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Al Taweelah Alumina

DESIGN CRITERIA
STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA
25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Bechtel Petrofac JV

003

22/02/2016

002

08/07/2015

001

11/06/2015

000

18/02/2015

REV

DATE

Pipe rack load and


caustic area crack
control clarifications
Reference documents
list updated. Added
requirements for
reinforcement cover
Minor changes as
marked

J Kudziela

K Lynch

J Bacon

M Barnham

Zayed
Shaat

M. Crosse

J Kudziela

K Lynch

J Bacon

M Barnham

M Crosse

S Hamida

J Kudziela

K Lynch

J Bacon

M Barnham

M Crosse

---

Issued for Use

J Kudziela

M
Cordero

J Bacon

M Barnham

M Crosse

---

REASON FOR
REVISION

BY

CHECK

EGS

PEM

OWNER

OWNER

JOB NO. 25875

Page 1 of 46

DOCUMENT NO.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003


Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

Confidential
Confidential 2016 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). This
document, prepared under Contract EGA/SH-EPCM/27-016 between BPJV and Emirates Global Aluminium PJSC (EGA), contains
information confidential and/or proprietary to BPJV that is not to be used, disclosed, or reproduced in any form by any person or entity
other than BPJV or EGA without BPJVs prior written permission. All rights reserved.

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTIONS

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

1.

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 5

2.

CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS ....................................................................... 5


2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.

CODES AND STANDARDS ................................................................................................................ 5


DOCUMENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................ 6
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................. 8
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS AND AUTHORITIES ......................................................................... 8

3.

SITE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................................... 8

4.

DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................................................. 9


4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

5.

GENERAL........................................................................................................................................ 9
PRE-ASSEMBLY .............................................................................................................................. 9
CALCULATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 9
COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS METHODS (E.G. THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD) ............................ 10
DESIGN DATA ......................................................................................................................... 11

5.1.
5.2.
6.

CO-ORDINATE GRID DATUM AND LEVELS.................................................................................... 11


MATERIAL PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................ 11
DESIGN LOADS ....................................................................................................................... 11

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4.
6.4.
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.5.2.
6.5.3.
6.6.
6.6.1.
6.7.
6.7.1.
6.7.2.
6.7.3.
6.7.4.
6.7.5.
6.7.6.
6.7.7.
6.7.8.
6.7.9.
6.7.10.
6.8.
6.9.
6.10.
7.

GENERAL...................................................................................................................................... 11
DEAD LOADS ................................................................................................................................ 12
LIVE LOADS ................................................................................................................................. 12
Facilities and Buildings ............................................................................................................... 12
Conveyor Structures .................................................................................................................... 13
Retaining Walls ........................................................................................................................... 14
Slabs on Ground and Trafficable Culverts .................................................................................. 14
BLOCKED CHUTE LOADS .............................................................................................................. 14
EQUIPMENT LOADS ...................................................................................................................... 14
General ........................................................................................................................................ 14
Impact and Dynamic Loads ......................................................................................................... 14
Vibration Loads ........................................................................................................................... 15
WIND LOADS ................................................................................................................................ 15
Wind Loads for Special Structures .............................................................................................. 16
EARTHQUAKE LOADS ................................................................................................................... 16
Mapped Acceleration Parameters ............................................................................................... 16
Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters for Site Class C soils ................................ 17
Design Response Spectrum for Site Class C soils ....................................................................... 17
Liquefaction Considerations........................................................................................................ 18
Seismic Design Category ............................................................................................................. 19
Importance Factor ....................................................................................................................... 19
Seismic Force-Resisting System .................................................................................................. 19
Seismic Provisions for Vendor Equipment .................................................................................. 19
Earthquake Loads for Special Structures .................................................................................... 19
Soil-Structure Interaction ............................................................................................................ 20
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ............................................................................................................... 20
PRE-ASSEMBLY LOADS................................................................................................................. 21
OPERATING MATERIAL LOAD ...................................................................................................... 21
LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................................ 21

7.1.
7.2.

GENERAL...................................................................................................................................... 21
NOMENCLATURE .......................................................................................................................... 21

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Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

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Al Taweelah Alumina
7.2.1.
7.2.2.
7.2.3.
7.2.4.
7.2.5.
7.2.6.
7.2.7.
7.3.
8.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Dead Loads.................................................................................................................................. 21
Live Load ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Spillage Load ............................................................................................................................... 22
Material Loads ............................................................................................................................ 22
Wind Loads .................................................................................................................................. 22
Seismic Load................................................................................................................................ 22
Belt Tension Loads ...................................................................................................................... 23
COMBINATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 23
SERVICEABILITY .................................................................................................................. 26

8.1.
8.2.
9.

ACCEPTABLE DEFLECTIONS ......................................................................................................... 26


SLENDERNESS RATIOS FOR STEELWORK ...................................................................................... 27
DESIGN OF INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS ............................................................................... 27

9.1.
9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.2.4.
9.2.5.
9.2.6.
9.2.7.
9.2.8.
9.3.
9.3.1.
9.3.2.
9.3.3.
9.3.4.
9.3.5.
9.3.6.
9.3.7.
9.3.8.
9.3.9.
9.3.10.
9.4.
9.4.1.
9.4.2.
9.4.3.
9.4.4.
9.4.5.
9.4.6.
9.4.7.
9.4.8.
9.4.9.
9.4.10.
9.4.11.
9.4.12.
9.4.13.
9.4.14.
9.5.
9.6.
9.7.
10.
10.1.
10.2.

EARTHWORKS .............................................................................................................................. 27
FOUNDATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 28
General ........................................................................................................................................ 28
Footings ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Holding Down Bolts .................................................................................................................... 28
Shear Keys ................................................................................................................................... 29
Piers / Piles ................................................................................................................................. 29
Raft Slabs..................................................................................................................................... 29
Ball Mill ....................................................................................................................................... 30
Tank Bases ................................................................................................................................... 30
CONCRETE STRUCTURES .............................................................................................................. 30
General ........................................................................................................................................ 30
Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 31
Concrete Cover for Reinforcement .............................................................................................. 32
Slabs on Grade ............................................................................................................................ 32
Earth Retaining Structures .......................................................................................................... 33
Bases to Pumps and Rotating Equipment .................................................................................... 33
Liquid Retaining Structures ......................................................................................................... 33
Suspended Floor Slabs ................................................................................................................ 34
Crack Control .............................................................................................................................. 34
One-Way Shear............................................................................................................................ 34
STEELWORK ................................................................................................................................. 34
General ........................................................................................................................................ 34
Materials and Preferred Steel Sections ....................................................................................... 35
Bolting ......................................................................................................................................... 35
Welding ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Connections ................................................................................................................................. 35
Bracing ........................................................................................................................................ 36
Corrosion Protection ................................................................................................................... 36
Flooring ....................................................................................................................................... 37
Stairs, Walkways and Landings ................................................................................................... 37
Handrails and Kick-Plates .......................................................................................................... 38
Ladders ........................................................................................................................................ 38
Crane Runway Beams and Monorails ......................................................................................... 38
Grouting of Baseplates ................................................................................................................ 39
Purlins and Girts ......................................................................................................................... 40
TIMBER ........................................................................................................................................ 40
CLADDING .................................................................................................................................... 40
CONCRETE MASONRY .................................................................................................................. 40
DESIGN OF FACILITIES ....................................................................................................... 40
CONVEYOR STRUCTURES ............................................................................................................. 40
TANKS AND VESSELS ................................................................................................................... 41

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

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Al Taweelah Alumina
10.3.
10.3.1.
10.3.2.
10.3.3.
10.3.4.
10.3.5.
10.3.6.
10.3.7.
10.4.
10.4.1.
10.4.2.
10.4.3.
10.4.4.
10.5.
10.6.
10.6.1.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

PIPE RACKS .................................................................................................................................. 41


Vertical Loads ............................................................................................................................. 41
Transverse Loads......................................................................................................................... 42
Longitudinal Loads ...................................................................................................................... 42
Longitudinal Beams ..................................................................................................................... 43
Intermediate beams at tier levels ................................................................................................. 43
Transverse restraint guides ......................................................................................................... 43
Cable Trays ................................................................................................................................. 43
CAUSTIC AREAS ........................................................................................................................... 43
Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 43
Slab on Grade .............................................................................................................................. 44
Bund Walls .................................................................................................................................. 45
Joints ........................................................................................................................................... 45
ACID PREPARATION AND STORAGE AREAS .................................................................................. 46
STRUCTURAL STEEL BUILDINGS .................................................................................................. 46
Calcination Building ................................................................................................................... 46
STEEL TANKS ............................................................................................................................... 46
CHIMNEYS AND STACKS ............................................................................................................... 46
SILOS, BINS AND BUNKERS .......................................................................................................... 46

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 4 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

1. INTRODUCTION
This design criteria defines the general and technical requirements for the structural design
of buildings, structures and foundations for the Shaheen Alumina Refinery Project located
in the Khalifa Port Industrial Zone (KPIZ) in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
All design shall be in accordance with this Design Criteria, the Specifications and the
Standards and References set out in Section 2 and shall comply with the owners Safety
Guidelines. Alternative documents shall only be adopted with the owners approval.

2. CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS


All design, work performed and materials furnished under this design criteria shall comply
with the latest issues (unless otherwise specified), addenda and supplements of all relevant
standards, regulations, codes and statutory requirements in the United Arab Emirates.
If inconsistencies between documents are discovered the following shall take higher
precedence:

for regulatory documents the local UAE requirements over the international
regulations,

for codes and standards the more stringent requirements.

The following are the principal standards, codes, guidelines and references to be used for
the structural design. In accordance with ADIBC 2013 American codes shall be considered
as govering codes, however, British and European codes may be used with project
approval.

2.1.

Codes and Standards


ASCE 7-05

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures

ASCE 37-02

Design Loads on Structures During Construction

AISC 360-05

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings

AISC 341-05

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings

AISC Design Guide 27 2005

Structural Stainless Steel

ACI 318M-08

Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete


and Commentary

ACI 530-08

Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures

ANSI/AWC NDS 2012

National Design Specification for Wood Construction

AA ADM 2010

Aluminium Design Manual 2010, Aluminium Association

AISI S100-07

North American Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members, American Iron and
Steel Institute

BS 5395-1:2010

Stairs - Part 1: Code of practice for the design of stairs


with straight flights and winders

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 5 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

BS EN 1990:2002

Eurocode: Basis of structural design

EN 1991-1-4:2005

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Part 1-4: General


actions Wind actions

EN 1991-3:2006

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Part 3: Actions


induced by cranes and machinery

EN 1992-1-1:2004

Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Part 1-1:


General rules and rules for buildings

EN 1992-3:2006

Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Part 3:


Liquid retaining and containment structures

EN 1993-6:2007

Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Part 6: Crane


supporting structures

EN 197-1:2011

Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity


criteria for common cements

EN 10080:2005

Steel for the reinforcement of concrete. Weldable


reinforcing steel. General

Refer to the technical specifications below for a list of relevant materials standards.
Alternative design codes may only be used with approval from the lead engineer.
Any conflicts between approved codes shall be brought to the lead engineers attention for
resolution.

2.2.

