Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

ARCT 3010: Histories and Theories of the Built Environment

Major Essay

Question 18
Leon Krier was criticised for publishing a costly monograph on Albert Speers
architecture (1985) in which, while acknowledging the crimes of the Nazis and the man,
Krier nonetheless claimed the books only subject and sole justification was Classical
architecture and the passion of building (cited by Jaskot, Architecture of Oppression,
2000). Discuss this claim, the controversy and the issues (historical, philosophical and
ethical and possibly others) they raise. Can architecture, Classical, Modern or otherwise, be
autonomous from politics and value independently of the circumstances of politics and
history that adhere to it?

Maricel Marbus
20761417

Abstract
This essay outlines the claims, controversy and issues that arose from Leon Kriers
monograph Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942. Krier states that his book, cannot
disculpate the crimes of a regime or a man. Classical architecture and the passion of building
are its only subject, its sole justification. An alternative view of Nazi architecture unfolds, as
Krier discusses that Speers classicist, monumental works were not given the artistic merit or
recognition it deserved, as society has a moral guilt in separating the built form from its
political agenda. Paul B. Jaskots text, The Architecture of Oppression, presents a more
widespread view, supporting the general condemnation of Speers projects and the
architectural age during the National Socialist movement. He believes that the economic
development of the Nazi reign depended on the forced labour of camp victims to build
Speers monolithic structures. Therefore, there was a direct relationship between the
architectural form and political intentions. The paper will culminate in a discussion as to
whether architecture can remain entirely autonomous from politics and be credited
independently from the politics and history that adhere to it.

As I once stated in 1936, my buildings were not solely intended to express the
essence of the National Socialist movement. They were an integral part of that very
movement. That statement established the deeply political nature of my work.1 Albert
Speers monumental works attempted to achieve political and social effects through
architectural means2. Leon Krier was criticised for publishing a costly monograph on Albert
Speers architecture (1985) in which, while acknowledging the crimes of the Nazis and Adolf
Hitler, Krier nonetheless claimed the books only subject and sole justification was Classical
1 "Foreword by Albert Speer." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 214. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
2 Hughes, Matthew, and Chris Mann. Inside Hitler's Germany : Life under the Third Reich. London : Brown
Partworks, 2000. Print.

architecture and the passion of building3. Krier expresses that Speers architectural designs
were very important of the time due to the enormity of his projects and the development of
classical building form. However, since these projects were simultaneously used for Nazi
propaganda, they are given little artistic merit and generally condemned, rather than separated
from political intentions. Contrary to this, Paul B. Jaskot communicates in The Architecture
of Oppression that it was specifically the built environment that was structurally related to the
horrors that were carried out in the labour concentration camps. Stone became a dominant
element in the monumental projects Albert Speer worked on alongside Hitler. Projects such as
the World Capital Germania and the Nuremberg master plans, were set to be completed by
1950, resulting in a high demand for granite as well as the number of camp victims used for
forced labour. This essays objective will be to question if architecture, classical or modern,
can be autonomous from politics and be valued independently in the circumstances of politics
and history that adhere to it.
Between the 1930s and early 1940s Germanys industrialisation grew rapidly,
including their advancements in science and technology. Along with the construction of the
autobahns, the Volkswagen, and jet fighters, this era simultaneously witnessed a progression
in classical architecture, in particular, through the works of Albert Speer, the first architect of
The Third Reich4. Hitler supported Speers systematic plan to normalise and rationalise the
German building industry and trade. The leader of the totalitarian regime announced,
building elements have to be largely normalised. Work on building-sites has to be
mechanised in order to eliminate artisan work as far as possible. One has to find methods,
which allow an essential simplification and acceleration of the building process.5 The
discourse surrounding industrialisation and war eventually drove the teachings behind Nazi
architecture and urbanism, consequently marking Speers architectural and urban programs as
some of the boldest works the twentieth century had ever seen.6 Urban plans of city
reformation formulated the beginnings of the project World Capital Germania, Adolf Hitlers
and Speers envisioned future of Germany after the intended success of World War II. Berlin
was planned to become the capitol of Europe and be dominated politically, economically, and
3 Jaskot, Paul B. "The Architecture of Oppression." In The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor
and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy, 1. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.
4 "Preface." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 8. New York: Monacelli, 1985.
5 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 15. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
6 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 11. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.

