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CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES (I) PVT.

LTD
32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED: HPWJ Services ARC 2011- 2013

CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES(INDIA) PVT LTD


GROUP - SAFETY PROCEDURES

RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR THE USE OF
HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETTING EQUIPMENT

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32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
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This code of practice covers the safe operation of all types of High Pressure Water Jetting Equipment
as normally used by industries concerned with construction, maintenance, repair, cleaning and
demolition work.

INDEX
SECTION SUBJECT
1

Introduction

Scope

Definitions

Responsibility of Employers and Employees

Care and Maintenance of Equipment

Protective Clothing and Personal Protection

Operations Procedures

Permanent Cleaning Areas

Frost Precautions

10

Accidents

AppendixAdditional Requirements for the use of High Pressure Water Jetting techniques by divers.

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32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1
The objective of these procedures is to provide Guidelines for the safe operation of High
Pressure Water Jetting Equipment.
1.2
These procedures should be used in conjunction with all other safety regulations applicable at
the work location.
2.

SCOPE

2.1 These procedures are intended to provide guidance only on the safe operation of High Pressure
Jetting Equipment.
2.2 In these procedures the work 'SHALL' indicates a requirement that is to be adopted in order to
comply with the procedure. The word 'SHOULD' indicates a recommended practice.
2.3 The term High Pressure Water Jetting covers all water jetting including the use of additives or
abrasives at pressure above 140bar (approximately 2000p.s.i.).
2.4 This procedure is also applicable at lower pressure where there is foreseeable risk of injury. As a
guideline this procedure is applicable where the product of pressure times flow exceeds 5600 bar liters
per minute (pressure being measures in bar and flow in liters per minute).
2.5 Any person required to operate or use High Pressure Water Jetting Equipment shall be competent
to do so.
3.

DEFINITIONS

3.1

PRESSURE PUMP

A unit designed to deliver high pressure water or other fluid. This is usually based on positive
displacement pistons or rubber diaphragm/hydraulic systems.
3.2

AUTOMATIC PRESSURE RELIEF SAFETY DEVICES


These may take the form of:
Pressure Relief Valve or Bursting Disc in Holder
Automatic Pressure Regulating Valve (Unloading Valve)

3.2.1 Pressure Relief Valve or Bursting Disc in Holder


Usually mounted on pump discharge chamber to prevent the pressure exceeding the safe maximum for
the whole system.
N.B: The maximum safe working pressure is the lowest value of the maximum working pressure rating
of all individual components of the system.
3.2.2

Automatic Pressure Regulating Valve (Unloading Valve)

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Limits the pressure at which the pump operates by releasing a preset proportion of the generated flow
back to the suction chamber or to waste. It should be used to regulate the water pressure from the
pump and is individually set for each operation.
N.B:

This device may be integral with the pump hydraulic assembly.

3.3

DRY SHUT-OFF SAFETY CONTROL VALVE

This operator controlled valve, normally hand controlled, automatically shuts off flow to the lance and/or
nozzle assembly when released by the operator, but retains the operating pressure within the supply
line when so shut off. This valve shall be used only in systems with an Automatic Pressure Regulating
Valve (see section 3.2.2 of this code).
N.B: Care shall be taken to release the pressure in the Dry Shut Off Valve and line when the pump is
shut down otherwise the valve operating lever may remain alive. This valve may alternatively be
actuated by solenoid or pilot pressure mechanism.
3.4

DUMP SAFETY CONTROL VALVE

This operator controls valve, normally hand controlled, automatically terminates significant flow to the
lance and/or nozzle when released by the operator, thus relieving the operating pressure within the
whole system by diverting the flow produced by the pump to atmosphere through an orifice and dump
line which must be of sufficient size to obviate generation of significant back-pressure at the maximum
possible pumping rate of the pump/motor assembly. The dump line must be firmly secured.
This valve may alternatively be actuated by solenoid or pilot pressure mechanism.
3.5

