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AUTOMATED BOOK PICKING ROBOT FOR LIBRARIES

INTRODUCTION:
Library has many connotations. A library is a collection of information
resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body,
institution, or private individual. In the more traditional sense, it means a
collection of books.
Typically we need a librarian to pick the books and hand it over to the
person to whom the books are being issued. This might be an easy task incase
the library floor area is small. Also, to search for the books by humans takes a
lot of time as many a times the books gets overlooked by the human eye.
To automate this process of book finding and picking we suggest a robot
with an arm with some degrees of freedom which will be able to findout the
book with the required tag and then pick it and place it on the table.
DISCRIPTION:
Here we will be placing the books in a rack and all the books will be
tagged by RFID tags and an RFID reader will be placed under the robot. It
search the required book and incase the book is found, the robotic arm will
lower until the IR obstacle sensor placed over the arm detects the book and then
the gripper will close the jaws to get an hold of the book and then the robotic
arm is lifted after which the robot moves in the reverse direction to the place it
started from and places the book.
The same principal can be used in the supermarkets to make an
automated item collector.

In this case, the proposed robot will make the life of the librarian a lot
simpler and the books can be tagged easily. The essential requirement in this
project is the correct designing and fabrication of the lever, connecting Arms,
motors The student swaps his RFID card while borrowing a book from the
library. There is a RFID tag on the back of the books which contain information
like the author, name of the book etc. In the ALCD display borrowers name and
details of the book are displayed. When no RFID card is swapped and a book is
tried to be taken out of the room, a buzzer is activated through the thief
detection door. Thus a security measure is also provided.
Through the Zigbee, the transactions taken place are passed to the server
computer. All the information is stored in the server in the form a database.
Information like due dates and fines are given to the students regularly.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Receiver part
RF ID
READER

RF ID
TAG

IR
Obstacle

LED

MUX

XBEE

AVR Microcontroller

DC
Motor
Driver

Motor
Wheels

UART Driver Ckt

Stepper
Motor
Driver

Ultra sonar
sensor

Robot
ARM
Motor

Book
Carrier

Graphical
display

Transmitter part

Student RF
ID card

Antenna
XBEE

MicroController &
Computer

Key board

RF
Reader

Theft
detection
Door

Buzzer

Note:In Transmitter section it should contain PC instead of ARM-9.

PC should maintain database with information like book number, Issue


date, return date, due date, students details etc.(Library management
system).RFID tag should be interfaced to PC as a student ID.
And also buzzer should switched ON in case book has stolen from Library.
Component description
1. MICROCONTROLLER
AVR Microcontrolleris used to design this system. KEIL IDE is
used to program the microcontroller and the coding will be done
using Embedded C.
2. Moveable Base
These base houses the entire arm. A motor will be fitted under the
base which can be made to move forward/reverse to take this
mechanism to all the books in the rack.
3. The Base Shaft
The base shaft is directly screwed to the rotary base. It gives height
to the device. Also, optional movement can be provided to the base
shaft so that it can be tilted forward or backward by the help of
motors.
4. Buzzer
Buzzer is used to give some intimation for librarian when book is
carried out of the library.
5. RFID MODULE
RFID stands for radio frequency identification. This is used to read
the identification number in RFID Tags, sends data regarding to the
ID number serially through UART.
6. XBEE
It is a wireless trans-receiver module. It works in the frequency
range 2.4GHz. It works on UART process.

7. Ultrasonic
Ultra sonic sensor it can sense the object up to 6.5m distance. Key
is used. Once the key is pressed the ultrasonic device will get
activated and it senses the object and calculates the distance. It
cannot recognize the object if it is far from 6.5m. This calculated
distance will be sent to the microcontroller.
OPERATION OF ROBOT:
1. initially we will assume the rest position of entire system, i.e. state when no
object is placed.
2. At this stage, photo detector is having its output high, since receiver of sensor
can receive photons from transmitter as no object I in its path to interrupt.
3. As soon as object is placed at the picking platform, the sensor gets interrupted
and outputs low. This signal is sent to the microcontroller which is burnt with
program which tells what operation is to be performed at this stage.
4. For understanding operation, let us rename the two motors used here. Let the
name of gantry motor be M1 and that for end effecter motor is M2.
5. Now as microcontroller detects that object is placed, it moves motor M1 in
say clockwise direction for a fixed time due to which whole arm moves towards
picking platform.
6. As it reaches there, M1 stops and now motor M2 is started in say clockwise
direction to hold the object by closing jaw. This motor also, is on for particular
fixed time instant.
7. As M2 gets off, motor M1 is moved again in opposite (here anticlockwise)
direction till the time it reaches the placing platform.
8. As it reaches placing platform, the motor M1 stops and M2 is switched ON in
opposite (here anticlockwise) direction till it releases object properly on desired
place.
9. If after this no object is detected, the robot is in rest position. Otherwise if
another object is detected, steps from 3 are repeated till step 8.

10. All these operation is controlled by Micro controller. By using wireless


communication (Xbee).
11. Ultra sonar sensor detects the object , measures the distance and sends to
microcontroller.
DRIVER CIRCUIT:
1. The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-current drivers.TheL293is designed
to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5 V to 36
V. The L293D is designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both devices are designed to drive inductive
loads such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping motors, as well as other
high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications.
2. All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive
circuit, with a Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source.
Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers
3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN.
3. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled and their
outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low,
those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance
state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge)
reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications.
4. A Vcc1 terminal, separate from Vcc2, is provided for the logic inputs to
minimize device power dissipation.
COMPONENTS LIST:
Microcontroller
16x2 Graphical LCD
RFID Reader and tags
IR obstacle sensor
Ultrasonic sensor
DC motors and Stepper motors
Motor drivers

Xbee
Student RF ID Card
Power supply
SOFTWARES USED:
Keil Compiler
Embedded C
Flash magic
Visual basic .net
ADVANTAGES:
Reduces human effort
Reduces human error
Makes the management of the library, easier than ever.
For Book Theft Detection

DISADVANTAGES:
Problems of mechanical functioning may occur
Capability of lifting a book has limitation.
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