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Cell staining is a basic process in studying microscopic organisms.

In this process,
specific parts of the cells and other components of the cells are being shown depending on the
stain used and the types of cell staining technique that was employed. Stains have different
mechanisms in marking the cell. It involves specificity and permeability.
Paramecium sp. is a unicellular ciliated protozoan, which is commonly used as
representative of ciliates in showing the movement and mechanism of cilia. This microorganism
can be found in almost all of the bodies of water especially in freshwater. They are typically
elongated and ovoid microorganisms. Their bodies are covered with cilia, which also acts as the
locomotors organ of the microorganism.
[please insert here the about the unstained paramecium hahaha wala akong makitang sources]
Several dyes are being used in vivo important cell components and parts. One of the
stains that are being used in vivo is the Lugols iodine. Lugols iodine or Lugols solution is
commonly used in laboratory in detecting the presence of starch and as an antiseptic of
emergency drinking water (Petruzzi, et. al., 2010). The stain is also being used in oral cancer
detection. It is composed of iodine and potassium iodide dissolved in distilled water. In the
presence of amylose, a solution colors with deep blue. While in the presence of amylopectin, it
gives a purple color, which is the original color of Lugols iodine. In the presence of glycogen,
which is present in the animal cell as storage of glucose, it gives a reddish brown color. The
Lugols solution is being taken up by the glycogen found in the cell (Basford, et.al., 2013). The
iodine forms complexes with the polysaccharide in the cell in the process of complexation
reaction. Through this stain, the cilia, which are the locomotory organelle of the microorganism,
became visible and appear as reddish brown color. This is due to the presence of glycogen that
serves as energy storage, providing the required energy for the locomotory organelle.
Methyl green is a basic or cationic dye that is being used in staining chromatin DNA
(Umemura, et. al., 2003). This stain is commonly used with pyronin in differential staining of
DNA and RNA. The phosphate group of the DNA is negatively charged. Due to the cationic
nature of the methyl green due to the presence of the positive charge of the amino group in the
structure, it reacts with the anionic phosphate group of the DNA forming a blue green color. In
the Paramecium sp, the nucleus became visible as a blue green structure bounded by nuclear

membrane prior to the staining of methyl green. This is due to the presence of the DNA in the
nucleus of the microorganism.
Methyl green and Lugols iodine employs positive staining. In positive staining, the cells
were the ones being stained. In contrast, nigrosin relief, which employs negative staining, the
background was the one being stained. This way, the specimen or the cells appear against the
dark background. Nigrosin is a mixture of black dyes such as nitrobenzens, aniline and aniline
hydrochloride, heating together with copper or iron catalyst (Presser, et. al., 2012). This black
dye forms a black background, which enable to observe the presence of the transparent
Paramecium sp. Thus, it reveals the surface details of the microorganism.

Basford, P. J., Benton, A., Jarvis, T., & Bhandari, P. (2013). Indigo carmine or Lugol's iodine? A
beginner's guide to chromoendoscopy and advanced imaging. Gastrointestinal Nursing
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Petruzzi, M., Lucchese, A., Baldoni, E., Grassi, F. R., & Serpico, R. (2010). Use of Lugols




diagnosis: An

overview. Oral

Oncology, 46(11), 811-813.

Presser, C. (2012). Absorption coefficient measurements of particle-laden filters using laser
heating: Validation with nigrosin. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer,
113(8), 607-623. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.01.009
Umemura, S., Itoh, J., Takekoshi, S., Hasegawa, H., Yasuda, M., Osamura, R. Y., & Watanabe, K.
(2003). Methyl Green Staining and DNA Strands In Vitro: High Affinity of Methyl Green Dye to






CYTOCHEMICA, 36(4), 361-366. doi:10.1267/ahc.36.361