HIGH PRESSURE HOSE

This is a flexible hose which connects two components and which delivers the high pressure fluid to the
fun or nozzle components.
3.6

LANCE

This is a length or lengths of tube carrying high pressure fluid to the nozzle. Each shall be manufactured
from suitable solid drawn tube of length, wall thickness, diameter and material to suit the application.
End connections, which shall also be suitable for the application, may be separately manufactured. The
lance is used in conjunction with a safety control valve (see section 3.3 and 3.4 of these procedures).
3.7

NOZZLE

The nozzle creates the water jet or jets at the required velocity, flow rate, pressure, shape and
distribution for a particular application. Combinations of forward and backward directed water jets are
often used to balance the thrust.
3.7.1

Pipe or Drain Nozzle

This is a nozzle intended for cleaning the internal surfaces of pipes or drains. It can be self-propelled by
its rearward directed jets and is manufactured in various shapes, sizes and combinations of forward and
rearward directed jets. Where the length of the nozzle and rigid coupling is less that the inside diameter
of the pipe, a length of rigid tube of not less than the diameter of the pipe being cleaned should be fitted

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directly behind the nozzle. This is to prevent the nozzle turning through 180 degrees and doubling back
towards the operator.

3.8
WATER JET
A jet is the stream of water produced from the individual outlet of a nozzle. The shape of the jet is
determined by the form of the nozzle outlet while the speed at which it travels is determined by the
operating pressure. The two most commonly used jet shapes are the straight and fan shaped jet.
3.8.1 Straight Jet
Concentrates the stream of water in one plane so giving a wide band coverage of the work piece. A
typical application is for cutting.
3.8.2 Fan Jet
Spreads the stream of water in one plane so giving a wide band coverage of the work piece. A typical
application is for cleaning.
3.9

JETTING HEAD AND SPRAY BARS

These are pieces of equipment into which individual nozzles are fitted.
3.10

FOOT CONTROL VALVE

The operator's control valve (see section 3.3 and 3.4 of this procedure) may be arranged for actuation
by the operator's foot if desired, either in place of or additional to hand control.
An adequate guard shall be fitted to prevent accidental mal-operation and the base plate area shall be
sufficient to ensure stability in use. If of the dump type(section 3.4) the layout should ensure that the
dump line is restrained from slipping when the valve is released.
3.11

JETTING GUN

A portable combination of operator's control valve (see section 3.3 and 3.4) lance (section 3.6 and
nozzle (section 3.7 resembling a gun in layout and outline.
The control valve is hand operated and may be of the dry shut off (section 3.3) or dump (section 3.4)
type, the gun being named accordingly. The hand control normally takes the form of a trigger or lever
which is provided with a guard adequate to prevent mal-operation and which shall have the means of
being immobilised in the "off" position by means of a safety catch. The gun may be fitted with a
shoulder pad or hand grips to facilitate back-thrust control.
3.12

RETRO GUN

A retro safety gun is fitted with forward and rearward facing jets. This reduces the thrust experienced by
the operator. This type of gun is used mainly for underwater jetting operations (see appendix 2) but can
be used on land, especially where high thrust conditions would otherwise exist. A device, eg. baffle
plates, shall be fitted to the retro tube to protect personnel passing at the rear.
N.B:

The barrel length and retro balance jet protection tube shall be sufficiently long or constructed
so as to prevent the operator directing it at himself.

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32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
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3.13

CHANGEOVER VALVE

An operator controlled valve designed to safety direct high pressure water flow from the pump (see
section 3.1 of these procedures) to one or other item of equipment at the operator's choice. It shall be
designed to withstand the maximum system pressure.
CAUTION TO OPERATORS

ALWAYS REMEMBER - YOUR SAFETY AND THE SAFETY OF OTHERS AROUND YOU
DEPENDS ON YOU PERFORMING YOUR WORK CORRECTLY, RESPONSIBLY AND
EXERCISING THE UTMOST CARE AND ATTENTION.
KEEP YOUR MIND AND ATTENTION ON YOUR WORK.
WATCH WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING.
IF YOU ARE NOT SURE OF AN OPERATION OR PROCEDURE, STOP AND ASK YOUR
SUPERVISOR.
4.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES

Extracts from the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.


