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difference across the wall of 50 C. The thermal conductivity of the firebrick is 0.65 BTU/hrft-F at the temperature interest.

a. 285 W/m2

c. 112 W/m2

b. 369 W/m2

d. 429 W/m2

Solution

Q

A

kAT

x

kT

x

Where:

T

50

6in.

0.65

90F

0.5 ft.

BTU

hr ft F

Then:

Q

A

0.65 90

BTU

0.50

hr ft F

Q

A

W

3.153

BTU

m

117

hr ft 1 BTU ft

hr

Thus:

b

Q

A

368.90

W

m

2. At an average temperature of 100C, hot air flows through a 2.5 m long tube with an

inside diameter of 50 mm. The temperature of the tube is C along its entire length.

Convective film coefficient is 20.1 W/m2-K. Determine the connective heat transfer from

air to the tube.

a. 900 W

c. 624 W

b. 909 W

d. 632 W

Solution

Q

h AT

Where:

A

d L

0.050 2.5

0.3927m

Thus;

d Q

20

631.46 W

3. Steam, initially saturated at 2.05 MPa, passes through a 10.10 cm standard steel pipe for

a total distance of 152 m. The steam line is insulated with 5.08 cm thickness of 85%

magnesia. For an ambient temperature of 22C, what is the quality of the steam which

arises at its destination if the mass flow rate is 0.125 kg steam per second?

Properties of Steam:

Pressure=2.05 MPa,

Temperature=213.67 C

hfg=1885.5 kJ/kg

hg=2800.00 kJ/kg

Note: k for 85% magnesia is 0.069 W/m-K and ho for still air is 9.36 W/m2-K

a.93 %

c. 84 %

b.98 %

d. 76 %

Solution

From figure,

r1=5.05 cm

r2=10.13 cm

Q

t

r

ln

r

2kL

t

1

A h

Where:

A

2r L

2 10.13 152

96.746 m

213.67

ln 0.1013/0.0505

2 0.069 152

16,427.4 W

m h

22

1

96.746 9.36

16.43 kW

From:

16.43

0.125 2800

2668.6kJ/kg

Where:

2668

x

x

914.52

x 1885.5

0.92998 or 93 %

Thus;

a 93%

4. The sun generates 1 kW/m2 when used as a source for solar collectors, a collector with

an area of 1 m2 heat water. The flow rate is 3.0 liters per minute. What is the temperature

rise in the water? The specific heat of water is 4,200 J/kg C.

a. 4.8 C

c. 0.50 C

b. 0.48 C

d. 0.84 C

Solution

Q

mC T

Where:

Q

kW

1m

m

Li

min

4200

1kW

kg

Li

J

kgC

60

4.2

min

s

0.05

kg

s

kJ

kgC

Thus;

1

0.05 4.2 T

a T

4.76 C

5. The hot combustion gases of a furnace are separated from the ambient air and its

surrounding which are a 25C, by a brick wall 0.15 m thick. The brick has a thermal

conductivity of 1.2 W/m-K and a surface emissivity of 0.80. Under steady state conditions

and outer surface temperature of 100 C is measured. Free convection heat surface

temperature of 100 C is measured. Free convection heat transfer to the air adjoining this

surface is characterized by a convection coefficient of 20 W/m2-K. What is the inner

temperature in C?

a. 623.7

c. 461.4

b. 352

d. 256.3

Solution

Let, Q

Q

h t

20 100

1500

t

25

W

m

Q

20,408.4

10 Fe T

20,408.4

10

1,872,793

520

0.80

T

100

J

hr

273

m

25

273

J

hr

W

m

Then;

Q

2020

W

m

1500

520

Thus;

Q

kA t

2020

b t

t

x

1.2 t

100

0.15

352.5 C

6. A 6 in. x 20 ft. uninsulated B.I. pipe conveys steam at 385 F wit han average ambient

temperature of 85F. If the cost of the fuel is P 250.00 per 106 BTU with the net energy

conversion efficiency of 75%, what is the annual cost of the heat lost?

a. P 60, 482.00

c. P 70, 482.00

b. P 65, 482.00

d. P 75, 482.00

Solution

For 6 in. pipe schedule 80

D

6.625 in.

5.761 in.

For iron;

k

52

30

W

m

BTU

hr ft F

h

1000

BTU

F

hr ft

BTU

ft

F

hr

Solving for Q:

t

D

ln

D

2kL

t

Q

1

Ah

1

A h

Where:

A

D L

D L

30.16ft

34.69ft

385

Q

1

30.16 1000

85

6.625

ln

5.761

2 30 20

Q

20,713

1

34.69 2

BTU

hr

0.75 10

Thus;

a C

P 60,482.00

7. What is the external heating area in square feet of a tube with the following dimensions:

tube inside diameter = 5 in. wall thickness = in. length = 18 ft.

a. 26.5

c. 19.25

b. 24.25

d. 28.26

Solution

A

D L

Where:

D

6

12

18

1

2

6 in.

Thus;

A

d A

28.27ft

of 635 mm Hg and exhaust steam enters the condenser at 45.81 C, the barometric pressure

is 760 mm Hg and the saturation pressure at 45.81 C is 0.010 MPa.

Solution

a. 80.4%

c. 92.7%

b. 85.2%

d. 98.3%

P

P

Vacuum Efficiency

P

P

Where:

P

101.325 kPa

0.010 MPa

760

125 mmHg

16.665kPa

10kPa

635

101.325kPa

760mmHg

Then;

Vacuum Efficiency

101.325 16.665

101.325 10

Vacuum Efficiency

0.9270

Vacuum Efficiency

92.70%

Thus;

9. A heat exchanger was installed purposely to cool 0.50 kg of gas per second. Molecular

weight is 28 and k=1.32. The gas is cooled from 150 C to 80 C. Water is available at the rate

of 0.30 kg/s and at a temperature of 12 C. Calculate the exit temperature of the water.

a. 48

c. 46

b. 42

d. 44

Solution

Q

m C

m C

m C T

12

m C

150

80

Where:

C

1.2247

4.187

kJ

kg K

kJ

kg K

Then;

0.30 4.187 t

12

80

Thus;

c t

46.125 C

10. An uninsulated steam pipe passes through a room in which the air and walls are at

25 C. The outside diameter of the pipe is 70 mm, and its surface temperature and emissivity

are 200 C and 0.80 respectively. If the coefficient associated with free convection heat

transfer from the surface to the air is 15 W/m2-K, what is the rate of heat loss from the surface

per unit length of pipe?

a. 997.84 W/m

c. 797.84 W/m

b. 897.84 W/m

d. 697.84 W/m

Solution

Q

Q

Where:

Q

h A t

15 0.07 L 200

577.27

t

25

W

m

20,408.4

10 A Fe T

20,408.4

10

1,514,032.40 L

42,057 L

0.07 L 0.8

J

hr

473

298

J

hr

W

m

Thus;

Q

577.27L

997.84 L

Q

L

420.57L

997.84

W

m

H2O gas temperature = 1145 C

CO2 gas temperature = 45 C

Unit surface conductance on the hot side = 230 W/m2-K

Unit surface conductance on the cold side = 290 W/m2-K

Thermal Conductivity of the metal wall = 115 W/m-K

Find the maximum thickness of the metal wall between the hot gas and cold gas so that

the maximum temperature of the wall does not exceed 545 C.

a. 10.115 mm

c. 17.115 mm

b. 13.115 mm

d. 20.115 mm

Solution

Q

A

t

1

h

t

x

k

1

h

Q

A

h t

Q

A

230 1145

Q

A

138,000

545

W

m

Then;

138,000

1.45 45

x

1

1

230 115 290

Thus;

d x

20.115 mm

12. Calculate the heat transfer per hour through a solid brick wall 6m long, 2.9 m high, and

225 mm thick, when the outer surface is at 5 C and the inner surface 17 C, the coefficient

of thermal conductivity of the brick being 0.5 W/m-K.

a. 2,004.48 kJ

c. 2,400.48 kJ

b. 3,004.48 kJ

d. 3,400.48 kJ

Solution

Q

kAT

x

0.60 6 2.9 17

0.225

556.8 W

556.8

2,004.48

J 360J0s

hr

s

kJ

hr

kJ

1000J

Thus;

a The heat transfer per hour is 2,004.48 kJ

13. A vertical furnace wall is made up of an inner wall of firebrick 20 cm thick followed by

insulating brick 15 cm thick and an outer wall of steel 1 cm thick. The surface temperature

of the wall adjacent to the combustion chamber is 1200 C while that of the outer surface

of steel is 50 C. The thermal conductivities of the wall material in W/m-K are: firebrick, 10;

insulating brick 0.26; and steel, 45. Neglecting the film resistances and contact resistance

of joints, determine the heat loss per sq. m. of wall area.

a. 1.93 W/m2

c. 1.55 W/m2

b. 2.93 W/m2

d. 2.55 W/m2

Solution

Q

A

Q

A

x

k

x

k

x

k

1200 50

0.20 0.15 0.01

10

0.26

45

1.93

Thus;

a

Q

A

1.93

W

m

14. A composite wall is made up of an external thickness of brickwork 110 mm thick inside

which is a layer of fiberglass 75 mm thick. The fiber glass is faced internally by an insulating

board 25 mm thick. The coefficients of thermal conductivity for the three are as follows:

Brickwork

1.5 W/m-K

Fiberglass

0.04 W/m-K

Insulating board

0.06 W/m-K

The surface transfer coefficients of the inside wall is 3.1 W/m2-K while that of the outside

wall is 2.5 W/m2-K. Take the internal ambient temperature as 10 C and the external

temperature is 27 C. Determine the heat loss through such wall 6 m high and 10 m long.

a. 330.10 W

c. 430.10 W

b. 230.10 W

d. 530.10 W

Solution

Q

AT

R

Where;

R

1

h

x

k

x

k

1

3.1

0.110

1.5

3.09

m C

W

x

k

0.075

0.04

1

h

0.025

0.06

1

2.5

Then;

Q

6 10 27

3.09

10

Thus;

a Q

330.10 W

15. One insulated wall of a cold-storage compartment is 8m long by 2.5 m high and

consists of an outer steel plate 18 mm thick. An inner wood wall 22.5 mm thick, the steel

and wood are 90 mm apart to form a cavity which is filled with cork. If the temperature

drop across the extreme faces of the composite wall is 15 C, calculate the heat transfer

per hour through the wall and the temperature drop across the thickness of the cork. Take

the coefficients of thermal conductivity for steel, cork and wood as 0.45, 0.045, and 0.18

W/m-K respectively.

a. 408.24 kJ, 12.12 C

Solution

Q

AT

R

x

k

0.018

45

2.125

x

k

x

x

0.09

0.045

0.09

0.045

0.0225

0.18

Then:

Q

8 2.5 15

2.125

141.176 W or

508.24

J

s

kJ

hr

Solving for the temperature drop across the cork:

Q

AT

x

k

141.176

20 T

0.09

0.045

14.12 C

Thus;

d 508.24 kJ, 14.12C

16. A cubic tank of 2 m sides is constructed of metal plate 12 mm and contains water at

75C. The surrounding air temperature is 16 C. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient

from water to air. Take the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the metal as 48 W/m-K,

the coefficient of heat transfer of water is 2.5 kW/m2-K and the coefficient of heat transfer

of the air is 16 W/m2-K.

a. 15.84 W/m2-K

c. 16.84 W/m2-K

b. 14.84 W/m2-K

d. 13.84 W/m2-K

Solution

Let U

U

1

R

Where:

1

x

x

h

1

2.5

1

h

0.012

48

10

1

16

0.063m C /W

R

Then:

U

1

W

0.063 m C

15.84

W

m C

Thus;

a U

15.84

W

m C

17. Calculate the quantity of heat conducted per minute through a duralumin circular

disc 127 mm diameter and 19 mm thick when the temperature drop across the thickness

of the plate is 5 C.Take the coefficient of thermal conductivity of duralumin as 150 W/m-K.

a. 30 kJ

c. 35 kJ

b. 40 kJ

d. 45 kJ

Solution

Q

kAT

x

150

0.127

4

0.019

500.04 W

30 kJ/min

Thus;

a the quantity of heat conducted per minute is 30 kJ

18. A cold storage compartment is 4.5 m long by 4 m wide by 2.5 m high. The four walls,

ceiling and floor are covered to a thickness of 150 mm with insulating material which has

a coefficient of thermal conductivity of 5.8 x 10 -2 W/ m-K. Calculate the quantity of heat

leaking through the insulation per hour when the outside and inside face temperatures of

the material is 15 C and -5 C respectively.

a. 2185.44 kJ

c. 3185.44 kJ

b. 1185.44 kJ

d. 4185.44 kJ

Solution

Q

kAT

x

Where:

A

2 4.5 2.5

78.50 m

4 2.5

4.5 4

Then:

Q

5.8

10

78.5 15

0.15

607.07 Wor

2185.44

J

s

kJ

hr

Thus:

a the quantity of heat leaking through the insulation per hour is 2185.44

kJ

.

hr

A blower operating at 15000 rpm compresses air from 20C and 1 atm to 1.6 atm.

The design flow is 38 m3/min and at this point the power input is 60 kW. Determine

the blower efficiency at the design flow.

a. 65%

c. 59.81%

b. 64.91%

d. 60.01%

Solution:

Blower Efficiency =

Isentropic Power

Power Input

Pisen =

k-1

k -1

kPV (rp )

k-1

1.4-1

k-1

= 35.89 kW

then;

eblower =

35.89

= 0.5981

60

thus;

(a) eblower = 59.81%

20. Supplementary Problem

A small blower handles 43.33 m3 of air per minute whose density is 1.169 kg/m3.

The static and velocity heads are 16.38 and 1.22 cm WG (at 15.6C) respectively.

Local gravity acceleration is 9.741 m/s2. Find the power input to the air from the

blower.

a. 1.64 kW

c. 1.76 kW

b. 1.91 kW

d. 1.24 kW

Solution:

P = Qh

Where:

h = 16.38 + 1.22

= 17.6 cm = 0.176 m

Q = 43.33 m3/min

= 0.72 m3/s

then;

P = 9.741(0.72)(0.176)

thus;

(d) P = 1.24 kW

21. Supplementary Problem

A fan can developed a static pressure head or 350 mm water gage through

standard air condition. What is the new static pressure head if fan can operate at

95C and 729 mm of Hg?

a. 265 mm WG

c. 274 mm WG

b. 270 mm WG

d. 263 mm WG

Solution:

h2

= 2

h1

1

Solving for 2 :

2 =

720(101.325/760)

0.287(95 + 273)

then;

h2

0.91

=

350

1.2

thus;

(a) h2 = 265.09 mm WG

22. Supplementary Problem

A two-stage radial-type airplane supercharger is designed to deliver 4535 kg of

air per hour at a pressure of 800 mmHg abs when operating at an altitude of 4570

m where the temperature is -15Cand the pressure is 429 mm Hg abs. it rotates at

18,000 rpm and is to have an adiabatic over-all efficiency of 72 percent. It is to

be tested at sea level (762 mm Hg abs and 26.67C at a speed of 14,000 rpm.

Considering that the efficiency at the design point does not change, determine

for the design point under test conditions the volume of air taken m3/s.

a. 2.27 m3/s

b. 2.12 m3/s

Solution:

Q2

N2

=

Q1

N1

c. 1.27 m3/s

d. 1.12 m3/s

Q1 =

mRT1

P1

(4535/3600)(8.314/29)(-15 + 273)

429(101.325/760)

= 1.63 m3/s

Then;

14,000

Q2

=

1.63 18,000

Thus;

(a) Q2 = 1.27 m3/s

23. Supplementary Problem

The fan has a total head of 190 m and a static pressure of 20 cm WG. If the air

density is 1.2 kg/m3, what is the velocity of air flowing?

a. 16.21 m/s

c. 16.67 m/s

b. 17.21 m/s

d. 17.766m/s

Solution:

hv =

v2

2g

h = hs + hv

190 = 0.20(1000/1.15) + hv

hv = 16.09 m

then;

16.09 =

V2

2(9.81)

V = 17.766 m/s

thus;

(d) 17.766 m/s

24. Supplementary Problem

A sewerage aeration blower rotating at 3500 rpm is designed to deliver 567

m3/min of air from 20C and 1 atm to a discharge of 158 kpa (abs) with an

adiabatic efficiency of 65 %. During a summer the atmospheric temperature rises

to 43C but the barometric pressure does not change. It is desired to vary the

blower speed to maintain the same discharge pressure. Determine the discharge

volume of standard air with the new speed.

a. 8.20 m3/s

c. 8.64 m3/s

b. 9.10 m3/s

d. 9.74 m3/s

Solution:

2

Q1

h1

=

h2

Q2

h1

:

h2

Solving for

T2

h1

=

h2

T1

=

43 + 273

20 + 273

= 1.08

Then;

567

Q2

1.08 =

Q2 = 545.98 m3/min

Thus;

(b) Q2 = 9.10 m3/s

25. Supplementary Problem

A 40 in. diameter fan rated at 160,000 cfm standard air at 16 in. starting pressure is

operating at 1200 rpm. Solve for the specific speed.

a. 386,845.18 rpm

c. 384,845.18 rpm

b. 380,125.20 rpm

d. 392,865.28 rpm

Solution:

Ns = specific speed

Ns =

=

NQ

3

12000 160,000

3

( 43 )

Thus;

(a) Ns = 386,845.18 rpm

A boiler requires 75,000 m3/hr of standard air. What is the motor power if it can

deliver a total pressure of 145 mm or water gage. The mechanical efficiency of

fan is 64 %.

a. 40.30 kW

c. 42.45 kW

c. 46.30 kW

d. 43.69 kW

Solution:

Pmotor =

Pair

Pfan

Pair =QH

Where:

h = 0.145

1000

1.2

= 120.83 m

Then;

Pair = [(1.2)(0.00981)]

75000

(120.83)

3600

= 29.63 kW

Thus;

Pmotor =

29.63

0.64

27. Supplementary Problem

Calculate the required motor capacity needed to drive a forced-draft fan

serving a stoker fired boiler using coal as fuel.

Combustion data includes the following:

Atmospheric Air

101.3 kPa ; 20 C

10 tons

C = 78 %

S=1%

H=3%

A=8%

O=3%

M=7%

ExcessAir

30 %

18 cm WG

Fan Efficiency

60 %

a. 87.84 kW

c. 84.87 %

b. 82.87 kW

d. 88.72 %

Solution:

Pmotor =

Pair

Pfan

Theoretical Air required for the combustion of coal.

Wt =11.5C + 34.5

H -

O

+ 4.3S

8

= 11.5(0.78) + 34.5

0.03 -

0.03

+4.4(0.01)

8

Actual weight of air supplied into the boiler:

Wa = (1 + e) Wt

= (1 + 0.30)(9.92 kg air/kg fuel)[(10(1000)kg fuel/hr]

= 128,942 kg air/hr

Volume of air demanded by the boiler from the forced draft fan:

Q=

128,942 kg/hr

=107,451.77 m3 /hr

1.2 kg/m3

= 29.85 m3/s

Then;

Pair = 1.2 0.00981

29.85 (0.18)

1000

1.2

= 52.71 kW

Thus;

Pmotor =

52.71

0.60

28. Supplementary Problem

The motor power needed to drive the fan is 75 kW and the volume flow of air

delivered by fan is 23 m3/s and 20 cm water gage. The density of air is 1.2kg/m3.

What is the fan efficiency?

a. 60 %

c. 64 %

b. 62 %

d. 65 %

Solution:

efan =

Pair

Pmotor

Pair =[1.2 0.00981 23 ] 0.20

1000

1.2

= 45.126 kW

Then;

efan =

45.126

75

= 0.60168

Thus;

(a) efan = 60.168 %

29. Supplementary Problem

In a certain installation, a fan when driven by a 7.5 Hp motor at a speed of 600

rpm delivers 510 m3 of air per minute at a total pressure of 5 cm WC. If in the same

installation, 6.5 cm WC pressure is required. What power and motor speed willthe

fan be driven?

Solution:

Fan Drive Speed:

N2

N1

h2

h1

N2

=

N1

N2

=

600

h2

h1

6.5

5.0

N2 = 684.11 rpm

Motor Power required:

P2

N2

=

P1

N1

P2

=

7.5

684.11

600

P2 = 11.12 Hp

Thus;

(c) N2 = 684.11 rpm, P2 = 11.12 Hp

A fan is supplying forced draft into a boiler has the following specifications on its

name plate:

Capacity

280 m3/min

Air temp.

25C

Total pressure

4 cm WC

Motor Rating

A tabular air heater is installed in line with the boiler, and the fan is now required

to supply heated air for combustion at 90C. What drive power is required and

the new total pressure that this fan will operate if it is going to deliver the same

volume of heated air at 1200rpm?

a. 3.28 cm WC, 4.10 Hp

Solution:

Solving for the new head;

h1

= 2

h2

1

Solving for

2

:

1

2 T1

=

1 T2

=

Then;

25+273

90+273

h2

= 0.82

4

h2 = 3.28 cm WC

thus;

(a) h2 = 3.28 cm WC & P2 = 4.10 Hp

Note: when air is heated, its density decreases and the pressure needed to move the air

to the combustion chamber will be lesser resulting to the decrease in the fan power

requirement.

31. Supplementary Problem

A fan has a suction pressure of 5 cm water vacuum with air velocity of 5m/s. the

discharge has 20 cm WG and discharge velocity of 10 m/s. Find the total head of

the fan.

Solution:

h = hs + hv

where:

hs =

(hdw - hsw )w

a

[(0.20 - (-0.05)]1000

1.2

= 208.33 m

hv =

Vd 2 - Vs 2

2g

(10) - (5)

2(9.81)

= 3.28 m

Thus;

h = 208.11 + 3.28

(a) h = 212.15 m

32. Supplementary Problem

An Air Handling Unit (AHU) for an air conditioning system has a centrifugal fan

with backward curved blades mounted on a scroll housing driven by a motor at

750 rpm. The fan delivers 2000 cfm of air against 3 in. WC static pressure (including

resistance of ducts, elbows, cooling coils, and outlet grills) and 0.80 in. WC

velocity pressure. Calculate the tip speed of the wheel.

a. 3100 fpm

c. 3586 fpm

b. 3000 fpm

d. 3500 fpm

Solution:

The speed of the wheel:

V=

2ghv

a hva = hvw w

(0.075)hva = (0.8/12)(62.4)

hva = 55.46 ft of air

Note:

air =0.075 lb/ft

water = 62.4 lb/ft

Then;

V=

2(32.2)(55.46)

= 59.77 ft/s

Thus;

(c) V = 3586 ft/min.

33. Supplementary Problem

A steam generator supplies 180,000 kg of steam per hour at 5.5 Mpa abs and

540C with feedwater at 176C. At this output, the thermal efficiency is 85% when

burning 42,456 kJ/kg fuel oil at 15% excess air. The products of combustion with an

average molecular weight of 30 are removed from the unit by a pair of duplicate

induced-draft fans operating in parallel and the flue gas temperature for each

fan suction is 150C. Estimate the capacity of each fan using the following rule:

7.5 kg air required for perfect combustion for each 23,200 kJ per kg heat value

of oil. The fan differential pressure is 190 mm WC.

a. 69.57 kW

c. 59.75 kW

b. 89.75 kW

d. 76.57 kW

Solution:

air = Qh

= [1.2(0.00981)] Q h

Where;

h = 0.190 (1000/1.2)

= 158.33 m

Solving for Q:

Mass of fuel burned per hour:

mf =

ms hs - hv

eboiler Qh

180,000(3520-746)

0.85(42,456)

= 13 836.33 kg/hr

ma = 7.5

42,456

23,200

ma = (15.78)(13,836.33) = 218,839.17 kg/hr

Mass flow rate of gases leaving the boiler:

mg = ma + mf

= 218,839.17 + 13,836.33

= 232,225.5 kg/hr or mg = 116,112.75 kg/hr (each fan)

Mass flow gas handled by each fan:

Q=

(116,112.75)(8.314/30)(150 +273)

101.3

= 134,369.16 m3/hr

= 37.32 m3/s

Thus;

(a) Pair = [ 1.2(0.00981) ] (37.32) (158.33) = 69.57 kW

34. ME Board Problem

A fan listed as having the following performance with standard air:

Volume discharge = 120 m3/s

Speed = 7 rps

Static pressure = 310 mm water gage

Brake power = 620 kW

The system duct will remain the same and the fan will discharge the same volume

of 120 m3/s of air at 93C and a barometric pressure of 735 mm Hg when its speed

is 7 rps. Find the brake power input and the static pressure required.

a. 482 kW, 241 mm WG

Solution:

Brake power input=620

Solving for 2 :

2 =

735(101.325/760)

0.278(93+273)

= 0.9329 kg/m3

2

2

=620

1

1.2

0.9392

h2

=

310

1.2

h2 = 241 mm of water gage

then;

Brakepower input= 620

0.9329

=482 kW

1.2

thus;

(a) h2 = 241 mm & Pbrake = 482 kW

35. ME Board Problem

Local coal with higher heating value of 5,500 kCal/kg is burned in a pulverized

coal fired boiler with 25% excess air at the rate of 25.9 M.T. per hour when the

steam generated is 220 M.T. per hour. This boiler is served by 2 forced-draft fans of

equal capacity delivering the air at 305 mm of water to the furnace. Calculate

the capacity of each fan in m3/hr if fan capacity is to be 110 percent of the

maximum requirement. Ambient air is 100 kPa and 30C.

a. 31.75 m3/s

c. 28.87 m3/s

b. 63.50 m3/s

d. 57.73 m3/s

Solution:

The theoretical weight of air to burn the fuel is given in an appropriate formula when the

heat value ot the fuel is given:

Wta =

=

A

HHV, kCal/kg

=

F t

745

5,500

745

Mass flow rate of air required for combustion

ma = (7.382)(1.25)[25.9(1000)]

= 238,992.25 kg/hr

Volume of Air needed at 100 kPa and 303 K

ma Ra Ta

P

238,992.25(0.287)(303)

=

100

Q =

Capacity of each fan at 110% of the maximum requirement:

Q1 = Q2 =

207,830.05(1.10)

2

Thus;

(a) Q = 31.75 m3/s

36. Supplementary Problem

Find the motor size needed provide the forced-draft service to a boiler that burns

coal at the rate of 10 to per hour. The air requirements are 59,000 cfm, air is being

provided under 6 in. water gage (WG) by the fan which has mechanical

efficiency of 60 percent. Assume fan to deliver the total pressure of 6 in WG.

a. 90 Hp

c. 97 Hp

b. 93 Hp

d. 99 Hp

Solution:

Pmotor =

Pair

0.60

Pair = Qh

Where:

Q = 59,000 ft3/min. = 27.84 m3/s

h = 6(1000/1.2) in. = 127 m

then;

Pair = [ 1.2(0.00981)) ](27.84)(127)

Pair = 41.62 kW

Thus;

Pmotor =

41.62

=69.37 kW

0.60

A turbo-generator, 16 cylinder, Vee type diesel engine has an air consumption

of 3000 kg/hr per cylinder at rated load and speed. This air is drawn in thru a filter by

a centrifugal compressor direct connected to the exhaust gas turbine. The

temperature of the air from the compressor is

reduces the air temperature to 45 C before it goes to the engine suction header.