culturally by the new Germany. Additional monumental works of Albert Speer under the
totalitarian regime included the Great Hall or Peoples Hall (image 1), Hitlers Palace
(image 2), the New Reich Chancellery (refer to image 3), and the Triumphal Arch (image
4). Leon Krier confronts the problem of separating and distinguishing architecture and
urbanism of Albert Speer, from its political intentions in his text Albert Speer Architecture:
1932-1942. He discusses that Speers monumental projects during The Third Reich, were
poorly credited in terms of artistic merit. Reasoning behind this, Krier explains, when
architecture is built obviously to serve a deplorable regime, it confuses judgment and
obscures the aesthetic qualities of the art7. Speers architecture and the classical heritage
behind it, was never intelligently criticised, instead it was denounced purely based on the
political party it served.8 Krier states, more than half a century later, all important
architectural decisions and discussions continue to be overshadowed by the cultural policies
of The Third Reich.9 Specious reasoning and backlash against the architecture built during
this time ultimately resulted in the destruction of the Nazi buildings post World War II by
Germans themselves. Krier deemed this a wasteful decision concerning the enemys
significant monuments. The elimination of the architecture built during The Third Reich,
gave birth to ill-conceived post-war constructions. Rather than reusing the materials the
modernist doctrine declared that these components were out dated and got rid of them,
consequently resulting at high costs.10 General lack of information, recurring propaganda
images and Speers post-war assessments contribute towards distorted present day opinions
and continually cause intellectual discomfort in the masses.
Without question, classical architecture aided Nazi propaganda and helped fuel the
widely accepted view of Speers work by Germans during the regime. This building
typology aimed to convince even the most sceptical observers of the humanistic intentions of
Hitlers command and impress foreign nations. Admirable love for the landscape and
classical architecture grew exponentially, as well as the promotion of social legislation and

7 Richardson, Jake. "The Case of Albert Speer: Can We Find Beauty in an Architecture Which Has Clearly and
Intentionally Served to Legitimize a Political System We Despise?" The Case of Albert Speer. ISSUU, 2015.
Web. 2 May 2015. <http://issuu.com/jakerichardson/docs/richardson_j_jake_12011106>.
8 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 17. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
9 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 20. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
10 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 15. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.

development of the German civic spirit11. The building style was never intended to create fear
but instead represent elegance, grandeur, and solidity. Krier points out that despite general
beliefs since 1945, this type of architecture cannot be used as a way of exerting oppressive
terror. Classicism in the built environment was idealised to raise enthusiasm, impress the
masses and create a feeling of safety. Hitlers visionary way of expressing this nature was
through creating large, monolithic structures. Speer supported these ideologies by explaining,
a fascination for hugeness is expressed in the tower of Babel, the Egyptian pyramids, the
buildings of the Olympia the seven wonders of the world were picked more for size than
aesthetic merit. However the response towards the monumental works of Speer after World
War II changed dramatically, damaging its once positive reputation in terms of the effect it
had on individuals and on the masses. The totalitarian nature associated with this form of
architecture obscured motives that generated the styles behind it, formulating a common
misconception of classical architecture12. In an attempt to de-Nazify Germany after the war,
Speers projects were destroyed and the classicism associated with it was forgotten in an
attempt to cleanse the country of its racist heritage and eliminate the propaganda associated
with it. Consequently, Speers designs were also overlooked in historical narratives of the
built environment of the twentieth century. Furthermore, Krier points out that Speers crimes
were, perpetuated not in monumental settings but in modular sheds and camps.13 He argues
that Speers grandiose projects do not propagate the same horrors that were carried out in the
concentration camps. Political theorist Hannah Arendt believed that monumental architecture
must transcend the life span of society at the time it was erected, otherwise no common world
or public realm is possible. Arendt continues to explain, architecture has been the elected
instrument of humanitys institutions, the guarantor of social bonds, stability and peace, the
visible realisation of the moral and common world.14 Nazi architecture was forgotten in
history, along with the artistic merit behind Speers classical projects, instead what remains is
the general condemnation of both form and content.

11 Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. London : Phoenix, 1971. Print.
12 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 18. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
13 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 16. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
14 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 19. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.