Documents and Specifications

The following documents shall also be complied with:


25875-070-V01-WA49-00010

Geotechnical Investigation Factual Report

25875-070-V01-WA49-00011

Geotechnical Investigation Interpretative Report

25875-070-V01-WA49-00019

Geotechnical Investigation Additional


Liquefaction Assessment and Tall Tanks

25875-070-V01-WA49-00020

Geotechnical Investigation
Changed Layout

25875-000-30R-K01-00001

Seismic Hazard Study Development of Seismic


Design Response Spectrum Using 2013 Abu Dhabi
International Building Code

25875-000-30R-K01-00002

Report Liquefaction Analysis

25875-000-3DR-C01-00001

Design Criteria - Civil

25875-000-3DR-P01-00002

Plant Layout and Access

25875-000-3DR-M01-00001

Design Criteria - Mechanical

Additional

Works

Works

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 6 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

25875-000-3DR-S01-00003

Design Criteria Pre-Assembly Structural Design


Criteria

25875-000-3DR-S01-00004

Design Criteria - Stack/Chimney Structural Design


Criteria

25875-000-3DR-S01-00005

Design Criteria Silos, Bins and Bunkers Structural


Design Criteria

25875-000-3DR-V01-00001

Process Design Data

25875-000-3PS-ATPS-00001

Specification for Metal Cladding to Roofs and Walls

25875-000-3PS-AYFP-00001

Specification - Building Works

25875-000-3PS-C000-00001

Site Conditions

25875-000-3PS-CE00-00002

Specification - Earthwork, Trenching and Backfill

25875-000-3PS-CE00-00003

Specification - Earthwork, Structural Excavation and


Backfill

25875-000-3PS-DB00-00001

Specification - Concrete Supply

25875-000-3PS-DB00-00002

Specification - Concrete Works

25875-000-3PS-DB00-00003

Specification - Supply, Installation & Testing of Piling

25875-000-3PS-DB00-00004

Specification - Precast Concrete Elements

25875-000-3PS-DB00-00005

Specification - Concrete Block Masonry

25875-000-3PS-MT00-00001

Technical Specification for Steel Tanks

25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001

Specification - Painting and Protective Coatings

25875-000-3PS-SS00-00002

Specification - Structural
Fabrication

25875-000-3PS-SS00-00003

Specification - Structural Steelwork Erection Work

25875-000-3PS-SS00-00004

Specification Shop Detailing Deliverables

25875-000-GPP-GES-00001

Project Instruction - Categories of Steelwork

25875-000-GPP-GES-00002

Project Instruction Steel Model Development Using


Tekla Structures

25875-000-GPP-GES-00003

Project Procedure Fabrication Deliverables External


Engineering

Steelwork

Supply

and

Concrete Standards commencing at drawing no. 25875-000-D0-0000-10001.


Steelwork Standards commencing at drawing no. 25875-000-S0-0000-10001.

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 7 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

2.3.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

References

AISC Steel Construction Manual, 13th Edition (or later)

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2004 Structural Welding Code Steel

AWS D1.8/D1.8M:2009 Structural Welding Code Seismic Supplement

API 650-2008 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

Guide to Industrial Floors and Pavements by Cement Concrete and Aggregates


Australia

Guide to the Construction of Reinforced Concrete in the Arabian Peninsula,


CIRIA Publication C577

ACI 351.3R-04 Foundations for Dynamic Equipment

CP2012-1:1974 Foundations for Machinery

Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines by Arya, ONeill and
Pincus

2.4.

Regulatory Requirements and Authorities

All design, materials, workmanship and practises shall be in accordance with the local
agencies that have jurisdiction over the project and Abu Dhabi Municipality.
Relevant regulatory requirements on the project includes but not limited to the followings:

Municipality of Abu Dhabi City, Construction Permits Directorate Development


Projects Permitting Section (DPPS), Procedure Manual 2013

Abu Dhabi International Building Code (ADIBC) 2013

All relevant UAE Workplace Health and Safety Acts

All relevant UAE Hazardous Substances Regulations

All relevant UAE Environmental Protection Acts

UAE Fire and Life Safety Code of Practice, 2011

UAE Civil Aviation Regulations

International Civil Aviation Organisation Regulations

3. SITE CONDITIONS
The Shaheen Alumina Refinery will be located in the Khalifa Port and Industrial Zone
(KPIZ) in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). All equipment, components, and
materials shall be suitable for unprotected installation in the outdoors within a harsh
industrial environment that can be laden with alumina dust, and caustic liquors and
vapours.
General site information and climatic data are included in project specification 25875-0003PS-C000-00001 Site Conditions.

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 8 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

4. DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES
4.1.

General

The design engineer shall become familiar with the functions and operating conditions of
the plant such as the movement of materials and liquids, rotating masses, out of balance
forces, temperature changes, impact forces, spillage loads, and build up of scale.
The design engineer shall ascertain, in conjunction with the lead engineer and in
consultation with the process, mechanical, and electrical engineers, the loads created by
plant, equipment, operational conditions, and stacked materials during construction for
each facility.
All design input shall be authorised by the lead engineer prior to application.
Structures supporting plant and equipment should be designed with consideration for the
proposed function and the economical fabrication and erection of the structures.
Constructability and access for maintenance shall be considered. The bracing at ground
level should be kept to a minimum so that easy access is provided for maintenance and
operations.
Standard drawings have been produced for the project and these standards, where
appropriate, shall be referred to and used in preference to other, non-standard details.
All calculations and drawings shall be documented in SI units and the English language.

4.2.

Pre-Assembly

Prefabricated, shop welded and pre-assembled steelwork is an option as opposed to field


bolted steelwork. Similarly, precast concrete is an option as opposed to in-situ reinforced
concrete. The design engineer shall co-ordinate with the lead engineer in determining
where prefabrication and precasting is to be adopted.
The sequence of construction, installation of mechanical equipment and road transport and
lifting limitations shall be considered in the design process and these should be agreed with
the Pre-Assembly and Construction teams prior to a final design being completed.

4.3.

Calculations

All design calculations shall be completed on A4 size project calculation sheets in


accordance with project procedures. All other design data shall be on A4 sized sheets,
reducing A3s etc. as necessary.
The basis and assumptions for the design together with all basic data and design
information and sources of unusual formulae shall be recorded with the calculations. The
calculations shall include a general arrangement of the facility and any sketches prepared.
Calculations together with the data and sketches shall be consecutively numbered, given a
title incorporating the specific facility number for the area, signed, dated and provided with a
project standard cover sheet. The cover sheet shall incorporate the title of the facility and
contain a brief index to the calculations. Each set of calculations shall be logged in to a
master index kept by the lead engineer so that it can be presented to any authority or its
delegate for approval.
Software for structural design shall be selected from Spacegass by Integrated Technical
Software, StaadPro V8i by Bentley Systems and Strand7 by Strand7 Pty Ltd. Approval of
Selection of software for use on the project, including Excel spreadsheets, shall be by the
lead engineer.
All calculations and drawings shall be independently checked.
Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

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Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

The following minimum requirements shall be satisfied.

Project calculation cover sheet, fully lled in and signed accordingly.

Index to show major sections and page numbers.

A detailed introduction explaining the circumstances and basis for design and
the path chosen.

A summary of the design output.

Sketches that tie in calculations and member location.

Copies of all inputs such as general arrangements, vendor data, geotech info,
data sheets, faxes , emails etc. Wherever possible these should be scanned
or copied as part of the calculations and not just referenced.

Ensure all electronic calculations and any other engineering package output is self
explanatory and easily followed without needing the software for interpretation.

All structural analysis software calculations to include the following:


1. Graphics hard copy frames, sections and each load case.
2. Graphics hard copy of governing frame deflection.
3. Graphics hard copy of critical M, V, N diagrams where ever practical.
4. Graphics hard copy of primary load cases in particular wind, wherever practical.
5. Copy of all load case and combination titles.
6. Copy of all load case combinations.
7. Copy of all footing reactions for all load cases.
8. List all structural analysis software les and description.

Add an appendix for hard copy attachments, make the calculation a stand-alone
document where ever possible by attaching the nal IFC drawings to the
calculations.

Ensure there is a HOLDS list; all HOLDS should be cleared prior to nal check and
approval.

Ensure the checker signs each page unless a completely independent checkers
calculation is attached.

Ensure each page is numbered and contains the calculation number.

Cull all superseded pages.

The DPPS Procedure Manual 2013 (refer Section 2.4) design checklist items should
all be addressed.

The approved calculations shall provided to be saved in Info-works. The associated


electronic data les shall be retained with the calculations as a zip file.

4.4.

Computational mechanics methods (e.g. the finite element


method)

Computational mechanics methods and analyses (including the finite element or finite
difference methods) shall only be used with the written approval of the lead engineer.
Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

Page 10 of 46

Al Taweelah Alumina

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Proposals to use such methods will be assessed on the following basis:

Is there a demonstrable cost saving to the project?

Are there any schedule impacts associated with the proposed higher level analysis?

Are the goals and acceptance criteria of the analyses clearly defined?

Are there alternative manual analysis methods?

Are the proposed personnel appropriately qualified and experienced in the particular
method of analysis?

Are appropriately qualified and experienced checkers/reviewers available?

Where approval is granted, such analyses must be documented in accordance with a preagreed procedure. The validation methodology shall be agreed with the lead engineer prior
to commencing any analysis.

5. DESIGN DATA
The plant shall be designed for a life of 30 years operating 24 hours a day and 365 days
per year.
For general design data related to temperature, humidity, rainfall and tide heights, refer to
specification 25875-000-3PS-C000-00001 Site Conditions.
Buildings and other structures are generally occupancy category II in accordance with the
ADIBC 2013 Table 1604.5. Facilities shall be occupancy category IV where listed as an
essential facility in Table 1604.5.

5.1.

Co-ordinate Grid Datum and Levels

Refer 25875-000-3DR-C01-00001 Design Criteria Civil for details.

5.2.

Material Properties

For material design bulk densities refer to document 25875-000-3DR-V01-00001 Process


Design Data. The lower limits shall be used to determine the volumetric dimensions of
storage facilities, and the upper limits shall be used to determine the forces acting on
supporting structures.

6. DESIGN LOADS
6.1.

General

The loads used in the design shall be in accordance with the loads given in this criteria, the
specific loadings as established for each item of equipment, and ASCE 7-05 Minimum
Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. The minimum or maximum dead loads
shall be combined in conjunction with other loads, so as to produce the most severe
combinations of load imposed on the structure.
The layout and design criteria for all equipment supported on the structure shall be
obtained in writing from the mechanical engineer before design commences.
The design engineer, in consultation with the lead engineer, shall determine the loads
imposed by electrical cables and services pipes.

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6.2.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Dead Loads

Dead loads shall be determined using ASCE 7-05.


Dead load shall be considered in two categories:

Dead loads unable to be removed from the structures.

Superimposed dead loads

Superimposed dead loads shall be considered as the weight of all materials forming loads
on the structure that are not structural elements and which are likely to vary or be removed
during operation or construction of the structure.
Superimposed loads may include:

Operating material loads (refer clause 6.10).

Piping contents.

A variable portion of electrical cabling load (refer clause 7.2.1)

Lining to tanks / vessels / launders that may be permanently removed

Scale formation to tanks / vessels / launders / pipework

The design engineer shall assess the possibility of the removal of these dead loads, which
will result in the most severe combination of stresses in the structure.

6.3.