Cooling water enter air cooler at

mean temperature difference.

a. 41 C

b.

c. 61 C

51C

d,

71C

Solution:

t min 45 30 15C

t max t min

AMTD

2

107 15

AMTD

2

Thus;

(c) AMTD 61 C

A pond is covered by a sheet of ice 2 cm thick (thermal conductivity

1.68W / mC ). The temperature of the lower surface of the ice is 0C and that of the

upper surface is

of the ice?

a. 840 W

c . 940 W

b. 740 W

d. 640 W

Solution:

kAt

x

(1.68)(1)(0 10)

Q

(0.02)

Q

Thus;

t max

t min

(a) Q 840W

How much heat is

conducted

through

sheet

of

plates

glass,

318,400 Cal/min

b. 418,400 Cal/min

a.

c. 940 Cal/min

d. 618,400 Cal/min

Solution:

kAt

x

Where:

k 0.0024 Cal/s- cm C

A 2(3) 6 m 2

60,000 cm 2

t 20 10 30 C

L 5 mm 0.50 cm

Then;

0.002460,00030

0.50

= 8640 Cal/s

Thus;

(c)

Q 518,400 Cal/min

A cooper rod whose diameter is 2 cm and length 50 cm has one end in

boiling water, the other end in a jacket cooled by flowing water which enters at

water flows through the jacket in 6 min, by how much does the temperature of the

water increase?

10.38 C

b. 9.38 C

a.

Solution:

Q

Where:

kAt

x

11.38 C

d. 12.38 C

c.

x

0.022

4

3.14 10 4 m 2

A

Then;

0.1023.14 10 4 100 10

0.50

= 0.005765 kCal / s

= 0.346 kCal / min 6 min

= 2.705 kCal

Q m C t

2,075 Cal 200g (1 Cal / g C )(t )

Thus;

(a) t 10.38 C

The thermal insulation of wooden glove may be regarded as being essentially

kCal / m s C. How

2

much heat does a person lose per minute from his hand of area 200 cm and skin

a layer of quiescent air 3 cm thick, of conductivity 5.7 10

6.12 C

b. 7.12 C

9.12 C

d. 8.12 C

a.

c.

Solution:

kAt

x

Where:

k= 5.7 10

kCal / m s C

cm 2

2

= 0.02 m

A= 200

x=3 cm = 0.03 m

t 35 5 40 C

Q

5.7 10 .0240

6

0.03

1.52 10 4 kCal / s

Thus;

42. Supplementary Problem

The temperature directly beneath a 3 in. concentrate road is

temperature is 20 F . Calculate the steady flow per square foot through the

a. 30 Btu / hr ft

c. 50 Btu / hr ft

b. 40 Btu / hr ft

d. 60 Btu / hr ft

Solution:

Q kt

x

A

0.520 5

3 / 12

Thus;

(a)

Q

Btu

30

A

hr ft 2

At what rate does to sun lose energy by radiation? The temperature of the sun

is about 6000 K and its radius is 6.95 10 km. .

5

3.48 10 26 W

26

b. 4.48 10 W

5.48 10 26 W

26

d. 6.48 10 W

a.

c.

Solution:

P A T 4

Where:

5.7 10 12 W / cm 2 K 4

A 4R 2

4 6.95 10 5

6.07 1012 km 2

6.07 10 22 m 2

Then;

Thus;

(b)

P 4.48 10 26 W

How many watts will be radiated from a spherical block body 15 cm in

a. 5.34 kW

b. 4.34 kW

c. 6.34 kW

d. 3.34 kW

Solution:

P A T4

Where:

5.7 10 12 W / cm 2 K 4

A 4 (7.5) 2

706.86 cm 2

T 800 273

1073K

Then;

P 5.7 10 12 706.861073

Thus;

(a) P 5,340 W 5.34 kW

45. Supplementary Problem

Calculate the radiation in watts per square centimeter from a block of copper

at 200 C and at 1000 C . The oxidized copper surface radiates at 0.60 the rate of a

black body.

a. 0.17

b. 0.27

c. 0.37

d. 0.07

Solution:

Q e AT4

Q

e T4

A

0.60(5.7 10 12 )(300 273) 4 0.17 W / cm 2

Thus;

(a)

Q

0.17 W / cm 2

A

A surface condenser serving a 50,000 kW steam turbo-generator unit receives

exhaust steam at the rate of 196,000 kg/hr. Vacuum in condenser is 702 mm. Hg. Sea

water for cooling enters at 29 and leaves at 37.5 C . For steam turbine condenser,

manufacturers consider 950 Btu/lb of steam turbine condensed as heat given up to

cooling water. Calculate the logarithmic mean temperature difference.

a. 4.57 C

c. 6.57 C

5.57C

b.

d.

7.57 C

Solution:

Let: LMTD Log mean temperature difference

LMTD

t max t min

t max

ln

t min

Where:

101.325kPa

760 psi

(t ) min 40.86 37.5 3.36C

Then;

LMTD

11.36 3.36

11.36

ln

3.36

Thus;

(c)

LMTD 6.57C

The stack gas from a chemical operation contains noxious vapors that must

0.70 m 3 / s . Water is available at 10 C at 1.26 kg / s . A two shell and 4 tube pass,

conterflow heat exchanger will be used with a water flowing through the tubes. The

gas has a specific heat of 1.10

102.8 C

b. 110.9 C

120.8 C

d. 118.9 C

a.

c.

Solution:

Average gas temperature

Density of gas

( ) :

315 35

2

175 C

P

RT

101.325

(0.26)(175 273)

0.867kg / m 3

Mass flow rate of gas:

Heat gained by cooling water = Heat Lost by the gasses

mw C pw t w m g C pg t g

(1.26)(4.187)(t 10) 0.60(1.10)(315 35)

t 45.5 C

Solving for

(t ) min 35 10 25 C

Then;

LMTD

(t ) max

269.5

ln

ln

25

(T ) min

Thus;

(a)

LMTD 102.8 C

Exhaust steam at 7 kPa at the rate of 75 kg/s enters a single pass condenser

2

containing 5,780 pcs copper tubes with a total surface area of 2950m . The steam

has a moisture content of 10 % and the condense leaves saturated liquid at steam

temperature. The cooling water flow rate is 4,413 liters per second entering at 20 C .

Size of tubes, 25 mm O.D. by 3 min thick wall. Find the overall heat transfer coefficient.

a. 5275 W / m

b. 2275 W

2 K

c. 4274 W / m

/ m 2 K

d. 3225 W

Solution:

Ethalpy of steam entering the condenser:

2478.65 kJ / kg

Ethalpy and temperature of condensate:

2 K

/ m 2 K

Ethalpy and temperature of the condensate:

Qwater Qsteam

m w C pw t w m s (h1 h2 )

t 29.40 C

(t ) max 39 20 19 C

(t ) min 39 29.4 9.6 C

LMTD

19 9.6

13.77 C

19

ln

9 .6

From:

Q A U (LMTD )

Where:

Q m s (h1 h2 )

75(2478.65 163.4)

173,643.75 kW

Then:

U 4.275

kW

m2 K

Thus;

(a) U 4275

W

m K

2

What is the heat flow per hour through a brick and mortar wall 9 in. thick if the

and the wall is 10 ft high by 6 ft wide, the temperature on one side of the surface

a. 6400 Btu / hr

c. 5400 Btu / hr

b. 7400 Btu / hr

d. 8400 Btu / hr

Soution:

kAt

x

(0.4)(10)(6)(330 130)

6

12

then;

Water is flowing in a pipe with radius of 25.4 cm at a velocity of 5 m/s at the

temperature in the pipe. The density and viscosity of the water are as follows:

density 997.9 kg / m 3 and vis cos ity 1.131Pa s . What is the Reynolds number for

this situation.

a. 2241

b. 96.2

c. 3100

d.1140

Solution:

N RE

VDp

Where:

V 5 m/s

D 2(25.4) 50.8 cm

0.508 m

997.9kglm 3

1.131

Then;

N RE

5(0.508)(9977.9)

1.131

Thus;

(a) N RE 2241.08

A heat exchanger has an over-all

coefficient

of heat

transfer of

15,000 W. Calculate the heat transfer area.

2

a. 0.833 m

c. 0.933 m

b. 0.733 m

d. 0.633 m

Solution:

Q AU

15,000 A(900)(20)

A 0.833m 2

Thus;

(a) A 0.833m

A complete furnace wall is made up of a 12 in. lining of magnesite refactory

brick, a 5 in. thickness of 85% magnesia, and a steel casing 0.10 in. thick. Flue gas

temperature is 2200 F and the boiler room is at 80 F .Gas side film coefficient is 15

a. 187.41 Btu / hr ft

c. 200.62 Btu / hr ft

b. 197.41 Btu / hr ft

d. 250.46 Btu / hr ft

Solution:

Q t

A RT

Where:

t 2200 80

2120 F

hi 15 Btu / hr ft 2 F

ho 4 Btu / hr ft 2 F

k 34 25 Btu / hr ft 2 F ( steel )

RT

1 x12 x 23 x34 1

hi k12 k 23 k 34 h0

RT 11.312

Thus;

2120

Q

A 11.312

(a)

Q

187.41 Btu / hr ft 2

A

0.72 Btu / hr ft F ) 5

in. of insulating brick ( k 0.08) and 75 in. of red brick ( k 0.5) . The inner and outer

A wall of a furnace is made up of 9 in. firebrick ( k

Neglecting the resistance of the mortar joints, compute the rate of heat flow through

1 ft 2 of the wall.

a. 80 Btu/hr

b. 180 Btu/hr

c. 100 Btu/hr

d. 200 Btu/hr

Solution:

At

RT

Where:

RT

x12 x 23 x34

k12 k 23 k 34

RT

9 / 12 5 / 12 2.5 / 12

0.72 0.08

0 .5

Then;

1(1500 150)

7.5

Thus;

(d) Q = 180 Btu/hr

54. Supplementary Problem

What is the heat transfer in the glass surface area of 0.70

m 2 having an inside

surface is 0.007 m. The thermal conductivity is 1.8 W/m-K.

a. 4.16 kW

b. 3.16 kW

Solution:

0.007

x

2160 W

Q

Thus;

(c)

Q 2160 W

c. 2.16 kW

d. 1.16 kW

The interior of an oven is maintained at a temperature of 1500F by means of a suitable

control apparatus. The walls of the oven are 9 in. thick and constructed from a material

having thermal conductivity of 0.18 Btu/hr-ft-F. Calculate the heat loss for each square

foot of wall surface per hour. Assume that the inside and outside wall temperatures are

1500F and 400F respectively.

a. 264 Btu/hr-ft2

c. 164 Btu/hr-ft2

b. 364 Btu/hr-ft2

d. 64 Btu/hr-ft2

Solution:

0.18 1 1500

9

12

400

264

Thus;

(a)

264

Compute the amount condensate formed during 10 minutes warm-up of 150 m pipe

conveys saturated steam with enthalpy of vaporization hfg = 1,947.8 kJ/kg. The minimum

external temperature of pipe is 2C and the final temperature is 195C. The specific heat

of pipe material is 0.6 kJ/kg-K and the specific weight is 28 kg/m.

a. 249.69 kg

c. 124.85 kg

b. 499.38 kg

d. 62.42 kg

Solution:

ms (1947.8) = 4200(0.60)(195-2)

Thus;

(a) ms = 249.69 kg

57. Supplementary Problem

A high pressure steam generator is to be fitted with convection type superheater having

72 elements in parallel. Steam at the rate of 70,000 kg/hr from the boiler drum enters the

superheater inlet header at 8.3 Mpa and 485oC. Combustion products at 980oC enters

the superheater proper at the rate of 160,000kg/hr. Superheater elements are made of

60 mm O.D. by 8 mm thick tubing of 30 m length. Assume that the flue gas has the same

thermal properties of air. Calculate the heat transferred to the superheater tubes.

a. 12,152 kW

c. 10,152 kW

b. 11,512 kW

d. 13,152 kW

Solution:

From mollier Chart:

h1 = 2,715 kJ/kg @ 8.3 Mpa & 98% quality

h2 = 3,340 kJ/kg @ 8.0 Mpa & 485oC

Heat lost by flue gas = Heat gained by steam

mgCpg tg = ms (h1 h2)

(160,000)(1.0)(980 to) = 70,000 (3340 2715)

to = 705oC

The rate of heat transferred to the superheated tubes:

Q = ms (h2 h1)

= 70,000 (3340 2715)

= 43,750,000 kJ/hr

= 12,152,000 kJ/S

Thus:

(a) Q = 12,152 kJ/s or kW

58. Supplementary Problem

In a hot water heating system, water heated to 95oC and then is pumped at the rate of 4

L/min through a radiator where it is cooled to 35oC. If the water arrives at the radiator at

at temperature of 85oC, how much heat does the radiator release each hour?

a. 50,244 kJ/hr

c. 55,344 kJ/hr

b. 45,422 kJ/hr

d. 65,244 kJ/hr

Solution:

Q = mCp t

= 4(4.187)(85-35)

= 837.4 kJ/min

= 50,244 kJ/hr

Thus:

(a) Q = 50,244 kJ/hr

59. Supplementary Problem

Brine enters a cooler at the rate of 50 m3/hr at 15oC and leaves at 1oC. Specific heat and

specific gravity of brine are 1.07 kJ/kg-K and 1.1 respectively. Calculate the heat

transferred in kW.

a. 158.21 kW

c. 258.21 kW

b. 228.86 kW

d. 128.86 kW

Solution:

Q = mCp t

Where:

m = pV

= 1.1(1000 kg/m3)(50m3/hr)(1hr/3600s)

= 15.28 kg/s

Thus:

Q = (15.28)(1.07)(15-1)

(b) Q = 228.86 kJ/s or kW

60. Supplementary Problem

A metal rod is 10 cm long and has a diameter of 2 cm one end is in contact with steam

at 100oC while the other end contacts a block of ice at 0oC. the cylindrical surface of the

rod is carefully insulated so heat flows only from end to end. In a time of 20 minutes, 320

grams of ice melts. What is the thermal conductivity of metal?

a. 0.28266 kJ/kgoC

c. 0.38266 kJ/kgoC

b. 0.18266 kJ/kgoC

d. 0.48266 kJ/kgoC

Solution:

Qrod = Qice

0.01 100

0.10

20 60

0.320 3.3 10

K = 282.66 J/kgoC

K = 0.28266 kJ/kgoC

Thus:

(a) k = 282.66 J/kgoC

61. Supplementary Problem

A wall with an area of 10 m2 is made of 2 cm thickness of white pine (k = 0.113 W/moC)

followed by 10 cm of brick (k = 0.649 W/moC). The pine is on the inside where the

conditions exist, what is the temperature at the interface between the two metals?

a. 15.65oC

c. 18.21oC

b. 17.64oC

d. 19.31oC

Solution:

Where:

0.02

. 113

0.10

0.649

RT = 0.331 m2oC/W

Then;

10 30 10

0.331

Q = 604.23 W

Solving for the temperature at the interface between the two materials:

Q = Q12

604.23

604.23

Thus;

(a) t2 = 19.31oC

62. Supplementary Problem

In a hot air heating system, the furnace heats air from 60oF to 160oF. If the air is then

circulated at the rate of 330 ft3/min by the blower, how much thermal energy is

transferred per hour.

Note: the specific heat of air at constant pressure is 0.250 Btu/lboF, the density of air is

0.0806 lb/ft3 at atmospheric pressure.

a. 39,000 Btu/hr

c. 36,805 Btu/hr

b. 46,800 Btu/hr

d. 39,900 Btu/hr

Solution:

Q = mCpt

Where:

m = pV

= (0.0806 lb/ft3)(330 ft3/min)

= 26.60 lb/min

Then;

Q = (26.60 lb/min)(0.250 Btu/lboF)(160-60)oF

Q = 665 Btu/min

Thus;

(d) Q = 39,900 Btu/hr

63. Supplementary Problem

If 1000 liters of air at 27oC and pressure of 1 atm has a mass of 1.115kg and a specific

heat at constant pressure of 1 x 103 J/kg K, how much heat is required to raise the

temperature of this gas from 27oC to 177oC at constant pressure?

a. 176.25 kJ

c. 167.25 kJ

b. 157 kJ

d. 175 kJ

Solution:

Q = mCPt

= (1.115)(1)(177-27)

Thus;

(b) Q = 167.25 kJ

64. Supplementary Problem

Calculate the amount of energy required to heat the air in a house 30 by 50 by 40 ft from

10 to 70oF. The density of air is about 0.08 lb/ft3, and its specific heat at constant pressure

0.24 Btu/lboF.

a. 49,120 Btu

c. 69,120 Btu

b. 59,120 Btu

d. 79,120 Btu

Solution:

Q = mCpt

Where:

m = pV

= (0.08 lb/ft3)[(30)(40)(50)]ft3

= 4800 lb

Then;

Q = 4800(0.24)(70-10)

Thus;

(c) Q = 69,120 Btu

Water enters the condenser at 20oC and leaves at 35oC. What is the log mean

temperature difference if the condenser temperature is 40oC.

a. 16.37oC

c. 15.37oC

b. 13.37oC

d. 17.37oC

Solution:

Where:

(t)max = 45 20

= 25oC

(t)min = 45 35

= 10oC

25

10

25

10

Thus;

(a) LMTD = 16.37oC

66. Supplementary Problem

When 200 grams of aluminum at 100oC is dropped into an aluminum calorimeter (k =

0.909 x 103 J/kg-K) of mass 120 grams and containing 150 grams of kerosene at 15oC the

mixture reaches a temperature of 50oC, what is the specific heat of kerosene?

a. 1004 K/kg-k

c. 1110 K/kg-k

b. 1050 K/kg-k

d. 1080 K/kg-k

Solution:

Heat loss by aluminum = heat gained by the kerosene and calorimeter

QA = Qk + Qc

maCata = mkCktk + mcCctc

(0.20)(0.909x103)(100-50) = (0.15)(Ck)(50-15) + (0.12)(0.909x103)(50-15)

Thus;

(a) Ck = 1004.23 J/kg-K

67. Supplementary Problem

A calorimeter contains 66 kg of turpentine at 10.6oC. When 0.147 kg of alcohol at 75oC is

added, the temperature rises to 25.2oC. the specific heat of turpentine is 1.95x103 J/kg-oC

and the calorimeter is thermally equivalent to 30 grams of water. Find the specific heat

of alcohol.

a. 2.81745 kJ/kgoC

c. 0.81745 kJ/kgoC

b. 3.81745 kJ/kgoC

d. 1.81745 kJ/kgoC

Solution:

Heat loss by alcohol = heat gained by the turpentine and calorimeter

maCata = mtCttt + mcCctc

(0.147)(Ca)(75-25.2) = (0.66)(1.95x103)(25.2-10.6) + (0.03)(4.187)(25.2-10.6)

Ca = 2817.45 J/kgoC

Thus;

(a) Ca = 2.81745 J/KgoC

68. Supplementary Problem

The temperature of a sample of molten lead near its temperature of solidification is falling

at the rate of 6 K/min. If the lead continues to lose heat at this same rate and takes 35

min. to solidify completely, what is the heat of fusion of the lead? The specific heat of

molten lead is 0.126 kJ/kg-K.

a. 16.46 kJ/kg-K

c. 36.46 kJ/kg

b. 26.46 kJ/kg-K

d. 46.46 kJ/kg

Solution:

Q = mCt = mLf

Lf = Ct

= (0.126 kJ/kg-K)(6K/min)(35min)

Thus;

(b) Lf = 26.46 kJ/kg

69. Supplementary Problem

A counterflow heat exchanger is designed to heat fuel oil from 45oC to 100oC while the

heating fluid enters at 150oC and leaves at 115oC. Calculate the arithmetic mean

temperature difference.

a. 40oC

c. 60oC

b. 50oC

d. 70oC

Solution:

Where:

(t)max = 115 - 45

= 70oC

(t)min = 150 - 100

= 50oC

70

50

2

Thus;

(a) AMTD = 60oC

70. Supplementary Problem

A fuel oil of 20oAPI is to be heated in a heater which makes two passes thru heater tubes

and the heating fluid makes one passes but the flow is cross flow through the heater due

to baffles inside the shell.

Quantity of oil to be heated

3000L/hr

21oC

95oC

Heating fluid, steam enter at 05oC and leaves as condesate at 105oC. Assume specific

heat of oil to be 2.093 kJ/kg-K. Find the heating surface area if the over-all coefficient of

heat transfer is taken as 140 W/m2oC.

a. 24.76 m2

c. 23.75 m2

b. 30.75 m2

d. 32.54 m2

Solution:

Q = UAs(LMTD)

= UAs()

Where:

84

10

84

10

= 43.77oC

Q = moCpto

Solving for mo:

. .

S.G. = 0.934

mo = (3000L/hr)(1kg/L)(0.934)

141.5

131.5

141.5

20 131.5

= 2802 kg/hr

= 0.778 kg/s

From:

Q = (0.778)(2.093)(95-21)

Q = 120.55 kW

Q = 120,550 W

Then:

120,550 (140)(As)(34.77)

Thus;

(a) 24.76 m2

71. Supplementary Problem

A 30 cm thick wall has an inside and outside surface temperatures of 300oC and 50oC

respectively. If the thermal conductivity of the wall is 8 W/m-K. Calculate the heat

transferred in kW/m2.

a. 6.67

c. 7.67

b. 5.67

d. 8.67

Solution:

8 300 50

0.30

= 6,666.67 W/m2

Thus;

(a) Q/A = 6.67 kW/m2

72. Supplementary Problem

A 4-pass low-pressure surface type feedwater heater is designed to heat 92,730 kg/hr of

feedwater from 40oC initial to 80oC final temperature using steam bleed at 70 kPa abs.

containing 2,645 kJ/kg enthalpy. Assume no subcooling of condensate, determine the

effective length of 19 mm O.D. x 2 mm thick muntz metal tubes to be installed, if the

water velocity inside the tubes is 1.22 m/s and U = 3000 W/m2K based on the external

surface of the tubes.

a. 2m

c. 3m

b. 4m

d. 5m

Solution:

A=

. .

A=

0.019

50

10

50

10

= 24.85oC

Solving for A:

By: energy balance:

ms(h1 h2) = mwCpw(t2 t1)

ms(2645 376.7) = 92,730(4.187)(80 40)

ms = 6846.72 kg/hr

Q = ms(h1 h2)

= 1.90(2645 376.7)

Q = 4,314.01 kW

Q = 4,314,010 W

Then;

4,314,010

3000 24.85

= 57.87 m2

Solving for n:

.

