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PASSIVE VOICE&CAUSATIVES

1.PASSIVE
-BR CMLEDE EYLEM YAPANIN DEL DE EYLEMN YAPILIP YAPILMADIINI/KYE DREKT
GNDERME YAPMAYI STEMEDMZ DURUMLARDA, TEMEL YAPISIBE V3 YAPISI KULLANILIR.
-BR FLN PASSIVE HALE GETRLEBLMES NNESNE ALMASI GEREKR.
A)PASSIVE FORMS OF FINITE VERBS
1)INTRANSITIVE VERBS(NESNE ALMAZ)
2)TRANSITIVE VERBS(TEK NESNE) : (SMITH BUILT A NEW BRIDGE)-ACTIVE
(A NEW BRIDGE WAS BUILT BY SMITH.)-PASSIVE
ACTIVE OLAN CMLEDE, PAST SIMPLE(V2), KULLANILMITIR.BE FL ACTIVE
CMLENN ZAMANI NE SE ONA GRE EKMLENR. BE FLNN V2 HAL WAS/WERE OLDUU
N PASSIVE WAS-WERE V3 EKLNDE YAPILMITIR.TEK NESNE ALAN FLLERDE PASSIVE
YAPILIRKENARTIK NESNE ALMAZ, NESNE ZNE KONUMUNA GELR.
3)DITRANSITIVE VERBS(FT NESNE) : (JIMMY GAVE HER A PRESENT)-ACTIVE
(SHE WAS GIVEN A PRESENT) -PASSIVE1
(A PRESENT WAS GIVEN TO HER BY JIMMY)-PASSIVE2
STR1: NGLZCEDE GENEL PASF YAPILARI5 TANEDR
ETKEN

EDLGEN

1)V1

AM/IS/ARE V3 (BE V3)

2)V2

WAS/WERE V3 (BE V3)

3)X+V0
4)X+VING
5)X+V3

X+BE V3
X+BEING V3
X+BEEN V3

HERHANG BR DZLMN PASF OLMASI NBE V3/BEING V3/BEEN V3 LE


EKMLENMES GEREKR.
B)PASSIVE FORMS OF NON-FINITE VERBS
-EKM EK ALMAYAN FLLER DE PASSIVE HALE GETREBLRZ.

INFINITIVE
PERFECT INFINITIVE
GERUND
PERFECT GERUND

ACTIVE
TO VO
TO HAVE V3
VING
HAVING V3

PASSIVE
TO BE V3
TO HAVE BEEN V3
BEING V3
HAVING BEEN V3

E1-THEY ARE KNOWN TO TREAT HER BADLY-A


SHE IS KNOWN TO BE TREATED BADLY-P
E2-SHE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE KILLED TEN PEOPLE-A
SHE IS BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN KILLED-P
E3-I DISLIKE WAITING FOR PEOPLE-A
I DISLIKE BEING WAITED-P
E4-SHE DENIES HAVING ACCUSED JOHN OF CHEATING IN THE EXAM-A
SHE DENIES HAVING BEEN ACCUSED OF CHEATING IN THE EXAM-P
C)PHRASAL AND PREPOSITIONAL VERBS ON THE PASSIVE
1

-PHRASAL VERB YAPILAR PASSIVE YAPILDIINDA DA YANINDAK PREPOSITIONU


KORURLAR.
E5:THE REFEREE CALLED OFF THE GAME BECAUSE OF THE RAIN-A
THE GAME WAS CALLED OFF BECAUSE OF THE RAIN-P
D)STATIVE PASSIVE
-FLLERN 3.HALLER BEZEN BR CMLEDE SIFAT LEV GRR.BU CMLELERDE FLN
3.HAL EYLEMN NASIL YA DA KM TARAFINDAN YAPILDIINI ALATMAZ, SADECE SM
NTELER DURUMDADIR YAN BREYN DURUMUNU FADE EDERLER.BU NEDENLE PASSIVE GB
DURMALARINA RAMEN EYLEM BLDRMEYEN BU YAPILAR SIFAT GREVNDEDR.
E6:HER LEG IS BROKEN.
-STATIVE PASSIVE YAPILARINI BE FL YERNE GET KULLANARAK EYLEM
BLDREN YAPILAR HALNE GETRMEK MMKNDR.
E7:HER LEG IS BROKEN
HER LEG GOT BROKEN YESTERDAY.
STR2:HERHANG
GRLDNDE
EKLDEDR;

