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EXPERIMENT REPORT

MANUFACTURING AND COLLOIDAL PROPERTIES

OLEH:

PUTU EKA ARYANTHI

NIM. 1413031030

/2014

SEMESTER II/B
JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN KIMIA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA
2015

I.

EXPERIMENT TITLE
Manufacturing and Colloidal Properties

II.

OBJECTIVES
To know how to make some type of colloid in condensation and dispersion, as well
as having knowledge about the properties as Tyndal effect, coagulation, and protective
colloid.

III.

BASIC THEORY
Colloid system consist of two components, namely the dispersed phase (phase finer)
and the dispersing medium where the deployment phase of the dispersed phase.
Colloid can be made in two ways, namely way condensation and dispersion means.
How condensation is a way of making small colloidal particles into colloidal particles. This
condensation method such as a manufacture sol liofil from ferric hidroxide (Fe(OH) 3) and
liquid aerosol from ammonium cloride (NH4Cl).
FeCl3 + 3H2O 3HCl + Fe(OH)3
HCl + NH3 NH4Cl
Dispersion way that the manufacture of colloidal particles (suspension). This
dispersion means such as the manufacture of sol starch.
Colloid has several properties such as Tyndal effect, coagulation, and protective
colloid. Tyndal effect that is colloid that can scatter light. Coagulation is the agglomeration
of colloidal because addition of opposite charge. The greater the opposite charge so will
faster colloids clot. While the protective colloid is a colloid that can envelop other colloids.
The protective colloid is used as an anti-coagolation.

IV.

EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS

No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

V.

Equipments

Name of Equipments
Beaker Glass
Test tube
Graduated cylinder
Beaker glass
Drop pipette
Spatula
Stir bar
Test tube rack
Stopwatch
Flaslight
Carton
Mortar and pestle

Size
100 mL
10 mL
250 mL
-

Total
5 pieces
4 pieces
1 piece
3 pieces
2 pieces
1 piece
2 pieces
1 piece
1 piece
1 piece
1 piece
1 piece

Materials

No

Name of Materials

Concentration

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Ferric chloride (FeCl3) saturated


Calsium asetate (CH3COO)2Ca saturated
Alcohol
Hydrochloride acid (HCl) saturated
Ammonia (NH3) saturated
Benzene
Gelatin
Sodium chloride (NaCl)
Sodium sulphate (Na2SO3)
Starch
Iodine solution
Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) solution
Aquades
Soap

95%
0,002 N
0,002 N
-

Total

Volume
10 mL
10 mL
10 mL
1 mL
10 mL
5 mL
10 mL
- 120 mL
-

PROCEDURES
1. Preparation of colloidal Fe(OH)3
100 mL distilled water was heat until boiling. After that 100 ml of distilled water
was added drop wise FeCl3 concentrated and stirred untul brown red. The results of
experiment was observed. This solution was kept for experiments 2,3, and, 8.

2. Coagulation Fe (OH) 3
Colloidal Fe(OH)3 was taken each 5 ml and placed in test tubes 1 and 2. In the test
tube number 1 was added NaCl 0.002 M and in the test tube number 2 was added dropwise
Na2SO3 0,002 M. finally the number of drops used to coagulation was record.

3. Protective Colloid
Colloidal Fe(OH)3 was taken each 5 ml and placed in test tubes 1 and 2. In each
test tubes (I and 2) was added 1 ml gelatin. Than in the test tube number 1 was added
dropwise NaCl 0.002 M and in the test tube number 2 was added dropwise Na2SO3 0.002
M. Observed and be compared with experiment number 2.
4. Dispersion Kanji
Beaker glass 100 ml was taken and gave number 1 and 2. In the beaker glass
number 1 was added one tablespoon of starch and in the beaker glass number 2 was added
one tablespoon of starch that has been crushed. In each beaker glass was added 10 ml of
distilled water, than stirred using a stir bar. After that filtered and filtrate number 1 and 2
was compared. In ech filtrate was added solution of yod. Compared.
5. Emulsion
Two test tubes was taken and are numbered 1 and 2. In each tet tube was added 1
ml of benzene and 5 ml of ditilled water. In the test tube number 2 was added 15 drops of
soap solution. After that the test tube was shaked and the time is take to separate was
recorded.
6. Aerosol (smoke)
Stir bar was dipped into HCL concentrated. Than that stir bar was put in the
mouth of bottle containing amminoa concentrated. Finally observed.
7. Making Gel
Beaker glass 100 ml was taken and gave number 1 and 2. In the beaker glass
number 1 was added alcohol 95% and in the beaker glass number 2 was added 2 ml of
Calcium acetate concentrated. After that Calcium acetate was pour into beaker glass
number 1. The mixed was pour into the beaker glass number 2. And so on until there is a
change. Observed.

8. Effect Tyndal
Two test tubes was taken and gave number 1 and 2. In the test tube number 1 was
added 10 ml of K2Cr2O7 and in the test tube number 2 was added 10 ml of colloidal
Fe(OH)3. The number of light shining a flashlight at a test tube number 1 (see picture) and
then observed. After that do the same thing to a test tube number 2. Comparing light on the
reaction tube number 1 and number 2 after each test tube.
VI.

