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NAME: Evan Pfeifer

DATE: 31 March 2016


Ions in Solution: Using Conductivity for Chemical Analysis
INTRODUCTION/GOALS OF EXPERIMENT
The purpose of this experiment is find the conductivity of two
solutions: HCl, water, and NaOH, and crotonic acid, water, and NaOH. These
solutions are strong acid-strong base and weak acid-strong base solutions,
respectively. Conductivity is a new concept for students, though it relies on
the same basic titration concepts that were built from previous labs. I expect
the strong acid solutions to dissociate quickly and have a larger increase on
the graphs than the weak acid solutions, which will rise more slowly. When
ions dissociate quicker, it means that there is more conductivity.
Ionic Equations:
HCl (l) + NaOH (l) H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)
C4H6O2 (s) + NaOH (l) NaC4H5O2 (aq) + H2O (l)

RESULTS
Unknown number: 13
Conductivity vs Volume
12000
10000

f(x) = - 687.88x + 10896.52

8000

K (S)

6000
4000

f(x) = 300.7x - 1239.99

2000
0

10

Volume (mL)

15

20

25

301x 1240 = -688x + 10,900


2,450

x = 12.3

Volume: 12.3 K:

E=4.08x10-4 V

Conductivity vs Volume
12000
10000

f(x) = - 701.99x + 11061.37

8000

K, (S)

6000
4000

f(x) = 326.15x - 1534.54

2000
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Volume (mL)

326x 1540 = -702x + 11,100

x = 12.3

Volume: 12.3

E=4.07x10-4 V

f(x) =

Conductivity vs Volume
5000
f(x) = 485.39x - 1690.89

4000
3000

k (S)

2000
1000
0

10

Volume (mL)

11

12

13

14

k: 2,460

485x 1690 = 205x + 189

x = 6.69

Volume: 6.69

k: 1,560

E=6.41x10-4 V
Calculations: example graph 3
485 x1690=20 5 x +18 9
28 1 x=18 80

x=6.69

Volume = x
Volume = 6.69 mL
K:
485 ( 6.69 )1690=1,5 60
E:
1/K
1/1,560
E=6.41x10 -4 V

DISCUSSION

Compare and contrast the conductivity titration to the pH-meter


monitored titration you did earlier. What is the advantage of the
former?
The conductivity titration measured conductivity through ions in
the solution, while the pH titration measured the pH level of the
solution. They both use strong and weak acids and bases as their
reactants. The main advantage of the pH titration is that there is a
greater ratio of H+ ions to the rest of the solution, which makes the
results clearer. In the conductivity titration, there are many other ions
that might disrupt the overall charge and then deliver unclear results.

How did the shape of the curve change for the titration of strong vs.
weak acid?
The conductivity rose sharply in the strong acid-strong base
solution, while it rose slowly in the weak acid-strong base solution. This
is most likely because the ions in the weak acid solution did not
dissociate as quickly as the strong acid. The conductivity then rises
slower, since the negatively charged ions, such as Cl-, take longer to
dissociate.

CONCLUSION
In this lab, we measured the conductivity of two solutions with different

properties, which produced very different results. The conductivity rose


sharply in the strong acid-strong base solution, while it rose slowly in the
weak acid-strong base solution because of ion dissociation differences in
weak and strong acid solutions. This lab reinforced concepts of strong and
weak acids and bases, titration techniques, and allowed students to gain an
understanding of conductivity and how it works when compared to pH.
One possible error would be the disadvantage of a conductivity
titration, which is that the ratio of H+ ions is smaller than a pH titration.
Because there are many other ions in the solution, the individual charges
might interfere with the overall conductivity. Another error could be improper
measurements during the lab. Conductivity levels can be very sensitive to
change, so an extra mL of acid could upset the results in a significant way.
The results were expected: there was a sharper and bigger increase in
graphs 1 and 2, which were strong acid titrations that indicated more
conductivity. The weak acid titration (graph 3) rose more slowly to indicate
less conductivity.
HCl (l) + NaOH (l) H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)
The strong acid HCl dissociated more quickly and released the different ions
and their charges.
C4H6O2 (s) + NaOH (l) NaC4H5O2 (aq) + H2O (l)
The weak acid C4H6O2 dissociated slower to produce the gradual rise.
Because the ions dissociated slower, the conductivity was not high.