Live Loads

6.3.1. Facilities and Buildings


Except where specific equipment loads produce more severe conditions, minimum floor
vertical live loads,which satisfy or exceed the requirements of Chapter 4 of ASCE 7-05,
shall be as per the table below:
Area

Uniformly Distributed
Load

Concentrated
Load

(kPa)

(kN)

Offices (excl. file rooms, etc.)

3.0

2.7

General plant area elevated floors

5.0

4.5

Walkway, stairs and landings in


buildings

4.8
(100 psf)

4.5

Walkway, stairs and platforms in


access structures

2.5

2.0

Conveyor gallery walkway,


individual walkway span

2.5

2.0

Conveyor gallery walkway for truss


design

1.2 kN/m

Control room floors

10.0

Motor rooms, fan rooms

5.0

4.5

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Area

Uniformly Distributed
Load

Concentrated
Load

(kPa)

(kN)

10.0

To be determined
for specific
location

0.6 to 1.0

4.5

Letdown areas and truck aisles

Roof live load

ADIBC 2013,
1607.11.2.1
Roof live load, for trafficable roofs

3.0

4.5

These loads are to be verified for the specific area and facility. The structural members are
to be designed for the load pattern (either uniformly distributed or concentrated), which has
the most adverse effect on the supporting member. Generally the concentrated loads in the
above table will be applied to short members that support only a small area of floor.
Where nominated by the lead engineer a concentrated load shall be applied to all major
floor and roof beams for lifting of equipment.
The magnitude of this load shall be determined in consultation with the lead engineer but
shall not be less than 10.0 kN applied at midspan. This load shall be considered as a
separate load condition not acting on the beam simultaneously with other live loads.
Areas of plant or support facilities not specified in this section shall have live loads
determined in accordance with the ADIBC 2013 and where uniformly distributed loads are
applied to a number of floors in a building, a live load reduction may be applied subject to
approval from the lead engineer.
Stair treads shall be designed for a concentrated vertical load of 1.35 kN (300 lb) in
accordance with the ADIBC 2013.
Handrails shall be designed for a load of 0.36 kN/m (25 lb/ft) applied in any direction to the
top rail and also 0.89 kN (200 lb) concentrated load applied in any direction (not applied at
the same time).
6.3.2. Conveyor Structures
The following loading to conveyor gantries shall be considered:
a)

Live to walkways:

Refer Section 6.3.1


Where there are 2 walkways, calculate the worst effect
resulting from loading to one only or both walkways.

b)

Spillage:

As advised by the lead engineer.


Spillage load and floor live load are combined in the load
combinations. Hence spillage loads and live loads would not
typically be modeled as occupying the same area of floor.

Spillage loads shall be applied thus:

Open conveyors:

Enclosed conveyors: for the full width between the stringers.

for the width of any drip tray where applicable

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Spillage shall be considered as symmetrically applied not to one walkway only. In


transfer stations: 5.0 kPa minimum (confirm with area manager) applied to a width
of 3 m from the edge of the conveyor belt and not coincident with live load.
c)

Conveyor Belt tension loads:


Refer to mechanical engineer for various loading conditions such as start-up, stall,
and operational loads, and refer to Section 7 for load combinations.

6.3.3. Retaining Walls


All retaining walls shall be designed for the actual surcharges applied.
Surcharge loads shall not be less than the following:

Minimum vertical surcharge 10 kPa

Normal road traffic

22 kPa (where the distance from the face of the wall


to the edge of a road is within half the height of the
wall)

Abnormal axle loads:

Specific analysis of load distribution

6.3.4. Slabs on Ground and Trafficable Culverts


Vehicle loads from highway registered vehicles shall be as per 25875-000-3DR-C01-00001
Design Criteria Civil.
For areas not to be trafficable by highway registered vehicles, and areas to be trafficable by
non-highway registered vehicles, the design axle loads or other point loads shall be
approved by the lead engineer.

6.4.

Blocked Chute Loads

Loads from blocked chutes and blocked equipment shall be considered assuming the
equipment is filled to maximum capacity with material of maximum density.

6.5.

Equipment Loads

6.5.1. General
Layout and design criteria for the support of equipment items, together with Certified Seller
drawings, shall be provided by the relevant discipline engineer. Equipment reactions shall
be supplied by the Seller and shall indicate all possible loading combinations, dynamic
effects and allowable deflections of supporting structures.
6.5.2. Impact and Dynamic Loads
The static load of equipment shall be multiplied by the following factors to allow for impact:

Reciprocating machinery, crushers and pumps

3.0*

Rotating machinery

2.0*

Mobile equipment

1.2

Fork lifts

1.6

Hangers supporting floors and balconies

1.35

Carry and return idlers at loading points

2.0

Carry and return idlers elsewhere

1.1

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

* These values shall be used for preliminary design only. Actual certified dynamic load
values nominated by the equipment Seller shall be used in the final design.
6.5.3. Vibration Loads
Certified Seller drawings giving design parameters and operating frequencies shall be
obtained from the manufacturer for each piece of equipment. The dynamic effect on the
immediate supports and on the main structure shall be evaluated using un-factored actual
masses.
Areas subject to dynamic loading shall be checked for dynamic response against limits for
workers by ISO 2631-1:1997, Mechanical vibration and shock- Evaluation of human
exposure to whole-body vibration.
Wherever possible, vibrating equipment shall be isolated from the main structural framing.
However, where such equipment is supported on structural members, the following table
provides a guideline for the desired relationship between the frequency of the vibrating
loads and the frequency of the supporting members:
Length of Beam

Type of Supports

Ratio of Support and Equipment


Frequencies

5 m or less

Directly connected to
column

1.5

Greater than 5 m

Directly connected to
column

2.0

5 m or less

Not directly connected


to column

1.5

Greater than 5 m

Not directly connected


to column

2.0

The natural frequency of bracing adjacent to the equipment shall also be checked. The
desired relationship between the natural frequency fn and the forcing frequency ff of the
brace shall be as follows: fn/ff is less than 0.75 or greater than 1.5.
The design engineer shall consider the effects of fatigue in the design of supporting
members and their connections. Fatigue shall be checked in accordance with EN 1993 and
shall be based on the relevant number of cycles applicable to the beam or to the detail
being designed and shall take into account the fabrication details of the beam and its
components.

6.6.

Wind Loads

The basic wind speed for the site is 40 m/s. The basic wind speed is the 3-second gust
speed at 10 m height in exposure category C with a 50 year return period.
The site exposure category for all wind directions shall be taken as exposure D. The design
wind speed is to be adjusted for the site exposure category and the building height above
ground in accordance with the procedures in ASCE 7-05.
The importance factor by ASCE 7-05 Table 6.1 shall be 1.0 for occupancy category II
facilities and 1.15 to occupancy category IV facilities.
The topographic factor in ASCE 7-05 shall be taken as 1.0.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Wind forces, except for structures noted in Section 6.6.1, shall be determined in
accordance with ASCE 7-05. Drag coefficients may also be determined in accordance with
EN 1991-1-4.
The operating wind speed VO shall be taken as 20 m/s. This is the wind speed applicable
during shutdown of the plant and also during erection procedures.
The serviceability wind speed VS for serviceability deflection checks shall be based on a
10 year return period. It shall be taken as 27 m/s.
For structures subject to belt tension and/or blocked chute condition i.e. conveyor buildings,
head, tail, drive, take ups, cantilevered conveyor structures, a special case of wind speed
VOPERATING = VO = 20 m/s shall be used in combination with maximum belt tension or
blocked chute load.
Consideration shall be given to the effect on wind loads for closely spaced cylindrical
structures e.g. silos or tanks.
6.6.1. Wind Loads for Special Structures
Chimneys and stacks shall be designed for wind loads in accordance with document
25875-000-3DR-S01-00004 Stack/Chimney Structural Design Criteria.

6.7.

Earthquake Loads

Structures, except as noted in Section 6.7.9 of this Design Criteria, shall be designed for
earthquake loads as detailed in ADIBC 2013 and ASCE 7-05 using parameters as specified
below.
ASCE 7-05, Section 11.4.7, allows a site-specific ground motion evaluation to be performed
following the provisions of ASCE 7-05, Chapter 21. If such an analysis is performed,
Section 21.3 allows use of the site-specific results to develop the design response
spectrum except that it may not fall below 80% of a design spectrum developed directly
using regional maps, given in this case as part of the ADIBC 2013 (Figure 1613.5(1), Figure
1613.5(2), and Figure 1613.7). A site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)
was undertaken by Bechtel Petrofac Joint Venture (BPJV). Refer to the Seismic Hazard
Study 25875-000-30R-K01-00001.
6.7.1. Mapped Acceleration Parameters
Abu Dhabi International Building Code (ADIBC) 2013 has specified, using regional maps for
the United Arab Emirates (Figure 1613.5(1), Figure 1613.5(2), and Figure 1613.7), for
determination of the earthquake loads:
SS = 0.71 g

Mapped Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE), 5%


damped, spectral response acceleration parameter at short
periods, Site Class B

S1 = 0.21 g

Mapped MCE, 5% damped, spectral response acceleration


parameter at period of 1 s, Site Class B

TL = 8 s

Long-period transition period

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

6.7.2. Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters for Site Class C soils
Site Class C soils are typical for the project site (Refer 25875-070-V01-WA49-00011 and
25875-000-30R-K01-00002) except where liquefaction considerations detailed in Section
6.7.4 identify Site Class F soils.
Site coefficients for Site Class C soils shall be taken as specified below:
Fa = 1.116

From the ADIBC 2013, Table 1613.5.3(1)

Fv = 1.590

From the ADIBC 2013, Table 1613.5.3(2)

The Seismic Hazard Study 25875-000-30R-K01-00001 indentifies that site specific Sa


values for periods less than 1.0 second can be calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-05
Section 11.4.5 and factored by 0.80.
Hence by ADIBC 2013, Sections 1613.5.3 and 1613.5.4, the design spectral response
acceleration parameters shall be determined as follows:
SDS = 2/3 0.80 x Fa Ss = 2/3 0.80 x 1.116 0.71 = 0.423
SD1 = 2/3 0.80 x Fv S1 = 2/3 0.80 x 1.590 0.21 = 0.178
T0 = 0.2 SD1 / SDS = 0.2 0.178 / 0.423 = 0.084
TS = SD1 / SDS = 0.178 / 0.423 = 0.421
6.7.3. Design Response Spectrum for Site Class C soils
Design spectral response acceleration Sa values are provided in Table 15 of the Seismic
Hazard Study 25875-000-30R-K01-00001.
Alternatively the Sa values can be calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.5
using the SDS and SD1 values above and factored by the following factors. The resultant Sa
values will closely approximate the hazard study Sa values.
Period, T

Factor to Sa values from ASCE 7-05, 11.4.5

0 to 1 second

1.000

> 1 to 2 seconds

0.913 + 0.088 x T

> 2 to 8 seconds

1.088

> 8 to 10 seconds

1.363

Note that in calculating Cs values to ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8, the Cs values are equal to
Sa / (R/I). Note also that Cs values by ASCE 7-05 Equation 12.8.2 are constant from a
period of 0.0 seconds up to the period Ts i.e. they do not reduce for periods less than T0.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

6.7.4. Liquefaction Considerations


The Seismic Hazard Study 25875-000-30R-K01-00001, the Liquefaction Analysis Report
25875-000-30R-K01-00002 has identified areas of Site Class F soils, as determined by the
Geotechnical Engineer, as vulnerable to potential liquefaction under the design seismic
loading.
The following facilities are underlain by Site Class F soils.
Facility

