:;~
~~f'
.
.~
.,: . i
NEW SENIOR
MATHEMATICS
,,~
"'
;!*:~~ '.
!;. .
,f
, !.
!
Rigby Heinemann
A division of Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd
22 Salmon Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3207
World Wide Web http://www.reedbooks.com.au
Email heinemann@reedbooks.com.au
Offices in Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. Associated companies,
branches and representatives throughout the world.
Bernard Ftizpatrick
First published 1984
2000 1999
20 19 18
1998 1997
17 16 15
1996
14 13
12
Includes index.
1. Mathematics. I. Title.
510
CONTENTS
2
3
<4
5
6
7
8
9,
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Introduction
Basic Arithmetic
Basic Algebra
Equations and Inequations
Plane Geometry
Probability
Relations and Functions
Trigonometric Ratios
Revision Exercises A
Applied Trigonometry
Coordinate Geometry  Straight Line
Locus and Subsets of the Plane
Sequences and Series
Quadratic Functions
Indices and Logarithms
Revision Exercises B
Differential Calculus
Geometrical Applications of Differentiation
Integral Calculus
Trigonometric (Circular) Functions
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Applications of Calculus to the Physical World
Revision Exercises C
Test Papers
Summary
Answers
Index
vii
34
54
85
121
152
162
175
179
198
222
233
254
280
299
303
327
356
379
406
426
446
452
462
471
517
INTRODUCTION
.1
vii
viii
CHAPTER 1
Basic
Arithmetic
1.1 Fractions, decimals, percentages _ _ _ __
John ate
~ of the pizza.
We often read and speak sentences like these. Common fractions, decimals and
percentages are very much part of our lives. In fact, if we are to survive in a world of
buying and selling, it is essential that we be able to operate freely with them and also be
able to convert one to the other, e.g.
1
4
83
19
025
25070
= 0'375 = 37'5070
= 076 = 76070
To convert a common fractio~ to a decimal, we divide the denominator
into the numerator.
EXAMPLE 1
(')
1 ~")
3 ("')
19 to d
' Is.
C onvert t h e common f ractions
I 4'
~11 8'
III 25
eClma
0) 4
11 '()20
(ii) 8
025
1
025
13 '06()40
(iii) 25 119'0150
0375
3
8 = 0375
076
19 = 0'76
25
EXAMPLE 2
Convert (j) 025, (ij) 0'375, (iii) 076 to common fractions.
25
100
375
(ij) 0375
1000
76
(iii) 076 =
100
1
4
15
40
5
20
75
200
19
25
(i) 025
3
8
EXAMPLE 3
1 (II.. ) 8'
3 ("')
19
t
E xpress (I.) 4'
III 25 as percen ages,
(i)!4 =!4
(ii)
i =i
x 100070
25070
= 37!OJo
x 100070
19 x 100m
= 76 mVIIo
25
VIO
..') 25
19
(III
EXAMPLE 4
Express (0 25%, (ii) 37!OJo, (iii) 76070, (iv) 3iOJo as common fractions.
(i) 25070 =
(II) 371m
:pO
1~
37!
= 100 = 2
76
3i
100
1
4
10
75
x 100
19
= 25
3i X 8
100 X 8
25
800
5
1
160 = 32
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 3
j = 3 12
.()2()2() _..
0'666 _._
0'666 _.
200
3070 = 66jOJo
EXERCISES 1(a)
1. Express each of the following fractions as (i) a decimal, (ii) a percentage.
3
5
5
(e)
16
7
(i)
40
(b)
(a) 
18
(c) 25
Z
8
13
20
29
(1)
50
1
(d) 40
(f)
(g) 16
9
(h) 100
(k) 18
(I)
17
4
2. Express each of the following decimals as (i) a common fraction, (ii) a percentage.
(a) 025
(e) 175
(i) 0875
(b) 185
(f) 0325
(1) 06125
(c) 0375
(g) 084
(k) 265
(d) 023
(h) 0025
(I) 182
Decimal
Percentage
Fraction
Decimal
Percentage
3
10
0'35
17
8
135070
32070
045
19
40
0'7
7
25
8!OJo
11
12!OJo
008
14
35
~ = 075
!8
1
3
6=
0125
03333.. .
016666 ...
O'c06
04545 ...
All of these decimals either terminate, e.g. 0~75, 0'125, 0'06, or have an infinite number
of digits to the right of the decimal point and one or more of these digits are,repeated
without ending, e.g.
03333 ... (the 3 is repeated)
016666 ... (the 6 is repeated)
04545 ... (the 45 is repeated)
These decimals are called repeating decimals and the repeating digits are written with a
dot on top, e.g .
. 0'3333 _. _ = 03
016666 ... = 016
04545 ... = 0'4S
Note: All numbers whose decimal form does not terminate and in which there is no
repeating pattern in the digits are irrational numbers_Repeating decimals are rational
numbers .
.J2 141421...
3141592653589793. _.
.J2 and can be expressed as nonterminating decimals but there is no repeating pattern in
1('
1('
EXAMPLE 5
Express (i)
(iv)
= 02222 .  .
Multiply both sides of (1) by 10.
10 x oi = 22222 ...
Subtract (1) from (2)_
9 x oi
2
(i) 02
02
as common fractions.
(1)
(iii) 0 S3
= o 5353
...
Multiply both sides of (1) by 100.
100 x 0'S3 = 535353 . __
Subtract (1) from (2)_
99 x 0S3 = 53
(2)
= 04666 .  .
Multiply both sides of (1) by 10_
lOx 046 = 46666 __ _
Subtract (1) from (2).
42
9 x 046
42
7
0.46 = 4.2
15
90
(ii) 0'46
42S3
0S3
(1)
(iv)
(2)
(1)
(2)
53
99
02S3 =
025353 __ _
Multiply both sides of (1) by 100.
1'00 x 0'2S3
2535353 .. _
Subtract (1) from (2).
99 x 0'2S3 = 251
02S3 = 25'1 251
990
:_ 42S3 4l.li
990
(1)
(2)
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 5
EXERCISES 1(b)
1. Which of the following fractions can be expressed as repeating decimals?
1572743294
274259511
12'
~=
down~,~,~,
?, ~ as repeating decimals. Do you observe any pattern in the digits that repeat?
5. Show by division that /3
1 2
16
7. To convert a repeating decimal to a fraction, you (i) subtract the nonrepeating digits
from the number, (ii) then put this over 9 for each repeating digit and 0 for each nonrepeating digit, e.g.
.
0'37 = 37
3
34
17
90
90
jl
18 is the lowest common multiple of 6 and 9, because 18 is the lowest multiple of both 6 and 9.
lOis the lowest common multiple of 5 and 2, because lOis the lowest multiple of both 5 and 2.
EXAMPLE 6
:. L~C.M. is 48.
EXAMPLE 7
Find the L.C.M. of 6, 8 and 12.
Multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, ...
:. L.C.M. is 24.
Note that 48 is a common multiple but is "not the lowest common multiple.
EXERCISES 1(c)
Write down the L.C.M. of:
1. 2, 4, 6
2. 15, 20
5. 8, 12, 24
6. 3, 5, .10
9. 12, 14, 21
10. 2, 3, 4, 5
13. 5, 10, 15, 20 14. 5, 12, 30
17. 7, 14,21,28 18. 3,6, 14,42
22. 3,7, 14, 21
21. 6,8, 10, 12
3.
7.
11.
15.
19.
23.
14, 21
5, 15, 20
6, 8, 14
13, 26, 39
9, 11, 33
3, 4, 8, 12
4.
8.
12.
16.
20.
24.
5, 6, 12
11,22, 33
3, 5, 7
6, 10, 14, 15
4, 12, 20, 24
3, 5, 12, 15
1
2
3
4
5
10 ...
2
4
6
8
2x 2=4
133
3"
6
3
4
12
5 x 4 20
2
3
5=
2x
EXAMPLE 8
3 4 18.
. d
.
A rrange t h e f ractIons
4'
5' 25 III or d er 0 f magmtu
e.
It is necessary to express each fraction with the same denominator. This can be done by
getting the L.C.M. of the denominators 4, 5 and 25.
L.C.M. of 4, 5 and 25 is 100.
3
3
25
75
4 = 4 x 25
100
4
4
20
80
5 = 5 x 20 = 100
18
18
4
72
x 4 = 100
. d . 18 3 4
T he or d er 0 f "magmtu e IS 25' 4' 5'
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 7
EXERCISES ltd)
Complete 1. to 5.
3
15
21
1. 4 = 12 =  = 40 =
2 ~  10 _
8
~
3 .
7
25
42
35
8
54
77
120
24
4. 60
10
5
=2
84
5 .
12
18
9
90
( ... ) 33
VIII
ill
7 13 3
8.
9' 18' 4
13 17 9
10
2 7 4 19
14. 5' 15' 9' 45
11.
15' 20'
5 3 9
14
1 17 7 31
8 3 I 33 2
15.
10' 100' 5
9.
7' 4'
EXAMPLE 9
2
4
'I
'
E xpress 5
 7+
9 as a smg
e f
ractlon.
L.C.M. o f 5, 15, 9 is 45
274
515+9
18
21
= 45  45
18
21
45
+
+
20
45
20
17
45
A mixed number, e.g. 3i, is a number consisting of an integer and a fraction. In adding
or subtracting mixed numbers, the integers and fractions can be considered separately.
EXAMPLE 10
Express
5~
3! 
~ as a single fraction.
L.C.M. o f 3, 6, 5 is 30
53\
~5
3! 6
53+!!~
365
10
5
24
2 + 30  30  30
19
30
Ij~
EXERCISES 1(e)
Express each of the following as a single fraction.
1.
4. 1~
7.
4 + 8"
+
2.
2~
111
2+3 4
5. 5~ + 2i 
533
8 + 16 + 4
8.
 2i  ~
1
13 !1 _ 7
10. 3k
. 16
3.
31
6.
17.
8~ + 1~
12.
3~
15.
15
It
5\25
 2370
751
9.
14 . 11 _ 6~ _ ~
9
7
16. 10 + 6j  2!
8 4+ 6
273
30 + 20
15 
11. 3 \70
731
8" 
 2 \52
12 
478
10 + 45
18.
3 x 5
4
X
(c)
(b)
6
5
x
4 J1;.
= 
5 x 2 of 9
8
3
$ 'l
$I 3
 X  x
84 P #5 5
3
5
8
= 20
EXAMPLE 12
(a)
5 . 3
8~ 4
5 x 4'
,82
5
6
(b)
(c)
125
24
514
25
xT
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 9
Note the use of 'of' in example l1(e) and the difference in use of 'x' and 'of' in
examples 12(b) and 12(e).
Mixed numbers are converted to vulgar fractions before performing the operations of
multiplication and division.
EXAMPLE 13
1~ x 2~
(a)
.82
5" x
2~ + 4! x 2A
(b)
11
14
9
9
=5+2 x 4
Jf
147
22
5
= 5
JJ'
x9"x~
7
5
=~
=
EXERCISES 1(f)
Simplify the following.
14
1.
4 x "7 x 15
4.
9 x IT
15
+ 22
7. 1~ + 1~
10. ;2 +
13.
2~
16.
~ of
3" x 8 of 5"
5.
7~
1~
3 11
i x 51
2 X
x 16
8. 5i + 2!
~ of 2A
+ 2! x
2.
5 f 14
"7 0 15
7
6. 6 x 16 x
6 X 11. 2 3
9'IT
9:
IT
5
12. 2! + 12 x
n1 13
5
14. I V2 : 4: X 12
15.
2x 2+ 4
1
7 f 3
17. 79 x 16 0 5"
18.
2l
8l
x 1~ + Ii
(2) OJ,
EXAMPLE 14
(a)
4 of 12 +
6 x (8  4)
= 4 of 12 + 6
=9+6x4
9
= 33
+ 24
x 4
brackets first
then 'or
then x
then +
(b)
3
1
4
10
4 of 5"
3
1
'of' fl'rst
10  5"
3
1
10  5"
then +
3+ 6+
2
S
= 3 ;"". 6 +
2
=3
=
431
5" + 10  5"
832
10 + 10  10
. i
6
x 5"
then
and
10
(c) 1
~ ~5 ~
6
IS
= 5" + 3
Numerator
Denominator = 1 
10
+ 15 =
4
1  IS
5" x 3"
Numerator
.. Denominator
16
IS
16
IT = IT =
16
IS'
11
IS'
5
lIT'
EXERCISES 1(g)
Simplify:
+ 21 of 10 x
S x (2 + 7) x
1. 6
(8
3.
S  12 + 6
2
1
3
5. 4
+ 2 of 8 x 63  5"
2
3
3
13
7. 7 of 8 + 4 of 14
~ of ~
7~  S!
11
. st  4
9. 2j 
8.
3l 1
10. (2] 
(j + ~)
2
7)
97
14.
=;;
12
5"
18.
;;fh
13 + 5"
16.
"4 
2. S X 2 + 7 X S  12 + 6
4. 8 + 6 X (2 + 4) + 12
113
1
S
6. 2 + 4 + 8  5" of 8
13. 1 ~ ~ ~ i
3
12
4
S
15. 5" x 13  5" x 13
17
4)
+f
24
X 274
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 11
EXAMPLE 15
Add 16'24, 8'371, 0'002.
1624
8371
0002
24613
EXAMPLE 16
(a) Subtract 2725 from 8734.
87,34
27'25
60,09
(b) Subtract 4'325 from 18'7.
Express both numbers to 3 decimal places by putting two zeros at the.end of 18'7.
187 has the same value as 18'700.