4

92,730

1000 3600

n = 477.91 pcs say 480 pcs

Thus;

A = 0.019

57.87 = 0.019

480

0.015

4

1.22

Find the thermal conductivity of the 500 cm thick material with an area of 50,000

cm2 and a temperature difference of 10 K if the heat transmitted during 2 hours

test is 2000 KJ.

a. 0.014 W/m-K

c. 0.126 W/m-K

b. 0.025 W/m-K

d. 0.214 W/m-K

Solution:

Q =

kAt

x

10,000

k

10

2000

100 2

2 3600

0.500

Thus;

(a) k = 0.014 W/m-K

A pipe with an outside diameter of 2.5 in. is insulated with a 2 in. layer of asbestos

(ka = 0.396 Btu-in./hr-ft2-oF), followed by a layer of cork 1.5 in. thick (kc = 0.30 Btuin./hr-ft2-oF). If the the temperature of the outer surface of the cork is 90oF, calculate

the heat lost per 100 ft of insulated pipe.

a. 847.64 Btu/hr

c. 2847.42 Btu/hr

b. 3847.51 Btu/hr

d. 1847.14 Btu/hr

Solution:

Q

Thus;

t 1 t 3

r

r2

ln 3

ln

r1

r2

2k a L 2k c L

29090

4.75

3.25

ln

ln

3.25

1.25

0.396

0.30

100 2

100

2

12

12

c Q 2847.42 Btu/hr

At $ 0.25 per kW-hr, how much will it cost to maintain a temperature of 95oF for 24

hours in a box 2ft square on each side if the outside temperature is 72oF and the

over-all heat transfer coefficient for the box is 0.10 Btu/hr-ft2-oF ?

a. P 0.10

c. P 0.15

b. P 0.20

d. P 0.25

Solution:

Area of One side:

A 2 2 4 ft 2

Heat transferred through one side:

Q AU t 1 t 2

Q 4 0.1 9672

Q 9.6

Btu

hr

Q 9.6 6 24

Q 1382.4 Btu

The Cost to maintain:

C

1382.4 $ 0.25

3412.75

Thus;

a C $ 0.10

A steam pipe having a surface temperature of 300oC passes through a room where

the temperature is 25oC. The outside diameter of pipe is 100 mm and emissivity

factor is 0.60. Determine the radiated heat loss for a 5 m pipe length.

a. 5.34 kW

c. 3.34 kW

b. 4.34 kW

d. 6.34 kW

Solution:

Q 20,408.4 x 108 AFe T1 4 T2 4

where:

A DL

A 0.10 5

T2 25 273 298 K

A 1.57 m2

Then;

Q 20,408.4 x 108 1.57 0.60

Q 19,208,138

573 4 298

1hr

J

hr 3600s

J

Q 5,335.59 or W

s

Thus;

a Q 5.336 kW

An air-cooled condenser has an expected U value of 30 W/m2-K based on the air

side area. The condenser is to transfer 60 kW with an airflow rate of 15 kg/s entering

at 35oC. If the condensing temperature is to be 48oC, what is the required air-side

area?

a. 184 m2

c. 174 m2

b. 194 m2

d. 164 m2

Solution:

Q A U

Solving for :

max

t

ln

t

max

from:

min

min

Q mCp t

60 15 1 t

t 4 K

t 2 t 1 4 K

t 2 39 K

t

max

48 35 13C

min

48 39 9C

Then;

13 9

10.88C

13

ln

9

60,000 A 30 10.88

Thus;

a 183.82 m2

An air-cooled condenser is to reject 40 kW of heat from a condensing refrigerant

to air. The condenser has an air-side area of 210 m2 and a U value based on this

area of 0.037 kW/m2-K; it is supplied with 6.6 m3/s of air which has a density of 1.15

kg/m3. If the condensing temperature is to be limited to 55oC, what is the maximum

allowable temperature of the inlet air?

a. 30.7 oC

c. 50.7 oC

b. 40.7 oC

d. 20.7 oC

Solution:

max

t

ln

t

max

min

min

Solving for :

Q A U

70 210 0.037

9.018 K

from:

Q m Cp t

70 6.6 1.15

1.02 t 2 t 1

9.04

Then;

9.01

9.01

9.04

55 t 1

ln

55 t 2

9.04

55 t 1

ln

55 9.04 t 1

Thus;

b t 1 40.7 C

Two walls are composed of 150 mm thick insulating material at the outer layer (k =

0.139 W/m-K) and 300 mm thick material at the inner layer (k = 1.111 W/m-K).

Calculate the heat transmitted per m2 if the surface temperature of the cold side

and hot side are 25oC and 300oC respectively.

a. 203.79 W/m2

c. 254.65 W/m2

b. 303.79 W/m2

d. 354.65 W/m2

Solution:

t

Q

RT

A

where:

RT

0.30

0.15

1.11 0.139

R T 1.35

Q 30025

1.35

A

Thus;

Q

a 203.79 W/m2

A

The temperature of the flame in a furnace is 1277oC and the temperature of its

surrounds is 277oC. Calculate the maximum theoretical quantity of heat energy

radiated per minute per square meter to the surrounding surface area.

a. 19,321.65 kJ

c. 17,321.65 kJ

b. 18,321.65 kJ

d. 16,321.65 kJ

Solution:

Q 20408.4 x 108 Fe T1 4 T2 4

where:

Fe = 1 (if not given)

T1 = 1277 + 273 = 1550 K

T2 = 277 +273 = 550 K

Q 20408.4 x 108 1

1550 4 550

thus;

a Q 19,321.65 kJ/m2-min

A small sphere has a radius of 3.50 cm and is maintained at a temperature of

360oC. Assuming it to be a black body surrounded by empty space, how much

energy does it radiate each second?

a. 30 J

c. 40 J

b. 35 J

d. 45 J

Solution:

Q 20408.4 x 108 Fe T1 4 T2 4

where:

T1 = 360 + 273 = 633 K

A = ( 0.035)2

A = 0.003848 m2

Q 20408.4 x 108 1 0.003848 633

Q 126,083.68 J/hr

Q 35.02 J/s

Thus;

b Q 35 J

The inner wall of a thermos bottle is at 0oC while the outer at 37oC. The space

between the walls is evacuated and the walls are silvered so the emissivity is

reduced to 0.10. It each wall has an area of 700 cm2, how much energy is

transformed by radiation between the walls each second?

a. 1.46 J

c. 16.5 J

b. 1.04 J

d. 17.03 J

Solution:

Q 20408.4 x 108 Fe T1 4 T2 4

where:

Fe = 0.10

A = 700 cm2 = 0.07 m2

T1 = 37 + 273 = 310 K

T2 = 0 + 273 = 273 K

Substituting Values:

Q = 5,258.116 J/hr

Q = 1.46 J/s

Thus;

(a) Thus; the energy transferred by the radiation between the walls each

second is 1.46 J

The hot gas temperature in a heat exchanger is 350oC (ho = 220 W/m2-K). What is

the surface temperature on the wall if the heat transferred is 1500 W/m2?

a. 3500C

c. 3430C

b. 3380C

d. 3580C

Solution:

Q

ho t

A

1500 = 220 (350 t1)

Thus;

c t 1 343.18o C

84 ME Board Problem

An oil heater heats 100 kg per minute of oil from 35oC to 100oC in a counterflow

heat exchanger. The average specific heat of the oil is 2.5 kJ/kgoC. Exhaust gases

used for heating enter the heater with an average specific heat of 1 kJ/kgoC, a

mass flow rate of 250 kg/min and an initial temperature of 200oC. The over-all heat

transfer coefficient is 75 W/m2oC. Determine the heating surface in m2.

a. 36.110C

c. 32.720C

b. 41.720C

d. 25.340C

Solution:

Q A U

Solving for total heat transferred Q and :

Qoil = Qgas

moCpo to = mgCpg tg

100(2.5)(100 35) = 250(1)(200 t)

t = 1350C

(t)max = 135 - 35 = 1000C

(t)min = 200 100 = 1000C

If (t)max = (t)min , then = average value = 1000C

Q = mCpt

Q

100

2.5 10035

60

Q 270.83 kW

Thus;

270.83 = A (0.075) (100)

a A 36.11 m2

If total resistance to heat flow of a composite wall is 3.0875 m2-K/W. What is the

over-all transfer coefficient of the wall?

a. 0.324 W/m2-K

c. 0.243 W/m2-K

b. 0.423 W/m2-K

d. 0.243 W/m2-K

Solution:

U

1

1

3.0875

RT

Thus;

(a) U = 0.324 W/m2-K

In a composite vertical furnace wall, the resistance due to insulating brick is 0.5769

oC/W.

What is the total resistance to heat flow if the percent of the total resistance

a. 0.597 0C/W

c. 0.975 0C/W

b. 0.795 0C/W

d. 0.957 0C/W

Solution:

% brick

0.9680

R brick

RT

0.5769

RT

Thus;

(a) RT = 0.597 0C/W

A counterflow bank of boiler tubes has total area of 900 ft2 and its over-all efficiency

of heat transfer is 13 Btu/hr-ft2-oF. Calculate the heat transferred if the log mean

temperature difference is 1380oF.

a. 16,146,000 Btu/hr

c. 18,148,000 Btu/hr

b. 17,147,000 Btu/hr

d. 15,145,000 Btu/hr

Solution:

Q A U

Q 900 13 1380

Thus;

(a) Q = 16,146,000 Btu/hr

Calculate the quantity to be transferred to 3.25 kg of brass to raise its temperature

from 30oC to 250oC taking the specific heat of the brass as 0.394 kJ/kg-K.

a. 182 kJ

c. 151 kJ

b. 282 kJ

d. 251 kJ

Solution:

Q m Cp t

Q 3.25 0.394 25030

Thus;

(b) Q = 281.712 kJ

The mass of the copper calorimeter is 0.28 kg and it contains 0.4 kg of water at

15oC. Taking the specific heat of copper as 0.39 kJ/kg-K, calculate the heat

required to raise the temperature to 20oC?

a. 6.92 kJ

c. 8.92 kJ

b. 7.92 kJ

d. 9.92 kJ

Solution:

Water equivalent of calorimeter:

m 0.28

0.39

4.187

m 0.026 kg

Heat received by the water and calorimeter

Q m mw Cp t

Q 0.026 0.40 4.187 2015

Thus;

(c) Q = 8.92 kJ

(d)

90. Supplementary Problem

In an experiment to find the specific heat of lead, a 0.50 kg of lead shot at a

temperature of 51oC is poured into an insulated calorimeter containing 0.25 kg of

water at 13.5oC and the resultant temperature of the mixture is 15.5oC. If the water

equivalent of the calorimeter is 0.020 kg, find the specific heat of the lead.

a. 0.1278 kJ/kg-K

c. 0.01389 kJ/kg-K

b. 0.0278 kJ/kg-K

d. 0.0389 kJ/kg-K

Solution:

Heat lost by the lead = Heat gained by the water and calorimeter

mL CL t L mw Cw t w mC CC t C

0.5 CL 51 15.5 0.25 0.02 4.187 15.513.5

thus;

a CL 0.1278 kJ/kg-K

max

55 t 1

min

55 t 2

max

min

t 2 t 1 9.04

The load on a water-cooled condenser is 90,000 Btu/hr. If the quantity of water

circulated through the condenser is 15 gpm, determine the temperature rise of the

water in the condenser.

a) 12F

c) 16F

b) 14F

d) 18F

Solution:

Q = mCpt

90,000

Btu

hr

=m

Btu

lb F

Where:

m = V

= 8.33

lb

gal

= 7497

15

gal

60 min

min

hr

lb

hr

Thus;

90,000 = 7497 1 t

(a) t = 12F

Thirty-six gallons of water per minute are circulated through a water-cooled

condenser. If the temperature rise of the water in the condenser is 2F, compute the

load on the condenser in Btu/hr.

a) 216,000 Btu/hr

c) 217,000 Btu/hr

b) 215,000 Btu/hr

d) 218,000 Btu/hr

Solution:

Q = mCpt

Where:

m = 36

gal

min

8.33

= 17992.8 lb/hr

Thus:

60 min

hr

Q =17992.8(1) (12)

(a) Q = 215,913.6 Btu/hr

The load on an air-cooled condenser is 121,500 Btu/hr. If the desired temperature of

the air in the condenser is 25F, determine the air quantity in cfm that must be

circulated over the condenser.

a) 4500 cfm

c) 5500 cfm

b) 3500 cfm

d) 3000 cfm

Solution:

Q = mCpt

Where:

Q = 121,500 Btu/hr

Cp= 0.24 Btu/F

t = 25F

Then:

121,500 = m(0.24)(25)

m = 20,250 lb/hr

the volume flow rate is:

V=

20,250 lb/hr

0.075 lb/ft

Thus;

(a) V = 45000 cfm

Three thousand cubic feet per minute of air are circulated over an air-cooled

condenser. If the load on the condenser iss 64,800 Btu/hr , compute the temperature

rise of the air passing over the condenser.

a) 16F

c) 20F

b) 18F

d) 22F

Solution:

Q = mCpt

Where:

Q = 64, 800 Btu/hr

m = V

m = 0.075 lb/ft3 (3000 ft3/min) (60min/hr)

m = 13,500 lb/hr

Cp = 0.24 Btu/lb F

Thus;

6400 = 13,500 (0.24) t

(c) t = 20F

The weight of ammonia circulated in a machine is found to be 21.8 lb/hr. If the vapor

enters the compressor with a specific volume of 9.6 ft3/lb , calculate the piston

displacement, assuming 80% percent volume efficiency.

a) 261.6 ft3/hr

c) 281.8 ft3/hr

b) 271.6 ft3/hr

d) 291.6 ft3/hr

Solution:

Actual volumetric efficiency =

Piston displacement

eva = V1/VD

0.80 =

21.8(9.6)

VD

VD = 261.6 ft3/hr

Thus;

(a) VD = 261.6 ft3/hr

A single-stage ammonia compressor is producing 10 tons of refrigeration and the

power consumed is 15 Hp. Suction pressure is 25 psi, condensing pressure is 180 psi.

Brine temperature is 20F off brine cooler. Determine the actual coefficient of

performance.

a) 10.14

c) 12.14

b) 11.14

d) 13.14

Solution:

COP =

=

Refrigeration Capacity

compressor power

10 3.516

15 0.746

= 13.14

Thus;

(d) COP = 13.14

In an ammonia condensing machine (compressor plus condenser) the water used for

condensing is 55F and the evaporator is at 15F. Calculate the ideal COP.

a) 11.875

c) 10.875

b) 12.875

d) 13.875

Solution:

COP =

T1

T2 T1

Where:

T1 = 15 + 460 = 475 R

T1 = 55 + 460 = 515 R

Then;

COP =

475

515 475

Thus;

(a) COP = 11.875

1. Supplementary Problem

Calculate the specific volume of an air-vapor mixture in cubic meters pre kilogram of

dry air when the following conditions prevail : t = 30C, w = 0.015 kg/kg, and Pt = 90

kPa.

0.99 m3/kg

c) 0.79 m3/kg

b) 0.89 m3/kg

d) 0.69 m3/kg

a)

Solution:

v=

RaT

Pt Pv

w = 0.622

Pv

Pt Pv

0.015 = 0.622

Pv

90 Pv

Pv = 2.12 kPa

Thus;

v=

(0.287) (30+273)

90 - 2.12

2. Supplementary Problem

Compute the Humidity Ratio of air at 62 % relative humidity and 34C when the

barometric pressure is 101.325 kPa.

a) 0.021 kgvapour/kgdry air

Solution:

w = 0.622

Pv

Pt Pv

Psat @ 34C = 5.32 kPa

Pv = (RH) Psat

= (0.62) (5.32)

= 3.30 kPa

Then:

w = 0.622

3.30

101.325 3.30

Thus;

(a) w = 0.021 kgvapour/kgdry air

3. Supplementary Problem

A sample of air has dry-bulb temperature of 30C and a wet-bulb temperature of

25C. The barometric pressure is 101.325 kPa. Calculate the enthalpy of the air if it is

adiabatically saturated.

a) 75.94 kJ/kg

c) 79.54 kJ/kg

b) 70.94 kJ/kg

d) 74.09 kJ/kg

Solution:

Enthalpy of air if adiabatically saturated:

h = Cpt + whg

Solving for humidity ratio, w:

w = 0.622

Pv

Pt Pv

Pv = 3.17 kPa, hg = 2547.2 kJ/kg

w2 = 0.622

3.17

101.325 3.17

Thus;

h2 = 1.0 kJ/kg-C (25C) + (0.02) (2547.2 kJ/kg)

(a) h2 = 75.94 kJ/kg

4. Supplementary Problem

An air-vapor mixture has dry bulb temperature of 30C and a humidity ratio of 0.015.

Calculate the enthalpy at 85 kPa barometric pressure.

a) 68.34 kJ/kg

c) 72.45 kJ/kg

b) 54.35 kJ/kg

d) 67.45 kJ/kg

Solution:

h = Cpt + whg

From steam table, at 30C :

h = 2556.3 kJ/kg

then,

h = (1 kJ/kg-C) (30C) + (0.015) (2556.3 kJ/kg)

Thus;

(a) h = 68.34 kJ/kg

5. Supplementary Problem

In an air conditioning unit, 3.5 m3/s of air 27C dry-bulb temperature 50 % relative

humidity and standard atmospheric pressure enters the unit. The leaving condition of the

air is 13C dry-bulb temperature and 90% relative humidity. Using the properties from the

psychrometric chart, calculate the refrigerating capacity in kW.

a) 87.57 kW

c) 57.87 kW

b) 77.57 kW

d) 58.77 kW

Solution:

Refrigerating Capacity QA:

QA = m (h2 - h1)

Solving for m:

m=

=

Ave. Specific Volume

3.5

1/2(0.866 0.822)

= 4.15 kg/s

Thus;

QA = 4.15 (55.3 - 34.2)

(a) QA = 87.57 kJ or kW

6. Supplementary Problem

A stream of outdoor air is mixed with a stream of return air in an air conditioning

system that operates at 101 kPa pressure. The flow rate of outdoor system air is 2 kg/s

and its condition is 35C dry-bulb temperature and 25C wet-bulb temperature. The

flow rate of return air is 3 kg/s and its condition is 24C and 50% relative humidity.

Determine the enthalpy of the mixture.

a) 91.56 kJ/kg

c) 91.56 kJ/kg

b) 91.56 kJ/kg

d) 91.56 kJ/kg

Solution:

By Energy Balance:

m1h1 + m2h2= m3h3

m1h1 + m2h2 = ( m1+ m2 ) h3

h3 =

2 (75.9) 3 (48)

2+3

Thus;

(d) h3 = 59.16 kJ/kg

7. Supplementary Problem

What is the specific volume of an air-vapor mixture at 30C and a relative humidity of

45C at 101.325 kPa.

a) 0.578 m3/kg

c) 0.875 m3/kg

b) 0.785 m3/kg

d) 0.758 m3/kg

Solution:

v=

RaT

Pt Pv

Solving for Pv :

Psat @ 30C = 4.24 kPa

Pv = (RH) Psat @ 30C

= 0.45 (4.24)

= 1.91 kPa

Thus;

v=

0.287(30+273)

101.325 - 1.91

8. Supplementary Problem

A mixture of dry-air and water vapor is at temperature of 21C under a pressure of 101

kPa. The dew point temperature is 15C. Calculate the relative humidity.

a) 68.56 %

c) 56.68 %

b) 65.68 %

d) 58.66 %

Solution:

RH =

Pv

Psat @ 21C

Where:

PV = Psat @ 15C

= 1.7044 kPa

Psat @ 21C = 2.4861 kPa

Thus;

RH =

1.7044

2.4861

= 0.6851

(b) RH = 68.56%

9. Supplementary Problem

The density of air at 35C and 101 kPa is 1.05 kg/m3. The humidity ratio is:

a) 0.036 kgvapour/kgdry air

Solution:

PV = mRT

P = mRT/V

Pair = 1.08 ( 0.287 )( 35 + 273 )

Pair = 95.48 kPa

Pt = Pair + Pvapor

101 = 95.48 + Pv

Pv = 5.53 kPa

Then;

w = 0.622

= 0.622

Pv

Pt Pv

5.53

101 5.53

Thus;

(a) w = 0.036 kgvapour/kgdry air

If the sensible heat ratio is 0.80 and the cooling load is 100 kW, what is the amount of

sensible heating?

a)

80 kW

c) 125 kW

b) 60 kW

d) 100 kW

Solution:

SHR = sensible heat ratio

=

Qs

Qs QR

0.80 = Qs/100

Thus;

(a) Qs = 80 kW

A 4m x 4m x 4m room has a relative humidity ratio of 80 %. The pressure in the room is

120 kPa and temperature is 35 C (Psat = 5.628). What is the mass of vapor in the room.

Use Rvapor = 0.4615 kN-m/kg-K.

a) 3.03 kg

c) 4.03 kg

b) 2.03 kg

d) 5.03 kg

Solution:

PvV = mvRvT

Solving for Pv :

RH = Pv / Psat

0.08 = Pv / 5.628

Pv = 4.5024 kPa

Thus;

4.5024 [(4)(4)(4)] = mv (0.4615) (35 + 273)

(a) mv = 2.027 kg

45. The bore and stroke of an air compressor are 276 mm and 164 mm respectively. If the

piston displacement is 0.039 m /s, what is the operating speed of the compressor?

a. 238.49 rpm

c. 338.49 rpm

b. 261.54 rpm

d. 361.54 rpm

Solution:

Vd =

d L N

4

0.039 =

(0.276) 0.164 N

4

Thus;

(a) N = 238.49 rpm

46. A turbo-compressor is a gas turbine plant is used to compress 10 kg/s air from an initial

pressure of 102 kpa to a discharge pressure of 622 kpa, with inlet and discharge

temperature measured at 297 K and 527 K respectively. The compressor inlet pipe is 50

cm ID and the discharge pipe is 20 cm ID. Find the inlet discharge velocities of air.

a. 42.56 m/s, 77.40 m/s

Solution:

Velocity of air at suction:

V

Q

s= s

As

V

d=

Qd

Ad

solving for Q:

Qs= V

mRT1

P1

s =

10 (.287)(297)

102

=8.357 m3 /s

Qd= V

d=

mRT2

P2

10 (.287)(527)

622

2.43 m3 /s

then;

V

s=

8.357 m3 /s

=42.56 m/s

2

(.5)

4

2.43 m3 /s

d=

=77.40 m/s

2

(.20)

4

Thus;

(a) Vs=42.56m/s ,

Vd=77.40 m/s

47.

The initial condition of air in an air compressor is 100 kpa and 25

and

discharges air at 450 kpa. The bore and stroke are 276 mm and 186 mm

respectively with 8 % clearance running at 6 rev per second. Find the volume of

air at suction.

a. 203.39 m /hr

c. 261.25 m /hr

b. 303.39 m /hr

d. 361.25 m /hr

Solution:

Solving for e :

ev =1+c-c (

P1 1/n

)

P2

=1+0.08-0.08 (

450 1/1.4

100

=0.84575

Vd= D2 LN= (0.276)2 (0.186)(6)

4

=0.0668 m3 /s

Then;

V1=0.84575(0.0668 )

=203.39 m3 /hr

48. If the power to drive shaft is 7 hp and the mechanical efficiency is 75 %, what is the

actual compressor power?

a. 5 hp

c. 2 hp

b. 3 hp

d. 4 hp

Solution: e

Compressor power

Power to drive the shaft

0.74 =

Compressor power

7

Thus;

(a) Compressor Power = 5.18 hp

49.A two stage compressor receives 0.35 kg/s of air at 100 kpa and 629 K and delivers it

at 1000 kpa. Find the heat transferred in the intercooler?

a. 70.49 kw

c. 90.49 kw

b. 80.49 kw

d. 100.49 kw

Solution:

Q

mCp (Tx - T1

Solving for Tx :

Px =

Tx

T1

=(

Tx

269

Px

P1

=(

k-1

k

707.11

100

1.4-1

1.4

Tx =470.40 K

Thus;

Q=0.35(1)(470.40 K- 269 K)

Q=70. 49 kw

50.An air compressor which operates at 900 rpm has a piston displacement of 4500cm .

