMariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an

experimental gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as
the volume of a gas decreases. A modern statement of Boyle's law is

Charless law states that if a given quantity of gas is held at a constant pressure, its
volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. Think of it this way. As the
temperature of the gas increases, the gas molecules will begin to move around more quickly
and hit the walls of their container with more forcethus the volume will increase. Keep in
mind that you must use only the Kelvin temperature scale when working with temperature in
all gas law formulas!

The combined gas law makes use of the relationships shared by pressure, volume, and
temperature: the variables found in other gas laws, such as Boyle's law, Charles' law and
Gay-Lussac's law. Let's review the basic principles of these three laws.

The law states that P V = n (R) T, where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the number of
moles of molecules, T is the absolute temperature, and R is the gas constant (8.314 joules
per degree Kelvin or 1.985 calories per degree Celsius).

Kinetic energy - energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion

Vacuum - a space entirely devoid of matter.
Standard atmosphere - The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an
atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the
Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.
3. When heat (energy) goes into a substance one of two things can happen: 1.
the substance can experience a rise in temperature. The heat (the added energy) can be
realized as an increase in the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
4. It indicates the absolute temperature as proportional to the average kinetic energy of the
random microscopic motions of those of their constituent microscopic particles, such as
electrons, atoms, and molecules that move freely within the material.
5. Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which
the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reaches its minimum value, taken as 0.
8. Meteorologists describe the atmospheric pressure by how high the mercury rises.
An atmosphere (atm) is a unit of measurement equal to the average air pressure at sea level
at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit). One atmosphere is 1,013
millibars, or 760 millimeters (29.92 inches) of mercury. May 14, 2011

9. Standard atmospheric pressure is defined as a measure of the force onto a surface based
on the weight of the air above the surface. An example of standard atmospheric pressure is
a pressure that is equal to 14.696 psi (pounds per square inch).
is an experimental gas law relating volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas
present. A modern statement of Avogadro's law is:
Avogadro's law states that, "equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and
pressure, have the same number of molecules".
For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly
proportional if the temperature and pressure are constant.

Chemical equations give information in two major areas.

First, they tell us what substances are reacting (those being used up) and what substances
Second, the coefficients of a balanced equation tell us in what ratio the substances react or
are produced.
This last point has practical consequences whenever chemicals react. For example, the large
middle tank of the space shuttle actually has two smaller tanks in it - one holding liquid
oxygen and the other holding liquid hydrogen. The tank with the hydrogen holds twice as
much as the oxygen-holding tank. Why?
Answer - hydrogen and oxygen react in a 2:1 ratio. For any of oxygen used by the shuttle,
twice as much hydrogen is needed. If the two tanks were equal sizes, the hydrogen tank
would run dry when the oxygen tank was still half-filled.

Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. These substances can rise very high into the
atmosphere, where they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals
to form more acidic pollutants, known as acid rain.

Acid rain has many ecological effects, but none is greater than its impact on lakes, streams,
wetlands, and other aquatic environments. Acid rain makes waters acid and causes them to
absorb the aluminum that makes its way from soil into lakes and streams.