Section 2
(1)

"It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health,
safety and welfare at work of all his employees.

(2)

Without prejudice to the generality of an employer's duty under the preceding subsection, the
matters to which that duty extends include in particular:

(a) The provision and maintenance of plant and system of work that are, so far as is reasonably
practicable, safe and without risks to health;
(b) Arrangements for ensuring, so far as is reasonably practicable, safety and absence of risks to
health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances;
(c) The provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to
ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety at work of his employees;
(d) So far as is reasonably practicable as regards any place of work under the employer's control,
the maintenance of it in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and
maintenance of means of access to and egress from it that are safe and without risks;
(e) The provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees that is, so far as is
reasonably practicable, safe, without risk to health, and adequate as regards facilities and
arrangements for their welfare at work."
Section 7

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"It shall be the duty of every employee while at work:(a)

To take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons who may be
affected by his acts or omissions at work; and

(b)

As regards any duty or requirement imposed on his employer or any other person by or under
any of the relevant statutory provisions, to co-operate with him so far as is necessary to enable
that duty or requirement to be performed or complied with."

Section 8
"No person shall intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of
health, safety or welfare in pursuance of any of the relevant statutory provision."
Section 9
"No employer shall levy or permit to be levied on any employee of his any charge in respect of anything
done or provided in pursuance of any specific requirement of the relevant statutory provisions."

5.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT

5.1

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

5.1.1 The pump unit shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where
applicable this should include daily checks on the following items:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Drive unit - lubricating oil, water, hydraulic fluids and fuel levels.
Pump unit - lubricating oil and gear box oil levels.
Hydraulic hose reel - lubricating oil and fluid levels.
Condition of safety guards and shields.

5.1.2
All water filters dependent upon the supply water conditions, shall be checked at regular
intervals, not exceeding 8 hours.
5.1.3

All hose assemblies shall be inspected prior to use with respect to the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)

Correct pressure rating and size.


Free from external damage, ie. exposed and broken wires.
All end fittings and couplings are in good order.

5.1.4
All jetting nozzles shall be kept clean and the orifice shall be checked to ensure that it is not
obstructed. During the priming operation, the nozzle should be removed from the system.
5.1.5 Jetting guns and lances shall be checked daily and the trigger mechanism and guard given a
thorough visual examination to ensure correct operation.
5.1.6

All foot control valves shall be checked and cleaned daily and the foot mechanism and guard

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given a thorough visual examination to ensure correct operation.


5.1.7
All electricity operated high pressure water jetting units shall be checked daily for external
damage with special emphasis on connections, junction boxes, switches and supply cables.
Care should be taken to ensure that the electrical system is protected from the ingress of water.
Correct direction of rotation of the electric motor should be checked on initial installation and after every
re-connection.
5.1.8
Daily checks should be carried out on trailer mounted units covering tyres, braking systems,
jacking points, towing hitch, lights, structural damage and general cleanliness.
5.1.9 All throttle cables and engine stop devices shall be checked to ensure that they are functioning
properly.
5.2

MAINTENANCE SERVICING AND REPAIR

The following operations should only be carried out by competent personnel:


(a)

Manufacturer's servicing requirements.

(b)
The following items should be overhauled and checked for correct functioning at six monthly
intervals:
Pressure relief valve.
Bursting discs if used, should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturers.
Pressure control valves.
Hand or foot operated dump safety control valve or dry shut off safety control valve.
Dry shut off or dump guns.
Changeover valve.
(c)
High pressure hoses shall be laid out, and a detailed visual inspection carried out. The hoses
shall either be replaced or repaired if any defect or damage impairs integrity.
(d)

If end-fittings are fitted or replaced the completed hose assembly shall be tested.