18'700
 4325
14,375
"
EXAMPLE 17
(c) 465 x 100 = 465
46
465 x 10 = 46'5
x32
465 x 01 = 0465
92
4'65 x 001 = 00465
138
1472
Note in (c) that multiplication by a power of 10 involves simply moving the decimal
point to the right or the left.
(a)
57
x 8
45.6
(b)
EXAMPLE 18
28 x 10
280
14
14 x 10
1862 x 100
(b) 1862
002
002 x 100
28
(a)N
20
1862
2
931
55
l(Y5 X
.l.H
X
I
03 x 55
165
Note: Only simple cases of multiplication and division will be considered here_ Thus
there will be no need for long multiplication or division and no need for calculators_
=
EXERCISES 1(h)
(Do not use a calculator)
1. Add
(i) 46, 523, 0775
(ii) 388, 388, 388
(v) 0042, 135,621
(iv) 657,742,191
(vii) 08, 005, 68, 254(viii) 365, 0365, 00365
2. Evaluate
(i) 8 32
(iv) 8156  2369
(vii) 07  056
3. Evaluate
(i) 625 x 4
(iv) 3002 x 7
(ii) 562  2
(v) 0882
0033
(viii) 42
061
(ii) 876
(v) 301
x 03
x 01
x 100
(vi) 175 x 001
(iii) 816
4. Evaluate
(i) 87 x 0003
(iv) 284 x 1000
(ii) 6
(v) III
5. Evaluate
0) 176 + 02
(iv) 16 + 0'4
( .. ) 36
(ii) 84 + 6
(v) 77 + II
(iii) 8 + 0'5
VII
t:2
6. Evaluate
(i) 8264 + 0002
(iv) 546 + 12
._) 0005
(VII
7. Simplify
(i) 1'5 x 375
05 x 25
126 x 15 x 70
'IV) ~
(
006 x 45 x 49
.. ) 144 x 500 x 56
(
VII
18
2 5 X 7
x 0011
x 0,005
(iii) 125
x 0,02
(vi) 18 + 009
... ) 144
(Vlll
0'04
(ii) 008 + 04
(v) 81 + 09
(iii) 6 + 001
"') 9'15
(VIII
64 x 72
008 x 12
48 x 72
(v) 18 x 01 x 02
( "') 64 x 077 x 20
Vlll
4 x 08 x 88
(ii)
(iii) 96
x 81
x
1/BASIC ARITHMETIC 13
.,
Scientific notation (standard form) is a very neat way of expressing large and small
numbers_
A number in scientific notation is expressed as a product of
(iJ a number between 1 and 10, and
(iO some power of 10.
EXAMPLE 19
(i) 540000
540000
54
105
t 5'''1
+
(ii) 426732
decimal places
426732
= 426732 x 103
t+3"'1
(iii) 00000068
decimal places
00000068 = 68
(iv) 0'007562
decimal places
106
1+61
/+J.. t
(v) 8 X 105 X 3 x 102
.) 15 x 1()6
(VI
decimal places
8 x 3 x 105 X 102
= 24 X 103
= 24 X 104
15
1()6
T x 104
= 03 X 10 10
109
EXERCISES 1(i)
1. Express in scientific notation:
(i) 3000
(ii) 468 2
(iv) 12 million
(v) 752000
(vii) 380000
(viii) 42 x 105
(iii) 18 thousand
(vi) 380030
(iii) 000000725
(vi) 27 thousandths
(ix) 00005
\
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 15
Number
Scientific
notation
Number of
significant figures
3000
2900
2870
2874
602
002
360052
00052
28
2800
3 x 103
2'9 x 103
287 x 103
2874 x 103
602 x loo
2 x 10~2
3 60052 x 10 1
5'2 x 103
28 x 10 1
2'800 x 10 1
1
2
3
4
3
1
6
2
2
EXAMPLE 20
Express (i) 58377, (ii) 4061 to (a) two significant figures (S_F.), (b) two decimal places
(D.P.).
(i) (a)
58317 = 58'377
5838
= 584
58
to
to
to
to
5 S.F.
4 S.F.
3 S.F.
2 S.F.
4061 to 4 S.F.
406 to 3 S.F.
4'1 to 2 S.F.
(b) 58377
=
(b) 4061
=
58377 to 3 D.P.
58'38 to 2 D.P.
4061 to 3 D.P.
406 to 2 D.P.
Significant figures are the number of figures (digits) about which we can be reasonably
sure. The greater the accuracy of our measuring device, the larger the number of
significant figures we can use.
A stopwatch that can measure accurately to 01 s might record the winning time for a
1oometre race as 108 s. We can be sure of only three figures or one decimal place in this
result. We could not write 108 as 10,80. Why?
Another timing device that can measure accurately to 001 s might record the time as
1082 s. We can be sure of four figures or two decimal places in this case.
The operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division based on measure
ments should not have answers with an accuracy greater than that of the least accurate
measurement involved.
EXAMPLE 21
Add 67 sand 3,58 s.
6'7 s
3'58s
10'28 s (incorrect)
6'7
36
103 s (correct)
If we pay no attention to significant figures, we would write the result as 1028 s. In this
case we are treating 67 as 670 but we do not know the value of 6'7 to two decimal places.
We cannot add a known quantity to an unknown quantity. Therefore, expressing 3'58 to
one decimal place, we add 3'6 to 67 to get 103.
i'
EXERCISES 1(j)
1. How many significant figures are there in each of the following?
(i) 426
(ii) 000427
(iii) 9003
(iv) 00508
(viii) 1905
(v) 8
(vi) 8000
(vii) 271 x 1()4
2. To how many significant figures are ea.ch of the following stated?
(i) The distance from Melbourne to Sydney is 900 km.
(ii) The time for a 100 m race was 1008 s.
(iii) The length of a line was measured as 15 00 cm.
(iv) 1 hectare =:: 247 acres.
3. Round off the following to the number of significant figures indicated in brackets.
(i) 9726 (3)
(ii) 86493 (2)
(iii) 18077 (4)
(v) 50071 (1)
(vi) 3068 x 103 (2)
(iv) 00071 (1)
4. A rally was attended by 108562 people. Round off this figure to the nearest (i) 100,
(ii) 1000, (iii) 10000.
5. Round off the following to the number of decimal places indicated in brackets.
(i) 438 (1)
(ii) 432 (1)
(iii) 19066 (2)
(iv) 4004 (2)
(v) 8597 (2)
(vi) 06666 (3)
6. Round off each of the following to three significant figures.
(i) 0006042
(ii) 75378
(iii) 06095
(iv) 52380000
7. Write down the value of (i) 789, (ii) 0496, (iii) 157 to one significant figure. From
this, find approximately the value of
789 x 0496
1.12 Approximations _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Before performing any of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, finding powers and extracting roots, it is strongly advisable to get a rough
approximation of what the result might be.
For this purpose, we can express numbers correct to one significant figure, e.g.
Number
Number
8256
4862
6291
38729
8000
500
60
4
01172
00256
00061
000048
0.1
003
0006
00005
lIBASIC ARITHMETIC 17
EXAMPLE 22
By expressing each number correct to one significant figure, find approximately the value of
(.') 282 x 061
(") 4327
II 212
("') 716 x 18
III
0042
(i) 282
EXERCISES 1(k)
Express each of the following correct to one significant figure:
I, 4172
2. 0'685
3. 2748
4. 888
9, 0155
6. 00056
7, 00203
8. 1796
11. 1815
12. 38
13. 007
14, 60
5, 50010
10. 3296
15. 411
By expressing each number correct to one significant figure, find approximately the value of
16. 78 x 6
19. 48.2 x 139
22. 64'26 x 1800
736
25 . 48
28. 17 x 61
17, 66 x 31
20. 262 x 189
23. 0026 x 0062
1823
26 . 49
1176 x 0002
29.
0048
0 '
B,
EXAMPLE 23
Find the value of
(i) 5628 + 122
38'~2
.,

~.~~~~.
Operation sequence
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Display
D 28 1202
[9 89 0 4
20037
I9 788
EJ 4 701 []
6848
56
87'363
38
821919
Check:
(i) One significant figure: 60 + 10
70
Reverse the operation of addition by subtracting 122 (or 56'28) from 68'48:
68
D 48
1202
5628 correct
(ii)
[9
87
363
[]
037
894 correct
5 + 40
835
Reverse the operations by adding 4'701 to 821919 and subtracting 38'52:
[9
821
919 [] 4
701
38
52
7882 incorrect
An error has been made, either in the actual solution or in this checking. Can you
locate where the error may be?
Operation sequence
(i)
80796
(ii) [961609
GJ
B
B
71 EJ
0325
28
Display
28587
21487287
Check:
(i) One significant figure: 9 x 03 = 27
I
Reverse the oper~tion of multiplication by dividing 28587 by 0325:
208587
EJ OJ 325
8796 correct
20
Reverse the operation of division by multiplying 21487287 by 2871:
21
487287
28071
6169 correct
l/BASIC ARITHMETIC 19
To avoid confusion, it has been agreed that the operations of multiplication and
division are performed before addition and subtraction, e.g.
72 + 6  2
10 x 2
3 x 6 + 12 + 4
6 + 4 x 2
= 6 + 8
= 12  2
= 20
 18
+ 3
14
10
=5
If addition and/or subtraction are to be performed before multiplication and/or
division, then the particular section is enclosed in brackets (parentheses), e.g.
(6 + 4) x 2
72 + (6  2)
10 x 2
3 x (6 + 12) + 4
= 10
x 2
= 72 + 4
= 20
3 x 18
+ 4
= 20
= 18
20  13!
~
EXAMPLE 25
Find the value of
(i) 172 + 1845 x 927  4266 + 18
(ii) (17'2 + 18'45) x (9'27
42'66) + 18
Operation sequence
(i)
18045 ~ 9027 ~
[g
[g
[g
42
[9
17
Display
1710315
D 66 BID 8 EJ
237
EJ
17 02 [] 17100315
23
Answer is 164'5 correct to 4 figures.
(ii)
7~
1645315
3565
180 45
EJ 42066 B
[9 35 0 65 0 33 0 39 ~
[990 27
33'39
661,3075
key?
EXAMPLE 26
Find the value of 1742
81
62 + 0'48
Operation sequence
[9
17
042EJ 8 01E]
[g6D2EJD48B
Display
932
668
El 0
1'3952096
[g 9 32
6
68 E]
Answer is 1395 correct to 4 figures.
Why did we perform the operations of addition and subtraction 'before division in
this case?
EXAMPLE 27
Calculate 12~OJo of 80.
Operation sequence
12
[]
Display
10
80
125 ~ 80
10
Note: You will observe that many calculators cannot cater for vulgar fractions. Such
fractions must be converted to decimals, e.g. ! 0'5, 3i
3'75, 5~ = 516666 ...
or
EXERCISES 1(I)
Use a calculator to find the value of the following, correct to 4 figures. (It is essential that
you check the answers you get.)
1. 172 + 12 + 86 15
3. 283'5  7734  1992
5. 14'6 x 807 x 0002
7. 442 + 1987
9. 182 x 36 + 77
11. 92 x 77  31 x 0'88
(8 x 32)
13. 25
414 x 18
15 .
005
12.
14.
16
.
17.
18.
283 x 95
19.
x
21. 14070 of 728
23. 17*OJ06f98'3
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
0'381 + 54
lll8
881
0'326 + 137
83 x 36 x 5'18
56 x 64 + 36
44
13
16
144
86 + 21 + 95
177 x 59 x (17'5  8'3)
902 x 196~2
48 x 0089
386
1'529
8.8 x 33
20. (191
22. 9'5% of 46
24. 22070 of 90  15% of 80
EXAMPLE 28
(a) 15 2
(b) 242
(c) 65 2
1/BASIC ARITHMETIC 21
EXAMPLE 29
(a) 24' =.
..)5'76 =
J576
100
= ..)576
~
~64
r:::I6!
vtJ~

it
v'Ioo =
.J9
(d) (2!)2 =
/;0
J36
3'
24 = 2'4
10
~100
~
.)0'36 =~ 100 =
(~),
ib~
(I~)' = I~
(b) 06'
(e)
;6:
(;~), =
10 = 06
~
5 5
2 x 2=
J254
25
~
..J4  2~
 21
2040
or
2'42
20 4 0
or
2.42
2[J4 ~
(a)
Display
576
B
20
576
576
or 2.42
2
4
2
In reverse,
~576 = 50 76i.JX1
or .)5'76 = 5
76
(~), = 3 B
(c)
576
24
@l
24
0'140625
J~=9
orJi4 =
64ElG
B
~D5
64
O'375
(not ~)
0375
EXAMPLE 30
+ 16 =
Note: ~9 + 16
(a) .)9
5.
*'
~9 + ~16 = 3 + 4 = 7.
~ is the symbol for positive square root and the bar across the top is equivalent to
brackets to indicate that we evaluate 9 + 16 first and then extract the positive square
root.
(b) "'/(0'5 2
+ 1'44)
+ 36) = .../52
1.22) = "'/(0'25
"'/1'69
13
62) = .../(16
~ 7211 to 3 decimal places using tables of squares
and square roots.
