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Training Material for IT Recruiters

Essential Requirements for a Recruiter


1. MS Office 2003 (Word / Excel)
2. Microsoft Outlook (2003)
3. Yahoo Chat
4. Typewriting
5. US Timing (Willingness)
6. Technologies
7. Terminology
8. Excellent communication skills.
Timings in USA
There are 4 Time Zones in USA
1. EST (Eastern Standard time) 9.30 Hrs Back to Indian Standard
time
2. CST (Central Standard time) 10.30 Hrs Back to Indian
Standard time
3. MST (Mountain Standard time) 11.30 Hrs Back to IST
4. PST (Pacific Standard time) 12.30 Hrs Back to Indian Standard
time
There is 1 hr difference between every Zone
Note: Every Six months the whole US timing changes for 1 hrs
In October they will forward one hour and in March revert
For Example:
From April to September
1. EST 9.00AM IST 6.30 PM
2. CST 9.00AM IST 7.30 PM
3. MST 9.00AM IST 8.30 PM
4. PST 9.00AM IST 9.30 PM

From October to March


1. EST 9.00AM IST 7.30 PM
2. CST 9.00AM IST 8.30 PM
1

3. MST 9.00AM IST 9.30 PM


4. PST 9.00AM IST 10.30 PM

Time Zone in USA

SHORT NAMES OF UNITED STATES


S.N
o

Cod
e

United States

S.N
o

Cod
e

United States

AL

Alabama

26

MT

Montana

AK

Alaska

27

NE

Nebraska

AZ

Arizona

28

NV

Nevada

AR

Arkansas

29

NH

New Hampshire

CA

California

30

NJ

New Jersey

CO

Colorado

31

NM

New Mexico

CT

Connecticut

32

NY

New York

DE

Delaware

33

NC

North Carolina

FL

Florida

34

ND

North Dakota

10

GA

Georgia

35

OH

Ohio

11

HI

Hawali

36

OK

Oklahoma

12

ID

Idaho

37

OR

Oregon

13

IL

Illinois

38

PA

Pennsylvania

14

IN

Indiana

39

RI

Rhode Island

15

IA

Iowa

40

SC

South Carolina

16

KS

Kansas

41

SD

South Dakota

17

KY

Kentucky

42

TN

Tennessee

18

LA

Louisiana

43

TX

Texas

19

ME

Maine

44

UT

Utah

20

MD

Maryland

45

VT

Vermont

21

MA

Massachusetts

46

VA

Virginia

22

MI

Michigan

47

WA

Washington

23

MN

Minnesota

48

WV

West Virginia

24

MS

Mississippi

49

WI

Wisconsin

25

MO

Missouri

50

WY

Wyoming

Sl.
No

State

Capital

Sl.
No

State

1
2

Alabama
Alaska

Montgome
ry
Juneau

26
27

Montana
Nebraska

Arizona

Phoenix

28

Arkansas

29

5
6
7

California
Colorado
Connecticut

Little Rock
Sacrament
o
Denver
Hartford

Nevada
New
Hampshire

Delaware

33

30
31
32

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North
Carolina
North
Dakota
Ohio

Capital
Helena
Lincoln
Carson
City
Concord
Trenton
Santa Fe
Albany

9
10

Florida
Georgia

Dover
Tallahasse
e
Atlanta

11
12

Hawaii
Idaho

Honolulu
Boise

36
37

13

Illinois

38

14

Indiana

15

Iowa

Springfield
Indianapoli
s
Des
Moines

16
17

Kansas
Kentucky

41
42

18

Louisiana

Topeka
Frankfort
Baton
Rouge

Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvani
a
Rhode
Island
South
Carolina
South
Dakota
Tennessee

43

Texas

19

Maine

Augusta

44

Utah

20

Annapolis

45

Vermont

21
22

Maryland
Massachuset
ts
Michigan

Austin
Salt Lake
City
Montpelie
r

Boston
Lansing

46
47

23
24

Minnesota
Mississippi

48
49

Richmond
Olympia
Charlesto
n
Madison

25

Missouri

St. Paul
Jackson
Jefferson
City

Virginia
Washington
West
Virginia
Wisconsin

50

Wyoming

Cheyenne

34
35

39
40

Raleigh
Bismarck
Columbus
Oklahoma
City
Salem
Harrisbur
g
Providenc
e
Columbia
Pierre
Nashville

H1b / Legal Stuff / Payment Structures


Type of consultants
H1B,
B1,
L1,
OPT,
CPT,
Green card and
Citizens
OPT/Green card and Citizens are authorized to work with any employer
or any organization, Taxes will be same
Another Option they can choose regarding payment structure is
W2 or 1099
W2:
Consultant will be on our payroll, ie every month first, they are
supposed to get paystub from company, company will deduct approx
30% of taxes and will give rest to consultant
Taxes:
SSN
Medicare
Federal
State Taxes
All together approximately 30% of gross salary
Consultant can work on two types of payment options
First: fixed salary
I.e. if he is working on 48k salary means 48,000 US$ per year and 4000
US$ per month (160 hours per month)
So Gross salary: 4000 US$
Net salary = gross taxes = 4000 30% of 4000(1200) = 2800 US$
per month
Employer will pay above said 1200 and also employer taxes (15% of
gross i.e. 15% of 4000 = 600 US$) to government every month
Advantages: here consultant will get relocation charges and medical
(only single) as free of cost from organization