(e)
All fluid-carrying parts such as connectors and elbows should be visually examined at six monthly
intervals for signs of erosion or corrosion.
When maintaining or assembling jetting systems the correct size tool must be used. The use of
adjustable tools having serrated gripping jaws which can damage equipment is forbidden.

6.

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTION

Specific advice is given in section 6.1 and 6.6 below.


6.1

EYE PROTECTION

Shall be provided to all operators of High Pressure Water Jetting Equipment, and must be worn within
the working area.

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NB:
Where liquids liable to cause eye damage are encountered, it may be necessary to use a
combination of visor and goggles.
6.2

FOOT PROTECTION

All operators should be supplied with suitable boots or wellingtons with steel toe caps.
6.3

HAND PROTECTION

Adequate hand protection should be supplied to all operators.


6.4

EAR PROTECTION

Most high pressure water jetting operations produce noise levels in excess of 90dB(A) and so suitable
ear protection issued in accordance with current legislation must be worn and provision should be made
for its regular inspection and maintenance. All personnel and operators should receive instruction in the
correct use of ear protectors.
6.5

HEAD PROTECTION

All operators should be supplied with a safety helmet and where possible this should incorporate eye
protection.
6.6

BODY PROTECTION

All operators should be supplied with suitable waterproof clothing having regard to the type of work
being undertaken.
NB:
It must be emphasised that whereas protective clothing provides adequate protection against
spray and flying particles, it does not constitute complete protection against the direct impact of a jet of
water. It may be necessary in certain jetting operations to provide additional protection in the form of
suitable metal shields or barriers.

7.

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

7.1

TEAM OPERATION

In most jetting operations it is accepted practice to employ a team of operators consisting of two or
three members. The operating procedures to be adopted in these cases are detailed in sections 7.1.1 to
7.1.8 (below). There are some jetting operations in which single person operation is acceptable, the
appropriate procedures for which are covered in section 7.2 (below).
7.1.1 All high pressure water jetting operations shall be controlled by a trained supervisor who may
be the nominated team leader.
7.1.2
The operation of high pressure water jetting equipment shall be by two or more operators
according to the equipment being used and the nature of the job. These operators shall work as a team,
with one member in charge. The operator of the gun or lance as described in section 7.1.3 (below)
shall take the lead role while jetting is in progress.

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7.1.3 One operator from the team shall hold their lance, gun or delivery hose with the nozzle mounted
in it. His primary duty is to direct the jet.
7.1.4
The second operator of the team shall attend the pump unit, keep close watch on the first
operator for signs of difficulty or fatigue, and watch surrounding area for intrusion by other persons or
unsafe situations. If required, he will shut off the pressure unit until it is safe to continue.
7.1.5

Further operators are required in the following circumstances:

(a)
To operate the dump or dry shut off safety valve when this is remote from the operator controlling
the jet.
N.B:

This operator must have uninterrupted sight of the jet operator at all times.

(b)

To assist the first operator with the handling of the lance if it is too long or heavy for one man.

(c)

To provide communication if the lance operator is out of sight of the pump unit operator.

7.1.6 The team members should rotate their duties during any job to minimise fatigue to the operator
holding the lance or gun.
7.1.7
The nominated team leader is responsible for basic equipment checks as detailed in section
7.3.1 (below), the preparation of the working area for safe operation, and for obtaining a permit
to work where and when required.
7.1.8 Before starting a jetting operation the team members, one of who must be in charge shall agree
a code of signals to be used during operation of the equipment.
7.2

SINGLE PERSON OPERATION

This section applied to operation in which the hose, lance, gun or nozzle assembly is manually
manipulated.
7.2.1 Single person operation is allowable in certain cleaning operations where the pressure does not
exceed 140 bar (approximately 2,000 psi)
7.2.2 In these circumstances, it shall be adequately demonstrated that consequences to the operator
of equipment failure are not worsened.
7.2.3
Adequate protection shall be provided to prevent the likelihood of persons intruding into the
working space.
7.2.4

The operator shall be fully familiar with the equipment to be used.