Using a calculator to evaluate .../52:
Operation sequence
Display
7 2111
[g52 ~
(c) .../(42
B . B
or lQ 52
5
2
Since 7 = 49 and 82 = 64,
Fx
Since
72111
EXAMPLE 31
(a) (0'3)3
03 x 03 x 03
125
8
5 . 5
5
222
=xx
10
TX
10
0'027
10
1000 _ 37L

27
7.8
(d)
D8
7D 8
7
or78 3
474'552
474552
EXAMPLE 32
(a)
(b)
<t3I
3 because 3 x 3 x 3
(c) ~O'OO8 = ~8 x
Since
= 27
~
10
10 1 = 02
~=
Display
(d)
~846'6
846
6 ~ 0'333 ... ~
9'460
729 and 103 =
EXERCISES 1(m)
(Answer 1 to 9 without the use of a calculator).
1. Evaluate
(a)
(e)
IF
42
(b) 172
(f) 122
(c) 202
(g) 402
(d) 15 2
(h) 25 2
.J64
(b)
J9
(c)
.J49
(d)
.JITf
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 23
(e) JI00
(f) "';900
(g) .../1600
(h) .../169
(c) 32
(g) 14
(d) 03
(h) II
(c) "'/0'04
(g) "';0'49
(d) .../036
(h) "';441
(b) "';0'09
(f) "';30'25
5. Evaluate
(~y
(a)
(c)
(;5Y
(d) (2lf
(g) (3~)2
(e) (2t>2
(h) (2~)2
(a)j[
'[16
Sf
(e) ~
7. Evaluate
(a) (0'1)2
(e) 1.72
(b)~
J[
36
(d)
.J3h
(h)
Ii
(c)
(T
(f) ~TOO
(g)
(b) l' F
(c) (2D2
(g) (007)2
(d) (3})2
(h) (003)2
(c) ';2025
(d) ';001
(f) 3 F
(g)
49
v211
(h)
169
.Jl2I
9. Evaluate:
(a) J(36 + 64)
(d) J(009 + 0'16)
(b) J86
(e) J(3 2 + 82)
(c) JO03
(f) v.c:(l:2:::)=2+(::::2='1::0)2
11. Without the aid of a calculator, find the exact value of:
(a) (1'1)3
(b) (0'5)3
(c) (0'1)3
3
(d) (l~)3
(e) (2t)
(f) (3D3
(g) (001)3
(h) (04)3
(i)
(~)'
12. Without the aid of a calculator, write down the exact value of:
(a)
(b) ~0'064
(c) ~
ms
3Is
(d) ~ill
(g)
</0001
3{343
(e) ~27
3
(h) \10216
3fT
(f)
(I)
\/64
VlOOO
3{27
!./99
(e) ~81'6
(f) ~0'526
(h)
(i)
Jf
~Ol
n2
n2
In
n2
In
n2
In
1
2
3
4
5
1
4
9
16
25
1
1414
1732
2
2236
26
27
28
29
30
676
729
784
841
900
5099
5196
5292
5385
5477
51
52
53
54
55
2601
2704
2809
2916
3025
7141
7211
7280
7348
7416
76
77
78
79
80
5776
5929
6084
6241
6400
8718
8775
8832
8888
8944
6
7
8
9
10
36
49
64
81
100
2449
2646
2828
3
3162
31
32
33
34
35
961
1024
1089
1156
1225
5568
5657
5745
5831
5916
56
57
58
59
60
3136
3249
3364
3481
3600
7483
7550
7616
7681
7746
81
82
83
84
85
6561
6724
6889
7056
7225
9
9055
9110
9165
9220
11
12
13
14
15
121
144
169
196
225
3317
3464
3606
3742
3873
36
37
38
39
40
1296
1369
1444
1521
1600
6
6083
6164
6245
6325
61
62
63
64
65
3721
3844
3969
4096
4225
7810
7874
7937
8
8062
86
87
88
89
90
7396
7569
7744
7921
8100
9274
9327
9381
9434
9487
16
17
18
19
20
256
289
324
361
400
4
4123
4243
4359
4472
41
42
43
44
45
1681
1764
1849
1936
2025
6403
6481
6557
6633
6708
66
67
68
69
70
4356
4489
4624
4761
4900
8124
8185
8246
8307
8367
91
92
93
94
95
8281
8464
8649
8836
9025
9539
9592
9644
9695
9747
21
22
23
24
25
441
484
529
576
625
4583
4690
4796
4899
5
46
47
48
49
50
2116
2209
2304
2401
2500
6782
6856
6928
7
7071
71
72
73
74
75
5041
5184
5329
5476
5625
8426
8485
8544
8602
8660
96 9216 9798
97 9409 9849
98 9604 9899
99 9801 9950
100 10000 10
Ld'
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 25
..J4,
.... ..........
........,
 ............ ,
,,
....
/
/
/.1
I'.
.... 1
...... , "
.... ,
....' , ,
1 ....
""',
""
,
\
\
o
15, J6 obviously
'
,
,\,,' \
\
,,
\ \
\'\
"
"
,~
3
Numbers such as .J2, J), 15, ~ are said to be irrational numbers, i.e.
not rational numbers, and are called surds.
7r
2
is also an irrational number and 27 or 3142 is used only as a rational number approxi
Real numbers R
Rational numbers Q
Irrational numbers I
R
Q
N
Ireal numbersl
lrational numbersl
Inatural numbersl
J = Iintegers I
..J4x~
i.e .
.../93
~
If
i.e.!f=
6
i.e.
..J4 =
..)25 x 4
J25 x 4
J25
.J4  ~2 
15
1'5
,j9
) 21
5 x 2
= ..)100
=
J25 x
10
= 10
2.5
= "/625 = 25
. )25 _ ../25
I.e. 4  J4
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 27
Numbers such as 12, 18, 28, 80 and many others contain perfect squares as factors.
Thus m, .JIB, m, V80 can be simplified. However, numbers such as 15,21,39 do not
contain perfect squares as factors and so ..JT5, v'2i, ..J3 cannot be simplified.
EXAMPLE 33
(i) 02 = KX3 = .J4 x 13
213
(ii).JIB
.J9X2 = .J9 x J2 = 3J2
= 6J7
EXERCISES 1(n)
Express each of the following in simplest surd form.
1. .J8
6. .J4O
11.
16. v'108
21.~
26. 5v'128
31. 9J68
36. 5v'125
2. J2O
7. v45
12.
17. v'ill
22. v'200
27. 4v'800
32. 3.J50
1
37. 2v'320
3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.
33.
38.
v'24
.J48
4.J27
9. J56
14. J%
19. v'147
24. 3.J54
.J84
v'125
v'288
2v'150
4v'90
1
29. 5.JIB
34. 4v'250
4
39. 3v'243
5075
ab
ac
a(b
c)
4M  M
(4
1)00
= 3M
3..J6 + 4..J6
J5 = (3 + 4)..J6  J5 = 7..[6  J5
EXAMPLE 34
Simplify (i) .J8
.JIB + J5O,
(ii) 513
+ J2O
2m
+ v45.
(i) .J8 =
.JIB =
(ii)
513 + 2J5
413 + 3J5
3)J5
= (5  4)13 + (2 +
= J3 + 5J5
4J2
5. J32
10. .J63
15. .J98
20. JI62
25. 2..)44
30. 3J52
35. 7v'245
40. 3v1242
EXERCISES 1(0)
Simplify:
1. .J3 + 2.J3
+ 4.;3
3. 3.J5 + 5.J5  2.J5
5.
+ V2 + 3.J5  6/2
7.
JT8 + .J3
9. JT8 +
.J2
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.
14.
16.
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
30.
m 
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
21.
23.
25.
27.
29.
+ J3 + ~
+ m  J63
6.J5 + 4.J7  2.J5
J2(j + .J5 + .Jf8
4.J7  m + J63
.J3 + 3m  .J48
.J6 + V24 + .J54
5J45 2m
.JTI5  5.J2 + .J5O
~50
.J%  V24
217 + 4.J7
J3 + 4.J3  /2
~
.J1
J2(j + .J5
+ 2.J48  4.J3
2.J50
3M
.J5 +
v'45 + ~
5.J3 +
 v'45
5.J7
4.J1
3~
+ ..J6O  v'4O
3JT8 + .J3
.JIso .J2OO
517 + 315  2m
2.J50
m
va x .Jb = .Jab
vaxva=a
EXAMPLE 35
.J7 x.J1 =.JI4
.J1 x J6 =
.J4X3 = .J4 x.J3 2.J3
(iii) 2.J5 x 315 = 2 x 3 x .J5 x .J5 or 2.J5 x 3.J5 = 6J25
=6 x 5
=6 x 5
(i)
(ii)
=
(iv) .J3
30
.JI2
.J3 x 2.J3
=2x.J3x.J3
2 x 3
= 6
or
.J3 x
= 30
= ..J36
=6
or 4.J1 x
8m
V24
4.J48
4 x 4.J3
16.J3
EXERCISES 1(p)
Simplify, expressing the result in simplest surd form.
1. .J3 x .J5
5 ..f5 x
9. /2 x
.J5
.JTI5
2.
6.
10.
14.
18.
22.
~ x
.J2
.J6 x .J3
.J6 x M
4.J5 x .J6
M x 2M
4.J3 x JT8
3 . .J6 x .J1
7. .J5 x .J7
11. .J3 x
15. J8 x 2.J1
19.
x 3.J1
23. 2~ x 02
5m
J'
4.
8.
12.
x .J7
.J6 x .Jff
x .J1
16. 215 x 5V2
20. 4.J3 x 3.J3
24. 4.J5 x J2(j
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 29
Ja
EXAMPLE 36
Express each of the following in simplest surd form with rational denominator.
( 0)
I
.J7
.JTO
1I.J2
(0')
(000)
1II.J3
(0
.J)5
~
6
IV{j
'5
'V .J
rr= =
EXERCISES 1(q)
Express each of the following in simplest surd form with rational denominator.
1.
.J3
6vU
'.J3
5
11. J5
16
.J2
'.J7
21.
.[80
7.J2
26. J98
.[8
2.
7.
12
.J2
2
.J3
'J5
17.Jf
22.
27.
3.J2
3J5
3.
4.
3
.J2
8.
9.
13
14 .
7
.J7
'.J7
18.)[
v'To
. 5.J2
28 2v1T8
23
'.[8
19.Jf
24.
M
3..J6
29
J5O
'J5
5.
J5
I
10.
J5
15
.J7
20.Jf
25
. 5.J3
30 2.J7
J35
EXAMPLE 37
(i) 2(.J3 + /5)
2.J3 + 2/5
(ii) .J3(~ + .J3) = .J2f + 3
(iii) ../6(.[2 + 2.J3) = .JT2 + 2v'18 = 2.J3
6.J2
EXERCISES 1(r)
Expand each of the following, expressing the result in simplest surd form.
2. /5(/5
5 ../6(.J3
2)
8. .J3(2)6  3.J3)
18)
7. .J2( J32
10. 3.J2(2)6
/5)
3 . .[2(.[2 + 18)
6. 7(2/5  1)
9. 2..[7 (.JT4  3)
12. Ji(..JX
.JY)
+ .[2)
1. /5(.[2 + .J3)
4 .J3(.J2  )6)
Ja(Ja + .Jb)
11.
b)( e + d)
(a + b)2
ae
a2
+ ad + be +
+ 2ab + b 2
bd
EXAMPLE 38
(i) (.J3
(ii)
..[2)(/5
../6)
7 + 2.JIO
i.e.
(iii) (.J5
i.e.
+ b)2
(a
2ab + b 2 where a
(/5)2
(.J3)2
a2
.J3)(/5 + .J3) =
= 5
(a  b)(a
= 2
b) = a 2 
= .J2 and
= /5
3
b 2 where a
= J5 and
= .J3
EXERCISES 1(5)
Expand each of the following, expressing the result in simplest surd form.
1. (/5 + .J3)(..[7
.[2)
3. (.J3  1)(.[2 + 3)
5. (2.J3 
5)(2.J3
+ 3)
7. (..[7 + 1)(2..[7  5)
9. (2/5
.[2)(2J5 + 3)
11. (.J3 + 1)2
13. (2../6 + .J3)2
15. (2 + .J3)(2
.J3)
17. (.J7  /5)(.J7 + J5)
19. (2../6  .J3)(2../6 + .J3)
21. (.[7  2)(..[7 + 2)
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.
14.
16.
(.J2
(J5 +
(/5 +
(.J3 (2.[2 (/5 (.J3 +
(.J3 
J7)(.J3 + 2.[2)
2)(2/5 + 3)
.J3)(../6 + 1)
.J2)(2.J3
..[2)
)6)(2.J3  1)
.J2)2
6)2
+ .[2)
1)(2V2 + 1)
20. (.JTI  .[7)(.JTI + .[7)
22. (3..[7  2)2
18. (2.J2 
..[2)(.J3
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 31
23~
(.J5 
.J3)2
1)(.J3 + 2)
(16  .J5)(16 + .J5)
(3.J5  2.J2)(3.J5 + 2.J2)
(216  ./3)(16 + 3.J3)
(5.J2  4)(5.J2 + 4)
(2.Ji5 + .J5)(
3.J5)
(2.J3
1)(2.J3 + 1)
25. (2.J3
27.
29.
31.
33.
35.
37.
m 
.J3)2
3.J3)2
1)2
An important result of the use of the distributive law is that obtained from the product
(./a + ./b)(.)a  .)b) resulting in ab. This is the familiar difference of two squares, a
EXAMPLE 39
(a) Express == with a rational denominator
.J3  .J2
1
.J3 .J2 ( '
.J3 + .J2 X.J3
.J2 smce .J3
.J2
where .J3
.J2 is the conjugate surd of.J3 + .J2.
.J3.J2
1
Thus  =    : : = = (.J3 + .J2)(.J3  .J2)
.J3.J2
3  2
=.J3.J2
27
.J3
.J3
2J7 + .J3
2J7 _ .J3 x 2J7 +.J3 where 2J7 + .J3 is the conjugate surd of
2J2T + 3
2J7  .J3.