Facility
Number

Thickness of
Liquefiable Soil

Post-Liquefaction
Settlement

Change House

035

2-3m

50 60 mm

Crushing

210

1-2m

20 60 mm

Grinding

220

1-3m

50 60 mm

Pre-Desilication

230

2-4m

80 100 mm

Digestion

240

2-4m

100 140 mm

Clarification

250

1-2m

30 60 mm

Evaporation

350

1-3m

50 60 mm

Hydrate Transfer

470

1-3m

40 60 mm

Calcination

490

2-3m

40 60 mm

A site response soil model has been developed based on low-strain shear wave velocities,
nonlinear, or equivalent linear, shear stress-strain relationships and unit weights in
accordance with ASCE 7-05, Section 21.1. The design spectral response acceleration Sa
values developed from this model are below 80% of the design spectra for Site Class E for
all periods. Hence by ASCE 7-05, Section 21.3, the design spectral response acceleration
at all periods shall be taken as 80% of the Sa values for Site Class E calculated in
accordance with ASCE 7-05, Section 11.4.5.
Structures in the facility areas identified above shall be designed for earthquake loads
based on the design spectral response acceleration for Site Class F soils, using parameters
specified in 6.7.4.1 and 6.7.4.2, unless suitable ground improvement treatments are
adopted to prevent liquefaction.
Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameters for Site Class F soils
As noted above parameters for Site Class F soils shall be calculated for Site Class E soils
and factored by 0.80.
Fa = 1.28

From the ADIBC 2013, Table 1613.5.3(1)

Fv = 3.16

From the ADIBC 2013, Table 1613.5.3(2)

SDS = 2/3 0.80 x Fa Ss = 2/3 0.80 x 1.28 0.71 = 0.485


SD1 = 2/3 0.80 x Fv S1 = 2/3 0.80 x 3.16 0.21 = 0.354
T0 = 0.2 SD1 / SDS = 0.2 0.354 / 0.485 = 0.146
TS = SD1 / SDS = 0.354 / 0.485 = 0.730
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Design Response Spectrum for Site Class F soils


Sa values shall be calculated in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.5, using the SDS
and SD1 values above.
Note that in calculating Cs values to ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8, the Cs values are equal to
Sa / (R/I). Note also that Cs values by ASCE 7-05 Equation 12.8.2 are constant from a
period of 0.0 seconds up to the period Ts i.e. they do not reduce for periods less than T0.
6.7.5. Seismic Design Category
The ADIBC 2013, Table 1613.5.6(1) and Table 1613.5.6(2) shall be used to determine the
seismic design categories. These tables take precedence over the equivalent tables, Table
11.6-1 and Table 11.6-2, in ASCE 7-05.
Typically Occupancy Category II facilities in Site Class C soils, where SDS = 0.423 and
SD1 = 0.178, shall be Seismic Design Category C (SDC C). Similarly, Occupancy Category
II facilities in Site Class F soils, where SDS = 0.485, may be Seismic Design Category C
(SDC C) by Table 1613.5.6(1) where ADIBC 2013 Clause 1613.5.6.1 is satisfied.
Elsewhere Seismic Design Category D (SDC D) shall apply by Table 1613.5.6(1) and Table
1613.5.6(2).
6.7.6. Importance Factor
The importance factor by ASCE 7-05 shall be 1.0 for Occupancy Category II facilities and
1.5 for Occupancy Category IV facilities.
6.7.7. Seismic Force-Resisting System
ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 shall be used to select an appropriate seismic force resisting
system for the building height and the required seismic design category. The framing
system requiring the least seismic specific detailing shall generally be selected unless
approved otherwise by the lead engineer.
6.7.8. Seismic Provisions for Vendor Equipment
Vendor equipment shall be designed for the seismic loads specified above. ASCE 7-05,
Section 13 and Section 15 shall be accounted for as applicable.
Equipment hold down bolt loads, sizes and location shall be detailed by the vendor. Cast in
hold down bolts are detailed on the standard concrete drawings.
Equipment loads to foundations shall be given for all basic (i.e. primary) load cases. Loads
shall be of sufficient detail to allow foundation design using the given loads.
The equipment vendor shall provide calculations for the Owners review that detail the
seismic design of supports and fixings to the supporting structure. Calculations shall clearly
state the seismic design criteria used in design and the relevant sections of ASCE 7-05.
6.7.9. Earthquake Loads for Special Structures
Steel tanks shall be designed for additional earthquake requirements in accordance with
document 25875-000-3PS-MT00-00001 Technical Specification for Steel Tanks.
Chimneys and stacks shall be designed for additional earthquake requirements in
accordance with document 25875-000-3DR-S01-00004 Stack/Chimney Structural Design
Criteria.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Silos, bins and bunkers shall be designed for additional earthquake requirements in
accordance with document 25875-000-3DR-S01-00005 Silos, Bins and Bunkers Structural
Design Criteria.
Silos and tanks shall also consider the earthquake requirements of ASCE 7-05 Chapter 15
and relevant seismic design references of ASCE 7-05 Chapter 23.
6.7.10. Soil-Structure Interaction
Soil-structure interaction may be considered for non-building structures. Typically this will
involve modelling the combined structure, foundation and soil support to accurately access
the fundamental period of the structure.
The values of the total lateral force and total base overturning moment shall not be less
than 80% of the values calculated using ASCE 7-05, as detailed in ASCE 7-05, Section
15.4.1, 6b.

6.8.

Temperature Effects

Structures shall be designed to accommodate movements due to environmental and


operational thermal expansion and contraction. Any operational temperature effects on
structures shall be assessed. The designer shall provide installation temperature
positioning tolerances for bearings and expansion joints. Bearings shall be designed for a
minimum installation tolerance of +/- 25mm in addition to the thermal movement
allowances.
Concrete shall be detailed with expansion joints as required to accommodate thermal
expansion.
Design steelwork installation temperature shall be between 25oC and 45oC. The steel
temperatures used to calculate contraction or expansion movements from an installation
position shall be:
Locations exposed to
direct sunlight

Other Locations

Max. temperature (oC)

65

50

Min. temperature (oC)

Foundations and structures, which are subject to temperature effects, shall be designed for
any temperature difference, which may occur in parts of structural members.
For stresses arising in structures due to variation in atmospheric temperature, the following
temperature differences shall be considered.
Maximum rise in temperature:
T = + 40 (oC)
Maximum fall in temperature:
T = - 40 (oC)

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6.9.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Pre-assembly Loads

Pre-assembly units and associated temporary erection and transportation steelwork and
concrete supports shall be designed for the loads induced during transportation and crane
lifts, especially road and sea transport and shall be in accordance with
25875-000-3DR-S01-00003 Pre-Assembly Structural Design Criteria.
The method of transport / lifting and the location of transport support / lifting points shall be
agreed with the Pre-assembly and Construction teams.
The design engineer shall be responsible for nominating the location of such points and
designing the connections at the lifting points and shall also consider the effects of forces
induced in the structure due to the lifting arrangement.
Impact factors shall be in accordance with 25875-000-3DR-S01-00003 Pre-Assembly
Structural Design Criteria.
The pre-assembly structural engineer shall prepare a sketch or arrange for a drawing of the
pre-assembly showing the location of the lifting points, the angle of slings and the
disposition of spreader beams as applicable.
The WLL (Working Load Limit) or Safe Working Load (SWL) for the slings shall be
calculated in accordance with the relevant British/European/International Standards.

6.10.

Operating Material Load

Operating material load (other than for a conveyor as per Section 7.2) shall be considered
to be a superimposed (removable) dead load Gsup as per Section 7.2.1 provided the
material density and the maximum operating volume of material contained is clearly
defined. Where this is not possible the operating material load shall be added to the load
MN in Load Combination Tables in Section 7.3.

7. LOAD COMBINATIONS
7.1.

General

Loading combinations shall be in accordance with the ADIBC 2013 and ASCE 7-05 and the
combinations shown in this Section. Where these combinations are not applicable, the
engineer shall submit new combinations to the lead engineer for approval.
Reliance on friction for stability should be avoided, where economically possible. The
possibility of a reduction in friction due to dynamic loads shall be carefully considered.
Friction shall not be considered in resisting earthquake loads.

7.2.

Nomenclature

7.2.1. Dead Loads


G
= Dead Load = SW + ID + BL + EQUIP + PIPING SW + EL DEAD
where:
SW

= self weight of steelwork, flooring, handrails etc

ID

= idler weight

BL

= belt weight

EQUIP

= permanently installed equipment load

PIPING SW

= self weight of piping

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

EL DEAD

= estimated minimum cable tray load

Gsup = Superimposed (removable) dead load


= PIPING CONTENTS + EL SUP + OML
where:
PIPING CONTENTS = piping contents load, Refer 6.10
EL SUP

= balance of total cable tray load

OML

= Operating material load, Refer 6.10

PIPING SW + PIPING CONTENTS to equal total pipe loading allowance. Refer 10.3.1
EL DEAD + EL SUP to equal the total cable tray load allowance. Refer 10.3.7
7.2.2. Live Load
Q
= Live load on floors, platforms and walkways, including stairs.
7.2.3. Spillage Load
SP
= Spillage allowance.
The full spillage load in combined with maximum wind and seismic loads. If a lesser, most
likely value of spillage is more appropriate in combination with wind and seismic loads,
spillage should be considered as a floor live load.
7.2.4. Material Loads
MN
= Maximum operating material load on a conveyor belt where MN is based on
maximum operating material load at the upper limit of the material design bulk density. MN
shall be applied over the length of conveyor to create the worst effect.
MF
= Flooded belt load (i.e. belt profile with material at angle of repose from edge of
belt at the upper limit of the material design bulk density). MF shall be applied over the
length of conveyor to create the worst effect.
BC
= Chute totally full (i.e. to top of chute) using the upper limit of the material design
bulk density
7.2.5. Wind Loads
WO
= Operating wind load, calculated using wind speed VO (Refer Section 6.6).
WS

= Serviceability wind load, calculated using wind speed VS (Refer Section 6.6).

= Wind load, calculated using 50 year return period (Refer Section 6.6).

7.2.6. Seismic Load


Feq.
= Earthquake load from Section 6.7, where earthquake loads shall be calculated
based on the effective seismic weight of a structure.
The effective seismic weight W of a structure shall be calculated in accordance with
ASCE 7-05 Section 12.7.2. The floor live load included in the seismic weight shall be 25%
of the design floor live load. Dead load, superimposed dead load, spillage load and
operating material loads shall be included in the seismic weight.
In accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section 12.5, 100% of the seismic forces in one direction
shall be combined with 30% of the seismic forces in the orthogonal direction.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Vertical seismic acceleration effects shall be considered in accordance with ASCE 7-05
Section 12.4.2.2. Vertical accelerations shall be added and subtracted from the seismic
load combinations in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section12.4.2.3.
7.2.7. Belt Tension Loads
BTTU = Belt tension at take up
BTN = Normal operating belt tension
BTA = Accelerating belt tension (i.e. at start-up)
BTE = Extreme stalling or belt pull out tensions (i.e. belt jammed)
(Note: Substitute 1.5BTA for BTE if BTE < 1.5BTA)

7.3.