BR
SORUNUN
ELEME
NCEL

SEENEKLERNDEAKTF/PASF
DZLMLER
AKTF/PASF
DZLMNDEDR.STRATEJ
U

1-SEENEKLERDE SUNULAN FLN V/V+O/V+O+O GRUBUNDAN HANGSNE


GRD TESPT EDLR.DER BR DEYLE SEENEKTEK FL NESNE ALAN BR FL
MDR? SORUSU CEVAPLANIR.
2-FLNESNE ALMAYAN BR FL SEPASF OLAMAYACAI NAKTF YAPILARA
YNELNR.
3-FLBR NESNE ALIYORSA VE BOLUUN DEVAMINDA HER K NESNES DE
VARSAAKTF, YOK SEPASF SELR.
4-FL K NESNE ALIYORSA VE BOLUUN DEVAMINDA HER K NESNES DE
VARSAAKTF, K NESNEDEN BRS VEYA KS DE EKSK SEPASF SELR.
5-KALAN SEENEKLERDEN SONRA TENSE, IF CLAUSE, UYUMLU YAPILAR GB
DURUMLARA BAKILARAK DORU YANITA ULAILABLR.
STR3: 1)BOLUUN DEVAMINDABR EDAT VAR SE(WITH/TO/AT)%90 PASFTR.
BOLUUN DEVAMINDAK EDATLAR LE SEENEKLERDEK FL TAKE IN GB
BRLKTE KULLANILAN YAPILAR SE O ZAMAN NESNE EDATTAN SONRA ARANIR.EER
EDATTAN SONRA NESNE VARSAAKTF, YOKSAPASF.
2)IT..THATARASI%80 PASFTR.
3)BOLUUN
DEVAMINDA
HERHANG
BR
NOKTALAMA
ARET
VAR
SE(,/./;)BOLUUN DEVAMINDA NESNE YOK, NESNE BOLUUN NCESNE GEM
IKARIMI LE PASF SEENEKLERE GDLR.
4)BOLUUN DEVAMINDA HERHANG BR ZARF VARSA(EXACTLY,YESTERDAY,IN
1990,SO FAR) BU YAPILARIN DEVAMINDA NESNE OLUP OLMADIINA BAKARAK
KARAR VERLR.
5)BOLUUN DEVAMINDA NOUN CLAUSE YAPAN. THAT +SVO, WHAT/HOW
GB YAPILAR VAR SE BU YAPILAR NESNE OLARAK DNLR VE NESNE BOLUUN
DEVAMINDA IKARIMI LE SEENEKLERDE AKTF YAPILARA GDLR.
2

6)NGLZCEDE DI
DUYGULAR PASFTR.

KAYNAKLI

OLAYLAR

GENELLKLE

PASFTR.ZELLKLE

D)IT AS THE EMPTY SUBJECT IN THE PASSIVE


-THAT CLAUSE YAPISININ BR FLN NESNES OLARAK KULLANILDIINDA CMLELER 2 EKLDE
PASF YAPILABLR.
1)IT KULLANIMI
E.THEY SAY THAT HE IS IN THE HABIT OF STEALING MONEY-A
IT IS SAID THAT HE IS IN THE HABIT OF STEALING MONEY-P
THAT CLAUSE KISMININ ZNES BTN CMLENN ZNES KONUMUNA GETRLEREK PASIF
YAPILABLR. BU DURUMDA THAT CLAUSE KISMI INFINITIVE (TO V0/TO BE VING/TO
HAVE V3) HALNE GETRLR.HANG INFINITIVE YAPININ KULLANILACAI SETHAT
CLAUSE KISMINDAK EYLEMN ANA FLN ZAMANI LE LKSNE BAKILARAK
KARAR VERLR.
YAN THAT CLAUSE KISMINDAK EYLEMANA FL LE E ZAMANLI SETO V0
NCE SE TO HAVE V3
ANA FL LE AYNI ZAMANDA+SRE VARSA TO BE VING
E.THEY SAY THAT HE KNOWS SOME VERY INFLUENTAL PEOPLE-A
HE IS SAID TO KNOW SOME VERY INFLUENTAL PEOPLE-P
ANA FL(SAY) LE THAT CLAUSE(KNOW) AYNI ZAMANDA OLDUUNDAN
PASIF YAPININ ARDINANDAN
THAT CLAUSE KISMITO V0 EKLNDE GETRLR.
NOT:THAT CLAUSE KISMINDA AKTF DEL DEPASF SE, VE CMLE
AKTFTENPASFE GETRLECEK SETO V0 KULLANILMASI GEREKEN YERLERDE(ANA FL
ZAMANI=THAT CLAUSE ZAMANI)TO BE V3
TO HAVE V3 KULLANMAMIZ GEREKEN YERLERDE.(THAT CLAUSE ZAMANI>ANA
FL)TO HAVE BEEN V3
STR4:EER CMLEIT
NCELKL DZLMDR.