28  3
2J2T + 3
25
EXAMPLE 40
, I
' WIt
'h ratIOna
'
Id enommator.
'
E xpress 2.J2.J2+ 1 + .J3 2+ 1 as a smg
e f
ractIOn
We may add the two fractions first and then rationalize the denominator of the result,
or we may rationalize the denominator of each fraction first, and then add the resulting
fractions. The latter procedure is preferable.
+
2
+
.
.J2
.. 2.J2 + 1
.J2(2.J2  1)
4  .J2
7
(2.J2 + 1)(2.J2
1)
_
2(J3  1)
2(J3  1)
2
1  (J3 + l)(J3
1)
4.J2
~1
7
+
1
_ 4  .J2 + 7(~
1)
= ~
7J3  .J2  3
EXERCISES 1(t)
Express the following fractions with a rational denominator (1. to 24.)
1. ==
1
4. 2J5  3.J2
2J5
7. 3JIT  2J8
.J7  2J5
10. 3J5  2.J2
2J3
13. 3J3
2
J2
16. ====
1
2. 2.../7 + .J6
3.J2
5 . .../5  J3
~ + 2
8
 2
11 3.J2 + 2~
. 3.J2  2~
3.J6
14. 2.J2 + ~
3J3
17. 2~ + .J2
19. =
20. 2.../5 
22.
23.
==:=
25. If x
3  2.J2 .
3 + 2.J2' fmd the value of x
26. If x = J3
27. If x
J2
+
.../5 + ~
3.J2
X2 
1
3 . .../5
+2
.J6
2.../5  3.J2
4.J2 + 3.../5
2.../5  .J2
5J3 + 3.../5
5.../5  3~
15 5JTI + 3
3JTI  2
J3
18 . .J24 _ ~
6.
9
12
21 .J6 + 2J3
2.J6  J3
24 2.J2  5~
3.J6  vTI
x'1
\.
21x.
x
~.
X2 + 2x
28. I f x = 'V 5  2, fmd the value of  
x+
29. Show that x = 2.J2  3 is one of the roots of the equation X2 + 6x + 1 =
30. Does x
.J2  2 make X2 + 4x + 2 = 0 a true statement?
31. Show that x = .../5  1 is one of the roots of the equation x 3
32. Show that x
o.
3x2  2x  4
 2x  1
= O.
O.
Express each of the following (33. to 41.) as a single fraction with rational denominator:
".1
I/BASIC ARITHMETIC 33
36.
~==
37.
==
38.
,:==
39.
~
40.
41.
===
x
x+
where x = 2.[3
+ 1
. Ii
CHAPTER 2
Basic Algebra
4
2
3
1
..
Number line
4
~: pPo~,es .~
3
2
..
Number line
For example, 3 is the opposite of +3, i.e. 3 = (+3). We say that negative 3 is the
opposite of positive 3.
(3). We say that positive 3 is the opposite of
Also, +3 is the opposite of 3, i.e. +3
negative 3.
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 35
(c) Negative x
In the study of algebra, it is convenient to regard the  sign as meaning 'the opposite of'.
EXAMPLE 1
If x
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
5, y
2,
x  y = 5
(2) = 5 + 2 = 7
3(y + z)
3(2 + 4) = 3 x 2
(x + y)
(5 + 2) =.3
3x 2
3 x 52 = 3 x 25
75
3y2 = 3 X (2)2 = 3 x 4
12
(3y)2 = (3 X 2)2
(6)2 = 36
x(y  z) = 5(2  4) = 5 x 6
30
(y  z)2
(2  4)2 = (6)2
36
x2y
(5)2 x 2 = 25 x 2
50
EXERCISES 2(a)
If x
8, y
4 and
15. x(y  z)
z
18. 2y
19. 2(y  z)
20. 5x 2
21.
22. 2x(x + y)
25. 2y + Z2
28. 2(yZ)2
23. x 2  y2
26. 2x2y
29. 2X2  3y2
24. 2X2  z
27. 2xy2
1. 3x  4
4. 5(x
z)
7. 2x x 3y
10. (x
+ y)2
13. (2y)2
16. 2x
+ y
If a = 2, b
3, e
3. 3y
x  z
30. yz
+ y2
31. a + 3
32. b
34. be
37. e(b
35. bed
38. (a  b)2
39. a
1
40. 2,ab 2
41 a + 2
b + 2
42. d + 2e
43. d(a  b)
44. b 2e2
45. 3a
d)
6. 2y + 3x 9. x + y2
12. 2y2
b2
4b  e
+
= 2a
3a 2b
3x
2x
Sx
7 a 2b
Sxy
2xy = 3xy
The reason for this lies in the use of the Distributive Law.
a + a
a(l + 1) = a x 2 = 2a
3x + 2x
= x(3 + 2) = x x S = Sx
4a 2b + 3a 2b = a 2b(4 + 3) = a 2b x 7
7 a 2b
Sxy  2xy = xy(S  2) = xy x 3 = 3xy
We can frequently simplify algebraic expressions by collecting like terms after removing
brackets, if they exist.
EXAMPLE 2

(i)
3x
= 3x
+ 2y +
Sx
2y  6y
Sx
8x  4y
(iii)
2(3a  4b) 
= 6~  8f)=3a
= 6a
= 3a
3a
7b
8b
6y
3(a 
X2
(ii)
~ 2
+ 2x__x + 3x
= X2 + 3x2 +
= 4X2 + X
Sb)
(iv)
3x(x
2x  x
y)  2x(x
3y)
=3x~xy
+ Tsb
+ ISb
3xy  6xy
EXERCISES 2(b)
Simplify the following expressions by collecting like terms.
1. 3x + S + 7x + 10
3. 4a + b
a
4b
5. 3xy + 2xy  yx
7. 3a 2b
3ab 2 + 2a 2b
9. 2x2y + 3x2y2  x2y + 3x2y2
11. 3p2q  Spq
2p 2q
13. X2  3x + 2x + 4X2 .
15. 2X2 + Sy2  4X2
2. 7x  3
3x 
4. 6ab + 3ab + Sa + 4a
6. mn
8mn
3nm
+ Sbea
+ 3m
 2eba
6mn  m
14. a 2 + Sa 2  3a  Sa
16. 9x2  3xy + Syx  6x 2
12. 12mn
Simplify the following expressions by removing the brackets and collecting like terms.
17. 'll
3(a
b)
IS.
20.
22.
24.
26.
2S.
30.
32.
34.
36.
3S.
4(2x  y)
6x
3(2x + Sy) + 4(x  y)
6(2a + 3b) + 3(a  b)
Sa(a + 2)  3a(a + 1)
4a(2a + b)  a(a + 2b)
x + Sy  (3x + 2y)
Sx(2x + 1)  (x 2 + x)
IS(x  2) + 4(3x  3)
3x(x
2)  4(x
1)
(Sx + 2y
3)
(x  7y
3(m2  m)  2(m2 + 2m
+ 9)
+ S)
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 37
If V
Use 7f ~ 3~
(a)
v=7fx
2 X 2 X5
2
~Il;r
x Z x :2 x 5 (using 7f ~ 3~)
192~
or V = 7f
(b)
22
275 =
:2 x 2' x
x r2 x W
245
T7f
(using 7f
(exact value)
~ 3~)
275
44
25
r2
r=f[
2!
or 275 = 7f
X r2
x 14
275
r  147f
2 _
r 
)275
147f
(exact value)
EXERCISES 2(c)
(Use 7f
1. P
3~,,)
2(/
20, b = 12.
40.
= 50, a = 0'2.
(b) C when F
60
= 41.
6. V
7. E
8.
9.
u = 10.
u 2 + 2as; find v when u = 12, a = 2, s = 20'25.
10. v2
11. s
26, v
2'5, h
3'5.
3'2, t
25.
2'5,
~~~~~
13. r
if
~m(V2
14. E
15. t
d
= 4, v = 4,
find (a) t when a = 3'8, n
= II.
= 2.
20~
5, t = 256.
16. F = m(v t
17. t
+ (n  l)d;
= ar 5 ;
find t when a
64, r
= 20,
= 4,
= 2,
= 5.
:2:
a(r3  1)
; find S when a
5, r
3.
r  1
19. A = 7r(R2
r2); find A when R
5'6,r = 14.
20. V = 7r(R2
r 2)h; find V when R = 0'9, r
0'2, h
18. S
21. V
~7rr2h;
22. P =
25. A
3, h
V
5 ; find (a) P when R
~d7rr2h; find
W when d
= v v+u;
find (a) f when
U
P (1 +
I~O)n; find A
50, V = 20
3, r
= 20,
when P
1'5.
35.
2R 
23. W =
24. f
find V when r
25
1000, r
0'2, R
20.
~!
= 11' h
U'
(b) V when P
(b) v when f
=
10, n
20,
= 25.
2.
+ y)( b +
c)
say~ (x
+ y) then:
= (x + y) b + (x + y) c
= b(x + y) + c(x + y)
bx + by + cx + cy
+ 6;
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 39
+ m )(x + n)
m)x + (x + m)n
mx + nx + mn
(m + n)x + mn
m)(x
+
+
+
n) = (x
= X2
= X2
(x
If n
m)(x
n) = X2
(m
m)2 = X2
2mx
m2
2ab
a2  2ab
+
+
b2
b2
= m, we get
(x
n)x
mn
= a2 +
EXAMPLE 4
(a) (x + 2)(x + 3)
(b) (x  5)(x 2)
(c) (x  3)(x + 4)
(d)
(x  3)2
= X2 + (2 + 3)x + 2 x 3 = X2 + 5x + 6
X2 + (5 + 2)x + 5 x 2 = X2  7x + 10
= X2 + (3 + 4)x + 3 x 4 = X2 + X  12
X2
6x + 9
EXAMPLE 5
(a) (3x  2)(2x
(3x  2) 2x + (3x  2) x 3
6x 2  4x  9x + 6
6x2  13x + 6
3)
) and (2x
6 is the product of (
 2) and (
 3)
3)
) and (2x
(c)
(2x  5)2
= (2X)2 + 2
x 2x x 5
+ (5)2
+ 25
+ b 2 where a
= 4X2  20x
i.e. (a  b)2
= a2 
2ab
= 2x
and b
6x.
EXERCISES 2(d)
Write down the expansion of:
1.
4.
7.
10.
13.
16.
19.
22.
25.
28.
31.
34.
37.
(x + 5)(x
(a  3)(a
(c + 4)(c
(x + 4)(x
2. (x
5. (a
8. (x
11. (x
1)
+ 4)
5)
+ 8)
2)(x +
5)(a 6)(x +
4)(x 
3. (x  2)(x  3)
6. (p  7)(P  3)
9. (t + 5)(t  1)
12. (x  3)(x + 9)
15. (y + 7)2
18. (3m + 7)(2m  1)
21. (5x
3)(7x + 2)
24. (5z  14)(2z + 5)
27. (3x + 2)(3x + 2)
30. (x + I)(2x  1)
33. (2a  5)2
36. (2x
3)2
39. (2z + 6)2
4)
4)
1)
8)
14. (x  1)2
5)2
(p
+
+
(2x + 3)(x + 5)
(3y  2)(4y + 3)
(2m  1l)(3m  4)
(x 14)(6x
1)
(2p
9)(2p + 9)
(4p
5)2
(5y  3)2
(5p  1)2
20.
23.
26.
29.
32.
35.
38.
EXAMPLE 6
Expand
(a) (x
(a) (x
(b) (x 
2)(x2
2)(X2
I)(x
5x
5x
+ 6),
+ 6)
2)(x
(b) (x
I)(x
2)(x
3)
= x(x 2
5x + 6) + 2(x 2  5x + 6)
3
= x
5x2 + 6x + 2X2
lOx + 12
3
x + ( 5 + 2)X2 + (6
IO)x + 12
x 3 3x 2  4x + 12
+ 3)
(x = (x
= (x = (x
x(x 2
x3 +
x3 +
By repeated use of the distributive law, we can expand the expression (a + b)3.
(a
b)3
+
+
b 2)
b3
(a 
b)3 = a 3
3a 2b
3ab 2
b3
+
+
3ab 2 + b 3
3ab 2  b 3
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 41
EXAMPLE 7
(2x
\,
3y)3
(3y)3
EXERCISES 2(e)
Expand the following:
1. (x  3)(2x 2
+ 3x +
+ 2)
3. x(x  2)(x
5. 2(x  I )(x  2)(x
7. (2a + b)3
+ 5)(x2 + 4b)3
13. (4m + n)3
15. (a 1l3 + b 1l3 )3
9. (X2
11. (3a
2x
2. (3x 2  5x + 2)(2x
4)
4. (x  I)(x  I)(x
2)
6. (2x  1)3
8. (2x  3y)3
10. (x  2)(x + 2)(x + 2)
12. (2p  Sq)3
14. (x + h)3
16. (Sm  2n)3
18. (a 2 + b 2)3
I)
3)
3)
17. (x 2  y2)3
2.6 Factors _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
(a) A common factor
If each term of an expression has a common factor, we 'take it out' by using the
Distributive Law in reverse:
ab
ac
= a(b + c)
EXAMPLE 8
Factorize (i) 5x
21mp
15mq, (iii) 2a 2  Sa 3
It is first necessary to find the highest common factor (H.C.F.) of the terms of the
expression. To do this we express each term in its prime factors and then pick out what is
common in the terms.