7.3

ASSEMBLY AND TESTING OF EQUIPMENT BEFORE USE

7.3.1 All systems shall incorporate at least a safety fluid shut off or dump device. The operators shall
arrange the lay-out, check and connect the high pressure hoses and equipment. They shall check the
safety shut off or dump device and ensure that it is fully operative. The operator must always be able
to shut down the water jet by releasing pressure on the trigger or foot valve pedal. When selecting
jetting equipment consideration shall be given to using a gun in preference to a lance.

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7.3.2

An adequate water supply to the pump inlet must be provided.

7.4

SAFETY OF OPERATION

7.4.1
Where practical, work pieces to be jetted should be removed from plant areas to a high
pressure water jetting area. Where this is impractical, cleaning inside or adjacent to the installed
position can be done with the necessary clearance and permission of the occupier.
7.4.2 Area limits applicable to the cleaning operation shall be defined, and the team shall mark these
limits by barriers and notices to warn against access to other personnel. Barriers shall be an approved
form of hazard warning, rope or tape, as a minimum, and shall be placed at least 10 meters away from
the workplace. Alternatively, a solid barrier at least 2 meters high is acceptable at any reasonable
distance. Notices should state "KEEP CLEAR HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETTING IN OPERATION",
or other suitable wording.
7.4.3
Where there is a possibility of encountering corrosive or toxic materials, bacteria or other
hazards injurious to health the occupier shall be requested to inform the person in charge of high
pressure water jetting of any precautions that may be necessary, including the collection and disposal
of waste materials.
7.4.4
Operators should have good access to the workplace, a safe working platform, and secure
footing. The area in which work is to proceed shall be clear of loose items and debris to prevent
tripping and slipping hazards.
7.4.5
Access by unauthorised persons shall be prevented into the area where high pressure water
jetting is taking place. The area shall be cordoned off and warning notices displayed in prominent
positions. The perimeter should be outside the effective range of the jet wherever possible.

7.4.6 The occupier shall be requested to inform all personnel likely to require access to the area that
high pressure water jetting is in progress. Personnel having reason to enter the water jetting area
should wait until the jet is stopped and his presence is known. Personnel wishing to have the jet
stopped shall approach a team member other than the jet operator. The jet operator shall not be
distracted until the jet has been stopped.
7.4.7 Target and side shields shall, where feasible, be suitably placed to safeguard personnel and
equipment against contact with grits or solids, washed out by jets.
7.4.8 The pump unit shall not be started and brought up to pressure unless each team member is in
his designated position, the nozzle is held in or directed at the work piece and the lance or gun is
securely held.
7.4.9 Due consideration should always be given to the use of a gun with a hand-held control valve in
preference to a lance.
7.4.10
Apart from operational procedures no attempt shall be made to adjust any nut, hose
connection, fitting, etc. whilst that part of the system is under pressure. The pumps shall be
stopped and any pressure in the line discharged prior to making adjustments.

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N.B:
Care should be taken to release the pressure in the dry shut -off gun and the line when the unit
is switched off.
7.4.11 If for any reason the water flow does not shut off when the trigger or foot pedal is released,
work shall cease until the item has been serviced, repaired or changed.
7.4.12 The operator should be allowed to experience the reaction force of the jet progressively until
the required operating pressure is reached. The lowest pressure should be used compatible with the
work to be done.
7.4.13 Operators should be made aware of the cumulative effect of pressure in the line which can
transmit a severe jolt to the operator when the dump valve or dry shut-off valve is operated. To
minimise this effect total hose lengths should be kept as short as possible. Damping devices can be
introduced into the system.
7.4.14 Thermo-plastic hose should not be used for water jetting unless specifically designed and
certified fit for this purpose.
7.4.15
Whilst operating, the team members shall be safely positioned and if any person should
encroach into the working area jetting shall be stopped.
7.4.16 Work shall stop:
(a) In the event that leak or damage become apparent;
(b) If any person becomes aware of any change in conditions or any hazards be introduced or
exist, or
(c) If plant or works alarms are sounded.
7.4.17 Before entry into a confined space for jetting, a certificate of clearance shall be obtained to
ensure that access is safe.