Determine the mass flow rate of air standard density considering that the volume

efficiency is 77 %.

a. 224. 53 kg/hr

c. 314. 57 kg/hr

b. 324.35 kg/hr

d. 137.54 kg/hr

Solution:

ev =

V1 '

VD

0.77=

V1 '

4500

Then;

V'1 =3465 cm3 900 =3,118,500 cm3 /min

At standard temperature and pressure: air =1.2 kg/m3

m=1.2

kg

cm3

1m3

60 min

3118500

3

min (100)3 cm3

hr

m

Thus;

(a) m=224.53 kg/hr

1.A fuel is delivering 10 gallons per minute of oil with a specific gravity of 0.83. The total

head is 9.14m; find how much energy the pump consumes in KJ per hour.

a. 169

c. 189

b. 199

d. 179

Solution;

P= QH

Where:

=9.81 .083 =8.14 KN/m3

Q=10 gal/ min =2.27 m3 /hr

H=9.14 m

Then;

P=8.14 2.27 9.14

Thus;

(a) P=168.89

kj

hr

a. 8.126

c. 7.014

b. 5.082

d. 6.104

Solution:

Let : P=power in kw

P=Q(Pd - Ps )

Where:

Q= 8

kg

s

0.001

m3

= 0.008 m3 /s

kg

Pd =1,100 kpa

P=(0.008)(1100-220)

Thus;

(b) P=7.04 kw

3.A pump lifts water at a rate of 283 liters per second from alake and force it into a tank 8

m above the level of the water at a pressure of 137 kpa. What is the power required in

kw?

a. 71

c. 61

b. 41

d. 51

Solution:

P= QH

Where:

=9.81 kN/m3

Q=

283L

=0.283 m3 /s

s

H=8+

137

9.81

H=21.97

Thus;

P=9.81 0.283 21.97

(c) P=60.99

4.A pump discharges 150 liters per second of water to a height of 75 m. if the efficiency is

75 % and the speed of the pump is 1800 rpm, what is the torque in the N-m to which the

drive shaft is subjected?

a. 771

c. 791

b. 781

d. 681

Solution:

Let: ep =pump efficiency

P=

QH

2TN

or P=

ep

60

Where;

N=1800 rpm

P=

QH 9.81(0.150)(75)

=

=147.15 kw

ep

0.75

Then;

147.15=

2T(1800)

60

T=0.781 kN-m

Thus;

(b) T=781 N-m

5.A centrifugal pump delivers 80 liters per second of water on test suction gauge reads

10 mm hg vacuum and 1.2 m below pump center line. Power input is 70 kw. Find the

total dynamic head in meters.

a. 66

c. 62

b. 60

d. 64

Solution:

=9.81 kN/m3

Q=0.80 m3 /s

P=0.74 70 =51.80

Note: 74% is the usual pump efficiency used if not given.

Thus;

51.80=9.81 0.80 H

(a) H=66 m

6.A pump with a 400 mm diameter suction pipe and a 350 mm diameter discharge pipe

is to deliver 20,000 liters per minute of 15.6

if suction gage is 7.5 cm below the pump centerline and reads 127 mm Hg vacuum and

discharges gage is 45 cm above the pump centerline and reads 75 kpa.

a. 15 m

c. 20 m

b. 5 m

d. 10 m

Solution:

H=total dynamic head

H=

+

+Zd -Zs

2g

Q=20,000

Vs =

Q

2

li

=0.33 m/s

min

=

0.33

2

d /4 (0.4) /4

=2.63 m/s

Vd =

0.33

2

(0.35) /4

=3.43 m/s

Thus:

H=

+

+0.45+0.075

9.81

2(9.81)

(d) H=10.14 m

7.A centrifugal pump delivers 300,000 liters per hour of water to a pressurized tank whose

pressure is 284 kpa. The source of water is 5 meters below the pump. The diameter of the

suction pipe is 300 mm and the discharge pipe is 250 mm. calculate the kw rating of the

driving motor assuming the pump efficiency to be 72%.

a. 41.75 kw

c. 43.28 kw

b. 35.23 kw

d. 38.16 kw

Solution:

Let: Pbrake =brake input power

Pbrake =

QH

ep

Where:

Q=300,000

li

=0.0833m3 /s

hr

Solving for H:

From: Bernoullis Equation:

H=

+

+Zd -Zs

2g

where:

Vs =

0.0833

2

(0.3) /4

=1.18 m/s

0.0833

0.25 /4

1.7 m/s

Then;

2

+

+5-0

H=

2(9.81)

9.81

H=33.62 m

Thus;

Pbrake =

9.81(0.0833)(33.62)

0.72

8.A pump delivers 500 gpm of water against a total head of 200 ft and operating at 1770

rpm. Changes have increased the total head to 375 ft. at what rpm should the pump be

operated to achieved the new head at the same efficiency.

a. 2800 rpm

c. 3434 rpm

b. 3600 rpm

d. 2424 rpm

Solution:

H1 N1 2

=( )

H2 N2

200

375

1770

N

Thus;

(e) N2 =2423.67 rpm

9.The rate of flow of water in a pump installation is 60.6 kg/s. the intake static gage is 1.22

m below the pump centerline and reads 68.95 kpa gage ; the discharge static gage is

0.61 m below the pump centerline and reads 344.75 kpa gage. The gages are located

lose to the pump as much as possible. The areas of the intake and discharge pipes are

0.093 m and 0.069 m respectively. The pump efficiency is 74 %. Take the density of

water equals 1000 kg/m . What is the hydraulic power in kw?

a. 17.0

c. 31.9

b. 24.5

d. 15.2

Solution:

Pwater =Phydraulic =QH

Where:

Q=

60.6 kg/s

1000 kg/m3

Q=0.0606 m3 /s

Vs =

0.0606

Vd =

0.0606

0.093

0.069

=0.65 m/s

=0.88 m/s

H=

+

+Zd -Zs

2g

H=

+

+(-0.61+1.22)

9.81

2(9.81)

H=28.74 m

Thus the hydraulic power is:

Phydraulic = 9.81 (0.0606) (28.74)

Phydraulic =17.09 kW

10.It is desired to deliver 5 gpm at a head of 640 ft in a single stage pump having a

specific speed not to exceed 40. If the speed is not exceeding 1352 rpm how many

stages are required?

a. 3

c. 5

b. 4

d. 2

Solution:

Let; n=no. of stages

h=head per stage

then,

h=

640

n

from;

Ns =

40=

NQ

h3/4

13525

640 3/4

( n )

11. The power output is 30 Hp to a centrifugal pump that is discharging 900 gpm and

which operates at 1800 rpm against a head H = 120 ft, 220 V, 3 phase, 60 Hertz. If this

pump is modified to operate 1200 rpm, assuming its efficiency remains constant,

determine its discharge in gpm, the theoretical head it imparts to the liquid and the

power input to the pump.

a. 600 gpm, 53.33 ft, 8.89 Hp

Solution:

Solution for the discharge, Q :

Q1 N1

=

Q2 N2

900 1800

=

Q2 1200

Q2 =600 gpm

Solution for the theoretical head, H :

H1 N1 2

=( )

H2 N2

120 1800 2

=(

)

1200

H2

H2 =53.33 ft

Solving for the Power input, P :

P1 N1 3

=(

)

P2 N2

3

30 1800

=(

)

P2 1200

P2 =8.89 Hp

Thus;

(a) Q2 =600gpm , H2 =53.33 ft , P2 =8.89 Hp

12. A pump operating at 1750 rpm delivering 500 gal/min against a total head of 150 ft.

Changes in the piping system have increased the total head of 360 ft. At what rpm

should the pump be operated to achieve this new head at the same efficiency?

a. 2730 rpm

c. 2711 rpm

b. 2740 rpm

d. 2600 rpm

Solution:

H1 N1 2

=( )

H2 N2

2

150 1750

=(

)

360

N2

Thus;

N2 =2711.09 rpm

13. Water in the rural areas is often extracted from underground water source whose free

surface is 60 m below ground level. The water is to be raised 5 m above the ground by a

pump. The diameter of the pipe is 10 cm at the inlet and 15 cm at the exit. Neglecting

any heat interaction with the surroundings and frictional heating effects. What is the

necessary power input to the pump in kW for a steady flow of water at the rate of 15 li/s?

Assume pump efficiency of 74 %.

a. 9.54

c. 7.82

b. 5.54

d. 12.90

Solution:

Input Power=

Input Power=

where:

Water Power

Pump Efficiency

QH

ep

Q = 15 li/s

Q = 0.05 m3

Vs =

0.015

2

(0.10) /4

Vs =1.91 m/s

Vd =

0.015

2

(0.015) /4

Vd =0.85 m/s

H=

Vd 2 -Vs 2

+Zd -Zs

2g

H=

(0.85) -(1.91)

+ 5-(-60)

2(9.81)

H = 64.85

Thus;

Input power =

9.81(0.015)(64.85)

0.74

Find the hydraulic horsepower and the mechanical efficiency of a rotary pump direct

connected to a 5 Hp electrical motor operating at full load under the following

conditions:

Fluid handled

oil

Temperature

21C

Specific gravity

0.85

20 li./sec

Total Head

175 kPa

a. 4.69 Hp , 94%

c. 5.69 , 74%

b. 3.69 Hp , 84%

d. 6.69 , 78%

Solution:

Hydraulic Power of the Pump :

Phydraulic = Q H

where:

= 9.81(0.85) = 8.34 kN/m3

Q = 20 li/s = 0.020 m3/s

H = =

H = 20.98 m

then ;

Phydraulic = (8.34) (0.020) (20.98)

= 3.50 kW

Phydraulic = 4.69 Hp

ep =

ep = 0.94 = 94%

thus;

(a) Phydraulic = 4.69 Hp , ep = 94%

15. Past Board Problem

Water from an open reservoir A at 8 m elevation is drawn by a motor driven pump to an

open reservoir B at 70 m elevation. The inside diameter of the suction pipe is 200 mm and

150 mm for the discharge pipe. The suction line has a loss of head three times that of the

velocity head in the 200 mm pipe. The discharge line has a loss of head twenty times that

of the velocity head in the discharge pipeline. The pump centerline is at 4 m. Overall

efficiency of the system is 78 %. For the discharge rate of 10 li/s, find the power input to

the motor and the pressure gage readings installed just at the outlet and the inlet of the

pump in kPag.

a. 7.82 kW, 39 kPa, 650 kPa

Solution:

Power input of the motor:

Pinput =

where:

Q = 0.010 m3/s

Vd =

.

.

Vd = 0.565884242 m/s

.

Vs =

Vs = 0.318309886 m/s

H=

+Z

H=0+

+ 20

]+3

] + 64 4

H = 62.3530768 m

thus;

.

Pinput =

Pinput = 7.842098505 kW

Pressure Gages Readings:

Ps = Hs = 9.81(3.99)

Ps = 39.14 kPa

Pd = Hd = 9.81(66.34)

Pd = 650.80 kPa

A pump adds 167.6 m of pressure head to 45.43 kg/s of water. What is the hydraulic

power in kW.

a. 64.69 kW

c. 66.54 kW

b. 74.69 kW

d. 76.54 kW

Solution:

P=QH

where:

Q=

/

/

= 0.04543 m3/s

thus;

(b) P = 74.69 kW

A pump driven by an electrical motor moves 25 gal/min of water from a reservoir A to B,

lifting the water to a total head of 245 ft. The efficiency of the pump is 64%. Neglecting

velocity head, friction, and minor losses. What size motor is required?

a. 2.64 Hp

c. 1.55 Hp

b. 2.55 Hp

d. 1.64 Hp

Solution:

P=Qh

= (8.33 lb/gal) (25 gal/min.) (245 ft)

= 51,021.25

thus;

(a) P = 1.55 Hp

18. Supplementary Problem

A centrifugal pump is powered by a direct drive induction motor is needed to discharge

150 gal/min against a total head of 180 ft when turning at fully loaded speed of 3500

rpm. What type of pump should be selected?

a. Radial

c. Mixed Flow

b. Francis

d. Propeller

Solution:

Ns =

=

= 872.286 rpm

thus;

(a) Radial turbine

A boiler feed pump receives 40 L/s at 4 MPa and 180C. It operates against a total head

of 900 m with an efficiency of 60%. Determine the power output of the driving motor.

a. 450.21 kW

c. 500.21 kW

b. 459.64 kW

d. 523.26 kW

Solution:

Pmotor =

Solving for Pwater:

From Steam table:

At 4 Mpa and 180C

h1 = 764.76 kJ/kg

v1 = 0.00112484 m3/kg

=

= 889.015 kg/m3

= 8721.24 N/m3

= 8.721 kN/m3

Pwater = Q h

= (8.721 kN/m3) (0.040 m3/s) (910 m)

= 313 956 kW

thus;

Pmotor =

.

.

A submersible, multi-stage, centrifugal deep well pump 260 gpm capacity is installed in a

well 27 ft below the static water level. Drawdown when pumping at rated capacity is 10

ft. the pump deliverd that water into a 25,000 gallons capacity overhead storage tank.

Totaldischarge head developed by pump including friction in piping is 243 ft. Calculate

the brakepower required to drive the pump if pump efficiency is 70%.

a. 15.86 Hp

c. 30.16 Hp

b. 21.22 Hp

d. 10.52 Hp

Solution:

Pbrake =

Solving for Pwater:

Q = 260

= 34.76 ft3/min.

H = 243 (27 10)

= 226 ft

Pwater = (62.4

) (34.76

= 490,199.42

Pwater =

) (226 ft)

thus;

Pwater = 21.22 Hp

21. Past ME Board Problem

A boiler feed pump receives 45 li./s of water at 190C and enthalpy of 839.33 kJ/kg. It

operates against a head of 952 m with efficiency of 70%. Estimate the water leaving

temperature assuming that the temperature rise is due to the inefficiency of the input

energy.

a. 190.96 C

c. 199.71 C

b. 194.66 C

d. 200 C

Solution:

m C

- m h

4.187 t 190) =

(h 839.33)

Solving for h :

m (h - h ) = 0.00981 (952)

h = 848.67 kJ/kg

then;

.

4.187 (t 190) =

(848.67 839.33)

(a) t = 190.96 C

22. Past ME Board Problem

A pump is driven by an electric motor moves 25 gal/min of water from reservoir A to

reservoir B, lifting the water to a total of 245 ft. The efficiency of the pump and motor are

64% and 84% respectively. What size of motor in Hp is required?

a. 3 Hp

c. 2 Hp

b. 5 Hp

d. 7 Hp

Solution:

Pmotor =

Solving for Pwater:

Q = 25 gal/min = 0.0557 ft /s

Pwater = (62.4

= 851.54 ft-lb/s

) (0.0557

) (245 ft)

Pwater = 1.55 Hp

Pbrake =

.

.

= 2.42 Hp

thus;

(a) Pmotor = 2.88 Hp or 3 Hp

23. Past ME Board Problem

A vacuum pump is used to drain a flooded mine shaft at 20C water. The pump pressure

of water at this temperature is 2.34 kPa. The pump is incapable of lifting the water higher

than 10.16 m. What is the atmospheric pressure?

a. 90.21 kPa

c. 102.01 kPa

b. 96.02 kPa

d. 108.01 kPa

Solution:

From Bernoullis Theorem:

=

.

+Z =

+

.

.

+Z

+ Z

+ 0 + 10.16

24. Past ME Board Problem

Water reservoir is pumped over a hill through a pipe 45 mm in diameter and a pressure of

1 kg/cm (98.08 kPa) is maintained at the summit. Water discharge is 30 m above the

reservoir. The quantity pumped is 0.50 m /s. Frictional losses in the discharge and suction

pipe of the pump is equivalent to 1.5 m head loss. The speed of the pump is 800 rpm,

what amount of energy must be furnished by the pump in kW?

a. 206 kW

c. 250 kW

b. 210 kW

d. 245 kW

P=QH

Solving for H:

H=

.

/ .

+Z

.

Z + h

+ 30 +1.5

h = 42 m

then;

P = 9.81 (0.50) (42)

thus;

(a) P = 206 kW

25. Past ME Board Problem

A pump is to deliver 80 gpm of water at 140F with a discharge pressure of 150 psig.

Suction pressure indicates 2 in. of mercury vacuum. The diameter of suction and

discharge pipes are 5 in. and 4 in. respectively. The pump has efficiency of 70%, while the

motor efficiency is 80%. Determine the power input to the drive motor.

a. 12.59 Hp

c. 15.590 Hp

b. 10.59 Hp

d. 20.59 Hp

Solution:

Pmotor =

Pbrake =

Solving for Pwater:

Q = 80 gal/min = 0.1782 ft /s

Vs =

Vd =

.

/ /

.

/ /

= 1.307 ft/s

= 2.043 ft/s

At 150 psig (164.7 psi) and 140F:

= 61.424 lb/ft

h=

.

.

= 354 ft

then;

Pwater = 61.424 (0.1782) (354)

= 7.05 Hp

= 3874.80

=

= 10.07 Hp

Pmotor =

.

.

thus;

(a) Pmotor = 12.59 Hp

26. Past ME Board Problem

Determine the water horsepower of a centrifugal water pump which has an input of 3.5

Hp if the pump has an 8 in. nominal size suction and 6 in. nominal size discharge and

handles 150 gpm of water of 150F. The suction line gage shows 4 in. Hg vacuum and the

discharge gage shows 26 psi. The discharge gage is located 2 ft above the center of the

discharge pipe line and the pump inlet and discharge lines are at the same elevation.

a. 2.52 Hp

c. 2.78 Hp

b. 3.52 Hp

d. 3.78 Hp

Solution:

P=QH

Solving for h:

Vs =

= 0.957 ft/s

Vd =

= 1.701 ft/s

At 150F:

=

H=

= 61.2 lb/ft

.

.

= 67.83 ft

thus;

P = (61.2) (0.334) (67.83)

= 1386.50 ft-lb/s

(a) P = 2.52 Hp

27. Past ME Board Problem

Water from an open reservoir A at 8 m elevation is drawn by a motor-driven pump to an

open reservoir B at 70 m elevation. The inside diameter of the suction pipe is 200 mm and

150 mm for the discharge pipe. The suction line has a loss of head three times that of the

velocity head in the 200 mm pipe. The discharge line has a loss of head 20 times that of

the velocity head of the discharge pipeline. The pump centerline is at 4 m. Overall

efficiency of the system is 78%. For a discharge rate of 10 li./s, find the power input to the

motor.

a. 10.06 kW

c. 6.12 kW

b. 4.80 kW

d. 7.85 kW

Solution:

Pinput =

:

Solving for P

Vs =

.

.

= 0.318 m/s

Vd =

.

.

= 0.566 m/s

.

=3

= 0.01546 m

20

= 20

+ Z

= 0.32642 m

H=

=

.

.

= 62.35 m

+ h

then;

= 9.81 (0.010) (62.35)

= 6.12 kW

thus;

Pinput =

.

.

28. Past ME Board Problem

A double suction, single stage, cenyrifugal pump delivers 900 m3/hr of seawater (S.G. =

1.03) from a source where the water level varies 2 m from high tide to low tide level. The

pump centerline is located 2.6 m above the surface of the water at high tide level. The

pump discharges into a surface condenser, 3 m above pump centerline. Loss of head

due to friction in suction pipe is 0.80 m and the discharge side is 3 m. Pump is directly

coupled to a 1750 rpm, 460 V, 3 phase, 60 Hz motor. Calculate the specific speed of

pump in rpm.

a. 5,149.20 rpm

c. 5,500 rpm

b. 6,149.20 rpm

d. 6,500 rpm

Solution:

Ns =

Solving for H:

hs = 2 + 2.6 + 0.8

= 5.4 m

= 17.72 ft

hd = 3 + 3 = 6 m

= 19.69 ft

H = 17.72 + 19.69

= 37.41 ft

Q1 = Q2 = 900/2

= 450 m3/hr

= 1981 gal/min

then;

Ns =

thus;

(a) Ns = 5,149.20 rpm

29. Past ME Board Problem

A DC driven pump running at 100 rpm delivers 30 liters per second of water at 40C

against a total pumping head of 27 m with a pump efficiency of 60%. Barometer pressure

is 758 mm Hg abs. What pump speed and capacity would result if the pump rpm were

increased to produce a pumping head of 36 m assuming no change in efficiency.

a. 115.47 rpm , 34.64 L/s

Solution:

New Speed required:

N

N

H

H

N

100

36

27

N = 115.47 rpm

New Capacity Required:

Q

Q

N

N

Q

30

115.47

100

Q = 34.64 L/s

thus;

(a) N = 115.47 rpm , Q = 34.64 L/s

30. Supplementary Problem

A centrifugal pump discharged 20 L/s against a head of 17 m when the speed is 1500

rpm. The diameter of the impeller was 30 cm and the brake horsepower was 6.0. A

geometrically similar pump 40 cm in diameter is to run at 1750 rpm. Assuming equal

efficiencies, what brake horsepower is required?

a. 51.55 HP

c. 40.15 HP

b. 50.15 HP

d. 45.15 HP

Solution:

New brake horsepower required:

P

D N

P

D N

6

0.30 1500

P

0.40 1750

thus;

(c) P = 40.14 Hp

31. Supplementary Problem

A two-stage centrifugal pump delivers 15,000 kg/hr of 110C water against 76 m head at

3500 rpm. What is the specific speed of the pump?

Solution:

Ns =

Solving for Q:

,

Q=

=

Q = 0.004383 m3/s

H = 76/2 = 38 m

then;

Ns =

.

.

= 780.39 rpm

thus;

(a) Ns = 780.39 rpm

Calculate the impeller diameter of the centrifugal pump that requires 15m head

to deliver if pump speed is 1500 rpm.

a. 218.43 mm

c. 345.75 mm

b. 300.75 mm

d. 276.45 mm

Solution:

V=

Solving for V:

V= 2

= 2 9.81 15

= 17.15 m/s

then;

17.5 =

D = 0.21843 m

thus;

(a) D = 0.21843 m

A large centrifugal pump has a 254 mm diameter inlet and a 127 mm diameter

outlet pipe. The measured flow rate is 51.6 L/s of cold water. The measured inlet

pressure is 127 mmHg above atmospheric and discharge pressure measured at a

point 1.22 m above the pump outlet is 212 kPa abs. The pump input is 10 Hp. Find

the pump efficiency.

a. 78.51 %

c. 74.54 %

b. 70.62 %

d. 76.77 %

Solution:

epump = Pwater / Pinput

Solving for Pwater :

Vs = Q / As = 0.0516 / /4 0.254

Vs = 1.018 m/s

Vd = Q / Ad

=

.

.