Paul B. Jaskot discusses his views on Kriers monograph in his own text, The
Architecture of Oppression15. Krier explains that his book, cannot disculpate the crimes of a
regime or a man. Classical architecture and the passion of building are its only subject, its
sole justification.16 However Jaskot rejects Kriers idea that architecture built during the
regime can be considered autonomous from its political intentions and responds, in spite of
Kriers ideological and rhetorical caesura between architecture and politics, it was precisely
the passion of building that was structurally related to the criminal capacity of the SS to carry
out state policy in the forced labour concentrations camps under its control.17 The
Architecture of Oppression highlights the various connections between architecture, the Nazi
party policy and the SSs concentration camp system. Divided into three parts, focus areas
include the party rally grounds at Nuremberg, the plans for reconstructing Berlin and the SS
institutional architecture18. The prime link between the built environment and crimes of the
National Socialists, Jaskot writes, is the stone production that became a dominant element of
the showpiece structures that propagated during the Nazi movement. SS concentration camp
systems coerced forced labour of prisoners to construct the monumental stone works created
by Albert Speer under Adolf Hitlers power. Jaskot believes that, the representative
architecture of the Nazi state was (or would have been) saturated with the blood of
concentration camp victims.19 Speer was responsible for all the parties rally buildings at
Nuremberg, excluding the Congress Hall designed by local architect Ludwig Ruff. Alongside
Hitler, Speer also planned the entire reformation of Berlin. Thousands of cubic metres of
stone were needed to carry out the enormity of these projects. The master plan for Nuremberg
was to be completed by 1945 and extended over an incredibly vast site with an area of
16.5km2. The monumental ensemble is formed by an 80m wide and 2km long processional
avenue. The area was to be framed by five continuous steps paved in giant granite slabs of
1.16 x 1.16m in order to be strong enough to withstand the weight of war vehicles. Enormous
15 Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building
Economy. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.
16 Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building
Economy. 10. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.
17 Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building
Economy. 10. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.
18 Rollins, William H. "German Politics and Society." Reviewed Work: The Architecture of Oppression. The
SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy by Paul B. Jaskot 20.3 (2009): 129. German
Politics and Society. Berghahn Books. Web. 2 May 2015. <http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?
journalCode=germpolisoci>.
19 Rollins, William H. "German Politics and Society." Reviewed Work: The Architecture of Oppression. The
SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy by Paul B. Jaskot 20.3 (2009): 129. German
Politics and Society. Berghahn Books. Web. 2 May 2015. <http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?
journalCode=germpolisoci>.

stone pylons would engulf the space of the Congress Hall, where Hitler would give his
cultural speeches. Speers design for the German Stadium, also in Nuremberg, needed
350,000 cubic metres of stone. The Soldiers Hall intended for the new construction of Berlin,
was estimated at 96,000 cubic metres of quarried stone. Both these figures exceed the total
years output of granite, 80,000 cubic metres, from the German state. Jaskot claims that, as
these statistics suggest, Germany would have been forced to seek stone from other places in
order to build Hitlers megalomaniac designs for Berlin. The architectural character,
proportions, and surface treatment of Speers designs for Nuremberg and Berlin were
intended to express physical strength and power. Each projects successful completion relied
on the heavy production of stone and forced labour of concentration camp victims. Hitler
wished for these designs and many other monumental projects to be completed before 1950,
therefore creating a sense of urgency as the demand for Speers projects to be completed
increased. This had a domino effect on the high demand for stone and subsequently the
amount of camp victims to complete the work through forced labour. Despite the regimes
building completion plans, many projects were interrupted by the outbreak of World War II,
leaving them incomplete. Nonetheless, forced labour for procurement of materials for early
constructions of these buildings had a direct relationship to deaths amongst camp prisoners.
Consequently, Jaskot argues that Speers architecture undoubtedly perpetuated the horrors
that took place during the Nazi movement and directly expresses its tyrannical power. Speer
even states, the National Socialist movement represented more to me than the mere
incarnation of political power. It was the fulfilment of a claim to dominance over a nation.
Every person, if they wanted to survive, had to submit to it.20 Camp prisoners ultimately
faced death whether they opposed forced labour or took part in it. Artistic worth of the
classicist building structures therefore cannot be judged independently to the political parties
it adhered to, as the structures themselves were built by the hands of the Nazi victims, and as
an extension, victims of Albert Speer. Art history cannot be in the business of forgetting this
past and separating its cultural products from the implementation of state and Party
politics.21
Kriers monograph on Albert Speers architecture urges a change of perspective from
the general condemnation that surrounds the building discourse. He conveys that a war
20 "Foreword by Albert Speer." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 215. New
York: Monacelli, 1985.
21 Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building
Economy. 9. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.