7.5

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

7.5.1 Only trained personnel shall operate high pressure water jetting equipment, and supervise the
training of new operators.
7.5.2 Training shall cover the content of these procedures and other safety requirements which may
be applicable, the use of safety equipment required for the job, and the principles of high pressure
water jetting. Correct handling methods for types of equipment to be used shall be taught. It shall
include a demonstration of the cutting power of the jet in a manner which creates visual impact of its
potential danger, eg. by cutting a section of timber or concrete. It should be emphasised that whereas
protective clothing provides adequate protection against spray and fling particles it does not constitute
complete protection against direct impact of a water jet.
7.6

THE USE OF LANCES AND NOZZLES

7.6.1
Lances which are rigid or semi-rigid having nozzles fitted to them with any combination of
forward, backward or 90 degree angle jets shall be used with safety shut-off device. When a flexible
lance or nozzle mounted on a hose is in use, the jet should not be operated at pressure unless the

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nozzle is safely positioned inside the work piece or the operator is protected by screens from the rearfacing jets. If necessary lead-in should be cleared by other methods.
7.6.2 Flexible lances used to jet pipes where the inside diameter of the pipe is not small enough to
prevent the lance from turning back on itself, shall have a piece of rigid straight tube, slightly longer
than the diameter of the pipe fitted immediately behind the nozzle to prevent this happening.
7.6.3
When an assembly is used which allows the nozzle to enter the work piece with restricted
visibility the lance, hose or floor should be clearly marked in a manner which enables the operator to
judge how far the nozzle is in the work piece before pressure is applied and conversely, so that
pressure is released before the apparatus is completely withdrawn from the work piece.
7.6.4 The length of a rigid lance or combination of lances shall be such that the operator can maintain
control at all times. Lances which are used in normal jetting procedures, eg. surface cleaning or
concrete cutting should always be provided with suitable hand-grips to enable the operator to retain full
control of the lance.
7.6.5 The nozzle and minimum operating pressure shall be selected by the operator to allow effective
and efficient jetting.
7.6.6 Should an operator enter a manhole or access port for any purpose (preferably with the jetting
machine turned off) the hose shall not be used to support his weight when climbing up or down.
7.6.7 When using a "T" (which are devices for producing two equal and opposite jets at the end of the
lance and at right angles to the normal flow) it should be inserted into a tube, or vessel, or between two
surfaces before the system is pressurised. This is necessary to ensure that should one jet be larger
than the other, or one jet become blocked or partially blocked, the operator of the lance will not be spun
out of control. When a "T" piece is used to provide a balancing jet on a long lance to clean a single
surface it is not always possible to check for equal thrust from both jets in the above described manner,
therefore these lances should be checked by progressive pressure increases. This restraint shall also
apply to any form of multi-jet nozzle, the drilling's of which have a radial component.

8.

PERMANENT CLEANING AREAS

8.1
The areas shall be suitably enclosed and warning notices prominently displayed at the access
points and perimeters.
8.2
Access by persons other than the jetting team shall be strictly prohibited whilst work is in
progress. If any unauthorized entry is made, all work shall cease immediately.
8.3
The working area shall be free from hazards likely to trip personnel and be provided with
adequate drainage and lighting facilities.
9.
FROST PRECAUTIONS
During periods when there is a risk of freezing, drain the entire system and take the following
precautions:
9.1
9.2
9.3

Remove gun or nozzle from delivery hose


Pump water from break tank until level of water is just above the filter
Add recommended quantity of neat anti-freeze into water tank

Confidential

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CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES (I) PVT. LTD


32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED: HPWJ Services ARC 2011- 2013

9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

Place delivery hose into water tank and secure


Run the pump until the anti-freeze works through the system
Move selector lever to dump or recycle position until the anti-freeze shows in the water tank
Shut off engine
If no break tank is fitted follow the manufacturer's recommendations.