= 4.073 m/s

H=

212101.325 127

101.325

760

9.81

4.073 2 1.018 2

2 9.81

1.22

= 11.57 m

Pwater =9.81(0.516)(11.57)

=5.86 Kw=7.85Hp

thus;

epump = 7.85/10

(a) epump = 0.785 = 78.51%

34. Supplementary Problem

A closed tank contains liquefied butane gas whose specific gravity is 0.60. The

tank pressure us 1.7 Mpa gage which is also the equilibrium vapor pressure of

butane at the pumping temperature. Suction line losses is 1.5 m of gas and the

static elevation gain is 4m. What is the Net Positive Suction Head available

(NPSH)?

a. 2.5 m

c. 3.5 m

b. 1.5 m

d. 1.7 m

Solution:

NPSH =

= 0 + 4 1.5

Thus;

(a)

A condensate pump at sea level take water from a surface condenser where the

vacuum is 15 in. of mercury. The friction and turbulence in the piping in the

condenser hot well and the pump suction flange is assumed to be 6.5 ft. If the

condensate pump to be installed has a required head of 9 ft, what would be the

centerline of the pump to avoid cavitation?

a. 2.5 ft

c. 18 ft

b. 15.5 ft

d. 5.5 ft

Solution:

The Net Positive Suction Head required by the pump is 9.

then;

NPSH =

9 = 0 + S 6.5

Thus;

(b) S = 15.5 ft

36. Supplementary Problem

A boiler feed pump receives 130 cfm of water with specific volume of 0.0025 m3

at a head of 800 m. If the pump efficiency is 64%, what is the output of the driving

motor?

a. 299 kW

c. 250.34 kW

b. 350.16 kW

d. 299.64 kW

Solution:

Solving for Pwater;

Q = 130 ft3 = 0.061 m3/s

=

1

0.0025

0.00981

3.9245 kN/m3

Pwater = 3.924(0.061)(800)

= 191.49 Kw

Then;

Poutout = 191.49/0.64

Thus;

a

Poutout = 299.21 kW

A dearator heater supplies 150 L/min of daerated feedwater into a booster pump

at 115

bleed steam. Pump centerline is located 1m above the floor level. Suction line

losses is 0.60 m. Determine the minimum height of water level in the heater that

must be maintained above the centerline of the pump to avoid cavitation, if the

pump to be installed has a reuired suction head 5.8 m.

a. 9.05 m

c. 3.25 m

b. 2.25 m

d. 5.09 m

Solution:

NPSH =

where;

P = 100 kPag

Pa = 101.325 kPa

PV = Psat at 115

Pv = 172 kPa

Vf at 15.6

= 0.001 m3 / kg

Vf at 11.5

= 0.001055 m3/ kg

S.G. =

0.001

0.001055

= .948

then;

5.8 =

100 101.325172

9.81 .948

+ S 0.60

thus;

(c) S = 3.25

38. Supplementary Problem

A pump running at 1000 rpm delivers water against a head of 300 m. If the pump

speed will increased to 1500 rpm, what is the change in head.

a. 575 m

c. 675 m

b. 375 m

d. 475 m

Solution:

H2

H1

=( )

N

H2 = 300(1500/1000)2

H2 = 675 m

thus;

(b) H = 675 300 = 375 M

Oil is being pumped from a truck to a tank 10 ft higher than the truck through a 2

in. galvanized pipeline 100 ft long. If the pressure of the discharge side of the

pump is 15 psi, at what rate in gpm is oil flowing through the pipe? The oil has a

specific gravity of 0.92 at the temperature in the pipe.

a. 542.22 gpm

c. 642.44 gpm

b. 442.44 gpm

d. 742.44 gpm

Solution:

Q = AV

H=P/

15(144)

+ hs = 62.4(.92)

10

= 47.66 ft

2gh =

V=

2 32.2 47.66

= 55.40 fps

A=

22 /

= 0.0218 ft2

then;

Q = 0.0218 (55.40)

= 1.209 ft3/s (7.489 gal/1ft3)(60 s/min)

thus;

(a) Q = 542.44 gal / min or gpm

A pump is operated by motor developing 30 Kw and is delivering water at a

pressure of 200 psig. If the pump is drawing water from a lake 20 ft below the

centerline and the mechanical and hydraulic efficiency may be assumed to be

97% and 65% respectively; estimate the amount of water discharge in gallons per

minute.

a. 358.26 gpm

c. 208.26 gpm

b. 258.26 gpm

d. 308.26 gpm

Solution:

Pwater = QH

Pwater = Pbrake (epump)

= (30)[(.97)(.65)]

= 18.915 Kw

Solving for H;

H=

200 144

62.4

20

= 481.54 ft

= 146.766 m

Then;

18.915 = 9.81 Q (146.766)

Q = 0.01314

thus;

(c) Q = 208.26 gpm

41. Supplementary Problem

A 30 Hp centrifugal pump is used to deliver 70 cfm water. Calculate the number

of stages needed if each impeller develops a 38 ft head.

a. 4

c. 8

b. 6

d. 10

Solution:

No. of stages = Total head / head per stage

Solving for the total head, H;

Q = 70 ft3/min

Q = 0.033 m3/s

P=

QH

H = 124.22

n = 124.22 / 38

Thus;

(a) n = 3.26 say 4 stages

42. Supplementary Problem

In a test of a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor, the suction pipe is 10

in. in diameter and its gage indicates a partial vacuum of 2.5 ft of water. The

discharge pipe is 5 in. in diameter, is 2 ft higher than the suction gage and shows

a pressure of 50 ft of water. if the pump efficiency is indicated assuming motor

efficiency of 85%?

a. 60%

c. 75%

b. 70%

d. 65%

Solution:

Electrical Power Input = Water power / (epump)(emotor)

Solving for water power:

Vs = Q/AS = 1.6 / /4 10/12 2 = 2.935 fps

Vd = Q/Ad = 1.6 / /4 5/12 2 = 11.74 fps

H = (50 + 2.5) + 2 + [(11.74)2 (2.935)2]/ 2(32.2)

H = 56.51 ft

Pwater = (62.4)(1.6)(56.51)

= 5,641.96 ft-lb /s

= 10.26 Hp

then;

12/ .746 = 10.26 / (epump)(0.85)

thus;

(a) epumo = 0.7504 = 75.04%

43 Supplementary Problem

A centrifugal pump is designed for 2000 rpm and head of 70 m. What is the speed

if the head id increased to 100 m.

a. 2100 rpm

c. 3000 rpm

b. 2390 rpm

d. 3010 rpm

Solution:

)2

100/70 =(N2/2000)2

Thus;

(b) N2 = 2,390.46 rpm

44. Supplementary Problem

A water pump develops a total head of 200 ft. The pump efficiency id 80% and

the motor efficiency is 87.5%. If the power rate is 1.5 cents per Kw-hr, hat is the

power cost for pumping 100 gal?

a. 34 cents per hour

Solution:

P=

QH

= 436.46 Hp

P motor = 0.84 / 0.80(.875)

Power Cost = 0.895 Kw ($ 0.015 / Kw- hr)

Thus;

(b) Power Cost = $ 0.0134 per hr or 1.34 cents per hr

capacity of 800 GPM. Estimate the total head and capacity if the pump were

operated at 1750 rpm. Assume normal operation at point of maximum efficiency in

each case.

a. 87.07 ft., 1217.4 gpm

Solution:

New Head Required:

H2 = 87.07 ft

Q2 = 1217.4 gpm

Thus;

(a) H2 = 87.07 ft; Q2 = 1217.4 gpm

A centrifugal pump operating at 1800 rpm develops total head of 200 ft at a

capacity of 2500 gpm. What is the specific speed?

a. 1590 rpm

c. 1650 rpm

b. 1690 rpm

d. 1550 rpm

Solution:

Ns =

Thus:

47. Supplementary Problem

A centrifugal pump operating at 1150 rpm showed a total head of 40 ft at a

capacity of 600 gpm. The impeller diameter is 10.5 in. Estimate the total head and

capacity of a geometrically similar pump at 1150 rpm with an impeller diameter of 10

inches.

a. 30. 25 ft.,513.8 gpm

Solution:

New Head Required:

H2 = 36.28ft

Q2 = 518.3gpm

Thus;

(b) H2 = 36.28 ft; Q2 = 518.3 gpm

A pump delivers 20 cfm of water having a density of 62 lb/ft3. The suction and discharge

gage reads 5 in. Hg vacuum and 30 psi respectively. The discharge gage is 5 ft above

the suction gage. If pump efficiency is 70%, what is the motor power?

Solution

Pwater

0.70

Pmotor

30

Z Z

5 14.7/29.920 144

62

80.38

Pwater

62

ft3

20

3

min

80.38

99674.87

Pwater

1

33, 000

3.02 Hp

Thus;

Pwater

3.02

0.70

4.31

A centrifugal pump-motor unit draws 100 li/min of water from a supply which has a level

at the centreline of the pump. The discharge pressure is 28 kg/cm2 and the over-all unit

efficiency is 67 %. What could be the required input to the electric motor in kW if the

head is 280 m.

a. 6.83 kW

c. 7.83 kW

b. 5.83 kW

d. 8.83 kW

Solution

Pinput

9.81

Pwater

0.67

280

0.67

Pinput

6.83 kW

A double-suction centrifugal pump delivers 3 m3/s of water at a head of 15 m and

running at 1200 rpm. Calculate the specific speed of the pump. Ns

a. 9958.46 rpm

Solution

Ns

Where:

3

47, 556.14

2

15

Ns

23, 778.07

49.215

120023, 778.07

49.215 /

9958.56

10 19388

ME 5206

Problems in Industrial Plant Engineering

Part 4: Fans & Blowers

1. What horsepower is supplied to air moving at 20 fpm through a 2 x 3 ft duct under a

pressure of 3 in. water gage?

a. 0.786 Hp

c. 0.642 Hp

b. 0741 Hp

d. 0.0566 Hp

Solution:

Solving for :

2 3

2

Solving for :

then,

2

31.2

Thus,

(d)

0.0567

per hour at 60

and barometer of 30 in. Hg and gives a static pressure of 2 in. of water column on

full delivery. What size electric motor shall be used to drive this fan?

a. Hp

c. 2 Hp

b. 1 Hp

d. 1 Hp

Solution:

Solving for

where;

,

16.67

then;

.

16.67

173.37

0.315

thus;

.

0.788

(b) Use 1 Hp

3. Air is flowing in a duct with a velocity of 7.62 m/s and a static pressure of 2.16 cm

water gage. The duct diameter is 1.22 m, the barometric pressure 99.4 kPa and the

gage fluid temperature and air temperature are 30 . What is the total pressure of air

against which the fan will operate in cm of water?

a. 3.25

c. 3.75

b. 2.50

d. 1.25

Solution:

.

.

2.959

1000

2.959

where:

.

.

1.143

then;

1000

2.959 1.143

0.0034 m of water

0.34 cm of water

thus;

h

2.16

(b) h

0.34

2.50 cm of water

of air per second through a duct 91 cm in diameter

the temperature of air is 29.44

. If the power

a. 35.62 %

c. 45.62 %

b. 25.62 %

d. 55 %

Solution:

.

= 0.3562

thus;

(a) e = 35.62 %

and barometer pressure is 730 mm Hg. (97 kPa). What input power will be required to

give the fan an efficiency of 44.3%?

a. 5 Hp

c. 3 Hp

b. 10 Hp

d. 7 Hp

Solution:

Solving for

:

@

= 995.85 kg/

3

= 1.150 kg/

Static pressure in cm WG converted into m of air:

0.30

1.150

995.85 0.30

25.98 m of air

/

.

8.56 /

Velocity pressure:

.

.

= 3.73 m of air

Total Pressure created by Fan:

+

= 5.98 + 3.73

= 29.71 m of air

then;

= [1.150(0.00981)(570/60)(29.71)]

= 3.18 kW

= 4.27 Hp

thus;

.

.

9.64

10

6. The mechanical efficiency and static pressure of a fan are 40% and 20 m of air

respectively. What is the static efficiency if the total pressure created by fan is 25 m of

air?

a. 30.44%

c. 35.44%

b. 33.44%

d. 37.44%

Solution:

= (0.443)(20/25)

thus;

(a)

0.3544 or 35.44%

7. Air enters a fan through a duct at a velocity of 6.3 m/s and an inlet static pressure of

2.5 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure. The air leaves the fan through a duct

at a velocity of 11.25 m/s and a discharge static pressure of 7.62 cm of water above

the atmospheric pressure. If the specific weight of the air is 1.20 kg/

delivers 9.45

/s, what is the fan efficiency when the power input to the fan is 13.75

kW at the coupling?

a. 71.81%

c. 52.34%

b. 61.81%

d. 72.34%

Solution:

Fan efficiency =

Solving for

:

+

1000

.

.

= 88.761 m of air

then;

= [1.2(0.00981)](9.45)(88.761)

= 9.874 kW

thus;

.

.

(a)

= 71.81%

combustion air to a steam generator. Air inlet is at 43.33 , a static pressure of 254

mm water gage is developed and the fan speed is 1200 rpm. The fan input is 257 kW

each. Calculate the capacity of the fan for a speed increase of 20 percent.

a. 77.86

/s

c. 89.46

/s

b. 87.84

/s

d. 59.49

/s

Solution:

1.21

= 1.21 (73.2)

thus;

(b)

87.84

/s

a. 20.45 kW

c. 30.45 kW

b. 25.64 kW

d. 35.64 kW

Solution:

Solving for h:

0.120

101.695

from:

Q=AV

1 1.5

V = 13.33 m/s

.

.

= 9.06 m of air

+

= 101.695 + 9.06

= 110.756 m of air

thus;

1.18 0.00981

(b)

110.756

25.64 kW

speed of 400 rpm. The power input required is 2.963 kW. If 7.05

a. 7.62

b. 17.14

c. 11.43

d. 5.08

Solution:

Solving for

600 rpm

then;

.

thus;

(c)

11.43 cm of water

/min at a static

pressure (gage) of 254 cm of water when running at 250 rpm and requiring 3.6 kW. If

the fan speed is changed to 305 rpm and the air handled were at 65

instead of

a. 3.82

c. 4.66

b. 5.08

d. 5.68

Solution:

6.5 kW

then;

.

thus;

(d)

5.68 kW

7

12. What is the set efficiency of a fan if the fan efficiency is 45% and motor efficiency is

90%?

a. 40.50%

c. 30.41%

b. 35.65%

d. 40.94%

Solution:

Set of Efficiency = Fan Efficiency x Motor Efficiency

= (0.45)(0.90)

thus;

0.405 or 40.50%

(d)

static fan efficiency if total fan mechanical efficiency is 70% and air is measured at

25

a. 60%

c. 30%

b. 50%

d. 40%

Solution:

Solving for

= 1.18 kg/

Solving for

.

.

= 21.52 cm of air

.

.

.

.

20.09

23.9

.

.

.

8.54 m of air

Solving for h:

+

= 21.52 + 8.54

8

= 30.06 m of air

thus;

0.70 21.52/30.06

(b)

0.5011 or 50.11%

14. A fan manufacturer rates his fans at 152 mm water gage static pressure for 10

of

air per second at 21 , 1200 rpm and static efficiency of 69%. At what speed would

these fans operate to develop 130 mm water gage when the temperature is 316 ?

a. 1570 rpm

c. 1770 rpm

b. 1670 rpm

d. 1470 rpm

Solution:

At 21 ,

1.52

1.52 2 2

13.09

At 21

thus;

(a)

1570.8 rpm

15. A 12 Hp motor is used to drive a fan that has a total head of 20 m. If the fan

efficiency is 70%, what is the maximum capacity in

/s?

a. 26.63

/s

c. 24.43

/s

b. 25.53

/s

d. 27.73

/s

9

Solution:

0.70 12

8.4

= 6.27 kW

6.27 = [(1.2)(0.00981)]Q(20)

thus;

/s

(a) Q =26.63

by 1.2 m; pressure is 127 mm of water; air temperature is 21

/s of air through a 1 m

and barometric pressure

is 760 mm of mercury.

a. 53.35 Hp

c. 46.45 Hp

b. 43.33 Hp

d. 56.45 Hp

Solution:

Solving for h:

21.667 /

.

.

= 1.2 kg/

@ 101.325

998.6

2

1.20 21.62

998.6 2 9.81

0.029

127

0.127

then;

P = (9.81)(26)(0.156)

= 39.79 kW

thus;

(a) P = 53.34 Hp

10

cm WG (at 43.3 ). The power input to the fan is 224 kW and the fan is 75 percent

efficient. Compute the volume of air handled per minute. Local gravity of

acceleration is g = 9.81m/ .

a. 3,862.87

c. 2,862.87

b. 4,862.87

d. 4,567.97

Solution:

Power Input to fan = Shaft Power

P=

224 =

Q = 64.38

= 3,862.87

/s

/

thus;

(a) 3,862.87

brake power of the fan if it operates at 100 kPa and 30

at the same speed?

a. 163.75 kW

c. 133.86 kW

b. 143.75 kW

d. 173.86 kW

Solution:

Solving for

:

.

= 1.15

then;

.

.

thus;

(b)

143.75 kW

11

A cold storage compartment is 4.5 m long by 4 m wide by 2.5 m high. The four walls, ceiling

and floor are covered to a thickness of 150 mm with insulating material which has a

coefficient of thermal conductivity of 5.8 x 10-2 W/m-K. Calculate the quantity of heat

leaking through the insulation per hour when the outside and inside face temperatures of

the material is 15C and -5C respectively.

a.

2185.44 kJ

c.

3185.44 J

b.

1185.44 kJ

d.

4185.44 kJ

Solution

kAt

x

where:

A

78.5 m2

then:

(5.8x10-2)(78.50)(15+5)

607.07 W or J/s

2185.44 kJ/hr

0.15

thus;

(a) the quantity of heat through the insulation per hour is 2185.44 kJ

19 Supplementary Problem

A thin square steel plate, to 10 cm on a side, is heated in a blacksmiths forge to a

temperature of 800C. If the emissivity is 0.60, what is the total rate of radiation of energy?

a.

900 Watts

c.

300 Watts

b.

400 Watts

d.

700 Watts

Solution

Q

A e T4

thus;

(a) Q = 900 Watts

W

m2K4

) (1073)4 K4

A furnace wall consist of 35 cm firebrick (k= 1.557 W/m-K), 12 cm insulating refractory

(k=0.346) and 20cm common brick (k=1.692) covered with 7 cm steel plate (k=45). The

temperature at the inner surface of the firebrick is 1230 degree C and at the outer face of

the steel plate is 60 degree C. Atmosphere 27 degree C. What is the value of combined

coefficient for convection and radiation from the outside wall?

a. 31.13 W/m2-K

c. 41.3 W/m2-K

b. 30.13 W/m-K

d. 40.13 W/m2-K

Solution

Q

A

t

RT

where:

RT

k12

k23

X12

x23

0.35

x34

0.12

1.557

k34

0.346

k45

x45

0.2

0.692

m2K

0.862

then;

Q

A

Q

A

(1230-60)K

0.862

Q5-0

m2K

t5 - to

1

h0

1357.15

60-70

1

h0

h0

41.13

W

m2K

1357.15 W/m2

0.07

45

A dry ice storage chest is a wooden box lined with glass fiber insulation 5cm thick. The

wooden box (k= 0.069) is 2 cm thick and cubical 60 cm on an edge. The inside surface

temperature is -76 degree C and the outside surface temperature is 18 degree C. Use k=

0.035 for fiber glass insulation. Determine the heat gain per day.

a. 10211 kJ

c. 12211kJ

b. 11195 kJ

d. 9185 kJ

Solution

Q

At

RT

where:

A

6[(0.60)(0.60)]

=

RT

=

=

2.16m2

k12

x12

k23

x23

0.05

0.035

0.02

0.069

0.1718

then;

Q

=

=

2.16(18+76)

1.718

(118.18)

10211.092

118.18

J

S

(3600s)

(24hrs)

(1kJ)

(hr)

(Day)

(1000J)

kJ

day

thus;

(a) the heat gain per day is 10211.092kJ

One side of the refrigerated cold chamber is 6 m long by 3.17 m high and consists of

168mm thickness of cork between outer and inner walls of wood. The outer wood wall is

30 thick and its outside face temperature is 20 degree C, the inner wood wall is 35 mm

thick and its inside face temperature is -3 degree C. Taking the coefficient of thermal

conductivity of cork and wood as 0.42 and 0.20 W/m-K respectively, calculate the heat

transfer per second per sq. m of surface area.

a. 5.138 J

c. 6.318 J

b. 4.138 J

d. 3.318 J

Solution

Q

A

t

RT

where:

RT

0.03

0.2

0.168

0.042

0.035

0.2

4.325

then;

Q

A

=

=

20+3

4.325

5.318

5.918W

J

s

thus;

(a) the heat transfer per second per sq.m of the surface is 5.318 J

Hot gases at 280 degree C flow on one side of a metal plate of 10 mm thickness and air

at 35 degree C flows on the other side. The heat transfer coefficient of the gases is 31.5

W/m-K and that of the air 32 W/m-K. Calculate the overall transfer coefficient.

a.

15.82 W/m2-K

c.

14.82 W/m2-K

b.

15.82 W/m2-K

d.

17.82 W/m2-K

Solution

U

1

RT

where:

RT

=

=

F

h1

k12

x12

1

x12

0.0632

thus;

U

1

0.06032

(a) U=15.82

15.82

W

m2-K

1

31.5

0.01

50

1

32

The surface temperature of the hot side of the furnace wall is 1200 degree C. It is desired

to maintain the outside of the wall at 38 degree C. A 152 mm of refractory silica is used

adjacent to the combustion and 10 mm of steel covers the outside. What thickness of

insulating bricks is necessary between refractory and steel, if the heat loss should be keep

at 788 W/m2? Use k= 12.84 W/m-K for refractory silica; 0.15 for insulating brick, and 45 for

steel.

a. 220 mm

c. 260 mm

b. 240 mm

d. 280 mm

Solution

RT

RT

x12

k12

0.152

31.84

x23

k23

x34

k34

x23

0.15

0.01

45

Solving for RT

788

788

RT

t

RT

(1200-38)

RT

1.475

then;

1.475

0.152

13.48

thus;

(a)

x23

0.22mm

x23

220mm

x23

0.15

0.01

45

How much heat will flow in 24 hours through a plaster wall that is 0.50 in thick and 8 ft x 14

ft in area if the temperature is 80 degree F on one side and 40 degree F on the other? Use

= 3.25 Btu-in/hr-ft2-degree F

a. 5.99 x 105 Btu

Solution

Q

kAT

x

3.25[(8)(14)](80-40)(24)

thus;

(b) Q = 6.99 x105 Btu

0.5

A hollow sphere has an outside radius of 1 m and is made of polystyrene foam with a

thickness of 1 cm. A heat source inside keeps the inner surface 5.20 degree C hotter that

the outside surface. How much power is produced by the heat source? Thermal

conductivity of polystyrene foam is 0.033 W/M degree C.

a. 200 W

c. 300 W

b. 216 W

d. 316 W

Solution

Q

kAT

x

where:

A

=

=

4(1)2

12.56 m2

(0.033)(12.56)(5.20)

thus;

(b) Q= 216 W

0.01

216 W

A glass window has an area of 1.60 m2 and a thickness of 4mm. If one side is at a

temperature of 6.80 degree C and other is at -5 degree C, how much thermal energy flows

through the window in a time of 24 hours? The thermal conductivity of glass is 1.89 x 10-4

Kcal/ m-s-degree C

a. 26200 kCal

c. 40700 kCal

b. 58000 kCal

d. 77100 kCal

Solution

Q

=

=

=

kAT

x

(1.89 x 10-4)(1.60)(6.80+5)(3600)(24)

0.004

77100 kCal

thus;

(d) Q = 77100 kCal

The wall of a cold room consist of a layer of cork sandwiched between outer and inner

walls of wood, the wood walls being each 30 mm thick. The inside atmosphere of the room

is maintained at -20 degree C when the external atmospheric temperature is 25 degree

C, and the heat loss through the wall is 42 W/m2. Taking the thermal conductivity of wood

and cork as 0.20 W/m-K and 0.05 W/m-k respectively, and the rate of heat transfer

between each exposed wood surface and their respective atmospheres as 15 W/m2 K,

calculate the thickness of the cork.

a. 31.90 mm

c. 41.90 mm

b. 21.90 mm

d. 51.90 mm

Solution

Q

kT

where:

Q

A

42

W

m2

W

0.05

30mm

m-K

=

0.30m

42

0.20t

0.03

6.30C

=

22.2 - 6.3

15.6C

=

-17.2

10.9C

=

15.9-(-10.9)

26.8C

42

0.05(26.8)

x

0.0319m

thus;

(a) x = 31.90 mm

A slab of material has an area of 2m2 and is 1mm thick. One side is maintained at a

temperature of 0 degree C while the other is at 12 degree C. It is determined the 6820 J of

heat flows through the material in a time of 10 minutes. What is the thermal conductivity

of the material?

a. 4.74 x 10-4 W/mC

Solution

Q

kAT

x

6820 J

10(60) s

k

k(2)(12-0)

0.001

4.74 x 10- 4

thus;

(a) k = 4.74 x 10-4

W

mC

J

s-m-C

An insulated steam pipe located where the ambient temperature is 32C, has an inside

diameter of 50 mm with 10 mm thick wall. The outside diameter of the corrugated

asbestos insulation is 125 mm and the surface coefficient of still air, h0 = 12 W/m2-K.

Inside the pipe is steam having a temperature of 150C with film coefficient hi = 6000

W/m2-K. Thermal conductivity of pipe and asbestos insulation are 45 and 0.12 W/m2-K

respectively. Determine the heat loss per unit length of pipe.

a. 110 W

c. 130 W

b. 120 W

d. 140 W

Solution:

Q=

Where:

RT =

RT =

RT = 0.98345 / L

Then;

Q=

Thus;

(b) Q/L = 120 W per meter length

A pipe 200 mm outside diameter and 20 m length is covered with a layer, 70 mm thick

of insulation having a thermal conductivity of 0.05 W/m2-K and a thermal conductance

of 10 W/m2-K at the outer surface. If the temperature of the pipe is 350C and the

ambient temperature is 15C, calculate the external surface temperature of the

lagging.

a. 32.6C

c. 42.6C

b. 22.6C

d. 53.6C

Solution:

Q(for lagging) = Q(for surface film)

.

0.340 10

T2 = 32.6C

15

Dry and saturated steam at 6 Mpa abs. enters a 40 m length of 11.5 cm O.D. steel pipe

at a flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The pipe is covered with 5 cm thick asbestos insulation (k=

0.022 W/m-k). The pipe is located in a tunnel with stagnant air temperature of 27 degree

C. The unit outside convective coefficient is 10 W/m2-K. Neglecting steam film and pipe

wall resistances, determine the mass of steam.

a. 4.86 kg/hr

c. 5.86 kg/hr

b. 3.86 kg/hr

d. 6.86 kg/hr

Solution:

The temperature of the outer surface of the pipe is equal to that of the steam since the

resistance of metal pipe and vapor are negligible. Vapour temperature t1 =t2 =tsat @

6Mpa = 275 degree C.

RT

=

=

=

R2

R0

ln(10.75/5.75)

2(40)(0.022)

0.11687

t

RT

2112 W

2.122kW

1

(0.215)(40)(10)

C

275-27

0.11687

The heat necessary to condense steam at 6Mpa is hfg @ 6Mpa is equal to 1571 kJ/kg.

Since there are 2.122 kW of heat lost from the steam, then

Steam

Condensed

=

=

=

2.122kJ/s

1577kJ/s

0.00135 kg/s

4.86 kg/hr

Calculate the heat loss per linear ft from 2 in. nominal pipe (2.375 in. outside diameter )

covered with 1 in. of an insulating material having an average thermal conductivity of

0.0375 Btu/ hr- ft- degree F. Assume that the inner and outer surface temperatures of the

insulation are 380 degree F and 80 degree F respectively.

a. 110 Btu/ hr-ft

Solution

Q

t

RT

t

ln( d2/d1)

2kL

380

ln(4.375/2.375)

2(0.0375)

116

Btu

hr-ft

Calculate the heat loss per linear foot from a 10 in. normal pipe ( outside diameter = 10.75

in. ) covered with a composite pipe insulation consisting of 1 in of insulation I placed next

to the pipe and 2 in. of insulation II placed upon insulation I. assume that the inner and

outer surface temperatures of the composite insulation are 700o F and 100oF respectively,

and that the thermal conductivity of material I is 0.05 Btu/hr-ft-oF and for material II is 0.039

Btu/hr-ft-oF.

a. 423.13 Btu/hr-ft

c. 120 Btu/hr-ft

b. 123.13 Btu/hr-ft

d. 126 Btu/hr-ft

Solution

Q =

Where:

.