(ii)
(i)
Sx = S x x
6mn = 2 x 3 x m x n
21 mp = 3 x 7 x m x p
lOy = 2 x 5 x Y
H.C.F. = 5
15 mq = 3 x 5 x m x q
H.C.F. = 3m
:. Sx + lOy = S(x + 2y)
:. 6mn
(iii)
+ 21mp
 15mq
3m(2n
2a 2 = 2 x a x a
5a 3 = S x a x a x a
H.C.F. = a 2
:. 2a 2  5a 3 = a 2(2  Sa)
EXERCISES 2(f)
Factorize
1. 2a + 2b
4. 2X2  6xy
2. 20x
5. m 2n
5y
mn 2
3. a
+ a2
6. r2  2rs
+ 7p
Sq)
,I
7. 5a 3 + 10a 2b
10. px  py  pz
13. 8a 2b  3a 2b 2
16. 9a 2b  6ab 2
19. mp + m2p  mp2
15x  10x2
5a 2b 3  18a 3b 2
9m 3n 2  5m 2n 3
54x2y2  54x3y3
20. 5a 2b  5a 2b 2 5a 2b 3
8.
11.
14.
17.
9. ab
ae
ad
12. 3a 2b + 6a 2b 2 + 9abe
15. 8p2r2q + 3p2rq
18. 4a 2 + 4b 2  4e 2
bx
by
r,
ex
ey = b(x + y) + e(x
(x + y)(b + e)
y)
We could also group the first and third terms and the second and fourth terms thus:
Ex +
by
+ e:x. +
ey
I
x( b + e) + y( b + e)
= (x + y)(b + e) as before
EXAMPLE 9
Factorize (i) x(x + 2) + y(x + 2), (ij) a(b  3e)  x(b  3e).
(i)
x(x + 2) + y(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x + y)
(ii) a(b  3e)  x(b  3e) = (b  3e)(a
x)
EXAMPLE 10
Factorize (i) pq + pr + sq + sr, (ij) X2  xy + 4x  4y, (iii) m 2  mn  2m + 2n.
p(q + r) + s(q + r)
= (q + r)(p + s)
(ii)
X2  xy + 4x  4y = x(x
y) + 4(x  y)
(x
y)(x + 4)
(iii) m 2 mn
2m + 2n = m(m
n) . 2(m  n)
= (m  n)(m  2)
(i)
pq
pr
sq
sr
EXERCISES 2(g)
Factorize each of the following and check your result by expanding your answer.
a(x + 2) + b(x + 2)
5a(p  6)  3(p  6)
4x(x  y) + 5(x y)
p(a + b) + q(a + b)  r(a
x2(2x  1) + 4(2x
1)
11. ax + ay + bx + by
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
2. x(p
b)
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.
1)
4(P  1)
z)
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 43
13. X2  xy + xz  yz
15. a 2  ab  ae + be
+ 3a 2b + ab 2 + 3b 3
+ ax  3b  3x
X2  2xy  xz + 2yz
3a  3b + 2a 2  2ab
ay  2a + y2  2y
2axe + 2e  axd  d
p2q  pq2 + 5p  5q
ax 2  axy + bxy  by2
2xy  xz  8y + 4z
ab  3a 4b + 12
a 3 + 3a 2b + ab 2 + 3b 3
XW  yw + xy  y2
17. a 3
19. ab
'21.
23.
25.
27.
29.
31.
33.
35.
37.
39.
+ 2xz + y + z
lOy  25y2 + 4x  10xy
ae  2be  2ad + 4bd
3xy  6y + 7x  14
a 3  a 2b  ab + b 2
2mn + 2mp + pn2 + p2n
x 3 + 3x2 + 4x + 12
4ax + 6bx  6a  9b
m2p + m 2 + np + n
2a 3  a 2 + 2a  1
x2y + X2 + y + 1
2x  6y  xy + 3y2
3m 2  3mn  m + n
2x 3  2X2 + 2x  2
14. 2xy
16.
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
30.
32.
34.
36.
38.
40.
I a2 We can give
thi~
b 2 = (a  b)(a
b)
~a
.I
~(ab)~
,,
a+l
14
,lt'
(a+b).t
:Q'
I
co
\+(ab).j
EXAMPLE 11
Factorize (i) a 2  25, (ii) 16m 2  1, (iii) 9x2  49y2, (iv)
(i) a 2  25
(ii) 16m 2  1
(iii) 9x 2  49y2
(iv)
~~
~2
~~ _ ~2
= a 2 52
= (a  5)( a + 5)
= (4m)2 }2 = (4m  1)(4m + 1)
= (3X)2  (7y)2 = (3x  7y)(3x + 7y)
(~y
_~y
(~
~) (~
~)
EXAMPLE 12
Factorize (i) (x
(i) (x
(ii) a 3
+

1)2 
1)2  (y 
(y  1)2
a 2b  ab 2
b3
1)2, (ii) a 3
a 2b  ab 2
= [(x + 1)  (y = (x  y + 2)(x + y)
= a 2(a  b)  b 2(a  b)
= (a 2  b 2)(a  b)
= (a  b)(a + b)(a  b)
48mq2.
;
;
= 3m(25p'J  16q2)
3m[(5p)2  (4q)2]
= 3m(5p  4q)(5p
4q)
Note: In (iii), 3m is common. Take it out and we are left with the difference of tw,o
squares.
EXERCISES 2(h)
Factorize
1. p2
q2
2. m 2
5. 9a 2  25
8. p2q2  r2
4. 64  m
7. a 2b 2  c 2
a2
10. 25  1
2
13. (x
X2
16. 4
3. X2
1
4
14. X2  y2z 2
11. p2
1)2  9
1
 9
19. 992  1
22. 12a 3  3ab 2
25. 24x2  54y2
28. a 2  (a  b)2
31. x 3  x2y  9x
17. (a
12. 36c 2
2)2
9y
34. a x  x
38. (l
40. 5
43. (p
46. x 3
5x
h)2 
a2
41. b 2
15. (2a)2
(3b)2
18. X2  (y
Z)2
45a 2x  20x
(x + y)2
4
2X2  OOS
p2q
p2  16q
X2
36. 25  y2
24.
27.
30.
33.
42. m 2n
45. 2m 2 n 2
ISn 4
48. a 3 + 2a 2  ab 2  2b 2
You can determine the truth of these by expanding the righthand side_
EXAMPLE 13
Factorize the following:
(a) x 3
(c) (x
S
2)3
+ y3
(a)
x3
(b)
27y 3 + 64x 3
= x3
16
n3
a 3 + b 3 = (a + b)(a 2  ab +
(a  b)(a 2 + ab +
a3 b 3
39. Z3 
44. 64  (9X)2
47. Sa 2x2  ISa 2y2
2)2  (p  2)2
3x2
9x + 27
49d2
21. a 3b  ab 3
b2
a2
16
6. X2
036
9. 9x2  4y2
23
+ 2x + 4)
(3y)3 + (4X)3
= (3y + 4x)(9y2  12xy
= (x  2)(X2
16x2)
Z2W 3
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 45
(c)
(x
+ 2)3 + y3
(X
= (X
(d)
= (x 2  Z2)(y3  W3)
(x  z)(x
EXERCISES 20)
Factorize:
2. Z3 + 1
4. 54r 3 + 16
6. (x + 5)3 + (x  2)3
8. b 6 a6
1. y3  125
3. 8p 3 + 27
5. 216  a 3
7. (2x + 3)3  (x  4)3
9. 64a 3 + 8b 3
+ y6
14. a 3m 3 + a 3n 3 b 3n 3
Hi. 8x5  72x 3 + X2
9
18j a 3 + (a  b)3
12. x 6
8 27
13. a3  b 3
15. 4x 5  9x3  4X2
17. (x + h)3  x 3
19. (a
8a 3
b)3  (a  b)3
29. a 5b 4
20. 125
b3
22. 54a 3b 3
b 3m 3
16c 3
24.
1
X)3
26. 8  (2
28. 125c 3  343d 3
30. 2(x  y)3 + 54
m 3n 3 
a 2b
EXAMPLE 14
Factorize (a) X2 + 5x + 6, (b) X2
7x
6x
+ 9
+ 5x + 6 = (x + m )(x + n)
We look for two numbers m and n whose product is 6 and whose sum is 5.
6 and 1 are factors of 6 but their sum is 7.
2 and 3 are factors of 6 and their sum is 5.
:. X2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 2)(x + 3)
We may set out the working as follows:
X X + ff + 2
(a) X2
+)'+3
and accept only the combination that gives 5x when we cross multiply.
+ 10 = (x + m)(x + n)
We need two numbers m and n whose product is 10 and whose sum is 7.
5 and 2 are factors of 10 but their sum is +7.
5 and 2 are factors of 10 and their sum is 7.
:. X2  7x + 10
(x  5)(x
2)
(b) X2  7x
+ x 12 = (x + m)(x + n)
We need two numbers m and n whose product is 12 and whose sum is 1.
The factors of 12 are 4 and 3, 4 and 3, 6 and 2, 6 and 2, 12 and 1, 12 and 1.
Of these factors, 4 and 3 have a sum of 1.
:. X2 + x  12 = (x + 4)(x  3)
x
+4 ;4' +jI ,if +JZ J,Z
x
3 +y :2' +% )f' ;Yf
The only combination that gives x when we cross multiply is the first one.
(c) X2
><
(d) X2
6x
9 = (x
m)(x
n)
We need two numbers m and n whose product is 9 and whose sum is 6.
3 and 3 are factors of 9 but their sum is 6.
3 and 3 are factors of 9 and their sum is 6.
.'. X2  6x + 9 = (x  3)(x  3) = (x  3)2
Note:
EXAMPLE 15
Factorize (a) X2 + 7x + 12, (b) X2
5x  24.
(a) The factors of 12 are 12 and 1, 12 and 1, 6 and 2, 6 and 2, 4 and 3, 4 and 3.
Of these, 4 and 3 give a sum of 7.
:. X2 + 7x + 12 = (x + 4)(x + 3)
(b) The factors of 24 are 24 and 1, 24 and 1, 12 and 2, 12 and 2, 8 and 3, 8 and 3,
6 and 4, 6 and 4. Of these, 8 and 3 give a sum of 5.
:. X2  5x  24
(x
8)(x + 3)
x
24 +24 +12 12 +8 8 +6 6
x
+1 1 2 +2 3 +3 4 +4
The only combination to give 5x when we cross multiply is
8
><.
xX+3
EXERCISES 2(j)
Factorize the following quadratic trinomials.
1. X2 + 4x + 3
4. X2 + 6x + 5
7. m 2 + 9m + 20
10. p2 + 19p + 18
13. X2 + 8x + 12
16. X2  8x + 12
19. m 2
21m + 20
22. p2  2p  15
2. X2 + lOx + 21
5. a 2 + 7a + 6
8. p2 + 9p + 18
11. X2 + 7x + 12
14. X2  7x + 12
17. m 2  9 m + 20
20. X2  14x + 13
23. pi + 14p
15
3. X2 +
6. a 2 +
9. p2 +
12. X2 +
15. X2 18. m 2
21. p2 +
24. p2 
llx
12a
+ 24
+ 32
lip + 18
13x + 12
13x + 12
12m + 20
2p
15
14p  15
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 47
2x  35
4a  12
6x  72
X  42
11 x  42
38.
6y  55
41. X2
X2
+
+
3x  10
7x + 6
21x  72
19x  42
6x  7
14x + 33
27. X2 + 17x + 72
30. X2  X  72
33. a2 + 13a + 30
36. X2 + 19x  42
39. y2 + 6y  55
42. X2  14x + 33
So far we have considered quadratic trinomials whose quadratic term has a coefficient
of 1. We consider now the situations where the coefficient of the quadratic term is not 1.
EXAMPLE 16
Factorize 6x2  13x
The factors of 6x 2 are either 6x and x or 3x and 2x. Since the constant term, 6, is positive
and the x term is negative, the factors of 6 will both be negative. Possible factors of 6 are
6 and lor 3 and 2. By 'trial and error' we combine the factors of 6x 2 and the factors of
6 until we obtain 13x as the x term:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
Corresponding x term:
Possible factors:
 I)(x  6)
(6x
(6x
(6x
(6x
(3x
(3x
(3x
(3x
6)(x  I)
3)(x  2)
2)(x  3)
1)(2x  6)
6)(2x I)
3)(2x  2)
2)(2x  3)
36x =
6x =
12x =
18x =
18x=
3x =
6x =
9x =
37x
12x
15x
20x
20x
15x
12x
13x
Note: Since 6x 2  13x + 6 has no common factor, then neither of its binomial factors
can have a common factor. Thus in the above factor combinations (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi)
and (vii) can be rejected because each contains a common factor of 6, 3 or 2.
Instead of writing down each of the eight possible combinations above, (i) to (iv) can be
written
6x
I 6 3 2
x ><6 I 2 3
and (v) to (viii) can be written
3x
I 6 3 2
2x><6 I 2 3
and we reject all of the combinations except the one that gives 13x when we cross
multiply. The only satisfactory combination is
3x
2
2x'><3
EXAMPLE 17
Factorize 4X2  4x  15.
The factors of 4X2 are either 4x and x or 2x and 2x. The factors of 15 are 15 and I, 15
and I, 5 and 3, or 5 and 3.
2Xx
3).
EXAMPLE 18
Factorize 3x2 + 8x  16.
The only factors of 3x 2 are 3x and x. Since the constant term is negative, the factors of 16
will be of opposite sign. Possible factors are 16 and 1, 16 and 1, 8 and 2, 8 and 2, 4 and
4, 4 and 4.
