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Calculus I

Review (Pre-Calc)
Practice Problems:
2

y =x +1 No because 2 y values for each

1) Determine if this is a function:


x value
2) Given

f ( x )=x 2+ 6 x 11 find
3

9 t 3 18 t 2 +6 t=0

Solution: Solve

Solution = -171

f ( t )=9 t 18 t +6 t

3) Determine the roots of

f ( x )=3 x 2x +10

3 t ( 3 t 26 t+2 ) =0

b b24 ac
,
2a

Using quadratic equation

4) Given

f (10)

and

g ( x ) =120 x

t=0, 1

1
3

find

( fog ) ( x ) =f ( g ( x ) )=1200 x 2100 x+12


5) Given

f ( x )=3 x2

find

f 1 (x ) Solution:

f 1 ( x )=

x +2
3

6)
Indefinite Integrals
Practice Problems:
1)

x 4 +3 x9 dx

2)

2 tdx

Solution =
Solution =

2tx+ c

1 5 3 2
x + x 9 x +c
5
2
(make sure to say the differential

(dx) is important)
3)

dy

4)

3 x3 + x 5 + 6 x dx

Solution =

1 dy= y + c

Solution = Change everything into an easily readable form and then


integrate

3 x + 75 + 6 1 x dx= 3 x 4 + 7 x5 + 16 x
x

5)

1
2

()

3 e x +5 cos ( x )10 se c 2 xdx


Solution = Use trig derivatives to solve.

e x dx=e x + c

cos ( x ) dx=sin ( x ) +c

sec2 ( x ) dx=tan ( x ) +c

3 e x +5 cos ( x )10 sec2 ( x ) dx=3 e x + 5 sin ( x )10 tan ( x ) +c


Substitution Rule
Practice Problems:
4

1)

x 2 ( 310 x 3 ) dx
u=310 x 3

Solution:

du=30 x 2 dx

1 1 5
1
d u=
u +c=
( 310 x 3 ) + c
x 2 ( 310 x 3 ) dx= u 4 ( 1
)
(
)
30
30 5
150
4

2)

sec2 ( 4 t ) ( 3tan ( 4 t ) )3 dt
Solution:

u=3tan ( 4 t)

sec2 ( 4 t ) ( 3tan ( 4 t ) )
3)

dt=

du=4 sec 2 ( 4 t ) dt sec 2 ( 4 t ) dt =

1
du
4

1
1 4
1
4
u3 du=
u + c=
( 3tan ( 4 t )) +c
4
16
16

2t 3 +1
t 4+ 2t dt

Solution:

u=t + 2t

1
7
1 1 2
12
7
1
dx=3 x 4 x4 +
x +c= x 4 x 4 + x 2 +c
7
4
6 1
7
4
3
4
2

1
du=( 4 t 3 +2 ) dt=2 ( 2 t 3 +1 ) dt ( 2 t 3 +1 ) dt= du
2

2t 3 +1
t 4+ 2t dt= 12 1u du= 12 ln|u|+ c= 12 ln|t 4 +2 t|+c

()

4)

tan ( x ) dx
Solution:

du=sin ( x ) dx sin ( x ) dx=du

u=cos ( x)
sin ( x )

tan ( x ) dx= cos ( x ) dx= u1 du=ln|u|+c =ln cos ( x)+ c

Definite Integral
Definition: Given a function f(x) that is continuous on the interval [a,b] we divide the
interval into n subintervals of equal width, x, and from each interval choose a
point,

c i . Then the definite integral of f(x) from a to b is:

f ( x ) dx=lim
f (c i) x
n
i=1

Intuitively -> Similar to Riemann sum but taking infinite partitions. You are
multiplying the value of the function with partition length at each point

c i . Infinite

partitions give you exact results because you are adding up all of the infinitely small
areas together.
Practice Problem:
3

1)

5 dx=lim
f ( c i ) xi
n
i=1

Solution:

3i 3
3
15
f
=lim 5
=lim
5 dx=lim

n n n i=1 n n i=1 n
n i=1
0

( )( )

()

15
n

Since

doesnt have I in it, it is a constant, therefore

. And the solution becomes

lim n
n

15
15
1= n

n i=1
n

( 15n )=15

Properties of a Definite Integral:


b

f ( x ) dx= f ( x ) dx

1)

f ( x ) dx=0

2)

cf ( x ) dx=c f ( x ) dx

3)

f ( x ) g ( x ) dx= f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx

4)

f ( x ) dx= f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx

5)

Note: c does not have to be between a

and b
b

6)

f ( x ) dx= f ( t ) dt
a

7)

c dx=c ( ba )
a

8) If

f (x)0

for

ax b

then

f ( x ) dx 0
a

9) If

f (x) g( x )

for

ax b

then

f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx
a

10)

If

m f ( x) M
b

11)

for

ax b

f ( x ) dx f ( x )dx
a

then

m(ba) f ( x ) dx M (ba)
a

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus


x

f ( x)

Definition: If

[a ,b ]

is continuous on

and It is differentiable on

[a ,b ] then,

(a , b)

g ( x ) = f ( t ) dt
a

is continuous on

'

g ( x )=f ( x ) .

and that,

Alternate form:

d
f (t )dt=f (x )
dx a

Practice Problem:
x

e 2 t cos2 ( 15 t ) dt

1) Differentiate

Solution: Use FTC:


1

g' ( x )=e2 x cos2 (15 x)

+1
dt
tt 2+1

2) Differentiate

Solution: Cant use FTC yet because the lower limit needs to be a constant
and upper limit needs to be a variable. First, interchange the limits using
one of the properties of definite integrals:
1

t 2 +1 dt = t 2 +1 dt
1 t +1
x t +1
2

We still cant use FTC because theres an


an x. Use chain rule (Let

u=x

d
d
du
( g ( u ) )= ( g ( u ) )
dx
du
dx
x

in the upper limit and not

):

where

u=f ( x )

( x 2 ) +1
d t 4 +1
d t 4 +1 du u 4 +1
u 4 +1
x 8+1
(
)
dt=
dt
=
2
x
=2
x
=2
x
=2
x
2
2
2
dx
du
dx u2 +1
u 2+1
x 4+ 1
1 t +1
1 t +1
( x 2 ) +1

Definition: Suppose
that

F( x )

f (x)

is a continuous function on

is any anti-derivative for

[a ,b ]

and also suppose

f ( x) . Then,

f ( x ) dx=F ( x )a =F ( b )F(a)
b

Practice Problem:
2

1) Evaluate

y 2 + y2 dy
1

Solution: First solve the indefinite integral

y 2 + y2 dy= 3 y 3 y 1 +c

Next, evaluate the indefinite integral at the two points

y=1 y=2

and

subtract.
2

y + y dy= 13 y 3 1y = 13 ( 2 )3 12 13 (1 )3 11 = 83 12 13 +1= 17
6
1
1
2

2) Evaluate

y 2 + y2 dy
1

Solution: You cant (yet) because

y=0

is undefined in the function

(Function must be continuous to use FTC)


Substitution in Definite Integrals
Same concept as before (u substitution), dont forget to change the limits of
integration though!