No bench salary, but on bench he will get free food and


accommodation until he gets project
Second: Percentage system
Fresh consultant will start his career with 65-35 deal and every 6
months he will get 5% hike until 80-20.
Consultant will get 65% of his bill rate (we will show PO purchase order
to the consultant) so he will know the actual bill rate
For example if the bill rate is 40 US$ per hour, he will get 65% of 40
US$ = 26 US$ per hour
Monthly salary: 160 hours * 26 US$ per hour = 4160 US$ per month
Taxes will be same as in fixed salary system
No relocation charges and No medical insurance will provided by
employer in this percentage system
1099
Green card/Citizens and OPT consultants can choose another option of
payment structure
I.e. 1099
Here employer will pay the consultant total gross salary without
deducting any thing for taxes and end of the year employer will issue
1099 for the total amount and he is supposed to pay taxes end of the
year at once to government
Here Employer need not to pay any taxes
Above example: employer will give total 4000 US$ to consultant
without deducting 1200 US$
But majority of the consultants is reluctant to take up this option
End of the year h1b consultants will get W2 from employer which
shows how much total taxes company and himself paid to government
so by using this W2 , he can apply for re-imbursement with the help of
charted accountant , he will get easily 50% total amount he paid to
government depends on situations
Payments from Vendors
Jan 1st to Jan 31st 4 time Sheets
8*5*4 = 160
Feb 1st Invoice to Vendors
Net 30 or Net 45

________________________________________________________________________
B1/L1/H4/F1 consultants can not work for our company until they get
h1b thro our company
For this you need to know h1b-related stuff
H1B Quota
65,000 H1BS per year
All other visas like H4, B1, L1, OPT, are included in this only
For MS (OPT) 30,000
H1b
Work Visa for Non Immigrants through companies LLC / Inc / Colleges
It comes from INS (Immigration Naturalization Services)
Rules According to INS
Minimum 16 years of Education
Degree, PG and Passport (All Pages) X-Rox copies + Exp
Certificate and Resume.
Attorney can fill it
After 2 Weeks we will get Receipt No - LIN / EAC
Vermont EAC
Nebraska LIN
Its a visa provided by US government for non-immigrant software
professionals
Visa duration: 3 years initially and can get another 3 years, so total 6
years
Meanwhile he can apply for Green card, if he get GC , he can stay for
unlimited time in USA if not he should return back from USA after 6
years of stay
Documents required applying H1B
All educational documents
All PGDCA and computer related documents
Passport all pages copies
All experience certificates and offer letters
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: USCIS
Four centers
1. Vermont
7

2. Nebraska
3. California
4. Texas
Our company is in NJ so we come under Vermont centre

Fee structure:
INS fee
185
INS educational fee
1500
INS anti Fraud fee
500
Attorney fee
700
Education Evaluation
100
Total
3000 US$
Premium processing
1000 US$
Company should send all the documents of applicant along with Fee
and petition to INS (new name is USCIS)
With in 2 weeks we will get receipt number starts with EAC12345678
And after 2 months can get approval
The above said is the procedure for
All applicants seeking h1b from India
F1/B1/L1 and H4 visa holders already in USA
H1b Quota
65,000 per year
FY 2007 quota will open from April 2006 onwards
And approval date will be October 2006 onwards only
I.e. anybody who wants to work in USA now can work only from
October 2006
OPT consultants
Optional Practical Training (OPT): this is the period you can treat this as
probation period for MS or BS completed graduates
This period will be for One year
During this time they can work with any employer (almost equivalent
to GC)
They can work on both W2 and 1099 option

But immediately after OPT status they are supposed to change their
status to H1b so that is the time they should approach employers for
h1b sponsorship
After got into h1b status: no difference between other h1b holders and
MS graduates
OPTS Mainly come out in May, Aug and December
CPT Consultants
Pupils who are doing BS/MS they can work for a particular thesis
period.
H1b transfers
H1b holders can transfer their h1b to multiple companies at any time ,
so at any point of time
One can hold multiple valid h1bs but they are supposed to get salary
from only one h1b employer.
Documents Required for H1b transfer:
All the documents required for Fresh H1b plus
I797 copy (existing H1b copy)
Existing company recent 2 pay stubs
Fee is the same for H1b and h1b transfer
H1b transfer consultants can start working for new company
immediately after INS application receipt number
Payment structure and others are same for H1b/ and h1b transfer
consultants
H1b for consultants who are not from software background
Still we can apply h1bs for graduates from other departments like Bio,
commerce, but need to show software experience and need show
Software PGDCAs
Guest House consultants:
We can invite the following consultants to Guest house without any
hesitation
1. MS / BS completed graduates who are on OPT status
2. All h1b Holders
9

3. H1b holders who does not want to transfer h1b but willing to
work Corp Corp
4. green card and citizens
Our company will provide
Free Food and Accommodation along with Training in Various
technologies until they get into projects
Guest House: per room 4 to 5 consultants need to stay
Will provide interview assistance
Will provide on Job assistance
Will offer them best salaries
Will sponsor h1bs for fresh graduates
Will sponsor h1b transfers for existing H1bs
Types of Deals
1. Corp-Corp ( C2C)
2. Contract to hire(C2H)
3. On W2 ( On Boat )

Corp-Corp:
Consultants will stick to their employers only and will work thro their
company
Majority of our business is Corp-Corp, i.e. here we approach
consultants who are with other companies and will get their employer
(recruiters) permission to market their resources, we place them, and
finally consultants will work thro layers
Contract to hire:
Some times our Top vendor will ask for contract to Hire after x months
Means: they are asking our permission to take our consultant to their
Boat presently after x months
Sometimes they will pay us One time settlement, some times nope.
On W2 (On Boat):
Consultants who are on our payroll or consultants who wish to come on
our boat by transferring their h1bs to our company
Most valuable consultants because our company will recognized by W2
consultants only not Corp to Corp consultants.
Mobile Minutes
Day Minutes 400 Free
10