WARNING: IF A PUMP OR HOSE IS FROZEN OR APPEARS FROZEN ON NO ACCOUNT MUST THE PUMP
BE ENGAGED UNTIL THE SYSTEM HAS BEEN THAWED OUT OR THE ENGINE STARTED IF THERE IS A
DIRECT DRIVE TO THE PUMP.

10.

ACCIDENTS

10.1
In the event that a person is injured by the impact of a water jet, the injury caused may appear
insignificant and give little indication of the extent of the injury beneath the skin and the damage to
deeper tissues. Large quantities of water may have punctured the skin, flesh and organs through a very
small hole that may not even bleed.
10.2
Immediate hospital attention is required and medical staff must be informed of the cause of the
injury. To ensure that this is not overlooked, all operators engaged in jetting should carry an
immediately accessible waterproof card which outlines the possible nature of the injury and bears the
following text which has been endorsed by the Employment Medical Advisory Service (EMAS) of the
Health and Safety Executive. "This man has been involved with high pressure water jetting at pressure
up to 14,500 lb/in (100 MP, 1000bar, 1019kg/cm) with a jet velocity of 900 miles (1440km) per hour.
Please take this into account when making your diagnosis. Unusual infections with micro-aerophilic
organisms occurring at lower temperatures have been reported. These may be gram negative
pathogens such as are found in sewage. Bacterial swabs and blood cultures may therefore be helpful".
10.3
Where surgical examination is not immediately possible in remote situations, first aid measures
should be confined to dressing the wound and observing the patient closely until medical examination
has been arranged.
10.4
If any person, object or article is accidentally struck by the jet, this fact must be reported to the
occupier's representative.
APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE USE OF HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETTING
A1.

SCOPE

This APPENDIX covers additional requirements peculiar to the operation of all types of high pressure
water jetting equipment underwater and on or near the surface, and of the support equipment on the
surface.
A2.

EQUIPMENT

A2.1 The High Pressure Pumping Unit


This unit should be capable of long and continuous operation using filtered sea water and be suitable
for the marine environment.
A2.2

Jetting Gun

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CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES (I) PVT. LTD


32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED: HPWJ Services ARC 2011- 2013

A2.2.1 Dry Shut-Off Gun


As section 3/12 of main procedures
A2.2.2 Lance
As section 3.7 of main procedures with the additional requirement of at least 60cm between the trigger
and nozzle, in order to avoid self-injury to the diver.
A2.2.3 Retro Jet
All jetting guns to be handled by divers underwater must be fitted with a retro jet. The type of nozzle
fitted to the retro jet must be such as to provide a reaction equal to that of the working nozzle in order to
balance the gun.
All retro jets must be guarded with a diffuser tube which is either positively locked into the gun or such
that if removed releases the retro nozzle from the gun, to avoid self-injury to the diver. Venturi type
diffuser tubes are preferable for underwater use and are generally used as they are known to give a
quieter gun.
A.2.2.4 Safety Valve Trigger
Whatever type of gun is used, it is essential that, to avoid fatigue, the trigger pressure necessary to
operate the gun (when expressed as a torque) be more than 12 pound inch.
A strong guard must be fitted around the trigger to prevent inadvertent operation.
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES IS THE TRIGGER TO BE BLOCKED OFF BY WIRE, TAPE OR
OTHER MEANS IN ORDER TO HOLD THE VALVE IN THE OPEN POSITION.
A3.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT

A3.1
Equipment used in a sea water environment is always to be flushed with fresh water internally,
and washed externally after use.
A3.2
Special care should be taken to prevent chafing, crushing or cutting of high pressure hoses
where they are passed over sharp edges such as the sides of vessels, walkways or quays.
A3.3 Hoses laying across a working deck should be adequately protected by covers or a conduit and
should be tied off at regular intervals to prevent excessive whip lash in the event of a failure.
A4.