3xX16 1 16 1 8 2 8 2 44
x
1 16 1 16 2 8 2 8 4 4
The only possible combination is the last one.
3x 2 + 8x  16 = (3x  4)(x + 4)
Check by expanding (3x  4)(x + 4).
EXERCISES 2(k)
Factorize
1. 2X2 + 3x + 1
4. 4a 2 + 13a + 3
7. 8x 2  14x + 3
10. 8x 2 + 14x + 5
13. 3x 2  17x + 10
16. 10x2  llx  8
19. 9x 2
12x + 4
22. 15m 2 + 17m
18
25. 12y2 + 14y
6
28. 6x 2
19x + 14
31. 6p2 + 25p + 21
34. 24x2  59x + 36
37.9x2 +9x
10.
40. 5x 2  2x  3
43. 4X2 + 12x + 9
2.
5.
8.
11.
14.
17.
20.
23.
26.
29.
32.
35.
38.
41.
44.
3x 2 +
4X2 +
2X2 6x 2 +
6a 2 
2X2 +
2X2 10a 2 6x 2 6x 2
10a 2 15x 2
2X2 3p2 9x 2 +
11 x  4
5x + 1
9x  5
17x + 12
13a  63
3x
2
9x + 10
41a
18
25x + 14
20x + 14
11a
6
19x + 6
9x + 4
7p + 2
30x + 25
3.
6.
9.
12.
15.
18.
21.
24.
27.
30.
33.
36.
39.
42.
45.
2X2 + 7x + 6
3a 2  5a + 2
l3c 2  7 c  6
3x 2  l3x + 4
3x 2  11x  4
4X2  12x + 9
6x 2  85x + 14
2y2  4y  6
6x 2 29x + 28
8x 2 + 2x  3
12y2 + 28y
5
3x 2 2x
10p2 + 11p + 3
8x 2  6x  9
4x 2 28x + 49
To factorize the expressions in the next set of exercises, it will be necessary to use one or
more of the techniques we have studied:
(i) something common in each term,
(ii) grouping and using the Distributive Law in reverse,
(iii) difference of two squares,
(iv) sum and difference of two cubes,
(v) quadratic trinomials
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 49
EXERCISES 2(1)
Factorize completely
2. 2a 3  8a
4. x 2 8x
6. X2  8x  9
8. 5x 3y  20xy3
10. 10x2 + 9x  1
1. x 2 3x
3. 3x2 + 9x
5. X2  9
7. 3x2y  12y3
9. 1  (b  c)2
11. (a + b)2 b 2
12. 6x 3  48
14. a(m + n)  b(m + n)
16. 3a 3 + 24a 2 + 21a
18. X2  3x  10
20. ab 2 + abc + abd
22. X2 + x
24. x(y  z) + y(y  z)
13. a 2  a  42
15. 2x 3 + 14x2  16x
17. (x + 2y)2  4
19. a 3  1
21. X2  36y2
23. X2 + x  12
25. 4X2  28x  480
27. 6y3 + 3y2  3y
29. 15a 2  60
31. 5a 2x  125x
33. 5t 3 + 5t 2  360t
35. 5  125a 2
37. m 2 mn + 6m  6n
39. X2(X + 3)  4(x + 3)
41. 4  (x + 1)2
43. X2  2x + ax  2a
45. 2axc  axd + 2c  d
a3
47. 8
h)3
3y)
I, ,
Write an algebraic expression in factorized form for the shaded area in each of the figures
in questions 49. to 57.
49.
52.......1    4,
     I....
.
55.
c
a
.~.~~.
,_._
~ .
~
EXAMPLE 19
+ 6 (")
+ 2' II
+ 6 = 3(lxI2) 3
3x + 2
(lxrt)
"")
15a2
5ab
_ 5a(3a  b)
(
II
10ab
.1Qtd1
(i) 9x
3a  b
""') 9x2  y2
( III
6xy  2y2
Q.xY)(3x
y)
2y(lxy)
3x
2Y
EXAMPLE 20
' l'f X2  5x
_
SImp 1 y
X2  5x
+6
X2
x
3x
X X2  X 
X2
3x
_ (x.2)~) x
x~
2  (~)~)
(;v2)(x + 1)
x
x + 1
EXERCISES 2(m)
Simplify
1. 8a  4b
8x2  4xy
4.
8xy
3a  5b
5ab
p2q _ pq2
~~=='pq
X2 _ y2
(x + y)2
15a2  5ab
3ab _ b2
a2 + ab
ab + b2
7. 3a2
10.
13.
16.
19.
X2  6x + 8
22. x 2  x 2
25 X2 + 4x + 4
X2  3x  10
3x2 x2y
28. = x=
xy
3xy  y2
2.
15x
15
lOy
3. 14x  7y
12ab  6b 2
5.
9ab
2x  Y
8x + 2
6
4x + 1
2
m +m
8.
9. mn
12. 2rs
12r
r2 + rs
11. x ;x xy
X2 15. X2 +
X2 18.
X2
14 k + k
k + 1
4X2  4xy
17. x 2  y 2
a2  b 2
20. a2 + ab
9
3x
7x + 6
 36
21.   
+ 3x + 2
X2  4
26 4x3y
16xy
X2 + 2x  8
23
n 2
X2
24. :::
29.
m2 + m  2
m
27.    
12a
5
x :=
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 51
2a 2
2a 2  2ab
3ab
ab _ b 2 X
12x2  4x . 10x2y
32.
_ x .. 5x2y2
2
2 _3_a_b_+_2_b_
34 (a + 2b )(a  b) x _a_
2
2
2
ab  b
a  4b
30.
36. x
2x
38. x 3
40.
m2  9
35. m2  m  12
m2
3m
37 8x2 + 4x + 2
8x 3  1
(x + h)3 x 3
+ y3
2y
15x2  5xy . 3x  Y
10xy
..
2y
2
x 2x  3
X2  25
33. x 2 _ 4x  5 x (x  3)(x + 5)
31.
X x
39.
"<:"
~'~
2
 7'
('0)
3x
II 5
 2x 7+y
1,III
(...) 3
X
) 2x ..:. y
( IV
3
 6
Before adding or subtracting fractions, each fraction must have the same denominator.
This can be done by getting the lowest common multiple (L.C.M.) of the denominators.
The L.C.M. of 5 and 7 is 35.
2
3
(i)
7
5
21
10
35
21  10
21x 
2
3
(iii)
+
21
21x
11
21
2x 
=15
35
= 35x
3x
(ii)
(iv)
10
+ 5
lOx
+5
llx
2x  y
2(2x  y)
+ 10
= 4x 
2y  x
31
3x
_ 3(x  y)
EXERCISES 2(n)
Express each of the following as a single fraction.
1.
x  x
2.
3x
8" + 2"
3.
4a
a
6
7. 3x
2 _ x
2a + b
9
10. a  2b
14. ab 5
17. a2b 
yz
x  3y
+l_x+
9 !
2
4
12. 1 _ ~
~ + ~
19 a + 1
2x  y
6.
3m  2n + m + n
10
xy
2 _ a
11. 3(a: b) _ a
13. ~ + 1
16.
5 . a
4. 2 +
1
20 x+
a  4
2a
3x
15. m _ n
18. ab + be
21. 1
+3
2 _
EXAMPLE 22
'
(e)
3
1
(e e)
. I
Express as a smg
e f
ractlon
I 24 + 2' II
x
x
xy
x+
4 = (x
2)(x + 2), the lowest common multiple (LeCeMe) of X2
x  2 is X2  4.
3
1
3
x + 2
=
+ c:c::_,:_:_
+
X2
4
x
(x  2)(x + 2)
(x  2)(x + 2)
3 + x + 2
(i) Since X2 
(x  2)(x
(x
(ii) L.C.M. of x
1
x  y
x + 5
2)(x + 2)
+ y is (x  y)(x + y).
x+y
xy
(x  y)(x + y)
(x  y)(x + y)
x + y
(x
y)
(x
y)(x + y)
x+yx+y
(x  y)(x + y)
2y
(x  y)(x + y)
y and x
1
x
+ 2)
EXAMPLE 23
Express as a single fraction (i)
X2
2x  X2
4' (ii) X2
5x
+ 2x = x(x + 2)
and
X2  4
(x  2)(x + 2),
2)e
x(x + 2)(x  2)
X2 +
2x
(i) Since X2
2x
2)(x  2)
4 and
2/BASIC ALGEBRA 53
1
X2
1
2x  8
1
(x
2)(x  3)
x+4
(x ' 2)(x  3)(x
4).
1
(x  2)(x
4)
x3
(x  2)(x  3)(x
+ 4)
+ 4)
4  (x  3)
(x
2)(x
3)(x + 4)
(x  2)(x
3)(x + 4)
EXERCISES 2(0)
Write down the lowest common multiple (L.C.M.) for questions 1. to 16.
1. x
3 and x + 3
3. x andx
2
5. X2  4x and x  4
7. X2  1 and x + 1
9. x + 2 and X2 + 4x + 4
11. X2  4 and X2 + 3x + 2
13. X2
4x + 4 and X2  2x
15. x  5, x + 5 and X2  25
2. x  5 and X2  25
4. 2x
4 and 3x  6
6. X2  4x and X2  16
8. X2
9 and 2x  6
10. x
y, x + y and X2  y2
12. xy, x  y and x3y
xy3
14. x, x + 3 and X2  9
16. X2
y2, X2
xy, xy
y2
a + a+
19. _x_ +
17.   b
xy
3a
b
21. a
2
 b2
x
23. X 2  Y 2
1
25.
27.
29.
18.
+ ab
X2
y
Y
+x+10
7a
31. 3a  4 
22.
1
x+
24. (X
3

26. _3_
28. 2a
+ x
2)2
+
6
1
x+
a
a2  9
6
30. 3x  2
32. ,:= xy
X
X2  16
x+y
x2
xy
33. x
x+y
2
x+y
20. _x_
xy
3
xy
34.
x+
+ 1
x
:4:
4
36'~4+ + a 2 +a +
x
5a + 6
x
I
38
3a + 1 _ 3a  1
37. x + 1
3a  1
3a + 1
x
35. a
39.
41.  
3
2
CHAPTER 3
Equations and
Inequations
3.1 Linear equations in one variable _ _ _ _ __
An identity is a statement of equality that is true for all values of the variable for which
both sides are defined, e.g.
X2  4 = (x  2)(x + 2)
5(x + 3)
5x + 15
are true statements for all values of x. Test that they are true for, say, x
7.
A conditional equation, or simply an equation, is a statement of equality that is true for
only certain values of the variable, e.g.
x + 5 8 is true only when x = 3.
A linear equation in one variable is an equation in which the pronumeral is of first
degree, e.g.
3x + 2 = 14,
and there is only one value of x, namely x = 4, for which this equation is true.
If the pronumeral occurs more than once in an equation, e.g.
5x  3 = 2x + 9,
it is necessary to get the terms containing the pronumeral together on one sideeither left
hand side or righthand side, whichever may be more convenient.
EXAMPLE 1
Solve the equations (a) 5x  3 = 2x
(a)
5x  3 = 2x + 9
5x  2x  3 = 9
i.e. 3x  3 = 9
3x = 12
x = 4
Test: Put x = 4 in (1).
L.H.S. = 17
19.
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (1)
(Subtract 2x from both sides)
(Add 3 to both sides)
= R.H.S.
. ............................................ (1)
2x  9 = 19
14 in (1).
Test: Put x =
L.H.S. = 5 x 11  3 x 12
55  36
19
R.H.S.
EXERCISES 3(a)
Solve the following equations and test your solutions.
2. 4(2x  7) = 3x  5
4. x  7 = 3  x
1. 5x
3x + 9
3. 3(x + 3)
4(9  3x)
5. 5(2a + 1) = 6(a  5)
7. 4  3x ~ x + 9
9. 5(2x  1) = 2(x  5)  3
11. 5  9y = 10  lly
13. 5a
7 = 4(2a + 3)
15. m + 8 = 5(m  1)  2m
17. 18
3(a  2)
2(a + 2)
19. 8(x + 2)
3(x + 5) = 2(x  2)
21. 5(c  7) = 3(3c + 8)
23. 7(m
2) = 5(2m  1)
6. 3(5x  1)  2(4  x) = 6
8. 3x  2 = 5x
10. 4(3a + 2)  6(3  a) = 8
12. 4(3m
1) = 11 + 2m
14. 2c  (4  c) = 5  c
16. 4(x + 5)  (x
1) = 9
18. 3(8a  2)  3(2a + 4)
0
20. 3(2x + 5) = 4  (3x  2)
22. 6(2x  3) = 8  2(3x + 1)
24. a + 6 = 3
a
EXAMPLE 2
.
2x
+ 1
2x  3
3' (b) x
(c) 3a  2
1
2a
3a
2a
+
+
1
3
(a) Since the lowest common multiple of 4, 6 and 3 is 12, multiply both sides of the equation
by 12.
:. 3(2x
1)  2(2x  ~)
6x
3  4x
2x
+6
+9
= 28
= 28
(b) Since the lowest common multiple of x  4 and x  2 is (x  4)(x  2), multiply both
sides of the equation by (x
4)(x  2).
3
2
x _ 4 x (x  4)(x  2) = x _
x (x  4)(x  2)
:. 3(x  2)
2(x  4)
3x  6 = 2x  8
3x  2x
6
8
x =2
5a  6 = 6a 2
6a = 5
a=6
aI
+ 3 is (2a
 1)(2a
+ 3), multiply
EXERCISES 3(b)
Solve the following equations and test your solutions.