After 9 pm to 6 am total free


Saturday and Sunday total free
Every Minute 40 Cents

Portals Used for Searching Consultants:


1. Dice
2. Monster
3. Net temps
4. Staffing DB
5. Flippy Dog
6. Workopolis
Types of Interviews:
1. Telephonic
2. In Person or Face to Face

Requirements from the Consultants:


1. Full Name (First Name and Last Name)
2. Contact Details :- Email Id and Contact No(Mobile, Landline) , Any
other alternates
3. Their Present Location
4. Availability
5. Willingness to Relocation
6. Rate (Rate confirmation from employer if he is H1)
7. Last 4 digit SSN No: (Only few cases)
8. Date of Birth (Only few cases)
Process of Recruitment:
1. Getting Requirements A/c Mgrs or BDMS
2. Identifying the Sources of Recruitment
Dice Search
Posting
Friends & Colleagues
Sending Requirement to Vendors
Sending Requirement to Yahoo Groups
Search Internal Database
Ask through Messenger
3. Qualified person identification
4. Need to communicate about the requirement to the
qualified people.

11

5. Making them to apply for the requirement.


Process of Selection and Submitting to A/c Manager
Study the Requirement Carefully
List out the skills that the client is looking
Major of the Requirement Skills
Minor or the Preferred Skills
screening of resumes basing on the skills Then start
Telephonic Screening regarding communication skills, Real time
Experience etc.,
Taking rate confirmation with employers
Submitting to A/c Manager.
Selection Process:
Resume Screening
Telephone Screening
Submitting to the Client
Client Interview
PO (Purchase Order) / SOW (Statement of Work)
Resume Screening
Checking the required skills in the resume
Check is it fit for the relevant experience
Telephone Screening
Check real time experience
Pose questions regarding his experience
Stress on the skills required
Observe communication skills
Confidence level.
Resume Setting:
Keep 1 Space on Left, Right, Top and Bottom
Justification /Size of Font 10/11
Deleting consultant/ Employer details in properties
Maintain same font and colour Black for whole resume.
Process of talking to Consultant/ Vendor / Clients
Wishing the opposite person
Introducing yourself
Knowing about the other person
Taking permission to discuss with him
Telling him about the purpose of call
Explanation / Discussion.
Types of Contracts:
12

Main Services Contract


NDA (Non Disclosure Agreement)
We can take NDA from Consultants and Vendors and Clients

Contract Includes
Payment terms
No Direct Dealing with Vendors
1 year Not Approaching Client
Technologies:
9. General
(A)C
(B)C++
(C)C#
(D)
VB
(E).Net
10.

E.R.P (Enterprise Resource Planning)


(A)SAP

Technical
(a) ABAP (Advance Business Application
Programmer)
(b)Cross Applications ( EDI , ALE , BAPI)

Networking/ Administration
(a) BASIS
(b)Security

Functional Modules
(a) MM (Material Management) :- (BOM,
Purchasing, Procument)
(b)SRM (Sub in MM)
(c) WM (Warehouse Management) :Inventory, Warehousing Concepts.
(d)FI/CO (Finance and Controlling)
(e) FI :- AR, A/P, GL, SL ML
(f) CO:- Cost Centre A/c , Product Costs ,
PCA (Profit Centre Accounting)
(g)Treasury : (Sub Module of FICO
(h)SD (Sales & Distribution: - Billing, Pricing,
Shipping, Transportation, Logistics.
(i) QM (Quality Management):- Inspection,
Quality Check, Standards.
(j) HR (Human Resource):- Payrolls,
Benefits, Insurance, Personnel Admin,
13

Personnel Development, Organization


Development, ESS / MSS, Time Expenses.
(k) PP (Production Planning) :- Production,
Procure.

New Dimensional Products


(a) APO (Advance Planner & Optimiser):Dinand Planning, SNP(Supplier Network
Planning)
(b)SCM (Supply Chain Management)
(c)
Netweaver
(d)CRM (Customer Relationship
Management)
(e) SEM (Strategic Enterprise Management)
(f) BW (Business Warehousing)

(B)Peoplesoft
(i) Peoplesoft Financials (Functional / Technical)
(ii) Peoplesoft HRMS (Functional / Technical)
(C)Siebel
(i)
Siebel CRM
(ii)
Siebel Actuate
(D)
(i)
(ii)

Oracle Apps
Oracle Apps Financials
Oracle Apps HRMS

(E)JD Edwards
(F) Boan
2. Data Ware housing (DWH)
(A)ETL
(a) Informatica
(b)ABINTIO
(c) SAS
(d)Sy2base
(e) D2ataStage
(f) 2Hyperion
(B)Reporting Tools
(a) Business Objects
(b)Cognos
(c) Micro Strategy
(d)Crystal Reports
14

3. Networking
(A)UNIX
(B)Solaris
(C)Windows
(D)
Linux
(E)AIX
(F) CITRIX
4. Oracle/SQL/DBA
5. Testing/BA (Business Analyst)

6. Java , Mainframes
(A)Java
(B)J2EE
(C)All Web Developers
7. Miscellaneous
(A)Tech Writer
(B)Remedy
(C)PHP

List of Few Non SAP Technologies


2. ABINTIO
3. AIX
4. Ariba
5. Business Objects
6. Business Analyst
7. BizTalk
8. C, C++, C#
9. Citrix
10.
Clarify
11.
Cognos
12.
Crystal Reports
13.
Data Modeler
14.
Data Stage
15.
Data Warehousing
16.
DB2DBA
17.
Documentum
18.
Dot Net
19.
ETL
15