criminal can undoubtedly be a great artist through appreciation of its form and the separation
from its content. Krier communicates that society has a great inability to intelligently deal
with the architecture during the Nazi movement, as he writes, propagandistic pretensions
were mistaken for true assertions; political intent was consumed with actual emotional
effect.22 The general criticism that surrounds Speers works, reveals nothing about National
Socialist architecture but tells a great deal about the moral depravity of a profession which,
on one hand, claims against all odds that modernist architecture is better than it looks, and, on
the other hand, that Nazi architecture is profoundly bad however good it may look.23
Nonetheless, Robert A.M Stern describes the controversy surrounding Kriers text as
prejudice and how, Leon Krier was savaged for bringing Speer to public attention.24 Family,
friends and teachers of Krier began to label his own work as, Speereque, Nazi, reactionary,
fascist.25 Regardless that Kriers work bared no similarity to the totalitarian projects during
the Nazi power, his name was tarnished to be associated with Speer and society believed he
was a supporter of sordid crimes. Reasoning behind the strong reaction towards Kriers new
perspective was most likely due to the fact that Speer worked for a deplorable regime. Some
argued that if Krier were solely interested in classical architecture and the passion of building,
why did he not simply investigate Palladio or Ledoux? Other projects such as the Federal
Triangle and the extension to the Mall, also supported an implicit political agenda not a
totalitarian regime but rather, a democratic one being challenged by both Communist
sympathisers on the left and Fascist sympathisers on the right.26
Krier proposes the question, if classical architecture serves to legitimise oppressive
power, does classical architecture then become oppressive in nature? Seen through the
works of Albert Speer, architecture can serve as a tool to exert oppressive forces, but the form
itself, according the Krier, does not become tyrannical. The monograph develops into not
only study of Speers work but also a reflection of modernism and socialism. Krier explains
that the Nazis are seen to have, accelerated, yet also radicalised, industrialisation.27 The
National Socialists were equally technologically progressive as they were racist, which makes
22 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 13. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
23 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 11. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
24 " Foreword by Robert A.M Stern." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 7. New
York: Monacelli, 1985.
25 " Preface." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 9. New York: Monacelli, 1985.
26 " Foreword by Robert A.M Stern." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 9. New
York: Monacelli, 1985.

it morally difficult for most to appreciate the work they achieved. Development of classical
architecture altered the progression of the 1930s as it moved away from the original avantgarde character and advanced toward more regional and national traditions as well as
conventional design compositions. Classicism became known as a national style that aspired
to monumental effects through form and body. The heritage of classicist ideals eventually
carried through to modern architects such as Mies van der Rohe and Erich Mendelsohn, as
they also searched for precision and monumentality. Nonetheless, the degradation of the
architecture and classicist developments during this time was used as an excuse to escape the
horrors that took place. Krier raises a very controversial point in the preface of his text that
totalitarian practices are still continued to present day through mass-production, massconsumption and mass-destruction. Society considers themselves phenomenally different to
the Nazi movement, baring no similarities whatsoever. However these factors display a
contemporary ethical blindness, as issues such as slave labour, poor living conditions,
homelessness, and pollution are consciously forgotten in society. We consume goods that
may be produced by slave labour, use machinery that may ruin the conditions of life on the
planet. How can we behave ethically and responsibly if we are an organic part of an
unsustainable world economy?28 Accordingly, the use of architecture as an instrument to
carry out oppressive ideologies continues to occur in a modern day setting. There are good
and bad buildings, humane and inhumane forms of producing, using or exploiting
architecture. Thus basilicas are transformed into churches, and palaces turned into libraries,
villas used for hotels, or entire cities become concentration camps. Architecture is not
political, it is an instrument of politics for better or worse.29 Whilst Krier states that
architecture itself is not political, it still serves as a tool to exert certain political ideologies
and is very often symbolised to mark historical moments, such as the Nazi reign30. Regardless
of how radical the nature may be, architecture may always be contextualized. But as Krier
has explained, it is also very important to give artistic merit or simply judge building form
independently to its history or political influences.

27 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 15. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
28 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 13. New York:
Monacelli, 1985.
29 "An Architecture of Desire." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 227. New
York: Monacelli, 1985.
30 Richardson, Jake. "The Case of Albert Speer: Can We Find Beauty in an Architecture Which Has Clearly
and Intentionally Served to Legitimize a Political System We Despise?" The Case of Albert Speer. ISSUU,
2015. Web. 2 May 2015. <http://issuu.com/jakerichardson/docs/richardson_j_jake_12011106>.

Krier states that we live in a conundrum of denial today concerning architecture,


modernity, and ethics. This same mentality causes society to condemn the monumental
architecture and progression of the built environment during the Nazi movement. This is
evident through the destruction of Speers projects after World War II in an attempt to cleanse
the country of its racist heritage, the exclusion of acknowledging his classicist works in many
literary writings of the twentieth century, and the general condemnation that still surrounds
both architectural form and content of Speers projects. Leon Kriers monograph, Albert
Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, presents a very alternative view on Nazi architecture and how
architecture itself is not political but can most definitely be used to inflict political agenda
and affect the masses. Whilst acknowledging the horrific crimes of the Nazis and Adolf
Hitler, Krier attempts to give Speers architecture the artistic merit he believed it deserves,
and the recognition as an important factor of the classicist architectural movement during the
1930s. For this reason, family, friends and teachers of Krier labelled him as a Nazi supporter,
describing his own architecture projects as fascist. On the contrary, Paul B. Jaskots text, The
Architecture of Oppression presents a more widespread view and expresses how the SSs
economic expansion depended on the punishment and destruction of prisoners through forced
labour, therefore aligning their political goals with their architectural strategy31. Krier argues
that we can find beauty in architecture despite it being used to serve a deplorable regime. He
explains that the built form should stand independently from its political position as well as
the history behind it, in order to progress from, rather than suppress our past. Nevertheless,
with history as our witness, we know this is very often not the case.