Combinations

Where applicable, loads shall be combined in accordance with but not limited to the
following two tables.
Departure from combinations listed shall be allowed if approved by the lead engineer.
When determining load combination factors for design of vessels and support structures
including foundations, the vertical and lateral pressures of liquid product shall be treated as
an operating material load in accordance with Section 6.10.
For load combinations with minimum vertical load, product load shall be excluded from
dead load unless directed otherwise by the lead engineer.
On open structures, consideration may be given to reducing the floor live load (Q) in
serviceability wind (W S) and maximum wind (W) load combinations. Loads shall only be
reduced if approved by the lead engineer.
The following philosophy for checking the capacity of the foundation material shall be
adopted:

Serviceability wind loads (from Section 6.6) shall be used to check that maximum
absolute and differential settlements (elastic and long-term) are within acceptable
limits.

Maximum wind and earthquake loads (from Sections 6.6 & 6.7) shall be used to
check that bearing failure (i.e. rupture) does not occur under ultimate loads. Ultimate
wind load is 1.6W, as per the following load combinations. If an ultimate bearing
capacity is not explicitly stated in the geotechnical report(s) then the ultimate
bearing capacity may be taken as 1.5 x the allowable (permissible) bearing
capacity.

Ultimate load combinations include maximum wind and earthquake loads with
minimum vertical loads. Bearing capacity shall be checked for this condition as well
as checking overturning stability.

Sliding stability shall be checked on foundations using the ultimate load


combinations. If the ultimate sliding and passive resistance of the soil is not
explicitly stated in the geotechnical report(s), the ultimate sliding resistance may be
taken as 1.5 x the allowable (permissible) sliding resistances. The factor of safety
against sliding shall not be less than 1.0 for ultimate load combinations.

The potential for soil liquefaction in an earthquake shall be checked using ultimate
earthquake loads (from Section 6.7).

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

It is not normally required to check deflections under earthquake loads, unless pounding
can occur between closely spaced structures.
Load Combinations For all Structures

Dead only
Dead and Live

Operating wind
operating
material load
flooded belt
load and
blocked chute
Maximum wind
maximum
vertical load

Serviceability Limit State


Deflection check
Absolute and differential
settlement (elastic and longterm) check

Strength Limit State


Design to ADIBC 2013,
ASCE 7-05
Ultimate strength design for
footings

G + Gsup

1.4(G + Gsup)

G + Gsup + 1.0Q + SP + MN

1.2(G + Gsup) + 1.6Q +


1.6(SP + MN)

G + Gsup + 0.5Q + SP + MN + 1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75(Q) +


WO
1.6(SP + MN) + 1.6W O
1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75(Q) +
1.2(SP) + 1.2(MF + BC) +
1.6W O
G + Gsup +0.5Q + SP + MN + 1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75Q +
WS
1.2(SP + MN) + 1.6W

minimum.
vertical load
Seismic
maximum
vertical load
minimum
vertical load

0.9G + 1.6W

1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.5Q + 1.2(SP


+ MN) + Feq
0.9G + 0.9(SP + MN) + Feq

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Additional Load Combinations For all structures subject to belt tension (BT)
i.e. conveyor buildings, head, tail, take ups, cantilever conveyor structures

Dead only
Dead and Live

Operating wind
operating
material load
flooded belt
load and
blocked chute
flooded belt
load, blocked
chute &
extreme belt
tension.
Empty belt and
extreme belt
tension
Maximum wind
maximum
vertical load

Serviceability Limit State


Deflection check
Absolute and differential
settlement (elastic and longterm) check

Strength Limit State


Design to ADIBC 2013,
ASCE 7-05
Ultimate strength design for
footings

G + Gsup

1.4(G + Gsup)

G + Gsup + 1.0Q + SP + MN + 1.2(G + Gsup) + 1.6Q +


BTA
1.6(SP + MN + BTA)

G + Gsup + 0.5Q + SP + MN +
BTA + W O

1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75(Q) +


1.6(SP+MN+BTA) + 1.6WO
1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75(Q) +
1.2(SP) + 1.2(MF + BC) +
1.6BTA + 1.6W O
1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75Q +
1.2(SP) + 1.2(MF + BC) +
1.2BTE + 1.6Wo

0.9G + 1.2BTE + 1.6Wo

G + Gsup + 0.5Q + SP + MN+


WS + BTN

minimum
vertical load
Seismic
maximum
vertical load
minimum
vertical load

1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.75Q +


1.2(SP + MN) + 1.6BTN + 1.6W

0.9G + 1.6BTN + 1.6W

1.2(G + Gsup) + 0.5Q + 1.2(SP


+ MN) + 1.0BTN + Feq
0.9G + 0.9(SP + MN) + 1.0BTN
+ Feq

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

8. SERVICEABILITY
8.1.

Acceptable Deflections

The following table shall be used as a guide to determine acceptable deflections that satisfy
the requirements of Section 1604.3 of ADIBC 2013. Unless noted otherwise, deflection is
for the serviceability limit state load combination.
Element

Acceptable Deflection for Serviceability


Limit States
Span dead + live
250

Floor beam

Span live load only


360

Span dead + live, supporting deflection sensitive


500
equipment or as required by equipment vendor.
Cantilever Floor Beam

Span for cantilever dead + live


150

Floor Beam with dynamic


loading

Refer ISO 2631-1:1997, Mechanical vibration and shock Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

Crane beams / monorails

Span for vertical static loads at Mid Span


500

(per EN 1991-3)
Note: For cantilevers with
a backspan allow for
rotation of the beam at
supports

Lesser of 10 mm and Span


600

Lateral deflections to be
based on the top or bottom
flange mobilization, as
applicable.

Span for vertical static loads at Cantilever


300

Lateral
deflection
of
supports at level of crane
rail (per EN 1991-3)

Lesser of 10 mm and Hc
500

Building sway without


cranes, steel cladding

Height
150

Building sway without


cranes, masonry cladding

Height
250

Roof beam

Span dead + live


250
Span serviceability wind only
150

Purlins and girts

for lateral dynamic loads at Mid Span

Span for lateral dynamic loads at Cantilever


400

(Hc = height of crane rail above footing or fully vertically


braced horizontal plane)

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Element

Acceptable Deflection for Serviceability


Limit States

8.2.

Conveyor trusses

Span Vertical
300
Span Lateral
300

Relative end bay


deflection

End bay frame spacing


250

Relative horizontal
deflection between floors

Height between floors


300

Grating / Floor Plate

for pedestrian live load: 5mm or Span whichever is the less


180

Pipe Racks

Height - subject to pipe stress requirements


150

Slenderness Ratios for Steelwork

Limits for the slenderness as a minimum shall be in accordance with code AISC 360-05 and
AISC 341-05 when applicable.
Item

Maximum Slenderness Ratio

Columns supporting vibrating


equipment

100

Columns, trestle legs generally

180

Compression bracing subject


to permanent loads or
conveyor belt tensions

180

Compression bracing subject


to transient loads, i.e. wind,
seismic

200

9. DESIGN OF INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS


9.1.

Earthworks

Compaction standards shall be expressed as a percentage of the materials Modified


Proctor maximum dry density (MDD) at its optimum moisture content.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

The required degree of compaction shall be as follows:

95% for fill generally.

95% for a minimum depth of 300 mm immediately under concrete slabs and
footings placed on fill or the in-situ subgrade

Embankments composed of engineered fill and cuts in existing site material shall be to a
slope of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal unless otherwise approved by the lead engineer.

9.2.

Foundations

9.2.1. General
Foundations shall be designed in accordance with the Geotechnical Report for the specific
facility.
Where over excavation has occurred backfill shall be either mass concrete or selected
graded granular material from an approved source in accordance with
specification 25875-000-3PS-CE00-00003 Earthworks, Structural Excavation and Backfill
and shall be compacted in layers of 150 mm maximum compacted thickness to the required
standard of compaction.
9.2.2. Footings
Foundations shall be designed for the applicable load combinations.
Maximum total settlements, differential settlements and interaction between foundations
and structures shall be considered during design.
Liquefaction Analysis 25875-000-30R-K01-00002 shall be used to calculate the total and
differential liquefaction settlements applicable to a foundation. These settlements are
additional to the calculated settlements due to loading.
In checking uplift stability, only the soil directly above the footing shall be taken into account
unless approved by the lead engineer.
The effect of groundwater level shall be considered for footing stability.
Footings shall be cast on a 50 mm layer of blinding concrete.
The top of footing bases shall be a minimum of 450 mm below the finished grade or
450 below the slab on grade low point.
The minimum height from top of concrete to finished grade shall generally be:
Exposed column pedestals

300mm

Plinths for equipment

300mm

The minimum height from top of concrete to paving high point shall generally be:
Exposed column pedestals

150mm

Plinths for equipment

150mm

Refer Section 7.3 for details on checking footing bearing capacity, uplift and sliding stability.
9.2.3. Holding Down Bolts
All columns with a mass of more than 140 kg shall have a minimum of four holding down
bolts per base plate unless erected as part of a stable self-supporting structure.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

The capacity of holding down bolts for shear and tension shall be in accordance with
ACI 318M-08, Appendix D or approved equivalent. The total design shear load shall be
considered as applied to a maximum of two front bolts (the bolts closest to the potential
concrete breakout edge). Where a shear key is required, refer Section 9.2.4.
All holding down bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot dip galvanised. Material shall be
Grade 36 to ASTM F1554 or Grade S275JR to EN 10025 (or approved equivalent). Bolts
shall be painted following installation of nuts and approval of the erected steelwork. The
paint system shall be in accordance with 25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and
Protective Coatings.
Small items (such as ladders and stair stringers) may be fixed to concrete using mechanical
or chemical anchors where approved. These items shall be stainless steel or hot
galvanised unless otherwise approved by the lead engineer.
Minimum sizes of bolts shall be as follows:
Holding down bolts

20mm dia.

Mechanical or chemical anchors

16mm dia.

When designing holding down bolts to a baseplate, the contribution of friction between the
baseplate and the supporting concrete under compression loading may be taken into
account subject to the approval of the lead engineer. The friction force mobilised, using a
coefficient of friction = 0.40 can be deducted from the applied shear to calculate the
resultant shear on the holding down bolts. If the resultant applied ultimate shear load to the
holding down bolts is greater than 75 kN, a shear key shall be provided.
Holding down bolt type A (refer to standard concrete drawings) is typically used with
templates, and as such a sleeve is not required. For assemblies with numerous bolts, such
as vessels, a king bolt with an extra 100 mm projection shall be provided for ease of vessel
erection.
Where a sleeve is required, Type B is typically used for sizes up to 36 mm diameter as
larger sizes are too stiff to move and for diameters greater than 36 mm Type D shall be
used with a match-drilled template.
Type C shall only be used where requested by field engineering. This is typically required
where pre-assembly trailers traverse over or near existing pedestals.
9.2.4. Shear Keys
Shear keys shall be used where the applied ultimate shear load to the baseplate exceeds
75 kN and shall be designed to resist all the shear unless the contribution from friction
under compression loading is taken into account, subject to the approval of the lead
engineer.
Shear keys shall be single or cruciform plates in preference to an open H section. They
shall be full penetration butt welded to the baseplate unless otherwise approved. Refer to
standard drawings for preferred details.
9.2.5. Piers / Piles
The design parameters for piers shall be in accordance with the Geotechnical Report for
the specific facility.
9.2.6. Raft Slabs
Raft slabs shall be designed in accordance with the Geotechnical Report for the specific
facility.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.2.7. Ball Mill


A finite element analysis shall be used to verify that the natural frequency of the raft slab is
sufficiently removed from the forcing frequency of the equipment. The dynamic response of
the foundation shall be calculated and checked against agreed acceptability criteria.
References for machine foundations include:

ACI 351.3R Foundations for Dynamic Equipment

CP2012 Foundations for Machinery

Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines by Arya, ONeill and
Pincus

9.2.8. Tank Bases


Flat bottomed, ground supported tanks shall generally be supported on an annular ring of
concrete under the tank shell. Refer to the standard drawing details. Where additional uplift
resistance is required or increased axial bearing capacity is required, an inverted tee
shaped ring foundation shall be used. A full raft slab under the tank shall be used where
required for stability.
Tank foundation loads shall be derived from an API 650 analysis of the tank (typically
vendor supplied). Working loads from the API 650 analysis shall be factored to derive limit
state load combinations for foundation design.