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

File Net
HTML / Web Sphere
Hyperion
JD Edwards
Mainframes
Micro Strategy
Network
Oracle
Oracle Apps
Oracle Apps DBA
Oracle Financials
Oracle HRMS
Peoplesoft Financials
Peoplesoft HRMS
QA / Testers
See beyond
Siebel
SQL
Sybase
TIBCO
VB
Web developer

Few SAP Technologies


1. ABAP
2. ABAP HR
3. Advance Planner Optimizer
4. Basis
5. Business Intelligence
6. Business Warehousing
7. Customer Relationship Management
8. EDI
9. EHS
10.
FICO
11.
Human Resource
12.
Material Management
13.
Net weaver
14.
Plant Management
15.
Portals
16.
Production Planning
17.
Project Systems
18.
Quality Management
19.
Sales and Distribution
20.
Security
16

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Strategic Enterprise Management


SRM
Warehouse Management
Workflow
XI

17

26.

An Introduction to SAP

SAP was founded in 1972 in Walldorf, Germany. It stands for Systems,


Applications and Products in Data Processing. Over the years, it
has grown and evolved to become the world premier provider of
client/server business solutions for which it is so well known today. The
SAP R/3 enterprise application suite for open client/server systems has
established a new standards for providing business information
management solutions.
SAP product are consider excellent but not perfect. The main problems
with software product is that it can never be perfect.
The main advantage of using SAP as your company ERP system is that
SAP have a very high level of integration among its individual
applications which guarantee consistency of data throughout the
system and the company itself.
In a standard SAP project system, it is divided into three environments,
Development, Quality Assurance and Production.
The development system is where most of the implementation work
takes place. The quality assurance system is where all the final testing
is conducted before moving the transports to the production
environment. The production system is where all the daily business
activities occur. It is also the client that all the end users use to
perform their daily job functions.
To all company, the production system should only contains transport
that have passed all the tests.
SAP is a table drive customization software. It allows businesses to
make rapid changes in their business requirements with a common set
of programs. User-exits are provided for business to add in additional
source code. Tools such as screen variants are provided to let you set
fields attributes whether to hide, display and make them mandatory
fields.
This is what makes ERP system and SAP in particular so
flexible. The table driven customization are driving the program
functionality instead of those old fashioned hard-coded programs.
Therefore, new and changed business requirements can be quickly
implemented and tested in the system.
Many other business application software have seen this table driven
customization advantage and are now changing their application
software based on this table customizing concept.

18

In order to minimized your upgrading costs, the standard programs


and tables should not be changed as far as possible. The main
purpose of using a standard business application software like SAP is to
reduced the amount of time and money spend on developing and
testing all the programs. Therefore, most companies will try to utilized
the available tools provided by SAP.
SAP HR Tips and Human Resource Management Discussion
Forum
Listed here are practical and helpful SAP HR Stuff to assist those
supporting the SAP Human Resource Management Modules. If you
have any SAP Human Resource question, please feel free to raise it in
the SAP HR Forum.
The SAP HR module enables companies to effectively manage
information about the people in their organization. It is integrated with
other SAP modules and external systems. From the Organization
Management perspective, companies can model a business hierarchy,
the relationships of employees to various business units and the
reporting structure among employees. The Personnel Administration
(PA) sub module helps employers to track employee master data, work
schedules, salary and benefits information. The Personnel
Development (PD) functionality focuses on employees' skills,
qualifications and career plans. Finally, the Time Evaluation and Payroll
sub modules process attendance and absences, gross salary and tax
calculations, and payments to employees and third party vendors.
Share a SAP HR Tips with the Human Resource community by
Submitting a SAP HR Tips.
All submissions will be recognized along with the tip.
SAP is a software that integrates or unifies all business functions of an
organization in one software package. It includes up to 15 generic
business modules that must be customized to an organization's
business process.
SAP is strucured along module lines. Actually they are now moving
away from describing their system as a set of modules and now they
are using the term "solutions". Their solutions tab is structured as
follows:
FI - The Financial Accounting module is the computerized 'book of
records'. It is designed for managing general ledgers, accounts
payable, fixed assets and external reporting. It is the integration point
that most system components relate in one way or another.
CO - Controlling module manages the flow of costs and revenues. It
facilitates an organization's internal planning, management and
19

decision making process. It is tightly integrated with other system


components. It collects transactions from the other modules, using
related data for internal accounting, reporting and management of
funds.
AM - Asset Management module tracks, values, depreciates and
also records purchases and sales of a company's assets.
PS- Project Systems module is used for grants, contracts and plant
fund functioning. Project Systems module helps with the planning,
managing, controlling and figuring the costs of research and
development.
HR - This is an integrated system that supports planning and
administration of personnel activities; everything from hiring to
seperation or retirement. Employee records, payroll, benefits and time
recording are all handled in Human Resources module.
PM - Plant Maintenance module maintains the company's
equipment, labor, material and work time.
MM - Materials Management module supports the procurement
function occuring in day-to-day business operations. It underpins the
supply chain, processing purchase orders and goods receipts.
QM - Quality Management module aims to improve the quality of
the company's goods. Planning, execution, inspections and certificates
are examples of activities processed in QM.
PP - Production Planning module manages your company's
production process, including capacity planning, master production
planning, material requirements planning ans the study of shop floor.
SD - Sales Distribution module deals with the whole process from
production to delivery, including sale orders, pricing, picking and other
warehouse processes such as packing and shipping.
And finally, CA - Cross Applications module lies on top of the
individual modules and manages the workflow, business information
warehouse, office and workplace, industry solutions and new
dimension products.
These individual SAP modules function as a team, compiling and
integrating information across departments and automating
information management. Because SAP is fully integrated, we can
think more globally about information transfer. For example, items
purchased through Materials Management will be posted directly and
immidiately to Financial Accounting and Controlling.