RT =

/

.

= 1.826

Then:

Q =

Thus;

(d) Q = 323.13

/

.

A steam pipe carrying a steam at 380 kPa pressure for a distance of 120 m in a chemical

plant is not insulated. Estimate the saving in steam cost that would be made per year if this

8 cm steam line were covered with 85% magnesia pipe covering 5 cm thick. Take room

temperature to be 25C, the cost of steam is 65 cents per 1000 kg. thermal conductivity of

magnesia k = 0.0745 W/m-K, unit convective coefficient of room air, ho = 12 W/m2-K.

a. $ 305

c. $ 505

b. $ 405

d. $ 605

Solution

Steam temperature = 142o C

Latent heat hfg = 2139.4 kJ/kg

Heat Loss from the bare pipe:

Q1 =

Where:

Ro =

=

=

0.00276 oC/W

Then;

Q1 =

= 42,343.64 W

=

42,344 kW

R1 = R2 + Ro

=

/

.

R1 = 0.01113 C/W

Heat loss from the insulated pipe:

Q2 =

= 10,512.13 W

Heat Saved = Q1- Q2

= 42,34364 10.51213

= 31,831 kW

Amount of steam saved due to condensation (m2):

m =

/

. /

= 0.014878 kg/yr

A liquid to liquid counter flow heat exchanger is sued to heat a cold fluid from

120 310 . Assuming that the hot fluid enters at 500F and leaves at 400F, calculate the

log mean temperature difference for the heat exchanger

a. 132F

c. 332F

b. 232F

d. 432F

Solution

LMTD =

Where:

Thus, LMTD =

= 232

400

120

280

500

310

190

A blower with the inlet open to the atmosphere delivers 300 cfm of air at a pressure of 2in.

WG trough a duct 11 in. diameter, the manometer being attached to the discharge duct

at the blower. Air temperature is 70F, and the barometer pressure is 30.22 in Hg. Calculate

the horsepower.

a. 1.54 Hp

c. 3.54 Hp

b. 2.54 Hp

d. 0.75 Hp

Solution:

Pair = gh

where:

Q = 3000 cfm

Solving for h:

Air density at the following condition by correcting the standard density.

air = 0.075 (

30.2

29.92

hs =

hv =

62.4

12 0.076

V

2g

=[

) = 0.076 lb/ft3

) = 136.84 ft of air

3000/60

11 2

)

12

/4(

2(32.2)

] = 89.13 ft

then;

P = 0.075 (3000/60(136.84 + 89.13)

P = 847.39

ft - lb

s

thus;

(a) P = 1.54 Hp

1 Hp

550 ft-lb/s

A certain fan delivers 12,000 cfm at a static pressure of 1in. WG when operating at a speed

of 400 rpm and requires an input of 4 Hp. If the same installation 15,000 cfm are desired,

what will be the new speed, and the new power needs?

a. 450 rpm, 6.81 Hp

b. 500rpm, 7.81 Hp

Solution:

New Speed Required:

N2

N1

N2

400

Q2

P2

Q1

P1

15000

P2

12000

N2 = 500 rpm

= (

= (

N2

N1

500

400

P2 = 7.81 hp

thus;

(b) 500 rpm, 7.81 Hp

A certain fan delivers 12,000 cfm at 70F and normal barometric pressure at a static

pressure of 1 in. WG when operating at 400 rpm and requires 4 Hp. If the air temperature is

increased to 200F (density 0.06018 lb/ft3) and the speed of the fan remains the same, what

will be the new static pressure and power?

a. 0.81 in. WG, 3.21 Hp

Solution:

New Static Pressure Required:

h2

h1

P2

P1

2

1

h2

1

0.06018

P2

0.075

h2 = 0.80 in. WG

0.06018

0.075

P2 = 3.21 Hp

thus;

(a) 0.81 in. WG, 3.21 Hp

If the speed of the fan in problem 39 is increased so as to produce a static pressure of 1

in. WG at 200F. What will be the new speed and new capacity?

a. 446.54 rpm, 13,396.33 cfm

Solution:

New Speed Required:

N2

400

0.075

Q2

0.06018

12000

N2 = 446.54 rpm

0.075

0.06018

Q2 = 13,396.33 cfm

thus;

(a) 446.54 rpm, 13,396.33 cfm

If the speed of the fan of the previous examples (Problem 39-40) is increased so as to

deliver the same weight of air at 200F as at 70F. What will the new speed, new capacity,

new static pressure and new power?

a. 498.50 rpm, 14,955.14 cfm, 1.25 in. WG, 6.21 Hp

b. 646.54 rpm, 15,396.33 cfm, 2.25 in. WG, 7.21 Hp

c. 464.54 rpm, 15,396.33 cfm, 3.25 in. WG, 5.21 Hp

d. 546.54 rpm, 12,396.33 cfm, 4.25 in. WG, 4.21 Hp

Solution:

New Speed Required:

N2

400

0.075

h2

0.06018

N2 = 498.50 rpm

Q2

12000

0.075

0.06018

h2 = 1.25 in. WG

0.075

P2

0.06018

Q2 = 14,955.135 cfm

=(

0.075

0.06018

P2 = 6.21 Hp

thus;

a. 498.50 rpm, 14,955.14 cfm, 1.25 in. WG, 6.21 Hp

A fan discharges 10,000 cfm of air through a duct 2 ft by 2 ft against a static pressure of

0.90 in. of water. The gage fluid density is 62lb/ft3, air temperature is 85F and the

barometric pressure is 28.7 in. Hg. If the power input to the fan is measured as 3.6 Hp, what

is the over-all mechanical efficiency of the fan?

a. 50 %

c. 60 %

b. 56 %

d. 65 %

Solution:

em =

Pair

3.6

V=

Q

A

h = hs + hv

h = 19.05 + 8.22 = 27.27 m

Q = 10000 ft3/min

Q = 4.72 m3/s

V=

then;

2gh

41.67 =

2(32.2) hv

hv = 29.96 ft = 8.22 m

hs = hw (

1000

1.2

Pair = [1.2(0.00981)](4.72)(27.27)

Pair = 1.515 kW

air

hs = 0.9 (

Pair = gh

) = 750 in.

hs = 19.05 m

Pair = 2.03 Hp

thus;

(a) em =

2.03

3.6

= 0.564 = 56.4 %

A ventilation system includes a fan with a mechanical efficiency of 45% against a static

pressure of 30 cm WG. If the total pressure created by fan is 300m of air, what is the static

efficiency?

a. 37.5 %

c. 40.5 %

b. 35 %

d. 45 %

Solution:

es = em

thus;

hs

h

hs = 0.30

1000

1.2

hs = 250 m

then;

es = 0.45

250

300

It requires 55 Hp to compress 1000 cfm of air at 60F and 14.7 psi to a pressure of 10 psig.

The temperature of the air leaving the blower is 184F. What is the flow in cfm from the

blower discharge?

a. 852.64 cfm

c. 737.06 cfm

b. 801.62 cfm

d. 700.91 cfm

Solution:

P1 V1

T1

P1 Q

T1

P2 V

=

=

T2

P2 Q

T2

(14.7)(1000)

60 + 460

(10 + 47)Q2

184 + 460

thus;

(a) Q2 = 737.06 cfm

A blower draws 3000 cfm of air through a duct of 12 in. in diameter with a suction of 3 in.

of water. The air is discharged through a duct 10 in. in diameter against a pressure of 2in.

of water. The air is measured at 70F and 30.2 in. Hg. Calculate the air horsepower. Use

specific weight of 62.34lb/ft3.

a. 2.82 Hp

c. 3.87 Hp

b. 2.87 Hp

d. 1.75 Hp

Solution:

P = gh

Solving for h:

h = Zd Zs +

Pd - Ps

Vd2 Vs2

2g

where:

3000

Vs = 6010

ft /s

2

( ) ft

= 91.67 ft/s

4 12

Vd =

3000 3

ft /s

60

2 2

(1) ft

4

= 63.56 ft/s

Pd = (62.34)(-3/12) = -0.108 psi

Zs = Zd

The density of Air @ 30.2 in. Hg and 70F

P

RT

14.7

30.2(29.92)(144)

53.34(70 + 460)

= 0.0756 lb/ft3

then;

h=

(0.072 + 0.108)(144)lb/ft3

0.0756 lb/ft3

(91.67) -(63.66)

2(32.2)

h = 410. 42 ft of air

thus;

Pair = gh = 0.0756(3000/60)(410.42) ft-lb/s

Pair = 1551.39 ft-lb/s (

1 Hp

550 ft-lb/s

A blower operating at 15,000 rpm, compresses air from 68F and 14.7 psia to 10 psig. The

design flow is 1350 cfm and at this point the BHp is 80. Determine the efficiency of the

blower at the design point.

a. 48.41 Hp

c. 55.62 Hp

b. 40.54 Hp

d. 57.65 Hp

Solution:

Pair = gh

Solving for the density of air at 68F and 14.7 psia

=

P

RT

(14.7)(144)

53.34 (68 + 460)

= 0.07516 lb/ft3

Solving for h:

h=

h=

kRT1

k - 1

k-1

[( 2 ) k -1

P1

1.4(53.34)(68 + 460)

1.4 - 1

24.7 1.4-1

[(

14.7

) 1.4 -1

h = 15,743.7 ft

then;

Pair = 0.07516(

1350

60

(15,743.7)

thus;

(a) Pair = 48.41 Hp

A fan running at 2000 rpm delivers 16,000 cfm against 3 in. static pressure, thereby

consuming 15BHp. If the rpm is increased to 2200 rpm so that the rpm ratio is 1:1:1. What

is the new cfm?

a. 17,500

c. 17,600

b. 16,600

d. 16,500

Solution:

N2

N1

Q2

Q1

1.1 =

Q2

16000

thus;

(a) Q2 = 17,600 cfm

A 0.70 m vane axial fan is running at 2000 rpm delivers 7.5 m3/s against 0.08 m static

pressure thereby consuming 12 BkW. If the fan wheel diameter is increased from 0.70 m

to 0.76 m, so that the diameter ratio 1.10:1, what is the new static pressure?

a. 0.10 m

c. 0.13 m

b. 0.09 m

d. 0.15 m

Solution:

h2

h1

h2

0.8

D2

D1

= (1.10

thus;

(a) h2 = 0.097 m

At standard air density a fan delivers 8m3/s against 0.05 m static pressure consuming 12

BkW. If it will operate in Baguio City where due to high altitude the air density is only 82.4%

of the standard air density, what is the new BkW?

a. 7.86 BkW

c. 9.89 BkW

b. 15 BkW

d. 13 BkW

Solution:

P2

P1

P2

12

2

1

= (0.824)

thus;

(a) P2 = 9.89 BkW

What horsepower is supplied to air moving at 20 fpm through a 2x3 ft duct under a

pressure of 3in. WC?

a. 0.057 Hp

c. 0.123 Hp

b. 0.043 Hp

d. 0.241 Hp

Solution:

Pair = gh

where:

Q = AV

Q = (20 ft/min)[ (2)(3) ft2 ]

Q = 120 ft3/min = 2 ft3/s

h = 3 in. (

62.4

0.075

h = 2496 in.

h = 208 ft of air

then;

Pair = 0.075(2)(208) = 31.2 ft-lb/s

thus;

(a) Pair = 0.057 Hp

A fan whose static efficiency is 40% has a capacity of 60,000 ft3/hr at 60F and barometer

of 3 in. Hg and give a static pressure of 2 in. WC on full delivery. What size of electric

motor be used to drive this fan?

a. Hp

c. 2 Hp

b. 1 Hp

d. 1.5 Hp

Solution:

Pair

efan =

Pmotor

Q = 60,000 ft3/hr

Q = 16.67 ft3/s

h = 2(

62.4

0.075

h = 138.67 ft of air

then;

Pair = gh

Pair = 0.075(16.67)(138.67)

Pair = 173.37 ft-lb/s

Pair = 0.315 Hp

thus;

0.40 =

0.315 Hp

Pmotor

A fan delivers 4.7 m3/s at a static pressure of 5.08 cm of water when operating at speed

of 400 rpm. If the power input required is 2.963 kW and if on the same installation 7.05

m3/s is desired, find the static pressure in cm of water.

a. 12.43 cm of H2o

c. 10.43 cm of H2o

b. 9.43 cm of H2o

d. 11.43 cm of H2o

Solution:

h2

h1

N2 2

N2

N1

N1

=(

h2

5.08

N2 2

N2

400

400

=(

Q2

Q1

7.05

4.7

N2 = 600 rpm

thus;

h2

5.08

600 2

=(

400

What horsepower is supplied to air moving at 7m/min through a 70 cm x 90 cm duct

under pressure of 8 cm of H20?

a. 0.049 Hp

c. 0.077 Hp

b. 0.058 Hp

d. 0.066 Hp

Solution:

Pair = gh

where:

Q = AV

Q = [ (0.70)(0.90) ](7/60) m3/s

Q = 0.0735 m3/s

h = 0.08(1000/1.2)

h = 66.67 m of air

then;

Pair = [ 1.2(0.00981) ] (0.0735) (66.67)

Pair = 0.058 kW

thus;

(c) Pair = 0.077 Hp

What horsepower is supplied of air moving at 25 fpm through an air duct 2 ft x 3 ft? Fan

pressure is 4 in. of water column.

a. 0.0945 Hp

c. 0.0495 Hp

b. 0.495 Hp

d. 0.849 Hp

Solution:

Pair = gh

where:

Q = [ (2)(3) ](25/60) ft3/s = 2.5 ft3/s

h = 4(62.4/0.075) = 3328 in. of air = 277.33 ft of air

then;

Pair = (0.075)(2.5)(277.33)

Pair = 52 ft-b/s

thus;

(a) Pair = 0.0945 Hp

A fan delivers 1.42 m3/s air at static pressure head of 2.54 cm of water through a duct 300

mm in diameter and discharge it through a duct 275 mm in diameter. Determine the

static fan efficiency if the total fan mechanical efficiency is 70% and air is measured at

25C and 760 mm of Hg.

a. 60 %

c. 30 %

b. 40 %

d. 50 %

Solution:

estatic = efan (

hs

h

Solving for h:

V1 = Q/A1 = 1.42/( /4)(0.3)2

V1 = 20.089 m/s

V2 = Q/A2 = 1.42/( /4)(0.275)2

V2 = 23.907 m/s

hv =

V22 V12

2g

(23.907)2 (20.089

2(9.81)

hv = 8.562 m of air

hs = 0.0254 (1000/1.2)

hs = 21.17m of air

h = hs + hv

h = 21.17 + 8.562

h = 29.73 m of air

thus;

estatic = 0.70 (21.17/29.73)

estatic = 0.4984

(d) estatic = 49.84 %

A 95 tons refrigeration system has a compressor power of 90 Hp. Find the coefficient

of performance, COP.

a. 3.85

c. 4.77

b. 2.77

d. 1.99

Solution:

where:

RE = 95 tons = 334.02 kW

= 90 hp = 120.64 kW

thus;

334.02

120.64

(b) COP = 2.77

20. Past ME Board Problem

A refrigeration system operates on the reversed Carnot cycle. The minimum and

maximum temperatures are -25

a. 1 663.38 kJ/min

c. 1 686.83 kJ/min

b. 1 888.38 kJ/min

d. 1 886.83 kJ/min

Solution:

where:

T

72

25

273

345

273

345K

3

248

solving for :

= 17.39 kJ/min-K

thus,

345

(c)

248 17.39

1 686.83 /

248K

In a

condenser is 135 kJ/kg and as it leaves the evaporator it is 320 kJ/kg. If the mass flow the

refrigerant is 5 kg/min, calculate the refrigerating effect per hour.

a. 55 500 kJ/hr

c. 65 500 kJ/hr

b. 35 500 kJ/hr

d. 45 500 kJ/hr

Solution:

where:

m = 5 kg/min = 300 kg/hr

320 /

135 /

thus;

RE = 300 ( 320 135 )

(a) RE = 55 500 kJ/hr

22. Supplementary Problem

A refrigerator is 2 m high, 1.2m wide and 1m deep. The over-all heat transfer

coefficient is 0.532 W/

temperature is maintained at 10

a. 1.60 kg

c. 2.60 kg

b. 1.80 kg

d. 2.80 kg

Solution:

Q=m

Solving for Q:

Q=UA

where:

A = 2 2 1.2

1.2 1

2 1

A = 11.2

COP = 0.532

11.2

Q = 148.96 W = 0.14896 kW

)(35 10)

then;

0.14896 = m ( 335 )

m = 4.4466 x 10

kg/s

(a) m = 1.60 kg/hr

23. Supplementary Problem

The power requirement of a Carnot refrigerator in maintaining a low temperature

region at 300 K is 1.5 kW per ton. Find the heat rejected.

a. 4.02 kW

c. 5.02 kW

b. 7.02 kW

d. 6.02 kW

Solution:

where:

=

+1

.

COP =

COP = 2.34

then;

=

+ 300

427.99

.

.

0.012

thus;

427.99 0.012

(c)

5.02

A simple saturated refrigeration cycle for R-12 system operates at an evaporating

temperature of -5

Properties of R-12:

At -5 ,

349.3

0.06496

At 40 ,

238.5

a. 0.0005866

c. 0.05865

b. 0.005866

d. 0.00005866

Solution:

Solving for m:

1 /

349.3 238.5 /

m = 0.00903 kg/s

thus;

= (0.00903)(0.06496)

(a)

0.0005866

A vapor compression refrigeration system is designed to have a capacity of 150 tons

of refrigeration. It produces chilled water from 22

performance is 5.86 and 35% of the power supplied to the compressor is lost in the

form of friction and cylinder cooling losses. Determine the condenser cooling water

required for a temperature rise of 10 .

a. 14.75 kg/s

c. 18.65 kg/s

b. 15.65 kg/s

d. 13.76 kg/s

Solution:

By Energy Balance:

where:

RE = 150 ( 3.516 )

RE = 527.4 kW

from:

COP =

.

5.86 =

= 90 kW

then:

527.4

90

617.4 =

617.4

617.4 =

417.4 10

thus;

(a)

14.75

An air conditioning system of a high rise building has a capacity of 350 kW of

refrigeration, uses R-12. The evaporating and condensing temperatures are 0

35

Properties of R-12

At 0

At 35

0.05339

200 /

233.5 /

351.48 /

a. 2.97 kg/s

c. 4.57 kg/s

b. 3.57 kg/s

d. 1.97 kg/s

Solution:

m=

where:

35

350

0

351.48 /

and

35

233.5 /

thus;

m=

(a)

m = 2.97 kg/s

Cold salt brine at an initial temperature of 0

from 40

to 5

heat of brine is 3.76 kJ/kg

a. 37.59 kg/s

c. 38.79 kg/s

b. 39.67 kg/s

d. 35.67 kg/s

Solution

Volume of brine circulated:

=

where:

= 1

1.05

(3.14

=

424

then;

1.05

424

3.76 3

37.59

thus;

(a) 37.59 kg/s

424

)(40 5)

A simple vapor compression cycle develops 13 tons of refrigeration. Using ammonia

as refrigerant and operating at a condensing temperature of 24

and evaporating

temperature of -18 ; and assuming that the compressions are isentropic and that the

gas leaving the condenser is saturated. Find the power requirement.

a. 13 kW

c. 12 kW

b. 8.79 kW

d. 9.79 kW

Properties of R-12:

At 24 :

312.87 /

h @ 974 kPA ( P at 24

and

974 kPA

1657 /

At -18 :

-18

1439.94 /

0.5729

Solution

where:

@ 947

&

= 1657 kJ/kg

@

18

= 1439.94 kJ/kg

from:

13tons ( 3.516 kW/ton) = m ( 1439.94 312.87 ) kJ/kg

m = 0.0415 kg/s

thus;

0.0405 1567

(b)

24

= 8.79 kW

1439.94

A belt driven compressor is used in refrigeration system that will cool 10 liter per

second of water from 13

and the input of the compressor is 0.7 kW per ton of refrigeration. Find the actual

coefficient of performance of over-all efficiency is 65%.

a. 4.44

c. 6.44

b. 5.44

d. 3.44

Solution

COP =

where:

= [ 10(1)] ( 4.187 ) ( 13 1 )

= 502.44 kW

= 142.90 TOR

Solving for compressor work,

.

=

0.65 =

.

.

.

.

78.055

thus;

COP =

.

.

30. Supplementary Problem

Four thousand liters per hour of distillates are to be cooled from 21

to 12

and 12%

and S.G. is

0.87. The specific heat of the wax is 2.5 and the latent heat of fusion is 290 kJ/kg. The

specific heat of the wax is 2.5 and the latent heat is 290 kJ/kg. Allow 10% for the losses,

find the capacity of the refrigerating machine.

a. 20 TOR

c. 40 TOR

b. 51.08 TOR

d. 31.08 TOR

Solution

Distillate

Oil

21

15

Oil

-12

Wax

15

Wax

-12

where:

m = mass of distillate chilled per hour

( 0.87 ) 1

m = 400

and;

= 0.97

(21 15)

= 11.64 kW

= (0.12)(0.97)

(290)

= 33.76 kW

= (0.12)(0.97)

(2.5)

(15+12)

= (0.88)(0.97)

(2)

(15+27)

33.76

7.86

0.10 11.64

= 7.86 kW

= 46.09 kW

46.09

9.935

thus;

109.285

(d)

31.08

A 50 ton vapor compression system using Ammonia as refrigerant operates between

20

reciprocating compressor to be used in the system operating at 600 rpm.

Properties of Ammonia:

At 20

At -16

274.9 /

1424.4 /

@ 857.12

&

@20

0.5296 /

1640 /

a. 5000

c. 7000

b. 6000

d. 8000

Solution

Piston displacement of the compressor:

=

Where:

m=

974 kPA

20

m=

-16

m=

m = 0.513 kg/s

then;

=

0.0081

8000

thus;

(a)

8000

A simple vapor compression cycle develops 15 tons of refrigeration using Ammonia

as refrigerant and operating at condensing temperature of 24

temperature of -18

Properties of Ammonia

At 24

At -16

312.87 /

1439.94 /

1665 /

and evaporating

a. 0.702 kW/ton

c. 0.602 kW/ton

b. 0.802 kW/ton

d. 0.502 kW/ton

Solution

=

=

where:

Solving for m:

15(3.516) =

1439.94

312.87

M = 0.04688 kg/s

then;

0.04688 1665

1439.94

10.531

thus;

(a)

0.702

In an Ammonia refrigerator the pressure in the evaporator is 267,58 kPa and the

ammonia at entry is 0.12 dry while at exit is 0.91 dry. During compression the work

done per kg of ammonia is 17,033 kg-m. Calculate the coefficient of performance. If

the rate of ammonia circulation is 5.64 kg, calculate the volume of vapor entering

the compressor per minute. The compressor is single acting, its volumetric efficiency is

80% and it runs at 120 rpm. The ratio of stroke to bore is 1. Calculate the bore and

stroke. It is given that the latent enthalpy and specific volume of ammonia a 267.58

kPa are 320 kCal/kg and 0.436

/kg respectively.

a. 2.235

c. 1.457

b. 4.357

d. 3.567

Solution

Properties of Ammonia:

267.58

@ 267.58

320

0.436

0.91 320

291.2

0.12 320

38.4

COP =

where:

RE =

201.2 -

38.4

= 17 033

( 0.00981 kN/

then;

COP =

.

.

= 6.335

Solving for the volume of vapor entering the compressor per minute:

where:

m = 5.64 kg/min

= 0.001527 + 0.91(0.436)

= 0.3983

then;

= 5.61

0.3983

= 2.235

from:

=

LN

=

.

.