9.3.

Concrete Structures

9.3.1. General
Concrete design shall be in accordance with ACI 318M-08. For typical details refer to
Concrete Standards commencing at drawing no. 25875-000-D0-0000-10001.
Site soils are generally corrosive. Concrete surfaces below ground shall receive surface
protection as per 25875-000-3PS-DB00-00002 Concrete Works.
Concrete surfaces above ground shall receive surface protection where noted in
25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and Protective Coatings.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.3.2. Materials
Concrete strength grade designations as per EN 1992 and corresponding usage, shall be
as follows:
Application

Strength
Grade
Designation

Maximum
Aggregate
Size

Characteristic
Compressive
Cylinder Strength fck
at 28 days [MPa]

All concrete U.N.O

C40/50

20

40

Foundations: Concrete in contact


with the soil

C40/50

20

40

Piles

C40/50

20

40

Silo walls

C40/50

20

40

Blinding

C12/15

20

12

Marine facilities

C40/50

20

40

Miscellaneous Concrete
e.g. Drainage Structures, Road
Signage and Fencing Footings

C25/30

20

25

Sprayed Concrete Applications

C40/50

10

40

Grout for Masonry Block Fill

C20/25

10

20

Exposure classification for exposed Concrete Structures shall be in accordance with


EN 1992-1-1.
Cement Type: Ordinary Portland cement to EN 197-1, incorporating fly ash, silica fume or
blast furnace slag where specified.
Reinforcing steel shall be as Grade B500B (yield strength 500 MPa minimum) bars to
EN 10080 / BS 4449.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.3.3. Concrete Cover for Reinforcement


Unless noted otherwise (U.N.O.) structures subjected to environmental exposure class in
accordance with EN 206-1 shall meet the minimum requirement for protective cover as per
the table below:
Exposure
Class to
EN 206-1

Minimum Protective
Cover to Reinforcement
[mm]

Applications
Blinding

X0

XC3
XS1
XS3

Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM


Flowable Backfill)
Concrete inside buildings

N/A

40

Water retaining structures


All concrete U.N.O.

50

Marine facilities including

50

Seawater retaining structures


Piles

XA3

Foundations

75

Concrete in contact with soil

For specific structural elements, U.N.O., a concrete protective cover (mm) for reinforcement
shall be as follows:
(A) Sealed interior environments

40

(B) Surfaces in exterior environments

Formed

50

Top and bottom surfaces of slabs

50

(C) Foundations and pedestals in contact with the ground

Precast footings

50

Precast piles

50

With membrane or blinding concrete

75

Tops of footings

75

Formed

75

Bored piers

100

9.3.4. Slabs on Grade


The design engineer shall confirm with the lead engineer, which areas are subject to
caustic spillage and inundation. These areas shall be designed and detailed in accordance
with Section 10.4.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Slab design, including joint selection and spacing, shall be guided by reference Guide to
Industrial Floors and Pavements by Cement Concrete and Aggregates Australia or
approved equivalent. Joint detailing is to be approved by the lead engineer. The design
engineer shall take account of any loading, both during construction and plant operations,
from mobile equipment, cranes and scaffolding.
As a minimum, provide a 150mm thick slab reinforced with SL82 fabric (8 mm bars at
200 mm centres) throughout to top face.
9.3.5. Earth Retaining Structures
Refer to geotechnical reports for more accurate information on earth pressures loads and
backfill material to earth retaining structures.
For flexible structures such as retaining walls, the lateral earth pressure coefficient shall be
taken as the active condition.
For more rigid construction the at-rest pressure shall be used. Retaining structures subject
to repeated traffic loading, shall take into account the effect of long term compaction that
may lead to a pressure approaching the at-rest pressure.
Passive pressures shall not be assumed to resist lateral forces unless substantial
movement of the structure can be accommodated.
The upper 500 mm of soil below finished grade shall be ignored for passive resistance to
the front of retaining walls.
Free standing cantilever retaining walls shall have a factor of safety against overturning and
sliding of at least 1.5.
The calculation of lateral seismic pressures to retaining walls in accordance with ASCE 705 11.8.3 to be agreed with the lead engineer.
9.3.6. Bases to Pumps and Rotating Equipment
Individual bases shall be sized to weigh 3 times the weight of pumps and small equipment.
This ratio can be reduced to 2 where the base is integral with a slab on grade.
A dynamic analysis of machine foundations shall be performed where directed by the
lead engineer. This analysis would typically be a hand method of analysis and would
typically apply to machines that are out of balance by design.
For large rotating equipment the lead engineer may direct that the design is performed
using a nite element analysis.
Dynamic deections and velocities shall be no greater than the vendor requirements and
approved by the lead engineer.
As a guide, to avoid resonant response problems, the operating frequency should be less
than 0.7 times the base natural frequency or more than 1.4 times the base natural
frequency.
Refer to Section 9.2.7 for design references.
9.3.7. Liquid Retaining Structures
All liquid retaining/storage structures shall be designed assuming maximum height of
containment.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

All liquid retaining/storage reinforced concrete structures shall be designed in accordance


with EN 19923 or approved equivalent. Refer EN 1992-3, Section 9.3.9 regarding crack
control.
Reinforcement shall be provided to each face of the walls and base slabs of liquid/storage
tank structures.
9.3.8. Suspended Floor Slabs
Steel decking formwork where nominated on the drawings shall be 1.0 mm thick Condek,
or
approved
equivalent,
painted
on
both
sides
in
accordance
with
specification 25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and Protective Coatings. The paint
system shall be as nominated for that particular area of the Works.
The bearing surface of steel supporting the decking formwork and any shear studs in
contact with the concrete shall be painted.
Steel decking shall be used as formwork only and not as a permanent structural element
i.e. any composite action shall be ignored in the structural design of the suspended slab.
9.3.9. Crack Control
Minimum reinforcement shall be to EN 1992-1-1, Section 7.3.2. Flexural reinforcement shall
also not be less than ACI 318M-08, Section 10.5.
Control of cracking shall be to EN 1992-1-1, Section 7.3.3 for a crack width of 0.30 mm. For
structures in seawater and over seawater (as determined by the astronomical high tide
contour), the crack widths shall be calculated and shall not exceed 0.15 mm. The quasipermanent load to EN 1990 shall be used in determining the crack widths.
For liquid retaining structures, crack control shall be achieved by applying Section 7.3.3 of
EN 1992-3 for a crack width of 0.10 mm.
9.3.10. One-Way Shear
The concrete shear resistance without shear reinforcement shall be calculated in
accordance with EN 1992-1-1 Section 6.2.2. Shear reinforcement shall be calculated in
accordance with Section 6.2.3. The resultant shear reinforcement and detailing shall not be
less stringent than ACI 318M-08 Section 11.4.

9.4.

Steelwork

9.4.1. General
Steelwork design shall be to the limit state design method in accordance with the
ADIBC 2013 and AISC 360-05 and AISC 341-05 where required.
For typical details refer
25875-000-S0-0000-10001.

to Steelwork

Standards

commencing

at

drawing

no.

Where floor plate is adequately welded to its support beam, it can be considered as
restraining the top flange of the beam. Floor grating fixed by any method shall not be
considered as restraining the top flange of its supporting beam.
3D welded steel frames shall not be used. The use of 3D welded steel frames shall be
approved (by exception) by the lead engineer. 2D welded steel frames are acceptable,
subject to transportation size limits.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.4.2. Materials and Preferred Steel Sections


The steel grades and preferred sections that shall be used in design are noted on the
standard drawings and in specification 25875-000-3PS-SS00-00002 Structural Steel
Supply and Fabrication.
9.4.3. Bolting
Unless otherwise shown, structural bolts shall be M20 bolts to ASTM A325M. Unless noted
otherwise, all bolts shall be snug tight. Slip-critical connections and tensioned bearing
connections shall be designated on the drawings.
All bolts shall be hot dip galvanized. All bolts shall be painted following installation of nuts
and approval of installed bolt tensioning. The paint system shall be in accordance with
25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and Protective Coatings.
Bolts in slip-critical connections shall be fully tensioned to exclude slip under serviceability
loads.
Bolts in tensioned bearing connections shall be fully tensioned but will permit the bolts
slipping into bearing mode under serviceability loads.
Fully tensioned ASTM A325M bolts shall be tensioned to AISC 360-05. Bolts shall be
tensioned using the part turn method.
Bolts subject to frequent load reversal from vibrating equipment shall be slip critical. Bolts
subject to cyclic or vibrating loads but without load reversal shall be tensioned bearing
connections or slip critical connections.
Capacities of bolts in shear bearing mode shall be based on the assumption that threads
are in the shear plane.
Bolts shall be a minimum size of M20, connected through cleats of 10 mm minimum
thickness UNO. For purlins and girts and similar minor connections smaller bolts to
ASTM A307 or ISO 4014 class 4.6 and 8 mm thick cleats may be used, except where the
purlin and girt manufacturer recommends high strength bolts and/or thicker cleats.
9.4.4. Welding
Manual welding, semi-automatic and automatic welding shall be in accordance with
AWS D1.1 (and AWS D1.8 where required). Electrodes shall have a minimum ultimate
tensile strength of 480 MPa and a minimum yield strength of 355 MPa.
Welds across the tension flange of members subjected to dynamic loads are not permitted,
unless approved by the lead engineer.
The minimum fillet weld size to be used is 6 mm. Where intermittent welds of a greater size
are specified, the remaining length shall be seal welded using a 3 mm fillet weld where
specified. Butt welds shall be full penetration unless otherwise approved by the lead
engineer.
Details that require site welding shall only be acceptable with the lead engineers approval.
9.4.5. Connections
The standard drawings show typical standard beam and bracing connections and column
splices and these details shall be used in preference to other, non-standard details.
The load capacity of the standard connections shall be evaluated by the design engineer to
verify the suitability of the standard to the specific design requirements. As a first
preference, the design engineer shall modify the standard connection where required to
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

provide the necessary load capacity. Alternatively a new connection shall be designed.
Non-standard connections shall be approved by the lead engineer.
Connections shall be checked for the minimum loads derived from AISC 360-05.
Where a number of members come together at a joint, the path of load transfer from one
member to another shall be evaluated before accepting the standard connection.
When selecting a connection, due consideration shall be given to ease of connection and
reducing labour costs in fabrication and particularly on site. To achieve this, preference
shall be given to extended cleat connections supporting un-coped members that are saw
cut and drilled only, as shown on the standard drawings.
Design of extended cleat connections shall be in accordance with AISC Steel Construction
Manual, 13th Edition (or later) or otherwise approved method.
Column splices shall be located so that they are readily accessible during erection of the
steelwork, preferably without the use of ladders or scaffolding. Note should be taken of
those splices labelled non-preferred on the standard drawings.
Temporary bolted lifting lugs shall be rationalised and preferably located so that they can
be readily attached and detached without special access.
Where necessary, slotted holes shall be used to allow for thermal expansion and
contraction for minor connections in lightly loaded situations i.e. conveyor stringers. Bolts to
slotted holes shall be finger tight and have a lock nut. Generally, slotted or oversize holes
should not be used if the member or assemblage is to provide stability to another structure
or part of a structure.
All connections shall have a minimum of 2 bolts except for minor connections such as fly
bracing.
9.4.6. Bracing
Vertical bracing shall generally be tube sections. Vertical braces are often long, heavily
loaded members and the fabrication effort required on the end connection is outweighed by
the structural efficiency of the tube section. Horizontal floor bracing shall generally be angle
sections. Open H section bracing is typically not used.
The flexural stiffness of tube bracing end connections shall be considered in determining
the effective length of compression tube braces.
Note should be taken of those bracing connections that are indicated as non-preferred on
the standard drawings.
9.4.7. Corrosion Protection
Corrosion protection is required for all steelwork.
Specification 25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and Protective Coatings Table 1 gives
a schedule of Paint Systems relating to the Area Number.
The steelwork shall incorporate the following minimum requirements:

The minimum thickness of rolled sections shall be 6 mm (unless otherwise


approved).