20

These are the basic and standard modules, which are used commonly
by most firms. "MySAP" is a package that contains all these modules
in one software. But also there are supporting modules such as SAP
Customer Relationship Management, Product Lifecycle Management,
Supply Chain Management, Manufacturing or even SAP for small and
midsize businesses. Each company chooses and implements the
necessary and suitable SAP modules for their business and industry.
The pre-sales and implementation are very critical and challenging
processes.
SAP Decision
Ensure that management is committed to ERP implementation and
the company is big enough to meet the requirements of ERP
Ensure to have a sufficient number of qualified personnel
Allocate sufficient budget
Look at SAP and make the early decisions about the progress and
the success of the project
Understand the business process
Standardize your data and process
Study the customization required
Phases of SAP Implementation
Organization and conceptual design
System Set-up and detailed design
Test and Measurement
Go-live
Productive operation

21

Many programme teams were organised along module lines, so


that you would have a FI/CO, an MM and a HR team, for example.
Training courses were (therefore) often prepared and delivered
along module lines too. The result of this was that solutions were
frequently optimised along module lines, and less often well
integratred, and as for users, well, they were pretty much trained
up in a module and left to get on with it post go-live. Fortunately
those days are mostly passed, and more and more programmes
(from design to build to training) are being organised along
process lines such as:

Order to Cash (including parts of SD, FI-AR and probably TY as well)


Purchase to Pay (including MM-Purchasing and FI-AP)
Record to Report (FI-GL etc)
SAP now are moving away from describing their system as a set of
modules, and now are using the term solutions, which is much better.
If you visit SAPs website (as we urge you to do) you will find that they
have structured their Solutions tab as follows:

Financials

Human Resources

Customer Relationship Management

Supplier Relationship Management

Product Lifecycle Management

Supply Chain Management

Business Intelligence

If youre still looking for that list of modules, here they are:
FI Financial Accounting (Tutorial) essentially your regulatory books of
record, including

General ledger

Book close

Tax

Accounts receivable

Accounts payable

Consolidation

22

Special ledgers

CO Controlling (Tutorial) basically your internal cost/management


accounting, including

Cost elements

Cost centres

Profit centres

Internal orders

Activity based costing

Product costing

AM Asset Management track, value and depreciate your assets,


including

Purchase

Sale

Depreciation

Tracking

PS Project Systems manage your projects, large and small, including

Make to order

Plant shut downs (as a project)

Third party billing (on the back of a project)

HR Human Resources ah yes, people, including

Employment history

Payroll

Training

Career management

Succession planning

PM Plant Maintenance maintain your equipment (e.g. a machine, an


oil rig, an aircraft etc), including

Labour

Material

Down time and outages

MM Materials Management underpins the supply chain, including

Requisitions

Purchase orders

Goods receipts

Accounts payable
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Inventory management

BOMs

Master raw materials, finished goods etc

QM Quality Management improve the quality of your goods, including


1. Planning
2. Execution
3. Inspections
4. Certificates
PP Production Planning manages your production process, including

Capacity planning

Master production scheduling

Material requirements planning

Shop floor

SD Sales and Distribution from order to delivery, including

RFQ

Sales orders

Pricing

Picking (and other warehouse processes)

Packing

Shipping

CA Cross Application these lie on top of the individual modules, and


include

WF workflow

BW business information warehouse

Office for email

Workplace

Industry solutions

New Dimension products such as CRM, PLM, SRM, APO etc

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History of SAP R/3


SAP R/2 was a mainframe based business application software suite
that was very successful in the 1980s and early 1990s. It was
particularly popular with large multinational European companies who
required soft-real-time business applications, with multi-currency and
multi-language capabilities built in. With the advent of distributed
client-server computing SAP AG brought out a client-server version of
the software called SAP R/3 that was manageable on multiple platforms
and operating systems, such as Windows or Linux since 1999, which
opened up SAP to a whole new customer base. SAP R/3 was officially
launched on 6 July 1992. SAP came to dominate the large business
applications market over the next 10 years.
[edit]
Reasons for success
From the late 1960s to the 1980s there was a concern that software
development was too complex, and liable to go wrong. One of the
solutions to this proposed by many people including Fred Brooks was
the development of a modular approach in order to maximize software
reuse and encapsulate common business processes within internal
transactions. SAP introduced the object-oriented concept of "business
objects"; for example, a customer in the system is actually an
instantiation of a customer business object, and interacts with other
objects in the system in a pre-defined, customizable way. In some
ways, SAP can be almost thought of as an operating system for a
business.
SAP software comes with customizable processes which a company
uses in the modelling of its business. Traditionally, software purchases
had provided tools for building applications, but these tools did not
provide business processes. SAP provided standardized processes,
which were termed best-practice solutions of processes. The
implementation of SAP software commonly required the expertise of
knowledgeable external consultants, who were familiar with these
best-practices.
[edit]
Organization
SAP R/3 is arranged into distinct functional modules, covering the
typical functions in place in an organization. The most widely used
modules are Financials and Controlling (FICO), Human Resources (HR),
Materials Management (MM), Sales & Distribution (SD), and Production
Planning (PP). Those modules, as well as the additional components of
SAP R/3, are detailed in the next section.