LN

(D)(120)

Note:

L=D

thus;

(a) L = D = 0.31 m = 31 cm

34. Supplementary Problem

Freon-12 leaves the condenser of a refrigerating plan as a saturated liquid at 5.673

bar. The evaporator pressure is 1.509 bar and the refrigerant leaves the evaporator at

this pressure and at a temperature of -5 . Calculate the refrigerating effect per kg.

a. 132.88 kJ/kg

c. 160.91 kJ/kg

b. 123.77 kJ/kg

d. 123.86 kJ/kg

Solution

Properties of Freon-12

At 5.673 bar

At 1.509 bar ( t = - 20

54.87 /

17.82 /

178.73 /

160.91 /

@ 1.509 bar superheated 15

then;

RE =

RE = 187.75 54.87

thus;

(a) RE = 132.88 kJ/kg

= 187.75 kJ/kg

An ammonia compressor operates at an evaporator pressure of 316 kPa and a

condenser pressure of 1514.2 kPa. The refrigerant is subcooled 5

and is superheated

8 . A twin cylinder compressor with bore to stroke ratio of 0.85 is to be used at 1200

rpm. The mechanical efficiency is 76%. For a load of 87.5 kW, determine the size of the

driving motor.

a. 24.26 kW

c. 34.26 kW

b. 25.26 kW

d. 35.26 kW

Solution

Properties of Ammonia

@ 316

& 0

1472 /

@ 316

& 0

0.41

@ 34

361.2 /

@ 1514.2

=

=

=

1715 /

34

1514 kPa

316 kPa

Solving for m:

Q=

m = 0.079 kg/s

=

thus;

(b)

= 25.26 kW

A refrigeration system having a 30 kW capacity requires 10 Hp compressors. Find the

COP of the system.

a. 2.78

c. 4.02

b. 3.78

d. 5.02

Solution

COP =

=

thus;

(c) COP = 4.02

37.SupplementaryProblem

Arefrigeratingmachineusesammoniaastheworkingfluid.Itleavesthecompressoras

drysaturatedvaporat8.57barpassesthecondenseratthispressureandleavesassaturated

liquid.Thepressureintheevaporatoris1.902barandtheammonialeavestheevaporator0.96

dry.Iftherateofflowoftherefrigerantthroughthecircuitis2kg/min,calculatethevolume

takenintothecompressorinm/min,andtherefrigeratingeffectinkJ/min.

a. 1.198m/min,2,183kJ/min

b. 2.198m/min,3,183.38kJ/min

c.1.198m/min,3,183kJ/min

d.2.198m/min,2,183kJ/min

Solution:

PropertiesofAmmonia:

At8.57bar

Solvingforthevolumetakenintocompressorperminute:

SolvingfortheRefrigeratingeffectinkJ/min:

RE=m(h1h2)

1336.79 /

275.1 /

Then;

At1.902bar

=275.1kJ/kg

=1462.6kJ/kg

=1420kJ/kg

=0.6237m/kg

=1330.2kJ/kg

Where:

/ min 1366.79

2,183.38

275.1 /

Thus;

(a)

=1.198m/min

=89.8kJ/kg

38.SupplementaryProblem:

Thewaterentersthecondenserat30Candleavesat50C.Iftheheatrejectedinthecondenser

is500kW,determinethevolumeofwaterneededtocooltherefrigerant.

a. 5.69kg/s

b. 4.69kg/s

4.187 50

30

c.6.69kg/s

d.7.69kg/s

Solution:

500

5.97

Then;thevolumeofwateris:

.

Thus;

.

39.SupplementaryProblem:

A500kWrefrigerationsystemisusedtoproducecooledwaterfrom24Cto3C.Calculatethe

massflowrateofwaterinkg/s.

a. 5.69kg/s

b. 4.69kg/s

c.6.69kg/s

d.7.69kg/s

Solution:

500

4.187 24

(a)

Thus;

40.SupplementaryProblem:

Avaporcompressionrefrigerationsystemisdesignedtohaveacapacityof100TOR.Itproduces

chilledwaterfrom22Cto2C.Itsactualcoefficientofperformanceis5.86and35%ofthe

powersuppliedtothecompressorislostintheformoffrictionandcylindercoolinglooses.

DeterminethesizeoftheelectricmotorrequiredtodrivethecompressorinkWandthevolume

flowrateofchilledwaterisL/s.

a. 92.31kW,4.199L/s

b. 90.71kW,5.277L/s

c.93.75kW,5.724L/s

d.91.75kW,7.575L/s

Solution:

5.86

.35

0.65

60

Thus;

92.31

Solvingforthevolumeflowofchilledwater:

100 3.516

4.187 22

4.199

Thus;

.

/

/

4.199 /

Thus;

(a)

41.SupplementaryProblem:

Afourcylinder,singleacting,Vtypecompressorwith8cmand10cmstrokeoperatesat600

rpm.ItusedinaFreon12vaporcompressionsystemwithcondenserandevaporatorpressure

of725.5kPaand189.5kParespectively.Ifthecompressionisdryandisentropic,theclearance

is2percentandthethereisnosubcoolingorsuperheating(beforecompression)ofthe

refrigerant,determinetherefrigeratingcapacityofthecompressorintons.

a. 7.31TOR

b. 8.54TOR

c.7.54TOR

d.8.31TOR

Solution:

PropertiesofFreon12

14

345.365 /

14

0.0878951

@ 29

@ 725.5

227.557 /

@29

368 /

And

345.365

SolvingfortherefrigeratingCapacity

227.557

Solvingform:

0.0878951

0.10 4

Where;

1.02

0.9544

0.02

Then;

0.0878951

0.2183

0.9544

/

0.10 4

Thus;

0.2183 345.365

(a)

25.72

227.557

42.SupplementaryProblem:

Thedrynessfractionsofthe

enteringandleavingtheevaporatorofarefrigeratingplantare

of

atthe

0.28and0.92respectively.Ifthespecificenthalpyoftheevaporation(

evaporatorpressureis290.7kJ/kg,Calculatethemassoficeat5Cthatwouldtheoreticallybe

throughthemachineis0.5kg/s.

madeperdayfromwaterat14Cwhenthemassflowof

Note:

Specificheatofwater=4.2kJ/kgK

Specificheatoffusionofice=2.04kJ/kgK

Enthalpyoffusion=335kJ/kgK

a. 17.89tons/day

b. 18.89tons/day

c.19.89tons/day

d.20.89tons/day

Solution:

throughevaporator:

Specificenthalpygainof

0.92

0.28

0.64 290.7

186.05 /

0.92

0.28

Heattobeextractedfromwatertomake1kgofice:

1 4.2 14

404 /

0.50

335

Then;

1 2.04 0

404

0.5 186.05

0.23

Thus;themassoficeintonsperday:

0.23

(b)

43.PastMEBoardProblem

Avaporcompressionrefrigerationsystemhasa30kWmotordrivingthecompressor.The

compressorinletpressureandtemperatureare64.17kPaand20Crespectivelyanddischarge

pressureof960kPa.Standardliquidenterstheexpansionvalve.UsingFreon12asrefrigerant,

determinethecapacityoftheunitintonsoftherefrigeration.

a. 17.145TOR

b. 18.145TOR

c.19.145TOR

d.20.145TOR

Solution:

PropertiesofFreon12

345 /

398 /

238.5 /

SolvingfortheRefrigeratingCapacity:

345

238.5

Solvingform:

30

398

0.566

0.566 345

60.28

345

Thus;

238.5

17.145

(a) 17.145TOR

44.PastMEBoardProblem

ArefrigeratingsystemoperatesonthereversedCarnotCycle.Thehighertemperatureofthe

refrigerantinthesystemis120Fandtheloweris10F.Thecapacityis20tons.Neglectlosses.

DeterminethenetworkinBtu/min.

a. 935.21Btu/min

b. 457.57Btu/min

c.745.71Btu/min

d.765.81Btu/min

Solution:

Where;

120

10

460

580

460

470

Solvingfor :

8.511

Thus;

580

470 8.511

.

(a)

45.SupplementaryProblem:

Whatisthecoefficientofperformanceofavaporcompressionrefrigerationsystemwiththe

followingproperties:Enthalpyatsuctionis190kJ/kg;enthalpyaftercompressionis210kJ/kg.

Theenthalpyaftercondensationis60kJ/kg.

a. 4.5

b. 5.5

Solution:

c.6.5

d.3.5

Thus;

(c)

46.SupplementaryProblem:

Arefrigeratingmachineisdrivenbyamotorofoutputpower2.25kWand2.5tonsoficeat7C

madeperdayfromwaterat18C.Calculatethecoefficientofperformanceofthemachineand

expressitscapacityintermsoftonsoficeper24hoursfromand0C,takingthefollowing

values:

Specificheatofwater=4.2kJ/kgK

Specificheatoffusionofice=2.04kJ/kgK

Enthalpyoffusion=335kJ/kgK

a. 5.476,3.17tons/day

b. 4.476,3.17tons/day

c.5.476,4.17tons/day

d.4.476,4.17tons/day

Solution;

Where;

2.25

Solvingfor

4.2 18

0.029 424.88

12.32

Then;

.

.

5.476

Solvingformintonsperday;

2.5

424.88

335

2.04 0

2.5

335

424.88

Then;

3.17

Thus;

.

(a)

&

47.SupplementaryProblem:

Determinetheheatextractedfrom2000kgofwaterfrom25Ctoiceat10C.

a. 621,150kJ

b. 721,150kJ

c.821,150kJ

d.921,150kJ

Solution:

Where;

209,350

2000 335

2000 4.187 25

Thus;

670, 000

2000 2.09 0

10

41,800

209, 350

(d)

670, 000

41, 800

48.SupplementaryProblem:

Asingleacting,twincylinder,ammoniacompressorwithboreequaltostrokeisdrivenbyan

engineat250rpm.Themachineisinstalledinachillingplanttoproduce700kWofrefrigeration

at18Cevaporatingtemperature.Atthistemperaturethecoolingeffectperkgmassis1160kJ.

Thespecificvolumeofthevaporcompressoris0.592mperkilogram.Assume85%volumetric

efficiency,determinetheboreinmm.

a. 400mm

b. 300mm

c.450mm

d.500mm

Solution:

6.545

Solvingforthepistondisplacement,

.

.

From:

700

1160

0.603

0.42 /

Then;

Thus;

0.42

6.545

(a) D=0.40m=400mm

49.PastMEBoardProblem

SaturatedvaporFreon12refrigerantat219.12kPaleavestheevaporatorandentersthe

compressorat5C.Therefrigerantleavesthecondenserassaturatedliquidat25Candenters

theexpansionvalveat22C.Heatrejectedfromthecondenseramountto74kW.Theworkto

thecompressoris55.5kJ/kgwhiletheheatlostfromthecompressoris4.2kJ/kg.If1.15kJ/kg0f

heatarelostinthepipingbetweenthecompressorandcondenser,calculatetherefrigeration

capacityintons.

a. 15.06TOR

b. 17.76TOR

Solution:

c.14.57TOR

d.12.75TOR

PropertiesofFreon12

@219.12

@ 25

223.65 /

@ 22

4.2

401.30 /

347.13 /

Byenergybalanceinthecompressor:

220.75 /

@ 219.12

350 /

55.5

Byenergybalanceinthepipingfromthecompressortocondenser;

1.15

400.15 /

Byenergybalanceinthecondenser;

223.65

400.15

176.5 /

Solvingforthemassflowrate:

0.419

Thus;therefrigeratingcapacity:

(a)

0.419 347.13

.

50.PastMEBoardProblem

220.75

.

Themassflowofwaterenteringthecondenseris20kg/s.Ifthetemperaturedifference

betweentheentranceandexittemperatureis20C,determinetherejectedheatinthe

condenser.

a. 1,674.80kW

b. 1,774.80kW

Solution:

c.1,574.80kW

d.1,884.80kW

20 4.187 20

Thus;

(a)

51.SupplementaryProblem:

Thecoolingloadofasmallwalkinfreezerhasbeencalculatedtobe1.10tonsofrefrigerationat

30C.Acompressorandmotormustselectedtohandletheload.Thefollowingconditionsare

given:

Refrigerant

F12

Compressor,rpm

600

Motor,rpm

1800

Compressordischargepressure

800kPa

Liquidreceivertemperature

20C

Assumedryandisentropiccompression,compressorvolumetricefficiencyof80%,mechanical

efficiencyof85%,andpowertransmissionefficiencyof90%.Calculatethedisplacementofthe

compressorincm.

a. 641.40

b. 651.40

c.661.40

d.671.40

Solution:

PropertiesofFreon12

@ 800

33

338.143 /

375 /

218.321 /

0.159375 /

Solvingfor

Where:

.

. 322

Then:

0.006414

0.0006414

Thus;

(a)

52.SupplementaryProblem:

TherefrigerantleavesthecompressorandentersthecondenserofaFreon12refrigerating

plantat5.673barand50 andleavesthecondenserassaturatedliquidatthesamepressure.

Atcompressorsuctionthepressureis1.826barandtemperature0 .Calculatethecoefficient

ofperformance.

a. 3.09

b. 4.09

c.5.09

d.6.09

Solution:

PropertiesofFreon12

At5.673bar,Sat.temp=20

216.75 /

discharge,

At1.826bar,Sat.temp.=15

thus,At0 refrigerantissuperheatedby15

190.15 /

54.87

/

54.87 /

Then;

Thus;

(c)

53.SupplementaryProblem:

Anindustrialplantrequires10kg/stocoolwaterfrom30 to1 .Findthetonsofrefrigeration

required.

a. 345.34

b. 245.34

c.145.34

d.445.34

Solution:

10 4.187 30

1, 214.23

345.34

Thus;

.

(a)

54.SupplementaryProblem:

Airflowingatarateof2.5kg/sisheatedinaheatexchangerfrom10 to30 .Whatisthe

rateofheattransfer?

a. 100kW

b. 150kW

c.200kW

d.50kW

Solution:

2.5

100

1.0

30

10

Thus;

(a)

To cool farm products, 300 kg of ice at -4.4 0C are placed in bunker. Twenty four

hours later, the ice have melted into water at 7.2 0C. What is the average rate of

cooling provided by the ice in kJ/hr?

a. 2679.28 kJ/hr

c. 3679.8 kJ/hr

b. 5679.8 kJ/hr

d. 4679.28 kJ/hr

Solution

2.09 0

4.4

335

4.187 7.2

thus;

(d)

4679.28 /

The combined loads of an ice and cold storage are 25 tons of ice per day and

137,000 kJ/hr, respectively. Refrigeration required per ton of ice is 1.925. Ammonia

compressor carrying these combined loads operates between -14 0C and 42 0C

liquefaction. Determine the number of units of 7 pass multiple tube condenser each

unit made up of 200 mm pipe shell where there are 7 pieces extra strong 50 mm

tubes inside each pipe shell. Length is 6 m condensing water enters at 29 0C and

leaves at 38 0C. U = 539 W/m2 K, LMTD = 39.22 0C and cross flow factor = 0.75.

a. 3 units

c. 5 units

b. 4 units

d. 6 units

Solution

Properties of Ammonia:

h1 = 1427.7 kJ/kg

h2 = 1714.0 kJ/kg

h3 = h4 = 383.5 kJ/kg

Q = heat gained by cooling water

Q1 = heat transferred per unit

then;

Solving for Q:

kW refrigeration for cold storage = 137,000 kJ/hr (1hr/3600s)

= 38.06 kW

kW refrigeration for ice plant

= 25(3.516)(1.925)

= 169.21 kW

QT = 207.27

From:

m=

m=

.

.

m = 0.1985 kg/s

then;

Q = m (h2 h1)

= 0.1985 (1714 383.5)

= 264.12 kW

Area of each unit, A:

A = (O.D.) L N

= (0.06) (6) (7)

= 7.92 m2

then;

Q1 = A U F (LMTD)

= (7.92)(539)(0.75)(39.22)

= 125,569.11 W

= 125.57 kW/units

thus;

n=

.

.

(a) n = 3

Calculate the power required by a system of one compressor serving two

evaporators. One evaporator carries a load of 35 kW at 10 0C and the other a load

of 70 kW at -5 0C. a back pressure valve reduces the pressure in the 10 0C evaporator

to that of the -5 0C evaporator. The condensing temperature is 37 0C. if the refrigerant

is ammonia , then what is the COP.

a. 4.33

c. 6.33

b. 5.33

d. 3.33

Properties of Ammonia:

h3 = h4 = h7 @ 37 0C = 375.9 kJ/kg

h5 = h6 = hg @ 10 0C = 1471.6 kJ/kg

h8 = hg @ -5 0C = 1456.2 kJ/kg

h2 = h @ 1432 kPa (Psat @ 37 0C) and S2 = S1 = 1665 kJ/kg

then;

COP =

COP =

Solving for WC:

m4 =

= 0.0319 kg/s

m7 =

= 0.0648 kg/s

m1 = m6 + m8

= m4 + m7

= 0.0967 kg/s

By Energy Balance:

m1h1 = m6h6 + m8h8

0.0967h1 = 0.0319(1471.6) + 0.0648(1456.2)

h1 = 1461.3 kJ/kg

then;

WC = m (h2 h1)

= 0.0967(1665 1461.3)

= 19.7 kW

thus;

COP =

Twenty pounds of water at an initial temperature of 80 0F are heated until the

temperature is increased to 190 0F. Compute the quality of heat energy supplied.

a. 2200 BTU

c. 2400 BTU

b. 2300 BTU

d. 2500 BTU

Solution

Q = mCpt

= (20lb)(1

thus;

(a) Q = 2200 Btu

)(190-80)0F

Suppose that 30 gpm of water are removed from 60 0F to 40 0F. Calculate the heat

energy removed in Btu per hour.

a. -299,880 Btu/hr

c. -199,880 Btu/hr

b. -399,880 Btu/hr

d. -499,880 Btu/hr

Solution

Q = mCpt

= m(1)(40-60)

Solving for m:

m = V

= (8.33

)(30

)(60

= 14,994

thus;

Q = (14,994)(1)(-20)

(a) Q = -299,880

If the latent heat of water is 144 Btu/lb, determine the quantity of latent heat given

up by 10 lb of water at 32 0F when it freezesinto ice at 32 0F.

a. 1550 Btu

c. 2880 Btu

b. 1440 Btu

d. 3100 Btu

Solution

Q = mLf

= 10 lb (144

thus;

Compute the cooling rate (energy flow rate in Btu/hr) produces by ice melting at the

rate of 150 lb/hr.

a. 30000 Btu/hr

c. 21,600 Btu/hr

b. 10,530 Btu/hr

d. 15,000 Btu/hr

Solution

Q = mLf

= (150 )(144

thus;

(c) Q = 21,600 Btu/hr

Twenty kilograms of water at initial temperature of 25 0C are heated until the

temperature is increased to 80 0C. Compute the quantity of heat energy supplied.

a. 4,605.7 kJ

c. 2,000.1 kJ

b. 4,000.2 kJ

d. 2,302.85 kJ

Solution

Q = mCpt

= (20 kg)(4.187

thus;

(a) Q = 4,605 kJ

)(80-25) K

One-tenth m3 of water is cooled from 39 0C to 2 0C. Determine the quantity of heat

energy rejected by the water.

a. 15,491.90 kJ

c. 17,321.90 kJ

b. 14,591.90 kJ

d. 18,231.80 kJ

Solution

Q = mCpt

=

1000

4.187 35

10

thus;

(a) Q = 15,491.90 kJ

Suppose that 30 kg/s of water are cooled from 35 0C to 10 0C. Compute the required

energy flow rate in kJ/s.

a. 3140.25 kW

c. 3457.75 kW

b. 3240.25 kW

d. 3567.25 kW

Solution

Q = mCpt

= 30

4.187

35

10

thus;

(a) Q = 3140.25 kJ/s or 3140.25 kW

Compute the cooling rate produced by ice melting at the rate of 150 kg/hr.

a. 737.5 kW

c. 937.5 kW

b. 837.5 kW

d. 637.5 kW

Solution

Q = mLf

= m 335

where:

m = 1.50 kg/hr

= 2.50 kg/s

Q = 2.5

335

thus;

(b) Q = 837.5 kJ/s or kW

Seventy-five hundred pounds of fresh beef enter a chilling cooler at 102 0F and are

chilled to 45 0F each day. Compute the product load in Btu per 24 hours. The specific

heat of beef above freezing is 0.75 Btu/lb-0F.

a. 320,600 Btu

c. 220,600 Btu

b. 420,600 Btu

d. 520,600 Btu

Solution

Production Load = (7500)(0.75)(102-45)

= 320,600 Btu per 24 hrs

(a) Product Load = 320,600 Btu per 24 hrs

Calculate the piston displacement of a two cylinder compressor rotating at 1450 rpm

if the diameter of the cylinder is 2.5 in. and the length of stroke.

a. 16.48 ft3/min

c. 14.48 ft3/min

b. 15.48 ft3/min

d. 17.48 ft3/min

Solution

VD =

2 1450 2

= 28,470.68 in.3/min

thus;

(a) VD = 16.48 ft3/min

Calculate the compression ratio of an R-12 compressor when the suction

temperature is 20F and the condensing temperature is 100F.

a. 4.68

c. 2.68

b. 1.68

d. 3.68

Solution:

Compression =

R=

Where:

At 20F, Ps = 35.75 psi

At 100F, Pd = 131.6 psi

Thus;

R=

.

.

(d) R = 3.68

Determine the shaft power required by the compressor if the theoretical power is 2.66

Hp and the overall efficiency of the compressor is 80%.

a. 2.22 Hp

c. 4.44 Hp

b. 3.33 Hp

d. 1.11 Hp

Solution:

Let eo = overall efficiency

Wc = compressor theoretical

Ws = shaft power

Then:

eo =

0.80 =

Thus;

(b) Ws = 3.33

A refrigeration compressor having a 10 in. flywheel is driven by a four-pole,

alternating current motor. If the diameter of the motor pulley is 4 in., determine the

speed of the compressor.

a. 700 rpm

c. 600 rpm

b. 500 rpm

d. 800 rpm

Solution:

N1D1 = N2D2

Where:

N1 = speed of the compressor

D1 = diameter of the compressor flywheel

N2 = speed of the compressor driver

D2 = diameter of the driver pulley

Note: If the compressor driver is a four-pole, alternating current motor operating

on 60 cycle power, the approximate driver speed is 1750 rpm. For a two-pole, alternating

motor the approximate speed is 3500 rpm.

N(10) = (1750)(4)

Thus;

(a) 700 rpm

Determine the estimated condenser load for an open-type compressor having a

cooling capacity of 16,500 BTU/hr and a heat rejection factor of 1.32.

a. 22,280 BTU/hr

c. 21,780 BTU/hr

b. 20,780 BTU/hr

d. 19,780 BTU/hr

Solution:

Condenser Load = Compressor Capacity x Heat rejection factor

= (16,500)(1.32)

= 21,780 BTU/hr

Thus;

If the load on the water-cooled condenser in 150,000 BTU/hr and the temperature rise

of the water in the condenser is 10F, what is the quantity of water circulated in gpm.

a. 30

c. 20

b. 40

d. 50

Solution:

Q = mCpt

150,000 = m(1)(10)

m = 15,000 lb/hr

Solving for V in gpm:

V=

,

.

/

/

Thus;

(a) V = 30 gpm

CHAPTER VI

A coil has an inlet temperature of 60 and outlet of 90 . If the mean temperature of the

coil is 110 , find the bypass factor of the coil.

a. 0.20

b. 0.30

c. 0.40

d. 0.50

Solution:

Bypass factor =

BF =

Thus;

(a) BF = 0.40

If the latent and sensible heat loads are 20 kW and 80 kW respectively, what is the

sensible heat ratio?

a. 0.80

b. 0.60

c. 0.70

d. 0.90

Solution:

Let: SHR = sensible heat ratio

SHR =

Thus;

(a) SHR = 0.80

14. A room being air conditioned is being held at 25 dry bulb and 50% relative

humidity. A flow rate of 5 of supply air at 15 dry bulb and 80% RH is being

delivered to the room to maintain that steady condition at 100 kPa. What is the sensible

heat absorbed from the room air in kW?

a. 50.8

b. 60.8

c. 40.5

d. 70.9

Solution:

=m

Solving for m:

PV = mRT

100(5) = m (0.287)(15 + 273)

m = 6.049 kg/s

thus;

= (6.049)(1.003)(25 25)

60.80 kW

(a)

Compute the pressure drop of 30 air flowing with a mean velocity of 8 m/s in a circular

sheet-metal duct 300 mm in diameter and 15 m long. Use a friction factor, f = 0.02 and

1.1644 / .

a. 37.26 Pa

b. 25.27 Pa

c. 29.34 Pa

d. 30.52 Pa

Solution:

=

=

Thus;

.

.

(a)

37.26 Pa

A pressure difference of 350 Pa is available to force 20oC air through a circular sheetmetal duct 450 mm in diameter and 25 m long. At 20oC,

1.204 /

and take

friction factor, f = 0.016. Determine the velocity.

a. 25.57 m/s

b. 27.55 m/s

c. 28.54 m/s

d. 24.85 m/s

Solution:

=

350 =

.

.

Thus;

(a) V = 25.57 m/s

A duct 0.40 m high and 0.80 m wide suspended from the ceiling in a corridor, makes a

right angle turn in the horizontal plane. The inner radius is 0.2 m and the outer radius is

1.0 m measured from the same center. The velocity of air in the duct is 10 m/s.

Compute the pressure drop in this elbow. Assuming; f = 0.3,

1.204 /

and L =

10 m.

a. 341 Pa

b. 441 Pa

Solution:

=

Where:

=

c. 143 Pa

d. 144 Pa

. .

= 0.53 m

Thus;

=

(a)

.

.