The minimum thickness of structural hollow sections shall be 4.8 mm and shall be
sealed unless galvanised.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Arrangements of steel that prevent access for inspection and maintenance shall not
be used, for example back-to-back angle members

Where positioning of members is likely to retain moisture and cannot be avoided,


provision of drainage holes is required

Stiffeners on platework exposed to the weather, shall be fully seal welded.

9.4.8. Flooring
The minimum clear head height between top of floor and the underside of overhead
services and beam soffits for all buildings, structures and conveyor galleries shall be 2200.
Unless noted otherwise, floor grating shall be hot dipped galvanised and fabricated from
32mm x 5mm bars at 40mm centres with 6mm square twisted cross bars at 100mm
centres. Load bars shall preferably be at right angles to the direction of predominant
pedestrian travel. All edges, ends and penetrations shall be fully banded.
The grating shall be fixed to the support members by hot galvanised bolts and proprietary
bent clip fasteners spaced at a maximum of 1000 mm intervals at all supports, but with a
minimum of four clips per panel. An alternative fixing system may be used subject to
approval. Where approved, floor grating may be welded to the supporting steelwork.
The standard floor plate thickness is 6 mm, exclusive of the raised angular pattern.
Floor plate shall have a raised angular pattern and shall be used selectively to prevent
spillage flowing to lower levels and shall be fully seal welded or sealed by another approval
method. Plate shall be welded to support beams or an alternative fixing system may be
used subject to approval, however it may not be sufficient to provide lateral restraint. Where
floor plate is assumed to provide lateral beam restraint, this shall be demonstrated by
calculation.
9.4.9. Stairs, Walkways and Landings
The clear nominal width between handrails for maintenance walkways and stairs (including
spiral stairs surrounding vessels), other than in conveyor gantries, shall be:

900 mm

1200 mm where there is a requirement for a 2 person width, as determined by the


lead engineer.

The clear nominal width between handrails for maintenance walkways and stairs in
conveyor gantries shall be 750mm.
Where possible, at the end of stairs, grating shall be aligned such that the load bars are
perpendicular to the direction of the stair.
For stairs up to 1200 wide, grating treads shall be fabricated from 32mm x 5mm load bars
at 30mm c/c with 6mm square twisted cross bars at 100mm c/c or approved alternative.
The stair treads shall be bolted to the stair stringers. Stair treads shall be T6 Webgrate
treads or an approved alternative and nosing shall be non-slip, coloured and removable.
The geometry of stair flights and handrails is detailed on the standard drawings and shall
conform to the ADIBC 2013. The loading on stairs and handrails is detailed in Section 6.3
of this document.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.4.10. Handrails and Kick-Plates


Handrails shall be fabricated steel. Refer to the design drawings for details.
Handrails shall be supplied in prefabricated modules and bolted to the supporting steelwork
wherever possible.
9.4.11. Ladders
Rung ladders shall have:

500 mm clear width between stiles unless noted otherwise.

20 mm diameter ladder rungs.

20 mm square ladder rungs turned on edge where advised by the lead engineer.

9.4.12. Crane Runway Beams and Monorails


The loads from cranes and monorail hoists shall be assessed in accordance with
EN 1993-3 or approved equivalent. The crane and hoist classification, loads and dynamic
effects, shall be confirmed by the Seller.
The distribution of crane and monorail loads within the crane runway beams and monorail
beams shall be in accordance with EN 1993-6 or approved equivalent. The capacity of the
crane runways and monorail beams for global actions and local effects (e.g. wheel load
effects) may be to either AISC 360-05 or EN 1993-6 with their respective loads factors.
Crane rails shall be fixed to the supporting steelwork using Gantrex (or equivalent) clips not hook bolts. The base of Gantrex clips shall be shop welded to the girders unless noted
otherwise.
Splices to crane rails on opposite sides of the crane runway shall be staggered with respect
to each other and with respect to the wheelbase of the crane. Rail splices shall not occur at
crane beam splices or over column supports provide a 100mm minimum offset.
Static vertical deflection of cantilever beams shall be evaluated allowing for rotation of the
beam at the support.
Runway beam to column details shall be detailed to allow for vertical and lateral
adjustments plus longitudinal displacements of the upper section of the beam caused by
beam deflection.
Supporting columns shall be designed to allow for the maximum eccentricity possible at the
beam to column connection.
Runway beams shall be designed for eccentric loading. Eccentricities to be adopted in
design are to be the maximum of values specified in EN 1993-6 or the following:
1. Supporting Columns
Total of:
(a) Adjustment off centreline available from the design details, and
(b) Column height to beam rail divided by 500 or 25 mm, whichever is less.
2. Runway Beams
Total of:
(a) Rail head divided by 4, and
(b) Beam sweep allowance of beam span divided by 1000 or 3 mm, whichever is greater.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

The horizontal actions arising from above eccentricities shall by analysed by the Twin
Beam Analogy assumption calculated by deriving horizontal forces acting at the centre of
gravity of the upper and lower beam flanges.
Horizontal loads derived from dynamic actions shall be applied at top of rail level and the
resulting horizontal design action on the beam also analysed by the Twin Beam Analogy
Method outlined above.
To allow for the above vertical and horizontal eccentric effects the following shall be
adopted to derive total stresses in the beam top and bottom flanges:
a)

Basic Case: Stresses due to vertical and lateral loads with no allowance for vertical
and lateral load eccentricity.

b)

Vertical Load Eccentricity: Stresses from twin beam analogy.

c)

Lateral Load Eccentricity: Stresses from twin beam analogy.

Addition of Cases: a, b, c with stress direction as appropriate to loading direction.


Bending stresses in beam webs resulting from eccentric effects of vertical and lateral loads
shall be evaluated as outlined in EN 1993-6.
Fatigue to runway beams and monorail beams shall be checked in accordance with
EN 1993-6 and shall be based on the relevant number of cycles applicable to the beam or
to the detail being designed and shall take into account the fabrication details of the
structure and its components.
For welded runway beam sections, fatigue in the welds connecting the upper flange to the
member web shall be checked for longitudinal shear stress plus stress arising from
dispersal of the wheel loads through the crane rail depth, upper flange thickness and web.
Curved monorail beams shall be checked with full accountability of the torsion induced.
Secondary support steel should be utilised to prevent excessive deflections and torsional
effects.
9.4.13. Grouting of Baseplates
Grout thickness under baseplates shall be a detailed as 50 mm. Grout thickness to
underside of stairs and ladders and other minor steelwork fixed with adhesive anchors shall
be detailed as 20 mm. Grout thickness may be varied where detailed by equipment Sellers
or directed by the lead engineer.
Grout type shall be:
General steelwork

Masterflow 830 or equivalent, premixed,


cementitious, non-shrink, free flowing grout

To base plates supporting heavy


impact, vibration and/or rotational
forces

Masterflow 622 or equivalent, heavy duty epoxy


resin based grout

Grout may be extended by aggregate addition where recommended by the grout supplier
and approved by the lead engineer.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

9.4.14. Purlins and Girts


Purlins and girts may be hot rolled steel where directed by the lead engineer. They shall be
designed with the associated structural steel.
Typically purlins and girts shall be cold formed sections. Sections shall be selected from the
sizes available from the purlin supply contractor.
If the purlin supply contractor is able to provide acceptable load capacity tables, they shall
be used to size the purlins and girts for the calculated loading. Where load capacity tables
are not available, capacities shall be calculated in accordance with AISI S100, North
American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, American
Iron and Steel Institute. The purlin supply contractors steel fixing details and bridging
details shall be reviewed by the lead engineer. If the contractors details are not
satisfactory, appropriate details shall be designed and documented.

9.5.

Timber

Timber engineering design shall comply with ANSI/AWC NDS 2012 National Design
Specification for Wood Construction.
Timber shall be resistant to moderate acid and alkaline conditions.
Timber shall be anti-fungal treated, using material approved in the UAE, as appropriate to
the species.

9.6.

Cladding

Cladding for industrial/ non-habitable buildings shall be in accordance with cladding


specification 25875-000-3PS-ATPS-00001.
Cladding for habitable buildings shall be in accordance with building works specification
25875-000-3PS-AYFP-00001.

9.7.

Concrete Masonry

Concrete masonry (i.e. blockwork) shall be designed in accordance with ACI 530-08
Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures.
Infill blockwork shall typically cantilever from the base and shall not incorporate metal ties to
the surrounding structure. Metal ties are not rated for seismic loads nor capable of
sustaining high seismic deflections.
Walls shall be detailed in accordance with the standard drawings.

10.

DESIGN OF FACILITIES

10.1.

Conveyor Structures

Structures are to be arranged such that belt tensions are not applied to conveyor gantries
except for cantilevered situations.
Where required, Teflon slide bearings shall be incorporated in sliding joints to gantries to
allow movement under thermal effects. Movements can be calculated using a thermal
coefficient for steel of 12 x 10-6 with an additional allowance for installation tolerance of +/25mm. Frictional loads generated by thermal movement shall be based on a coefficient of
friction for Teflon of 0.10.
When calculating total wind loads on open truss conveyors, a drag coefficient of 2.2 shall
be adopted and shall be applied to the full projected front face area of the conveyor.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

However, the total wind load on an open conveyor may be reduced provided that the loads
on every individual conveyor element are calculated.
When calculating total wind loads on fully enclosed conveyors, the drag coefficient may be
determined in accordance with ASCE 7-05.
Longitudinal effects from wind load on the conveyor and any anchorage points shall be
calculated on a 45 degree wind.
Frames supporting head, tail and bend pulleys shall be designed for a lateral load of 2.5%
of the applied belt tensions for each load combination.
Fatigue shall be checked in accordance with AISC 360-05 and shall be based on the
relevant number of cycles applicable to the structure or to the detail being designed and
shall take into account the fabrication details of the structure and its components.

10.2.