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Each module handles specific business tasks on its own, but is linked to
the others where applicable. For instance, an invoice from the Billing
transaction of Sales & Distribution will pass through to accounting,
where it will appear in accounts receivable and cost of goods sold.
SAP has typically focused on best practice methodologies for driving its
software processes, but has more recently expanded into vertical
markets. In these situations, SAP produces specialized modules
(referred to as IS or Industry Specific) geared toward a particular
market segment, such as utilities or retail.
Using SAP often requires the payment of hefty license fees, as the
customers have effectively outsourced various business software
development tasks to SAP. By specializing in software development,
SAP hopes to provide a better value to corporations than they could if
they attempted to develop and maintain their own applications.
[edit]
Technology
SAP R/3 is a client/server based application, utilizing a 3-tiered model.
A presentation layer, or client, interfaces with the user. The application
layer houses all the business-specific logic, and the database layer
records and stores all the information about the system, including
transactional and configuration data.
SAP R/3 functionality is structured using its own proprietary language
called ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming). ABAP, or
ABAP/4 is a fourth generation language (4GL), geared toward the
creation of simple, yet powerful programs. R/3 also offers a complete
development environment where developers can either modify existing
SAP code to modify existing functionality or develop their own
functions, whether reports or complete transactional systems within
the SAP framework.
ABAP's main interaction with the database system is via Open SQL
statements. These statements allow a developer to query, update, or
delete information from the database. Advanced topics include GUI
development and advanced integration with other systems. With the
introduction of ABAP Objects, ABAP provides the opportunity to
develop applications with object-oriented programming.
The most difficult part of SAP R/3 is its implementation. Simply
because SAP R/3 is never used the same way in any two places. For
instance, Atlas Copco can have a different implementation of SAP R/3
from Procter & Gamble and so forth. Two primary issues are the root of
the complexity and of the differences:

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Customization configuration - Within R/3, there are tens of


thousands of database tables that may be used to control how
the application behaves. For instance, each company will have its
own accounting "Chart of Accounts" which reflects how its
transactions flow together to represent its activity. That will be
specific to a given company. In general, the behavior (and
appearance) of virtually every screen and transaction is
controlled by configuration tables. This gives the implementor
great power to make the application behave differently for
different environments. With that power comes considerable
complexity.

Extensions, Bolt-Ons - In any company, there will be a need to


develop interface programs to communicate with other corporate
information systems. This generally involves developing ABAP/4
code, and considerable "systems integration" effort to either
determine what data is to be drawn out of R/3 or to interface into
R/3 to load data into the system.

Due to the complexity of implementation, these companies recruit


highly skilled SAP consultants to do the job. The implementation must
consider the company's needs and resources. Some companies
implement only a few modules of SAP while others may want
numerous modules.
SAP has several layers. The Basis System (BC) includes the ABAP
programming language, and is the heart (i.e. the base) of operations
and should not be visible to higher level or managerial users. Other
customizing and implementation tools exist also. The heart of the
system (from a manager's viewpoint) are the application modules.
These modules may not all be implemented in a typical company but
they are all related and are listed below:
FI Financial Accounting
designed for automated management and external reporting of
general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other
sub-ledger accounts with a user defined chart of accounts. As
entries are made relating to sales production and payments
journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means
that the "books" are designed to reflect the real situation.
The FI module has 8 sub modules:
FI-GL
General Ledger Accounting
FI-LC
Consolidation
FI-AP
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Accounts Payable
FI-AR
Accounts Receivable
FI-BL
Bank Accounting
FI-AA
Asset Accounting
FI-SL
Special Purpose Ledger
FI-FM
Funds Management
CO Controlling
represents the company's flow of cost and revenue. It is a
management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is
automatically updated as events occur.
The CO module has following sub modules:
CO-OM
Overhead Costing (Cost Centers, Activity Based Costing, Internal
Order Costing)
CO-PA
Profitability Analysis
CO-PC
Product Cost Controlling
AM Asset Management
designed to manage and supervise individual aspects of fixed
assets including purchase and sale of assets, depreciation and
investment management.
PS Project System
is designed to support the planning, control and monitoring of
long-term, highly complex projects with defined goals.
IS Industry Solutions
combine the SAP application modules and additional industryspecific functionality. Special techniques have been developed
for industries such as banking, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, etc.
As of Feb 2006, following Industry Specific Solutions are
supported by SAP:
IS-A
Automotive
IS-ADEC
Aerospace & Defense
IS-AFS
Apparel and Footwear
IS-B
Bank
IS-BEV
Beverage
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IS-CWM
Catch Weight Mgmnt
IS-DFS
Defense & Security
IS-H
Hospital
IS-HER
Higher Education
IS-HSS
Hospitality Managm.
IS-HT
High Tech
IS-M
Media
IS-MIN
Mining
IS-MP
Mill Products (or IS-MILL)
IS-OIL
Oil
IS-PS
Public Sector
IS-R
Retail
IS-REA
Recycling Admin
IS-SP
Service Provider
IS-T
Telecommunications
IS-U
Utilities
HR Human Resources
is a complete integrated system for supporting the planning and
control of personnel activities and HR module is sometimes
equivalently referred as HCM (Human Capital Management).
HR-PA
Personnel Administration
HR-PD
Personnel Development
HR-RC
Recruitment
PM Plant Maintenance
In a complex manufacturing process maintenance means more
than sweeping the floors. Equipment must be serviced and
rebuilt. These tasks affect the production plans.
29

MM Materials Management
supports the procurement and inventory functions occurring in
day-to-day business operations such as purchasing, inventory
management, reorder point processing, etc.
QM Quality Management
is a quality control and information system supporting quality
planning, inspection, and control for manufacturing and
procurement.
PP Production Planning
is used to plan and control the manufacturing activities of a
company. This module includes; bills of material, routings, work
centers, sales and operations planning, master production
scheduling, material requirements planning, shop floor control,
production orders, product costing, etc.
SD Sales and Distribution
helps to optimize all the tasks and activities carried out in sales,
delivery and billing. Key elements are: pre-sales support, inquiry
processing, quotation processing, sales order processing,
delivery processing, billing and sales information system.
WM Warehouse Management
Control of stock to a physical level down to a warehouse bin.
Placement and removal rules can be configured, stock counts
can be done.
HUM Handling Unit Management
This is used as a unique ID for each pallet of stock held in the
warehouse.