31 Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building
Economy. 141. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000.

Image 1
Great Hall or Peoples Hall - Albert Speer. Never completed.32

Image 2
Hitlers Palace or Fuhrer Palace Albert Speer33

32 "Illustrations Grosse Halle." In Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942, edited by Leon Krier, 77. New
York: Monacelli, 1985.
33 Yeagar, Carolyn, and Wilhelm Kriessmann. "Giesler on Speer: The Battle of the Architects." The Battle of
the Architects. 2014. Accessed May 3, 2015. http://carolynyeager.net/book/export/html/2681.

Image 3
The New Reich Chancellery Albert Speer. Completed 1939.34

Image 4
Triumphal Arc Albert Speer. Never completed.35
Bibliography
Coppa & Avery Consultants. The Politization of Architecture : A Guide to Albert Speer,
Fascism, Communism, and Architecture. Monticello, Ill : Vance Bibliographies, 1987. Print.
34 "MS: Museum Syndicate." MS: Museum Syndicate. MS, 2013. Web. 1 May 2015.
<http://www.museumsyndicate.com/item.php?item=65210>.
35 Martens,Marius."GermanArtGallery."GermanArtGallery.Soluti.Web.1May2015.
<http://www.germanartgallery.eu/en/Webshop/0/product/info/Arno_Breker,_Kameraden&id=149>.

Hatherley, Owen. "Leon Krier: The Architecture of Albert Speer." Book Reviews, Design &
Architecture, Literature. Slow Travel Berlin, 27 May 2014. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.slowtravelberlin.com/krier-on-albert-speer/>.
Hughes,Matthew,andChrisMann.InsideHitler'sGermany:LifeundertheThirdReich.
London:BrownPartworks,2000.Print.
Goodsell, Charles T. The Architecture of Parliaments: Legislative Houses and Political
Culture. 3rd ed. Vol. 18. British Journal of Political Science, 1988. 287-302. Print.
Jaskot, Paul B. The Architecture of Oppression : The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi
Monumental Building Economy. Architext Series. London : Routledge, 2000. Print.
Krier, Leon, ed. Albert Speer Architecture: 1932-1942. New York: Monacelli, 1985. Print.
Martens,Marius."GermanArtGallery."GermanArtGallery.Soluti.Web.1May2015.
<http://www.germanartgallery.eu/en/Webshop/0/product/info/Arno_Breker,_Kameraden&id
=149>.
"MS: Museum Syndicate." MS: Museum Syndicate. MS, 2013. Web. 1 May 2015.
<http://www.museumsyndicate.com/item.php?item=65210>.
Richardson, Jake. "The Case of Albert Speer: Can We Find Beauty in an Architecture Which
Has Clearly and Intentionally Served to Legitimize a Political System We Despise?" The
Case of Albert Speer. ISSUU, 2015. Web. 2 May 2015.
<http://issuu.com/jakerichardson/docs/richardson_j_jake_12011106>.
Rollins, William H. "German Politics and Society." Reviewed Work: The Architecture of
Oppression. The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy by Paul B.
Jaskot 20.3 (2009): 128-31. German Politics and Society. Berghahn Books. Web. 2 May
2015. <http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=germpolisoci>.

Speer,Albert.InsidetheThirdReich.London:Phoenix,1971.Print.
Stern, Robert A.M. "Albert Speer Architecture 1932-1942." The Monacelli Press. Ed. Leon
Krier. The Monacelli Press, 1985. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.monacellipress.com/book/?isbn=9781580933544>.
Yeagar,Carolyn,andWilhelmKriessmann."GiesleronSpeer:TheBattleoftheArchitects."
TheBattleoftheArchitects.2014.AccessedMay3,2015.
http://carolynyeager.net/book/export/html/2681.
Youns, Samir. "Albert Speer: Architecture 19321942." Newington-Cropsey: Cultural
Studies Centre. Art and Culture Now. NCCSC, 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.nccsc.net/book-reviews/albert-speer-architecture-19321942>.