Tanks and Vessels

Tanks and vessels containing liquids at atmospheric pressure shall generally be designed
in accordance with API 650 and document 25875-000-3PS-MT00-00001 Technical
Specification for Steel Tanks.
Tanks and vessels shall be designed for the loading produced by the contained material or
fluid filled to the top. The design engineer shall check whether the hydro-test load condition
results in the worst load combination for design of support structures and foundations for
vessels and tanks.
When designing supports for tankage and pipe work, the design engineer shall obtain
information relating to the process fluid (S.G., temperature, etc.) and the likelihood of scale
formation.
In determining the weight of insulation, a density of 200 kg/m3 shall be adopted unless
noted otherwise. Maximum coefficient of friction to tank bases shall be 0.40 on concrete or
asphalt and 0.30 on an HDPE membrane.

10.3.

Pipe Racks

In consultation with the piping engineer, the design engineer shall determine the magnitude
and application of the loads listed below.
A pipe stress analysis shall be completed and all forces shall be provided before structural
design on pipe racks is finalised. Seismic loads, if provided by piping engineer, shall be
confirmed by the structural engineer.
Pipe rack lateral and vertical deflections shall be limited as required by the piping engineer.
Thermal loads shall be considered as dead loads and included in the appropriate load
combinations. Pipe anchor point forces shall be added in wind or seismic load combinations
where applicable. Pipe friction loads shall not be combined with wind or seismic loads.
10.3.1. Vertical Loads
The design engineer shall obtain information relating to the process fluid and the likelihood
of scale formation from the lead engineer.
The vertical loads shall include the weight of pipes, fittings, valves, insulation and the fluid
contents of piping, as well as loads due to scaling and sanding. In determining the weight of
insulation, a density of 200 kg/m3 shall be adopted. A minimum vertical load (including self
weight of pipes) of 2.5 kPa shall be used for each level of pipe rack.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

The procedure for hydro-testing and the resultant loads shall be evaluated to determine the
worst load case acting on supports.
10.3.2. Transverse Loads
Transverse loads include those from thermal expansion and the transverse component of
wind load.
In determining wind loads, the projected height per level of pipe rack used shall be obtained
from the following:
Width of pipe rack B

Projected height of wind load

Metres

Metres

B<4

1.2

4 <= B < 6

1.5

6 <= B <= 10

2.0

A drag coefficient Cd of 1.3 shall be adopted. Wind on structural steel is included in the
above.
For congested pipe racks, loads shall be explicitly calculated for all pipes (with due
allowance for future expansions) but shall not be less than calculated using the above
simplified method unless approved by the lead engineer.
10.3.3. Longitudinal Loads
Longitudinal loads include those from thermal expansion and the longitudinal component of
wind load.
Thermal forces are those forces caused by temperature changes during operations and
maintenance conditions over the life of the plant. Thermal forces shall be considered for the
following conditions:

Loads occurring at the anchor points of piping and equipment.

Sliding friction forces due to the thermal expansion and contraction of the piping and
equipment.

Horizontal loads due to thermal expansion shall be a minimum of 15% of the vertical pipe
loads attributed to a transverse frame and shall be applied to each transverse frame.
Where anchor loads are higher (and available) they shall be adopted for design. In case of
pipe rack components being individually analysed (e.g. transverse frames, longitudinal
braced bays, strut beams, etc.), a minimum longitudinal load of 10% of vertical pipe loads
shall be accumulated at longitudinal braced bays and carried down to the foundations. In
case of a pipe rack being analysed as a whole system, longitudinal loads on transverse
frames, as specified earlier, are considered adequate to meet the above requirement.
Longitudinal thermal forces shall be considered as uniformly distributed loads over the
entire span of the beam applied to the top flange of the pipe support beam.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

10.3.4. Longitudinal Beams


All longitudinal beams (struts) connecting pipe rack frames shall be designed for:

uniformly distributed vertical load of 10% of the vertical load applied on the beams of
the transverse frame or

vertical point load of 10 kN applied at mid-span

whichever produces the most adverse condition (e.g. shear, bending, deflection).
Horizontal load applied at mid-span shall be a minimum of 15% of the vertical load from
pipe off-takes (pipes coming on and off the side of the pipe rack) but shall not be less than
3 kN.
Loads from monorails and platforms etc. shall be considered to act simultaneously with
these loads.
10.3.5. Intermediate beams at tier levels
When determining distribution of load between main pipe rack beams and intermediate
transverse beams at tier levels, consideration of the relative stiffnesss of the beams and
supported pipes shall be taken into account.
10.3.6. Transverse restraint guides
Loadings on restraint guides shall be determined in consultation with the piping engineer.
10.3.7. Cable Trays
Loadings from cable trays shall be determined in consultation with instrument and electrical
engineers. As a minimum, the following loads shall be used:
300 wide tray

60 kg/m

450 wide tray

90 kg/m

600 wide tray

120 kg/m

900 wide tray

180 kg/m

10.4.

Caustic Areas

Caustic areas can be found in facilities 180, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 321, 322, 330,
350, 410, 420, 452, 453, 470, 510, 530 and 660. The extent of caustic area in a facility can
be confirmed by the facility engineer.
The standard drawings give typical details of the required construction.
Concrete structures, including slabs in caustic areas shall be designed, detailed and
specified as liquid retaining structures to EN 1992-3. For surfaces exposed to caustic,
crack control shall be achieved by applying Section 7.3.3 of EN 1992-3 for a crack width of
0.20 mm.
10.4.1. Materials
The following materials shall be used:
Concrete
Concrete Grade Designation:

C40/50

Maximum Aggregate size:

20 mm

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Cement:

Ordinary Portland with silica fume/fly ash replacement


Refer 25875-000-3PS-DB00-00001 Concrete Supply

Minimum cement content:

360 kg / m3

Maximum Water/Cement ratio:

0.42

Drying Shrinkage Strain:


at 56 days

700 microstrain (maximum)

Minimum curing time:

7 days using water sprays

Water-stops and Backstops


Material:

Natural rubber based.

Centre bulb:

150 mm wide maximum (or at least half


the slab thickness)

Backstop water-stops:

225 mm wide minimum.

Joint Sealants and Joint fillers


Sealant:

Samifilla or equivalent bitumastic


rubber compound. Do not use
polysulphide sealants.

Joint fillers:

Sternson Rodofoam GR or Softlon or


equivalent closed cell, semi-rigid, nonextruding PVC and low-density polyethylene foam.

10.4.2. Slab on Grade


The following shall be used:

150 mm minimum thickness with SL81 fabric (8 mm bars at 100 centres) throughout
to top face and 50 mm minimum cover. In locations where spillage of strong
solutions of caustic and liquor heated above 100 degree centigrade occur, an
approved equivalent or SL81 fabric shall be placed throughout to top and bottom
faces with 50 cover.

Select fill under slabs on grade shall be selected for its lack of reaction to caustic
spillage. This applies especially to any clay content of the fill material

50 mm thick blinding concrete under all slabs and backstop support footing.

0.2 mm thick polyethylene membrane placed prior to monitor drain insertion. All
joints to be overlapped 100 mm and taped using polythene adhesive tape.
Membrane joints should not occur beneath a slab joint.

Provide building paper above monitor drains and lap 100mm with membrane.

Vertical water stop in combination with backstop water stop at all joints. Joint
intersections should be at or near 90 degrees.

Sumps to be circular, refer standards. Sumps located on elevated slabs shall be


fabricated from steel and sumps on grade shall be in concrete construction.

Bases for all small equipment, pump discharge and suction supports, piping
supports, cable ladders, hose stations, field instrument housing, etc. shall preferably
be cast integrally with the slab. Locate bases and plinths to avoid obstruction to
drainage.

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Where column pedestals, pump bases, etc. penetrate the slab, construct a kerb
around the perimeter of these foundations and provide an isolation joint. The kerb
shall preferably be cast integrally with the slab.

The maximum and minimum floor slopes considered as desirable are tabulated
below:

Floor areas immediately adjacent


to process floor sumps carrying
liquors with high solids content
Floor areas with liquors with high
solids content
Floor areas with liquors with low
solids

Absolute
Min.
1 : 20

Desirable
Min.
1 : 10

Max.

1 : 30

1 : 20

1:6

1 : 50

1 : 30

1:6

1:5

10.4.3. Bund Walls


Bund walls to contain spillage from tanks or process lines should be set at a level that will
give a volume of containment equal to the maximum possible volume discharged to the
floor (plus 10% reserve) by the largest container. The minimum height of bund walls should
be 150 mm above the floor level at the slab perimeter.
Access for personnel shall be provided by cross overs and suspended platforms, and
access for maintenance equipment shall be provided by ramps.
Up-stands should preferably be cast integrally with the slab. Where required, provide a
construction joint incorporating a centre-bulb waterstop.
Where the volume of spilt liquor cannot be contained in one bunded area, overflow
channels shall be provided to divert the surplus liquor to adjacent areas and containment
systems.
10.4.4. Joints

Avoid using joints where possible.

Joint spacing should be at maximum centres of between 6 and 10 metres.

Joints should be arranged so that slab areas are rectangular with side ratio in the
range of 1:1 to 2:1 and intersect at approximately at right angles.

Intersection of joints should be located away from column, pump or pipe support
foundations and sumps.

Joints should be positioned at the high points of slabs, across 'vee' drains and not
parallel to the bed of the drain and at right angles to the direction of surface flow
over the slab.

Monitor drains shall be installed under the full length of each joint above the
waterproof membrane. These shall fall to a low point discharging to an observation
drain at the perimeter of the slab.

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10.5.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

Acid Preparation and Storage Areas

Acid preparation and storage areas shall be designed to isolate and minimise the area over
which spills, leaks, or discharge can occur. Protection to areas of contact should be as
follows:
Concrete: Protective coating system for acid areas in accordance
specification 25875-000-3PS-NX00-00001 Painting and Protective Coatings.

with

Steelwork: For all discontinuous welds, provide seal weld to fully seal the joint. All welds
and heat-affected areas shall be de-scaled and passivated.

10.6.

Structural Steel Buildings

All buildings shall have a roof pitch of 50, complying with the minimum requirements of
Section 1507.4.2 of ADIBC 2013, unless noted otherwise on the drawings and other
documents.
10.6.1. Calcination Building
Floors temporarily supporting refractory during construction shall be designed for a stacking
load of 17 kPa. The lead engineer shall confirm the extent of floor areas required to support
refractory.

10.7.

Steel Tanks

Steel tanks shall be designed in accordance with document 25875-000-3PS-MT00-00001


Technical Specification for Steel Tanks.

10.8.

Chimneys and Stacks

Chimneys and stacks shall be designed in accordance


25875-000-3DR-S01-00004 Stack/Chimney Structural Design Criteria.

with

document

NOTE: Wind loads for chimneys and stacks shall be calculated using internationally
accepted, chimney/stack design codes published by ACI, ASME, CICIND or otherwise
approved publication.

10.9.

Silos, Bins and Bunkers

Silos, bins and bunkers shall be designed in accordance with document


25875-000-3DR-S01-00005 Silos, Bins and Bunkers Structural Design Criteria.

Confidential 2015 Joint Venture between International Bechtel Co. Ltd (Abu Dhabi Branch) and Petrofac Emirates L.L.C. (BPJV). All rights reserved.
Electronic documents, once printed, are uncontrolled and may become outdated.
Refer to the electronic documents in the project electronic database for current revisions.

25875-000-3DR-S01-00001 Rev 003

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