PERSONNEL PROTECTION

The following precautions should be observed by divers:


A4.1

Life Support Equipment

Grit supplied to the gun or raised by the high pressure jet can and does interfere with such equipment
as demand valves, reducing valves, etc. and great care must be taken in checking and cleaning this
equipment after every dive.

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CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES (I) PVT. LTD


32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED: HPWJ Services ARC 2011- 2013

A4.2

Ear Protection

Underwater jetting is noisy. Efforts should be made to reduce this noise to an acceptable level.
Wearing of diving helmets is preferable to diving masks.
A5.

WORKING AREAS

At no time should there be more than one diver working in the area where jetting is taking place or is
likely to take place, and no jetting should be carried out except on instructions from the Diving
Supervisor. This equally applies to atmospheric diving suits and underwater vehicles of all types.
When operating near the surface, or at the air/water interface, care should be taken to ensure that no
other personnel are in the area and that the area is kept clear of boats, zodiacs, etc.
Access to these working areas must be strictly prohibited whilst jetting is in progress and until the work
is known to have been completed and the pump shut down.
NOTE:
The signal to start the pump should only be given by the diver when he has reached his working
position and is ready to start jetting, and he must be warned that he is about to receive pressure from
the surface.
THIS IS IMPORTANT - ONLY SUPPLY HIGH PRESSURE WATER ON DEMAND FROM THE DIVER.
Wherever possible, the working area should be kept free from tripping hazards or other debris and
depending on conditions, adequate lighting should be provided.

A6.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

A6.1

D.P. Interference

Noise from high pressure jetting operations may interfere with acoustic reference system of a
dynamically positioned ship. D.P. operators should be informed when high pressure water jetting is
about to start.
A6.2

Communication

Since audio communications are usually impossible during actual underwater jetting, it is the
responsibility of the Diving Supervisor to monitor the diver's jetting operations and breathing rates and
to act quickly if any rhythm or any sudden change in performance is observed.
The Diving Supervisor must ALWAYS be in direct and immediate contact with the technician running
the pump who must be standing by his machine at all times when the diver is using high pressure water
equipment.
Any noise interference from adjacent machinery should not be allowed to affect, in any way,
communications between the Diving Supervisor and pump operator. It is imperative that clear
communications exist at all times between the Diving Supervisor and the person running the Pressure
Pump. No underwater jetting should take place unless these conditions can be met.

Confidential

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CONTRACT RESOURCES PETROCHEM SERVICES (I) PVT. LTD


32 VASANT, PROF. N.S.PHADKE MARG, ANDHERI (E), MUMBAI-400 069
TEL. NO : +91-22-65701556/57 FAX NO : +91-22-26821317
Email ID : crai@crasia.net Website : www.crasia.net
RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED: HPWJ Services ARC 2011- 2013

A6.3

Pipe Cleaning

For underwater internal pipe cleaning, consideration must be given by both the diver and the surface
crew to ensure that pressure is not applied until the diver has maneuvered the pipe internal cleaning
device into the pipe end. The pipe ends should first be cleaned by ordinary jet gun, to allow the device
to be easily inserted and only after it is safely in the pipe, should pressure be applied-and then only
when asked for by the diver.
The diver should not remove the device from the pipe until the pump has stopped and all contained
pressure released.
Pipe cleaning apparatus should be marked in a manner clearly visible to the diver in the working
conditions encountered at a distance of 60 centimeters from the nozzle, so that the diver can give the
order to shut-off the pressure before the apparatus is completely withdrawn from the pipe.

Confidential

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