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What Is SAP?
SAP (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is
software that integrates or unifies all the business functions of an
organization in one software package. SAP R/3 includes up to fifteen
generic business modules that must be customized to an
organizations business processes. Currently, the University has
implemented the following modules:
Financial Accounting (FI)
Controlling (CO)
Human Resources (HR)
Materials Management (MM)
Project Systems (PS)
Financial Accounting FI is designed for managing general ledgers,
accounts payable, fixed assets, and external reporting. It is the
integration point that most system components relate to in one way or
another.
Controlling CO manages the flow of costs and revenues. It facilitates
an organizations internal planning, management and decision-making
processes. Tightly integrated with all other system components, it
collects transactions from the other modules, using related data for
internal accounting, reporting, and management of University funds.
Human Resources HR is an integrated system that supports
planning and administration of personnel activities everything from
hiring to separation or retirement. Employee records, payroll, benefits,
and time recording are all handled in HR. This module also contains
positions and organizational structure data, which provide the
framework for many HR transactions.
Materials Management MM supports the procurement function
occurring in day-to-day business operations. Purchase orders and
goods receipts are examples of activities processed in MM.
Project Systems PS is used for grants and contracts, plant fund
accounting, and student loan funds. PS helps with planning, managing,
controlling and figuring the costs of research and development projects
most of which are temporary activities that have a finite life and are
subsequently closed.
These individual SAP modules function as a team, compiling and
integrating information across departments and automating
information management. Because SAP is fully integrated, we can
think more globally about information transfer. For instance, items

31

purchased through Materials Management will be posted directly and


immediately to Financial Accounting and Controlling.
In addition to automating information transfer, SAP offers the
University a number of other advantages:
Automation of workflow.
Security features reduce the need for multiple levels of authorization.
The SAP report capabilities allows users to drill down through data to
the lowest level document.

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There are many pieces to SAP. In this section you can find out about
specific SAP modules and applications. Delve into industry-specific
solutions in the "Vertical" section. Or discover how SAP can aid you
with "Customer Relationship Management," "Logistics," "Human
Resources" and "Accounting." And find out more about ways to
integrate SAP with wireless and mobile apps. -Vicki-lynn Brunskill,
Editor

>Sales and Distribution (SD)


Sales and Distribution is used to optimize and manage tasks in sales,
delivery and billing. These Web links present case studies, codes,
defintions and tips to help you manage this popular module.
>Customer Relationship Management
CRM technology helps you retain customers and increase business.
Anyone interested in boosting the bottom line should find this
category interesting.
>Financials
Financial institutions running SAP will find a lot of useful articles,
documents and case studies here.
>Sarbanes-Oxley and SAP
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act says that business records must be saved
for "not less than five years." Have you developed a corporate
records archive? Can SAP help? These links can help.
>Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
Supplier Relationship Management promises to evaluate, enable, and
engage your suppliers for mutual benefit.
>Supply Chain Management
A manufacturer needs all components for its product to be available
at all times without a huge inventory. A SCM-solution takes the
guesswork out of the picture.
>RFID

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Walmart is requiring its top suppliers to implement Radio Frequency


Identification (RFID). SAP has urged suppliers and manufacturers to
get on the RFID technology bandwagon even before standards are
established. Learn the who, what and where of RFID with these
handy links.
>SAP Business One
SAP Business One is a software designed for the small and midsize
business (SMB) market. It features an integrated sales force
automation system, opportunity management, strategic selling,
contact management, financial management, budgeting, bank
reconciliation, an inventory management system and a
comprehensive reporting module.
>Vertical
SAP has some interesting vertical solutions for utilities, retailer,
banks and other industries. Read more about what's available here!
>Wireless and Mobile Computing
Keeping your people connected on the go is emerging as one of the
best edges you can get in today's market. These articles and links
tell you what you need to know to make it happen!
>SAPConsole
SAPConsole is a framework for automatic data collection in a
warehouse environment. SAPConsole's sole function is to translate
SAP GUI (Graphical User Interface) screens in your SAP environment
to its character based equivalent. This category includes SAPConsole
advice,FAQ's and details on functionality.
>Human Resources
Master the SAP HR-module! Get overviews, help files and tips &
tricks on how to manage your HR system.
>Logistics
Shipping goods around the world requires a clear view of the big
picture and a responsive system for managing tasks. Enter SAP's
Logistics solution.
>Plant Maintenance (PM)
This collection of links houses tips, reference tools and forums for
those using the SAP R/3 Plant Maintenance module.