341 Pa

A rectangular duct has a dimension of 0.25 m by 1 m. Determine the equivalent

diameter of the duct.

a. 0.40 m

b. 0.80 m

c. 0.70 m

d. 0.30 m

Solution:

=

=

.

.

Thus;

0.40 m

(a)

A 0.30 x 0.40 m branch duct leaves a 0.30 x 0.60 main duct at an angle of 60. The air

temperature is 20 . The dimensions of the main duct remain constant following branch.

. What is the pressure downstream in the main duct.

The flow rate upstream is 2.7

Note: at 20 ,

1.2041 / .

a. 346 Pa

b. 436 Pa

Solution:

Pressure Loss in the main duct:

c. 634 Pa

d. 643 Pa

0.4 1

and

Solving for

1.3

2.7 =

= 1.4

= 7.78 m/s

.

.

= 15 m/s

.

.

= 10.43 m/s

Then;

=

= 3.38

From: Bernoulli Equation:

2

9.81 1.2041

Thus;

250 3.38

9.81 1.02041

15

7.78

2 9.81

345. 64

(a)

A sudden enlargement in a circular duct measures 0.20 m diameter upstream and 0.40

m downstream. The upstream pressure is 150 Pa, downstream pressure is 200 Pa.

What is the flow rate of 20C air through the fitting? Use p = 1.02041 kg/m3.

a. 0.49 m3/s

c. 0.38 m3/s

b. 0.83 m3/s

d. 0.94 m3/s

Solution:

Q = AuVu

Solving for Vu:

1

Ploss =

where:

=(

= 0.25

then:

(200-150) =

0.25

= 12.15 m/s

Thus;

Q=

(12.15)

Water at 55oC is cooled in a cooling tower which has an efficiency of 65%. The

temperature of the surrounding air is 32oC dry bulb and 70% relative humidity. The heat

dissipated from the condenser is 2,300,000 kJ/hr. Find the capacity in liters per second

of the pump used in the cooling tower.

a. 8.50 L/s

c. 7.60 L/s

b. 6.80 L/s

d. 6.70 L/s

Solution:

Pump Capacity = m f@t4:

Solving for m:

e=

from psychometric chart:

At 32oC and 70% RH:

= 27.40oC

0.65 =

= 37.06oC

Using energy balance is the condenser:

mCp(t3 t4) =

m(4.187)(55 37.06) =

m = 8.51 kg/s

From steam table at t4 = 37.06oC:

f = 1.0068 L/kg

Thus;

Pump Capacity = (8.51 kg/s) (1.0068 L/kg)

(a) Pump Capacity = 8.57 L/s

An atmospheric cooling tower is to provide cooling for the jacket water of a four stroke,

800 kW Diesel generator. The cooling tower efficiency is 60% at a temperature

approach of 10oC. If the ambient air has a relative humidity of 70% and dry bulb

temperature of 32oC, determine the cooling tower supplied to the diesel engine in liters

per hour. Generator efficiency is 97% useful work = 30% and cooling loss = 25%.

a. 39,800 L/hr

c. 45,700L/hr

b. 35,700 L/hr

d. 49,800 L/hr

Solution:

Volume of water = m f at t4 :

Solving for m and f :

At tdb1 = 32oC and RH = 70%

twb = 27.45oC

tapproach = t4 27.45

10 = t4 27.45

t4 = 37.45oC

=

= 824.74 kW

QA =

.

.

= 2749.14 kW

Qw = 0.25 (2749.14)

= 687.285

mwCpw(t3 t4) = 687.285

mw(4.187)(52.4 37.45) = 687.285

mw = 10.98 kg/s

= 39,527.14 kg/hr

Specific Volume of water at 37.45oC, f = 1.007 L/kg

Thus;

Vol. of cooling water, Vw:

Vw = 39,527.14(1.007) L/hr

(a) Vw = 39,803.83 L/hr

Fifty gallons per minute of water enters a cooling tower at 46oC. Atmospheric air at 16oC

db and 55% RH enters the tower at 2.85 m3/s and leaves at 32oC saturated. Determine

the volume of water that leaves the tower.

a. 4.10 L/s

c. 2.10 L/s

b. 3.10 L/s

d. 5.10 L/s

Solution:

Volume water leaving the tower, V4:

V4 = m4(f at t4)

Solving for m4 and f:

At tdb1 = 16oC and 55%RH

1 = 0.828 m3/kg

2 = 0.0308 kg/kg

1 = 0.0056 kg/kg

h2 = 110.9 kJ/kg

h1 = 32 kJ/kg

h3 = hf at 46oC

ma =

= 192.62 kJ/kg

3 = 0.0010103 m3/kg

= 3.44 kg/s

m3 =

.

.

= 3.12 kg/s

By mass balance:

m3 m4 = ma(W2 W1)

3.12 m4 = 3.44 (0.0308 0.0056)

(a) m4 = 3.09 kg/s

By energy balance:

m3h3 m4h4 = ma(h2 h1)

3.12(192.62) 3.09h4 = 3.44(110.9 32)

h4 = 106.65 kJ/kg

From Steam table 1:

t4 = 25.42oC

4 = 1.0031 L/kg

Thus; volume of water leaving, Vw:

Vw = 3.09(1.0031)

(a) Vw = 3.10 L/s

A 250,000 kg/hr of water 35oC enters a cooling tower where it is to be cooled to 17.5oC.

The energy is to be exchanged with atmospheric air entering the units at 15oC and

leaving the unit at 30oC. The air enters at 30% RH and leaves at 85% RH. If all process

are assumed to occur at atmospheric pressure, determine the percentage of total water

flow that is make up water.

a. 2.22%

c. 4.44%

b. 3.335

d. 1.11%

Solution:

Percentage make-up water =

At 15oC and 30% RH:

h1 = 23.02 kJ/kg

w1 = 0.0033 kg/kg

At 30oC and 85% RH:

h2 = 89.01 kJ/kg

w1 = 0.0233 kg/kg

Heat lost by water = Heat gained by air

mwCpw = ma(h2 h1)

250,000(4.187)(35 17.5) = ma(89.01 23.02)

ma = 277,589.41 kg/hr

then; the mass of make-up water, ms:

m5 = ma(w2 w1)

m5 = 277,589.41(0.0233 0.0033)

= 5,551.79 kg/hr

Thus; the percentage make-up water,

%make-up =

.

,

How much refrigeration capacity is required to cool 56.67 m3 of air per minute from

29oC to 21oC. Assume that the cooled air is saturated.

a. 4.76 TOR

c. 3.76 TOR

b. 1.76 TOR

d. 2.76 TOR

Solution:

Refrigeration Capacity, QA:

QA = ma(h1 h2)

Solving for ma:

From psychometric chart:

At 21oC db and 100% RH

h1 = 70 kJ/kg

1 = 0.875 m3/kg

At constant SH intersecting 29oC db:

h2 = 70 kJ/kg

ma =

=

.

.

ma = 64.766 kg/min

= 1.079 kg/s

Then;

QA = 1.079(70-61)

= 9.715 kW

Thus;

(a) 2.76 tons of refrigeration

Find the refrigeration capacity required to cool 29 cubic meter per minute from 29oC to

18oC if air from the outside has an RH of 90%.

a. 2.9 TOR

c. 4.9 TOR

b. 3.9 TOR

d. 5.9 TOR

Solution:

Qn = ma(h1 h2)

Solving for ma:

From psychometric chart:

At 29oC db and 90% RH

h1 = 88.45 kJ/kg

At 218oC db and 100% RH

h2 = 50.45 kJ/kg

1 = 0.886 m3/kg

ma =

= 32.73 kg/min

ma = 0.546 kg/s

then;

QA = 0.546(88.45 50.45)

= 20.75 kW

Thus;

(a) QA = 5.9 tons of refrigeration

27. Past ME Board Exam

The temperature of the air in a dryer is maintained constant by the use of steam coils

within the dryer. The product enters the dryer at the rate of one metric ton per hour. The

initial moisture content is 3 kg moisture per kg of dry solid and will be dried to moisture

content of 0.10 kg moisture per kg dry solid. Air enters the dryer with a humidity ratio of

0.016 kg moisture per kg of dry air and leaves with a relative humidity of 100% while the

temperature remains constant at 60 . If the total pressure of the air is 101.3 kPa,

determine the capacity of the forced draft far to handle this air in

.

a. 85.75

c. 55.87

b. 87.55

d. 58.75

Capacity of fan =

:

At point 1:

.

0.16 =

2.54

1

101.3

1

0.968

At point 2:

= 19.94 kPa

= RH (

= (1)(19.94)

= 19.94 kPa

=

=

.

.

= 0.1524 kg/kg

At point 3:

= 250 kg

At point 4:

.

Moisture content =

= 0.0909 or 9.09%

= 0.0909

= 0.0909

= 275

250

/

=

=

Thus;

Capacity of Fan = 5315.25 (0.968)

= 5142.16

Alternate Solution:

Fan Capacity =

From psychrometric chart:

At 60

= 0.968

=

0.1524

Moisture removed = m (

19.94

M = 5315.25 kg/hr

Thus;

Fan Capacity = 5315.16 (0.968)

= 5145.16

Wet material containing 215% moisture (dry basis) is to be dried at the rate of 1.5 kg/s

in a continuous dryer to give a product containing 5% moisture (wet basis). The drying

medium consist of air heated to 373 K and containing water vapor equivalent to a partial

pressure of 1.40 kPa. The air leaves the dryer at 310 K and 70% saturated. Calculate

how much air will be required to remove the moisture.

a. 50 kg/s

c. 60 kg/s

b. 55 kg/s

d. 65 kg/s

Solution:

Amount of moisture removed = amount of moisture absorbed by air.

Let m = rate of flow of dried product

.

(1.5) = 0.95 m

m = 0.501 kg/s

= 0.999 kg/s

Solving for W1:

W1 =

.

.

= 0.00871 kg/kg

From psychrometric chart, W2 = 0.0289 kg/kg

Then,

ma(0.0289 0.00871) = amount of moisture removed

ma(0.0289 0.00871) = 0.999

thus;

(a) ma = 49.48 kg/s

One hundred fifty cubic meters of air per minute at 35oC dry bulb and 25oC wet bulb

temperature are to be cooled to 21oC. Determine the refrigeration capacity.

a. 10 TOR

c. 12 TOR

b. 11 TOR

d. 13 TOR

Solution:

Refrigeration Capacity, QA:

QA = maCp(t1 t2)

Solving for ma:

From psychrometric chart:

1

= 0.892 m3/kg,

ma =

then;

QA = 2.8 (1) (35 - 21)

= 39.24 kW

Thus;

(a) QA = 11.16 TOR

= 0.855 m3/kg

= 168.16 kg/min

In an auditorium maintained at a temperature not to exceed 24oC and relative humidity

not to exceed 60%, a sensible heat load of 132 kW and 78 kg of moisture per hour to be

remove. Air is supplied to the auditorium at 18oC. How many kilograms of air must be

supplied per hour?

a. 79,200 kg/hr

c. 72,900 kg/hr

b. 97,200 kg/hr

d. 92,700 kg/hr

Solution:

Qs = maCp(t2 t1)

132 = ma(1)(24 - 18)

ma = 22 kg/s

thus;

(a) ma = 79,200 kg/hr

Eleven thousand three hundred kilograms per hour of water enters a cooling

tower at 45oC. Atmospheric air at 16oC and 55 percent relative humidity enters

the tower at the rate of 10,200 m3/hr and leaves at 32oC and saturated.

Determine the mass of water evaporated per hour during the cooling process?

a. 2,912.53 kg/hr

c. 1,292.53 kg/hr

b. 2,219.53 kg/hr

d. 1,912.53 kg/hr

Solution:

Mass of water evaporated, mW:

mW = ma (SH2 SH1)

From Psychrometric chart:

Entering air at 16oC and 55% RH:

V1 = 0.83 m3/kg; SH1 = 0.07 kg/kg

Leaving air at 32oC and 100% RH (Saturated)

SH2 = 0.307 kg/kg

Mass of air entering the tower:

3

ma =

10,200 m /hr

0.83 m3 /kg

= 12,289.16 kg/hr

then;

mW = 12,289.16 (0.307 0.07)

thus;

(a) mW = 2,192.53 kg/hr

32. Supplementary Problem

Water at 55 C is cooled in a cooling tower which has an efficiency of 65%. The

temperature of the surrounding air is 32 C dry bulb and relative humidity of 70%.

The heat dissipated from the condenser is 2,300,000 kJ/hr . Find the capacity in

liters per second of the pump used in the tower.

a. 8.66 L/s

c. 4.76 L/s

b. 8.76 L/s

d. 7.26 L/s

Solution:

From Psychrometric Chart:

At 32oC db and 70% RH

twb1 = 27.5oC

The temperature of water leaving the tower can be determined by tower

efficiency equation:

Tower eff. =

=

0.65 =

Theoretical Cooling range

ta -tb

ta -twb1

55-tb

55-27.5

tb = 37.125 oC

By Energy Balance in the condenser:

QR = mw Cpw ( ta tb )

2,300,000 = mw (4.187) (55-37.125)

mw = 30,731.15 kg/hr

Density of water at 55oC:

w =

1

vf@55o C

1

0.0010146

= 985.6 kg/m3

Then; the capacity of the pump to be used in the cooling tower:

Pump capacity =

kg

hr

kg

935.6

hr

30,731

(1000

(3600

L

)

m3

s

)

hr

thus;

(a) Pump Capacity = 8.66 L/s

33. Supplementary Problem

A dryer is to deliver 1000kg/hour of palay with a final moisture content of 10%. The

initial moisture content in the feed is 15% at atmospheric condition with 32 C dry

bulb and 21 C wet bulb. The dryer is maintained at 45 C while the relative

humidity of the hot humid air from the dryer is 80%. If the steam pressure supplied

to the heater is 2 Mpa, determine the air supplied to the dryer in m/hr.

a. 1332.25 m/hr

c. 1223.25 m/hr

b. 1233.25 m/hr

d. 1523.13 m/hr

Solution:

Amount of moisture removed = Amount of moisture absorbed;

Let; m = amount of palay in wet feed

0.85 = 0.90 (1000)

m = 1,058.83 kg/hr

Amount of moisture removed:

m = 1,058.83 -1000 = 58.28

From psychrometric chart:

W1 = W2 = 0.0111 kg/kg; v2 = 0.915 m3/kg

W3 = 0.0515 kg/kg

then; the amount of moisture absorbed;

= ma (W3 W2)

58.823 = ma (0.0515 0.0111)

ma = 1456.015 kg/hr

Va = 1456.015 kg/hr (0.915 m3/kg)

thus;

(a) Va = 1332.25 m3/hr

34. Supplementary Problem

Copra enters a dryer containing 60% water and 40% of solids and leaves with 5%

water and 95% solids. Find the weight of water removed based on each pound of

original product.

a. 0.58 lb

c. 0.47 lb

b. 0.40 lb

d. 0.67 lb

Solution:

Let; m = weight of original product per lb of wet feed

Solid in wet feed = solid in dried product

0.95 = 0.40 (1)

m = 0.42 lb

thus;

Weight of water removed = 1 0.42

(a) Weight of water removed = 0.58

35. Supplementary Problem

In an air conditioning system, If the re-circulated air is three times the outside the

mass of supply air is 20 kg/s, what is the mass of the outside air?

a. 3 kg/s

c. 5 kg/s

b. 4 kg/s

d. 6 kg/s

Solution:

mo + mt = ms

mo + 3mo = 20

4mo = 20

thus;

(a) mo = 5 kg/s

36. Supplementary Problem

An auditorium is to be maintained at a temperature of 26 C dry bulb and 50%

RH. Air is to be supplied at a temperature not lower than 15 C dry bulb. The

sensible heat gain is 110 kW and the latent gain is 37.5 kW. Take ventilating air as

25% by weight of the air from the room, and is at 35 C dry bulb and 60% RH.

Determine refrigerating capacity in tons.

a. 43.45

c. 63.28

b. 54.23

d. 76.34

Solution:

Refrigeration Capacity = ms (h4 h1)

From psychrometric chart:

h3 = 90.49 KJ/kg

h2 = 53 KJ/kg

Solving for ms:

Qs = ms Cp (t2 t1)

110 = ms (1.0) (26 15)

ms = 10 kg/s

Solving for h3:

QT = ms (h2 h1)

h1 = 38.25 KJ/kg

Solving for h4:

by mass balance:

mo + mr = ms

0.25mr + mr = 10

mr = 8 kg/s

by Heat Balance

moh3 + mrh2 = msh4

[0.25(8)] (90.49) + 8 (53) = 10 h4

h4 = 60.50 KJ/kg

thus;

Refrigerating Capacity = 10 (60.50 38.25)

= 222.48 kW

Refrigerating Capacity = 63.28 Tons of Refrigeration

37. Supplementary Problem

An assembly hall was to have an air conditioning unit installed which would be

maintained at 26 C dry bulb and at 50% RH. The unit delivers air at 15 C dry bulb

temperature and the calculated sensible heat load is 150 kW and the latent heat

is 51.3 kW. Twenty percent by weight of extracted air is made up of outside air at

34 C dry bulb and 60% RH, while 80% is extracted by the air conditioner from the

assembly hall. Determine the air conditioners refrigeration capacity in tons of

refrigeration and its ventilation load in kW.

a. 83.22 TOR, 37.47 TOR

Solution:

Refrigeration Capacity, QA:

QA = ms (h4 h1)

Ventilation load, QV:

QV = mo (h3 h1)

Solving for ms:

Qs = ms Cp (t2 t1)

150 = ms (1.0) (26 15)

ms = 13.64 kg/s

From psychrometric chart:

h3 = 86.5 KJ/kg

h2 = 53 KJ/kg

Solving for h1:

QT = ms (h2 h1)

150 + 51.3 = 13.64 (53 h1)

h1 = 38.24 KJ/kg

Solving for mr and mo:

mr = 0.80 (13.64)

mr = 10.91 kg/s

mo = 0.20 (13.64)

= 2.73 kg/s

By heat balance:

moh3 + msh4

2.736(86.5) + 10.91(53) = 13.64h4

h4 = 59.69 kJ/kg

thus;

QA = 13.64 (59.69 38.24)

= 292.61 kW

= 83.22 tons of refrigeration

Qv = 2.73(86.5 38.24)

= 131.75 kW

= 37.47 tons of refrigeration

(a) QA = 83.22 TOR, QV = 37.47 TOR

38. Supplementary Problem

An air conditioned theater is to be maintained at 80 F dry bulb temperature and

50% RH. The calculated total sensible heat load in the theater is 620,000 BTU/hr,

and the latent heat load is 210,000 Btu/hr. The air mixture at 84 F and 59 F wet

bulb temperature by chilled water cooling coils and delivered as supply air to the

theater. Calculate the tons refrigeration required.

a. 100.65 TOR

c. 142.67 TOR

b. 124.67 TOR

d. 112.60 TOR

Solution:

Conditioner Capacity, QA:

QA = ms (h4 h1)

Solving for ms:

QT = ms (h2 h1)

From Psychrometric Chart:

h4 = 35.82 Btu/lb

h1 = 25.78 Btu/lb

h2 = 31.35 Btu/lb

then;

620,000 + 210,000 = ms (31.35 25.78)

ms = 149,012.57 lb/hr

thus;

QA =

12,000 Btu/hr

TOR

39. Supplementary Problem

Determine the quantity of heat required to raise 20 m /min of air 20 C and 80

percent relative humidity to 35 C.

a. 5 kW

c. 7 kW

b. 6 kW

d. 8 kW

Solution:

From Psychrometric Chart:

At tdb1 = 20oC and 80% RH

h1 = 50kJ/kg

v1 = 0.85 m3/kg

h2 = 65.5 kJ/kg

Q = m (h2 h1)

Solving for m:

m=

V

v

20

0.847

= 23.61 kg/min

= 0.394 kg/s

thus;

Q = 0.394 (65.5 50)

(a) Q = 6.10 kJ/s or kW

40. Supplementary Problem

Determine the partial pressure of water vapor if the barometric pressure is 101.325

kPa and the humidity ratio is 0.05.

a. 7.54 kPa

c. 5.74 kPa

b. 4.75 kPa

d. 5.47 kPa

Solution:

W = 0.622

Pv

Pt -Pv

0.05 = 0.622

Pv

101.325-Pv

thus;

(a) 7.54 kPa

41. Supplementary Problem

The evaporative condenser of an ammonia refrigeration plant has a water flow

rate 226 kg/s and enters a natural draft cooling tower at 40 C. The water is

cooled to 29 C by air entering at 38 C db and 24 C wb. The air leaves the

tower as saturated at 40 C db. Calculate the make-up water required in kg/hr.

Water properties:

At 49oC; hf = 167.48 kJ/kg

Air Properties:

At 38oC db and 42oC wb

h = 72.5 kJ/kg

w = 0.013 kg/kg

At 40oC db saturated;

h = 166 kJ/kg, w = 0.0488 kg/kg

a. 8977

c. 8055

b. 8055

d. 8388

Solution:

m = ma (W2 W1)

Solving for mass of air, ma:

Heat absorbed by air = heat rejected by water

ma (h2 h1) = mw Cw t

ma (166 72.5) = 126 (4.187) (40 29)

ma = 62.07 kg/s

then;

m = 62.07 (0.0488 0.013)

= 2.22 kg/s

thus;

(a) m = 7999.08 kg/hr

42. Supplementary Problem

Determine the absolute humidity (vapor density) of an air sample that has a dew

point temperature of 45 F if the value of the gas constant R for low pressure

water vapor is 85.66 ft-lbm R. The vapor pressure corresponding to a saturation

temperature of 45 F is 0.1475 psia.

a. 0.000491 lb/ft

c. 0.000149 lb/ft

b. 0.000941 lb/ft

d. 0.000194 lb/ft

Solution:

PV = mRT

m

V

=

==

P

RT

0.1475 (144)

85.66 (45+460)

thus;

= 0.000491 lb/ft3

A certain sample of the air has a temperature of 70 F (partial pressure of 0.36

psia) and a dew point temperature of 50F. The partial pressure of the water is

the relative humidity RH.

a. 49.44%

c. 39.44%

b. 59.44%

d. 69.44%

Solution

RH =

=

partial pressure at saturation

0.178

0.36

x 100

x 100

thus;

(a) RH = 49.44 %

44. Supplementary Problem

Air at normal atmospheric pressure has a temperature of 70 F and a dew point

temperature of 50 F. Determine the saturation ratio of the air. The humidity ratios

corresponding to dew point temperatures of 50 F and 70 F respectively are

0.00763 lb/lb and 0.01576 lb/lb respectively

a. 58.51%

c. 38.31%

b. 28.21%

d. 48.41%

Solution:

Saturation ratio =

=

Wactual

Wsaturation

0.00763

0.01576

x 100

x 100

thus;

(c) Saturation ratio = 48.41

45. Supplementary Problem

Determine the sensible heat of 5 lb of air having a dry bulb temperature of 70 F

and a humidity ratio of 0.0092 lb/lb. The latter corresponding to a dew point

temperature of approximately 55F.

a. 94 BTU

c. 84 BTU

b. 48 BTU

d. 49 BTU

Solution:

Qs = m (0.24 DB)

= 5 (0.24)(70)

thus;

Qs = 84 BTU

46. Supplementary Problem

If the total heat removed per pound of dry air is 0.10 Btu and the sensible heat

removed per pound of dry air is 6 BTU. Compute the sensible heat factor (SHR).

a. 0.50

c. 0.70

b. 0.60

d. 0.40

Solution:

SHR =

QR

QS

6

10

thus;

(a) SHR = 0.60

47. Supplementary Problem

Determine the approximate load on a cooling tower if the entering and leaving

temperatures are 96 F and 88 F, respectively and the flow rate of the water over

the tower is 30 gpm.

a. 2500 Btu/min

c. 3000 Btu/min

b. 2000 Btu/min

d. 3500 Btu/min

Solution:

Tower load = 8.33 V t Btu/min

= 8.33 (30) (96 88)

thus;

(b) Tower load = 2000 Btu/min

Determine the equipment standard air volume for 150 m/s of air having a dry

bulb temperature of 15 C.

a. 150 m/s

c. 170 m/s

b. 160 m/s

d. 180 m/s

Solution:

Vs =

150 (21+273)

(15+273)

thus;

(a) Vs = 153 m3/s

49. Supplementary Problem

Determine the quantity of water lost by bleed off if the water flow rate over the

tower is 30 gpm and the range is 10 F. Percent bleed-off required is 33%.

a. 0.077 gpm

c. 0.099 gpm

b. 0.088 gpm

d. 0.066 gpm

Solution:

The quantity of water lost by bleed-off,

Vw = 0.33 (30)

thus;

(a) Vw = 0.099 gpm

The mass of an outside air is 50C in an air conditioning unit is 60 kg. find the

temperature after mixing if the outside air mixed with 40 kg with recirculated air at

35 C.

a. 44 C

c. 52 C

b. 39 C

d. 47 C

Solution:

moto + mrtr = msts

60(50) + 40(35) = (60 + 40)ts

thus;

(a) ts = 44oC

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