1 2x+5_x+2
+
x+32xl
3. 3
5.
5x  3
2.  2  =X+ 2
x + 1
2x  1 _ 5 x
3
6.
+ 1=6
2J
8.
7.
9. x
+4
11. x  4
3  4x
=5
15. x
+ 2 = 
14.
5
23. y
x7
~+
x + 2
1 + _1_
t
l+t
x + 1
6
= ':'
=2
3
p+
=2
x+
24.
25 x  2 = ~
x+
5
3
2
27.
x
x+2
1
1
29.  1 + x
33 .
22
2
y
x + 1
.3 +
2 x+4
x5
x+
3x  2
20 3x  1
5x + 1 5x + 2
2m
=m +
18. x
y+2 y+4
19. 2x + 3 = 2x  5
3x + 4
m
2)
5
16 a +
17. Y + 3
21. 2m
5(a
10. 3(x 2)
5
12.
x+2
13.
4. 2x  1 = 3x + 1
26.
x
5
y+
28. ~ _
a
=
X2
30.
+ 3x + 2
2t
32
1
a(a
+ _1_
x  3
_I_
. x
x + 3
34. _2_ _
3
x+5
x
+ 2)
1
(x + 2)(x  3)
1
X2 
25
3.2 Inequations _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
For an inequation the = sign is replaced by the inequality signs>, which means greater
than, or <, which means less than.
R stands for the set of real numbers and J stands for the set of integers (whole numbers).
x E R means that x can be any real number and can be represented by any point on the
number line. Thus x > 4, x E R means that x can be any number provided that it is greater
than 4; for example, x can be 52, 6'875,
8, 9~ and, of course, very many more.
i'
x E J means that x can only be a whole number. Thus x ~ 1, x E J means that x can
only be 1, 0, 1,2, 3, ... and on the number line can only be represented by these points.
It cannot be 5'2, ..j2, 6~, etc.
Example
Meaning
Sign
>
X>4,XER
is greater than or
equal to ...
x~l,EJ
4 5 6 1
..
1
1 2 3
<
X< 2, XER
0.
x
321 0 1 2
is less than or
equal to ...
x ~ 2, x ER
321
<
Since
1. 10
2. 10
3. 10
4. 10
10
5. "2
<
10 > 6 it follows
+2> 6+2
 2 > 6
2
x 2 > 6 x 2
x 2 < 6 x 2
6
> 2:
6. 10 <
_~
0 1 2
..
..x
that
i.e. 12 > 8 (Add 2 to both sides)
i.e. 8 > 4 (Subtract 2 from both sides)
i.e. 20 > 12 (Multiply both sides by 2)
i.e. 20 < 12 (Multiply both sides by 2)
i.e. 5 > 3 (Divide both sides by 2)
i.e. 5 < 3 (Divide both sides by 2)
If
a>
1. a + c >
2. a  c >
3.
ac >
4.
ac <
5.
6.
b, then
b + c
b  c
bc if c > 0
bc if c < 0
a
bif c> 0
>1
c c
a < b if c < 0
I I
EXAMPLE 3
~
Solve 2x + 3
(a)
o
x
(b)
~
~
8.
9
6 (Subtract 3 from both sides)
3 (Divide both sides by 2)
3 and x R
o
~
Since x J and x
8, x 13, 4, 5, 6, 7, 81
EXAMPLE 4
xfor(a)xR
:E;X~ 10andx
~x~ 10andx
3x> 19
Solve 3
3  3x > 19  x
3  2x > 19
2x> 16
x < 8
Answers to (a), (b) and (c) can be represented on the number line thus:
(a)
4'
1
x < 8 and x
7'
2 3 4
(b)
1
< 8 and x
x 12, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
EXAMPLE 5
Solve x
x + 1
5(x + 1)
5x + 5
2x3~5
2x
4
3
(a)
4
2
1
4 and x E R
...
3 0
(b)
4
1
EXAMPLE 6
Solve 5 < 2x  3
7 for x E R.
5 < 2x  3
:2 <
2x
1 <
x
~
~
~
10
5
(Add 3)
(Divide by 2)
__
~O~~;~~;~~ .~.~
1
EXERCISES 3(c)
Solve each of the following for x E R unless otherwise stated and graph the solution set on
the number line.
1. 5x  2 ~ 13
3. 2x + 5 < 5
5. 3x > 2x + 12
7. 7x < 3(2x + 1)
9.
x x
3"  4 > 1
11. 3x  1
2. 2x  2 < 0
4. 6x + 2 ~ 10
6. 3(x + 1) ~ 9
8. 2(x  6) ~ 8
3x
x
3
10. 2  3" < 2
12. 2x
< 3x + 10
13. x  I > 1
14. x + 3 < 7
19.
x  5
> 5x
  3
18.
7x
~ 3
4x
20. 5x  3 < x + 2
22. 22
5x  3
32
25. If 5 is subtracted from a certain positive integer, the result is greater than 5 but less
than 12. What values can the integer take?
26. If a certain number is divided by 2, the result is greater than 4 but less than 8. What
values can the number take?
27. The sum of two consecutive positive integers is no more than 35. What are their
possible values?
28. A committee is to have 3 more women than men and the number on the committee
must be at least 7 but no more than 15. What is the possible number of women on the
committee?
29. The result obtained when a certain number added to 5 is divided by 5 is not more than
the result when the same number added to 13 is divided by 9. What is the largest value
the number can be?
30. The length of the base of an isosceles triangle is an integer and is 4 cm less than the
sum of the two equal sides. The perimeter is an integer less than 80 cm. What are the
possible lengths of the base?
31. The sum of three consecutive integers is greater than 7 and less than 25. Find all
possible values of the smallest of these integers.
32. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 8 cm, 10 cm and x cm. What are the possible
values of x?
xijx>O
x ij x < 0
=Oijx=O
Note that the righthand side always consists of a nonnegative number. Regard the
sign as meaning 'the opposite sign of'. That is, if x is a negative number, then x, being
the opposite sign of x, is a positive number.
This definition frequently causes confusion because of the property it demonstrates
about x, that is, negative x is not necessarily negative.
The absolute value (modulus) of a number x E R, written lxi, is given by the non
negative number that defines its magnitude.
0 = 101.
Thus 131 = 3 = 131 and 101
Hence
Ixl
Since x is a real number, it can be represented by a point on the number line. It is useful,
then, to regard Ixl as the distance of a point x from the origin and since distance is
measured by a positive number, then Ixl is positive for all x
O.
'*
..
The points x = 3 and x = 3 are both 3 units from the origin and hence 131 = 131 = 3.
More generally, Ix  y I may be considered as the distance between two points x and y
on the number line and hence Ix
y I is a positive number if x > y or if x < y.
yl
Ix 
e.g. 15  31
x  y if x > y
y  x if x < y
o if x y
13  51
2
Ixllyl
Ixl + Iyl
Ixl + Iyl
Ixyl
Ix
and Ix
+ yl
+ yl
These theorems can be verified by giving x and y specific values. Test them for, say,
x = 7 and y = 3.
EXAMPLE 7
Demonstrate on a number line the values of x for which:
(a) Ixl > 1
(b) Ixl ~ 2
Ixl >
Ixl ~
~O~~i<O~
1
2
0 +1
EXAMPLE 8
Solve for x (a) 12x  11
(a) 2x 
1 = 3 or 2x  1 = 3
x
2 or
xI
(b) 3x
(b) 13x  21
1 or 3x  2 = 1
1
1 or
x = 3
11 ~ 3, then 2x
i.e.,
(d) If 13x  21 <
i.e"
1 ~ 3 or 2x  1 ~ 3
2x ~ 4 or 2x ~ 2
x ~ 2 or x ~ 1.
+2
EXAMPLE 9
Give meanings to
(a) 12x  31,
(b)
J(y 
12x  31
(a)
2)2,
2x  3 if 2x  3
o if 2x
(b) Similarly
J(Y 
2)2
=
J(2y  X)2
"
I.e. f
1 x
= 2:3
= Iy =
(c)
 3
21
y  2 if y
2
y if y
o if y = 2
> 2
< 2
12y  xl
= 2y
= x
 x if y
2yify
o if y =
lx
< lx
>
lx
_lL
= 0
x~:
is
EXAMPLE 10
Simplify the following expressions:
(a)
(a)
~
= ~x
(b)
= 1 if x
for x
=1=
2,2;
(c)
J(x  1)2
>0
x = 1 if x < 0
x
(b)
Ix X2 
21
4
(x  2)
(x  2)(x + 2)
(2  x)
(x  2)(x + 2)
, 1
if x
>
if x < 2, x
=1=
2
Y(x  1)2
1  x
()
c
xI =xl
Failure to interpret ,.,;X2 correctly causes algebraic chaos akin to that created by division
by zero. Consider the following 'proof' that a hippopotamus weighs the same as an ant.
Denote the weights respectively by h and a, and the sum of the weights by 2w.
Then
so
and
+a
h
h  2w
= 2w
= a + 2w
= a
......................... (1)
(2)
(h
2w)h =
h2
2wh
h 2  2wh + w2 =
(h  W)2 =
h  w =
So
Le.,
Thus
Le.,
Hence
so
a(a + 2w)
a2  2aw
a2  2aw + w2 (Add w2.)
(a  W)2
a  w
(Take square roots.)
a
EXERCISES 3(d)
Write expressions for the following:
1. "';81
3. 16x < 41
5. Ix + yl
7. ~.x2 + x
2. J(2'5)2
4.
9 .JI6 + ~
11. J9  6x + X2 when x
6.
8.
1J3  21
Ixl + Iyl
Ix 51 + Ix
> 3
51
(a) Ix  21
(c) 12x  51
(e) 12 + xl
(b) 12x
(d) 15x
+ 11 = 2
+ 11 = 4
Represent the solution sets of the following inequations (13.19.) on a number line:
13. Ix + 31 > 1
15. 12 + 4xl ~ 6
17. Ix + 31 > 1 and 12x +
11
19. IX2 
~ 3 and Ix2
51 <
+ 11
51 <
14. 12x +
16. Ix2 18. 12x +
11
~ 4
51 <
3 or
12 + 4xl
~ 6
~ 0
Simplify the following expressions, stating the values of x for which your answers apply:
(20. to 25.)
..[Xl
20.
liT
21.
"';"';"(x':":4)=2
22.
1  x
JXi
23.
25
= Ixl.lyl
~ Ixl + Iyl
for the following values of x and y:
(a)x = 5,y
2
(b)x
3,y = 2
(ii)
25.
11  xl
Ix2  11
Ixyl
Ix + yl
(c)x
6,y
bx
= 0, a
=1=
is called a quadratic equation in x. The elements of its solution set represent geometrically
the x values of the points of intersection of the parabolay = ax2 + bx + c and the Xaxis.
From our experience of drawing parabolas, we have seen that a parabola can
(i) intersect the Xaxis at two distinct points,
(ii) touch the Xaxis at one point only,
~iii) not intersect the Xaxis at all.
Solving of quadratic equations will involve the use of the Null Factor Law:
~XAMPLE
11
(b) If (x + 1)(x  4) = 0,
then x + 1
0 or x
4 = 0
i.e.
x lor x = 4
(a) If x(x  2)
0,
0 or x
0 or x
then x
i.e. x
FXERCISES
2 = 0
2
3(e)
5)
+ 1)(x
:5. x(x + 6)
3. (x
2. (x  2)(x  3)
4. x(2x + 1)
0
 2)
6. (x
7)(2x + 5) = 0
8. 5x(x + 1) = 0
10. 2x(2
3x) = 0
12. (2x  9)x = 0
14. (x  3a)(x + 2b)
0
0
16. (2x  11)(2x + 11)
18. (2x + 3)2 = 0
20. (2x
1)(2x + 1) = 0
'7. 3x(2x  9) = 0
9. (x
3)(x + 4) = 0
11. x(6
x) = 0
13. (x
a)(x  b) = 0
15. (x  2)(x + 2)
0
17. (x  1)2 0
19. 2x(5x  8) = 0
Type 1:
EXAMPLE 12
Solve the equations
(i) X2  4 = 0
(iii) 9x 2 = 25
(ii) 2X2  18
(iv) (x  2)2
=0
9
X2  4 = 0
(i)
i.e. (x  2)(x
2)
or x + 2
0
x = 2 or x = 2
x  2
= 0
2X2  18 = 0
2(x  3)(x + 3)
0 (Difference of two squares)
(ii)
x  3 = 0 or x + 3
x = 3 or x = 3
Graphically, the parabola y
9x 2
(iii)
i.e.
= 2X2
= 3 and x = 3.
25
9x  25
0
3x  5 = 0 or 3x + 5
0
x = 1~ or x = lj
Graphically, the parabola y = 9x2
(iv)
1~
and x
1~.
(x  2)2
9
(x  2)2  9 = 0
(x  2  3)(x
2 + 3) = 0 (Difference of two squares)
(x  5)(x + 1)
0
x  5 = 0 or x + 1 0
x = 5 or x = 1
EXAMPLE 13
Solve the equations (i) X2  6
(ii)
3x 2 
J6 or x = J6
3x2 = 15
15 = 0
3(X2
5)
3(x  .J5)(x + ...[5)
or
3x 2 = 15
X2 = 5
0 (Common factor 3)
x = ...[5 or x = ...[5
EXERCISES 3(f)
Solve the following equations.
1. X2  1
3. X2  49
5. X2
0
0
16
7. X2  64 = 0
9. X2  61 = 0
X2 = 6
x=J6
X2  (J6)2
0
(x  J6)(x + J6) = 0 (Difference of two squares)
m~
i.e.