DATA COLLECTION
Substances that
mixed results

Brownish
FeCl3
HCl

boiling
concentrated

NH3concentrated
(CH3COO)2Ca + etanol

Observations
result

Type
colloid

water+

Brown

Phase
Dispersible

dispersant

Sol

FeCl3

Aquades

Smoke

Aerosol

NH3concentrat

HCl

Translucent

Sol

ed
(CH3COO)2Ca

concentrated
Etanol

color

Colloid
Fe(OH)3
Fe(OH)3 + gelatin

Total additions (drops) being clots


NaCl 0.002 M
Na2SO3 0,002 M
70 dropnot clot
50 dropclot
70 drop not clot
70 tetes not clot

Substances that is
Filtrate
mixed
Starch + water
Colorless
Starch crushed + water
Colorless
The name of substance
K2Cr2O7
Fe(OH)3

Substances that is mixed


Benzene + water
Benzene + water + soap
VII.

Colors
Filtrate + I2
livid
Dense blackish blue
Ray observations flashlight
Do not scatter light
Scatter light

Time required for keeps


15 secondsseparating
45 seconds not separating

DISCUSSION

Experiment 1
In the first experiment, namely the manufacture of colloidal Fe(OH)3 which is

carried out by reacting Fe(OH)3 with water / boiling distilled water (H2O) by the reaction:
FeCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l) Fe(OH)3(colloidal) + 3 HCl(aq)
Type colloidal sol formed as FeCl3 dissolved by boiling distilled water. Making the way
condensation is classified as a merger between the water and the salt FeCl3membentuk
colloid.
Experiment 2
In a second experiment, namely coagulation FeCl3 which is clotting caused by
excess electrolyte solution. In this experiment used an electrolyte solution is NaCl and
Na2SO4. Coagulation occurs when excess electrolyte solution requiring a particular
concentration of electrolyte solution to stabilize the colloid. Coagulation also occurs
when adding elektrolid, for example colloidal charged negatife will attract electrons,
while the positively charged colloid will attract anions to form a sheath. The stronger the
pull of the colloidal ions will accelerate coagulation. In this experiment NaCl electrolyte
properties is greater than the addition of NaCl Na2SO4 so much faster than Na2SO4.
Experiment 3
The third trial is a protective colloid. This experiment uses gelatin which serves as
a protective colloid that can be fixed colloidal form and the creation of sediment, so the
solution remains clear. The precipitate that would be formed if no additional FeCl3
gelatin is produced by the reaction:

FeCl3 + 3NaCl
FeCl3 + 3NaOH
Experiment 4
In the fourth experiment, namely disperse starch. Ways of making these colloids

can be divided into two ways, namely mechanical and peptidasi. This experiment has the
objective to compare the amount of content of starch are crushed or not. Kanji are
crushed and are not crushed colored initially equally clear. Once added iodine and blueblack color on starch is not crushed. This is caused by differences in particles dispersed in
distilled water. The smaller the particles are dispersed, the results koloidnya increasingly
homogeneous and no precipitate.
Experiment 5
In the fifth experiment is an emulsion that happens because the two solutions are
not mutually dissolved. In this experiment, benzene dissolved by water do not want to
merge because of the nature of the polar benzene insoluble in water nonpolar. Then, after
adding soap emulsion will form this happens because the soap is the emulsifier that
triggered the emulsion. Emulsifier work if the solution is a mixture of benzene and water
shaken and allowed to stand so as to form an emulsion.
Experiment 6
In the sixth experiment is the manufacture of aerosol with concentrated NH3
reacting with concentrated HCl, stated as follows:
NH4ClNH3 + HCl
NH3akan disperse to form concentrated HCl NH4Cl, so that the gas formed substance is
ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) were phased liquid dispersed in outdoor air, forming in the
gas phase.
Experiment 7
In the seventh experiment is gelling. Making the gel can be regarded as an
imperfect deposition sol. In this experiment, the alcohol (C2H5OH) and calcium acetate
(CH3COO) 2Ca are mixed to form a gel, because (CH3COO) 2Ca not easily soluble.
Experiment 8
In the eighth experiment is Tyndal effect. Tyndal effect a colloidal properties that
can scatter light. The first trial Tyndal effect that the irradiation at K2Cr2O7 with a
flashlight, so there is no light scattering is not a colloidal solution. As for the irradiation
of Fe (OH) 3 occurs so that light scattering lrutan include colloid. This occurs because the
particles of colloidal particles have relatively large to be able to scatter the light.
VIII. Conclusion

From the lab and discussion that has been done can be summarized as follows.
The first colloids can be divided into three kinds, namely sol, aerosols and gases. Then
colloids can be made in two ways, namely dispersion or condensation. Colloid has
several properties, such as the effect of Tyndal, protective colloid, and coagulation.
IX.

REFERENCES
Chang, R. (2005). Basic Chemistry: Concepts Core. Jakarta: Erland.
Simamora, Maruli, et al. (2004). Textbook of Basic Chemistry II. Singaraja: IKIP Negeri
Singaraja.

Singaraja, 13 mei 2015

(Fajria Mayrisa Rahma )

Air mendidih + FeCl3

HCl pekat + NH3 pekat

(CH3COO)2Ca + etanol

Fe(OH)3+ NaCl 0,002 M

Fe(OH)3 + Na2SO3 0,002 M

Fe(OH)3+ NaCl 0,002 M + gelatin

Fe(OH)3 + Na2SO3 0,002 M

Amilum + air (Filtrat)

Amilum digerus + air (filtrat)

Amilum + air (filtrat + I2)

Amilum digerus + air (filtrat + I2)

Benzena + air

Benzena + air + sabun

K2Cr2O7saat disinari cahaya senter

Fe(OH)3 saat disinari cahaya senter