LE

BALAYIPPASF

DEVAM

EDERSETHAT+SVO

IT HARICI OZNELER LE BALARSAPASF YAPIDAN


SONRATO LE DEVAM EDEN
1)IT IS SAID

THAT

2)IT IS THOUGHT

THAT

3)HE IS SAID

TO V0 (E ZAMANLI/GENEL FADELER.)

4)SHE IS THOUGHT TO HAVE V3 (FARKLI ZAMANLI OLAYLAR.)


5)HE IS SAID

TO V0-A

6)SHE IS THOUGHT TO HAVE V3-A

TO BE V3-P
TO HAVE BEEN V3-P
3

STR5: IS SEEN
WAS CAUGHT.VING
FIND FL EER CMLEDE TESPT
ETMEK/SAPTAMAK MANASINDA SE PASF
IS FOUND

OLDUUNDAN DEVAMINDAV0 ALIR.

E)ERGATIVE VERBS
-BAZI FLLER HEM NESNE ALARAK HEM DE NESNE ALMADAN KULLANILABLRLER. YAN
HEM
GEL
HEM
DE
GESZ
OLABLRLER.
(OPEN,CLOSE,GROW,DEVELOP,SELL,PRINT,START,FINISH)
STR6:BY EDATININ FARKLI KULLANIMLARINA DKKAT EDLMELDR. NORMALDE
PASSIVE ANLAMI VEREN BY BAZI DER YAPILAR LE BRLKTE PASSIVE ANLAMI
VERMEYEBLR.
-BY

WITH HELP OF
VIA

BE V3

BY MEANS OF
THROUGH

BEING V3
BEEN V3

BY RIVER/BY THE WINDOWS


BY 1997

2-CAUSATIVES-ETTRGEN YAPI
A)SADECE EYLEMN YAPTIRILDII FADE EDLYORSA
-HAVE VE GET FLLERNN ARDINDANYAPILAN EYLEMDEN ETKLENEN EY
GETRLEREK DEVAMINA DA V3 GETRLR.
HAVE
GET

+ TEN ETKLENEN + V3

(I HAVE /GET MY CLOTHES IRONED EVERY SUNDAY.)


B)EYLEMN KME YAPTIRILDII FADE EDLYORSA
-HAVE
LET

AGENT( YAPAN)+V0

MAKE
(I HAVE MY MOTHER IRON MY CLOTHES EVERY SUNDAY.)
GET
FORCE
4

WANT +

AGENT( YAPAN)+V0

ASK
TELL

STR6:MAKE VE LET YAPILARI PASSIVE OLARAK KULLANILABLR. BUNA DKKAT


EDLMES GEREKR.
EER K LET FL PASSIVE YAPI OLARAK KULLANILACAK SE ALLOW FL LE
BRLKTE BE ALLOWED TO EKLNDE KULLANILMASI DAHA YAYGINDIR.
(I WAS MADE TO CARRY THE BOXES.)
SPEAK)
TO VO

(SHE WASNT ALLOWED TO


TO VO

STR7: GENELLKLE NGLZCEDE VERB+OBJECT DZLMNN DEVAMINDA TO


VO YAPISI GETRLR.
VERB +OBJECT + TO V0 ( I WANT HIM TO BE A DOCTOR.)
ANCAK AAIDAK BAZI STSNA FLLER LE VERB+OBJECT+ V0 /
VERB+OBJECT+VING DZLMLER DE KULLANILABLR. BU FLLER HARCNDEKLERDE
VERB+OBJECT+V0 YAPISINI ARETLEMEK NEML PUCUDUR.
VERB+OBJECT+V0 YAPISINDA 6 ADET YAPI FORML VARDIR.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

HAVE + OBJECT + V0
HELP + OBJECT + V0
HEAR + OBJECT+ V0 (HEAR+OBJECT+VING DE OLABLR.)
LET + HAVE + V0
SEE + HAVE + V0
MAKE + HAVE + V0

VERB+OBJECT+VING FORMLNDE YAPILAR


1. CATCH ..VING
2. FIND..VING
3. SPEND..VING
4. WASTE..VING
BUNLARIN HARCNDEK YAPILARDA ZEL FLLER GRUBUNDA OLMADII
N
FORML: VERB+OBJECT+TO V0EKLNDEDR.