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ERP
http://www.erpfans.com/erpfans/erpdefinition/erp050.html
job portals:
DICE
MONSTER
CAREER BUILDER
Nettemps
Resource manager
Resource manager is the one who will be maintaining the team of
Recruiters and Lead Recruiters with excellent contacts in hand and
should be able to read the documents
Wt is IT Outsourcing
Transfer of IT Service from one company to the industry specialized IT
company
Operations at data processing facilities
Software application & website maintenance
Business recovery and disaster recovery
PC management and help desk operation
Telecommunication and network operation
What is a Background Report?
A Background Report contains information collected from public
records and publicly available data. The report is designed as a service
to assist you in locating or verifying an individual's background
information. The data within the report is compiled from thousands of
different sources that include government, property, and other public
record repositories.
Single State Criminal Check
What is a Single State Criminal Check?
This section lists criminal records from county courts, department of
corrections, administration of the courts, and other legal agencies for
the selected state. The types of offenses include felonies,
misdemeanors, sexual offenses, and more. Please closely review each
record as subjects with a common name may return multiple criminal
record results.
35

Criminal Check Disclaimer


Intelius charges a search fee for executing an Instant Criminal Check,
regardless of whether criminal records are found on the individual(s)
searched.
Intelius obtains criminal records from publicly available sources. Our
instant criminal background search may contain information from
county courts, state courts, the state AOC and the state DOC. As a
result, Intelius cannot guarantee the accuracy of the records provided
because they are obtained from public records and other third-party
sources that may not always be accurate or current. Among other
reasons, your search may have resulted in no criminal hits because
The person has never been convicted of a crime.
The criminal records have been expunged.
The criminal records have not yet been updated in the public
records database.
The inputs to your criminal check may resolve to more than one
individual. Positive or false matches in criminal searches may not
provide confirmation of an individual's criminal background.
You must use EXTREME CAUTION and FCRA-COMPLAINT business
practices when interpreting the result of a criminal background search
for the purpose of employment or tenant screening.
Full Cycle Recruiting - 10 Reasons to Learn it All!
Full cycle recruiting means a Recruiter knows how to obtain a search
and evaluate the parameters of that job order, negotiate the fee, find
an ideal candidate, manage the interview, offer, and acceptance
process, close the deal, and get paid within 10 days preferably. Today
there are thousands of people in the business world calling themselves
Recruiters who, ironically, don't know the fundamentals of recruiting!
If a person wants to work as a Recruiter, in my opinion, the first thing
they should do is get some training related to the recruiting process.
New Recruiters need to understand the process from start to finish
before they can be effective. I've seen many corporations push people
into positions with the title of 'Recruiter', without any training. Noone
is served well when this happens.
If you're interested in becoming a Recruiter here are 10 reasons to

36

"learn it all".
1. Once one knows how to handle each facet of the process they can
focus on enhancing their strengths or improving their weaknesses.
Recruiters who know how to recruit effectively can easily find the best
niche in the industry for their personality.
2. Knowing what needs to be done during each step of the process
gives a Recruiter confidence and the tools they need to evaluate their
own performance. They can look back over each placement process
and see specifically where they could have said something different to
expedite the process or eliminate a roadblock. Their skills allow them
to approach passive candidates most effectively.
3. Recruiters with FCR (full cycle recruiting) skills offer the best value
to employers, candidates, and themselves. Knowledge is power when
it comes to recruiting.
4. FCR is the pathway to make the most money in this industry.
5. When a recruiter is proficient in all the steps of FCR, they can work
with other Recruiters to double, maybe triple the number of
placements, they could make on their own. Working with a strong
team of Recruiters can be both rewarding and lots of fun.
6. Full cycle Recruiters have the skills that are most in demand. The
average company in the United States has about 24% turnover a year!
That kind of turnover costs companies unnecessary billions each year.
Employee retention begins with good hiring practices. If an employee
senses they mean nothing to an employer (and many HR departments
are famous for making new hires feel like faceless numbers) then new
hires feel no obligation to those employers in return
7. When a Recruiter knows FCR they have the most control over their
earnings, lifestyle, working conditions, and job satisfaction.
8. FCR is emotionaly, intellectually, and financially rewarding, in my
opinion.
9. The skills a Recruiter acquires when they learn FCR are transferable
to other areas of work and life. Knowing how to ask questions and
listen effectively can help keep a person with teenagers sane. These
skills can improve relationships with spouses, neighbors, relatives, and
co-workers. These principles apply when one is negotiating to buy a
37

company, car, home, etc.


10. Recruiters who master their craft have less stress and fewer
frustrations related to 'lost' deals. They are more effective and
successful than those who don't know FCR.
Less than 20% of Recruiters have been trained in full cycle recruiting.
That leaves those with full cycle recruiting skills with a tremendous
opportunity and vast potential to excel in those industries that attract
them most. Don't try and 'wing it' with your career. Make regular
investments in your personal recruiter education and it will pay you
back countless times over.
Difference between System admin and system engineer:
There is quite a difference in a Network Systems Engineer & System
Administrator. You can consider the Engineer the actual architect of the
said Network. Engineers are the people who are responsible for the
"from scratch" work. Such as designing the physical and logical lay-out
of the network. Designing & Implementing these plans to properly
setup the lay-out of a network. While a Systems Administrator takes
these existing lay-outs and is responsible for the actual administration
& managing of the existing network. Administrators are usually
responsible for things such as setting up the Users accounts, assigning
permissions to these users and over-all performing the day-to-day
operations within the network to ensure the network maintains
stability and consistency to optimize network performance. An
example of these in educational terms would be an MCSA (Microsoft
Certified Systems Administrator) & MCSE (Microsoft Certified Systems
Engineer). Think of the System Engineer as the person who is
responsible for laying the foundation of the network and seeing that is
put together piece by piece properly to ensure a fully functional
network. Then afterwards, the Administrator is responsible for carrying
out the daily routines & all other activities involved in administrating
the already put-together network.

38