2.
4.
6.
8.
10.
X2
25
0
X2 = 0'25
X2 = 9
4X2 = 9
4X2  25 = 0
...[5
12. 4X2
9
0
14. 16x2  1
0
16. 25x2 = 49
18. (x  2)2 = 16
20. 7x2
63
22. (5x  1)2
16
24. (x  1)2  4 = 0
26. 2X2  6
0
28. 3x2
33
0
30. (x + 1)2 = 8
32. X2  18
0
34. 2X2  24 = 0
36. 2X2
22
Type 2:
ax2 + bx
=0
This type contains x as a common factor. and so we use the Distributive Law in reverse.
EXAMPLE 14
Solve the equations (i) X2  3x
(i)
= 0, (ii) 4X2 =
8x.
X2  3x = 0
i.e. x(x  3) = 0 (x is a common factor)
x = 0 or x
3
4X2
(ii)
8x
i.e. 4X2  8x = 0
4x(x  2) = 0 (4x is a common factor)
x = 0 or x
2
'
EXERCISES 3(g)
Solve the following equations.
1. x 2  6x = 0
4. X2 + lOx = 0
7. 2X2  5x = 0
10. X2 = 2x
13. 6x 2 = 24x
16. 2X2  3x = 0
19. 4X2 + 8x = 0
22. 5x2 + x = 0
2. X2  5x = 0
5. X2 = 4x
8. X2 + 8x = 0
11. 3x2 14. 9x 2 =
17. 4X2 20. 2X2 23. 3x 2 =
21x = 0
27x
4x = 0
X = 0
9x
3. X2 + 5x = 0
6. X2  X = 0
9. X2 = 7x
12. 2X2 + 20x = 0
15. 5x2 + 20x
0
18. llx2 = 22x
21. 3x 2  x = 0
24. 2X2  5x = 0
Type 3:
EXAMPLE 15
Solve the equations
(i) X2  5x + 6 = 0
(iii) x(x  2)
3
(ii) 2X2 = x + 3
(iv) (3x + 4)(x  3)
(iii)
(ii)
x(x  2)
3
X2  2x = 3
X2  2x  3 = 0
(x
3)(x + 1) = 0
x  3
0 or x
x = 3 or x
(iv) (3x
1 = 0
1
16
2X2 = x + 3
2X2  X  3 = 0
(2x  3)(x + 1) = 0
2x  3
0 or x + 1 = 0
x = I! or x = 1
X2  5x + 6 = 0
(x  2)(x  3)
0
x  2 = 0 or x  3 = 0
x
2 or x = 3
(i)
+ 4)(x  3) = 16
3x2  5x  12 = 16
(expand the lefthand side)
3x 2  5x
28 = 0
(3x + 7)(x  4)
0
3x + 7 = O'or x  4 = 0
x
2tor x = 4
EXERCISES 3(h)
Solve the following quadratic equations.
1. X2
3x + 2 = 0
8 = 0
3. X2  2x
5. X2
6x + 9
0
7. X2 + 9x + 8 = 0
9. 5x 2 + 7x  12 = 0
11. 5x2  11x + 2 = 0
13. 2X2  x  10
0
15. X2 + 5x + 4 = 0
17. 3x2  28x + 25 = 0
19. 5x 2 + 26x + 24
0
21. X2 + 7x  30
0
23. 5x 2 = 8x  3
25. x(x + 5) = 6
27. x(3x  1) = 2
29. x(7 x  30) + 8 = 0
31. (x
2)(2x + 5)
2x
33. X2  9 = 8x
35. (2x + 1)2 = 4
37. (x + 6)2 = X + 6
39. 7x 2 = 2(l7x
12)
2. X2  6x + 5 = 0
4. X2  4x + 3 = 0
6. X2  5x + 4 = 0
8. 9x2 + 4x
5 = 0
10. X2 + 4x  12 = 0
12. 4X2  12x  7 = 0
14. X2 + lOx + 25
0
16. 4X2  8x
21 = 0
18. X2  8x + 16 = 0
20. 3x 2  41x + 60 = 0
22. X2  7x + 10
0
24. x(2x  11) = 6
26. x(3x + 19)
72
28. X2 + 15 = 8x
30. 5x2 = 3x + 2
32. 5x(x + 2)
3x  2
34. 12  4x  X2 = 0
36. (x + 1)2 = 4x
38. 6x2 = 10  11x
40. X2 = 4(x + 24)
12x
+ 36
+ 6)2
(12,2
\2) = 62.
= (x
Observe that 36 =
i.e. the term not containing x is equal to the square of half the coefficient of x.
lOx
X2 
+ 25 =
Observe that 25
(x  5)2
lo'V
( 2) = (5)2.
i.e. the term not containing x is equal to the square of half the coefficient of x.
Hence, if the first two terms of a quadratic expression in x are given, the expression can be
made into a square if we add the square of half the coefficient of x.
EXAMPLE 16
What must be added to (i)
X2
8x, (ii)
x is 8.
Onehalf of 8 is 4.
X2 
Thus when
8x
+ 16 =
(x
+ 4)2.
x is 3.
. 3
Onehalf of 3
The square of
X2
IS
2.
3
2 is 4
3x
~ = (X _ ~)'.
EXERCISES 3(i)
Write down the number to be added in order to complete the square in each of the
following.
1. X2
4. X2
7. X2
10. X2
13. X2
16. X2
19. X2
+
+
+

+

2. X2  6x
5. X2 + 2x
8. X2 (8x
11. x 2 + ~X~\'>
14. X2 + x
17. X2  15x
20. X2 + cx
4x
lOx
20x
x
7x
9x
2bx
3. X2
6. X2
9. X2
12. X2
15. x 2
18. X2
21. X2
+

+

+

14x
12x
24x
3x
llx
2ax
ax
4x  5 = 0, (ii)
(i)
X2
X2
i.e.
i.e.
X2 
5x
6 = 0, (iii)
X2
= 8x.
4x  5 = 0
(Put constant term on R.H.S.)
X2 + 4x = 5
+ 4x + 4 = 5 + 4 (Add 4 to complete the square)
(x + 2)2 = 9
(Taking square roots)
x+2 = J9
= 3
x + 2 = 3 or x + 2 = 3
x = 1 or x = 5
or
i.e. (x
(ii)
(x + 2)2 =
(x + 2)2  32
=
2  3)(x + 2 + 3) =
(x  1)(x + 5) =
x =
5x
X2 
5x
0
1 or x
= 0
5x = 6
+ 25
4 =
G
 ~)'
i.e.
5
+6
X2 
X2 
+ 25
25 to compIete t h e square)
4 (Add 4
6
x~ = )"f
1
2"
i.e.
x 
2"
2" or x
51
2"
2"
x = 3 or x = 2
or
(iii)
X2
i.e.
G ~)'
( x  ~)'  G)'
1)( 5. 1)
2" \x  2' + 2"
(x  3)(x  2) = 0
x
3 or, 2
X2
8x
X2  8x = 0
8x + 16 = 16
(Add 16 to complete the square)
(x  4)2 = 16
x  4 = .JI6 (Taking square roots)
i.e.
x  4 = 4 or x  4 = 4
x = 8 or x = 0
EXERCISES 3(j)
Use the method of completing the square to solve the following quadratic equations.
1. X2  6x + 5 =
3. X2 + 4x  5
5. X2  lOx + 24
7. X2  26x + 25
9. X2 + X  12 =
11. X2 + 7 x
30
13. X2  3x  10
15. X2 + x = 72
17. X2  lOx = 0
0
0
2.
X2 
4.
X2
= 0
= 0
8.
X2
10.
X2
12.
14.
X2
16.
X2
18.
X2
0
0
6~ X2
X2
2x  8
4x = 12
 4x = 21
 3x + 2
0
 5x + 4 = 0
 11x
12
= 7x  10
lOx  11 = 0
= 3x
Actually, all the equations in exbrcises 3U) could be solved by using factors. However, the
great advantage of the "completing the square" method is that it can be used to solve
quadratic equations that do not have rational factors.
EXAMPLE 18
Use the "completing the square" method to solve (i) X2
+ 2 = O.
+ 2x  5
0, (ii) X2
4x + 8,
(iii) X2  5x
+ 2x  5 = 0
X2 + 2x = 5
X2 + 2x + 1
5 +
i.e. (x + 1)2 = 6
(i) X2
x+l=.[6
or x + 1
.[6
x + 1 = .[6
x = 1 + .[6
or x
1  .[6
~ 1 + 2'449
~ 1  2449
3'449
= 1'449
In surd form, the exact solutions are
x
1 .[6
Using 2449 as an approximation to .[6, the approximate solutions to four figures are
x = 1'449 or 3,449.
i.e.
(ii)
x2 =
4x
X2  4x + 4
i.e. (x  2)2 =
x2=
i.e. x  2
x
i.e.
X2 
4x + 8
8
8 + 4
12
orx  2
2+M
orx 2  M
~ 2 + 3464
~ 2  3464
5464
1'464
The exact answers in simplest surd form are x
2 2J3.
(iii) x 2
5x
2
+ 25
2
5x
X2 
X2 _
i.e.
5x
(x  ~y
x
i.e.
+ 25
4
ffi
2
(Taking square roots)
ffi
x 2
orx
x=~+ffi
2
+ ffi
+ 4123
ffi
5
2
5 ffi
22
5  ffi
or x
2
~
= 4'562
=
5
5  4123
0'439
ffi
EXERCISES 3(k)
Use the 'completing the square' method to solve the following quadratic equations,
giving your answers in surd form and also correct to three decimal places.
1. X2  2x ~ 4 = 0
2. x 2 + 4x  4 = 0
4. X2  6x + 2
0
3. X2  X  5 = 0
2
S. X2  5x + 1 = 0
6. x + 2x  2 = 0
7. X2 = 6x  4
8. x 2
+ x  I = 0
10. X2 + 4x
1
9. X2  6x  5 = 0
12. X2 + 3x  6 = 0
11. X2 = 2x + 5
13. X2
x = 3
14. x 2 3x = 9
In each of the equations considered so far,' the coefficient of X2 has been 1. When the
coefficient of X2 is not 1, simply divide through by the coefficient of X2 and proceed as
before.
EXAMPLE 19
Use the 'completing the square' method to solve the equation 2X2  3x  3
2X2  3x  3 = 0
2X2  3x = 3
3x
3
X2  T
:2
+ ~
3x
2 _
i.e.
16
= ~
(x  ~r = ~~
x
i.e.
= O.
4
.J33
4
.J33
4
3
.J33
x=4+ 4
3 + .J33
3
x 4
orx 
4=
'\/'33
4
3
4
orx
.J33
3  .J33
3  5'745
5745
= 2186
0,686
EXERCISES 3(1)
Use the 'completing the square' method to solve the following quadratic equations.
1.
3.
S.
7.
9.
11.
13.
IS.
2X2 2X2 +
3x2 3x2 3x 2
2X2 2X2 +
4X2
X  5 = 0
x
2
0
5x  1 == 0
2x = 4
7x + 3
5x = 9
x = 4
9x  4
2. 2X2 +
4. 2X2 +
6. 3x2 +
8. 2X2 10. 4X2 +
12. 3x2 14. 3x2 16. 6x2
6x
5
0
3x
1
= 0
'v
4i = 5
6x + 1
0
4x  5 = 0
2x  2 = 0
8x + 3
0
lOx +. 3 = 0
+ bx + c = 0, a
'* 0
is called the general quadratic equation. By giving suitable values to a, band c the
solutions of this equation may be applied to any quadratic equation.
We proceed to solve it using the 'completing the square' method.
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax2 + bx = c
(Put constant term on R.H.S.)
b
c
X2 + x =
(Divide both sides by the coefficient of x 2 )
+ ~x + (~)2 = ~2 _
X2
2a
4a
(Add
i.e.
"jb 2
+ 2a
4ac
This formula enables us to solve any quadratic equation and thus avoids the necessity of
hunting for factors of the quadratic expression or repeating the various steps in using the
'completing the square' method.
EXAMPLE 20
Use the formula to solve the following quadratic equations.
(i) X2 + 8x + 12 = 0
(iii) 2X2  4x + 1 = 0
0)
X2
8x + 12 = 0
b "jb 2  4ac
(ii) X2 (iv) 4x 2
where a
3x
+ 5x
0
2
=0
1, b = 8, c = 12
8
8
"JT6
8 + 4
= 2 or
8  4
= 2
or 6
The solutions are rational numbers. Observe that b 2
4ac = 16 and
number. We could have solved this equation using factors:
(x + 2)(x + 6) = 0
x + 2 = 0 or x + 6 = 0
x = 2 or 6
"JT6 is
a rational
3x  2 = 0
b
=
(ii) X2 
x =
3+ffi
3ffi
.
2
or
(Exact solutIOns)
4123
3  4'123
or
or 0'562
= 3'562
17 and ffi is a surd. It is not
The exact solutions are surds. Observe that b 2  4ac
possible to solve this equation by hunting for factors in the usual manner.
(iii)
+1 0
b ..JlJ2 4ac
4x
2X2
wh~ea 2,b
(4) ..J(4)2  4 x 2 x 1
..Jr:16~=8
4 .[8
4+.[8
4.[8
4
or
212
or
2+J2
or
4  2J2
2J2
2
(since .[8
212)
(Exact solutions)
~ 1'707
or 0293
(12 ~ 1414)
The exact solutions are surds. Observe that b 2  4ac
possible to solve this equation by trying for factors.
(iv)
4X2
+ 5x
 2 = 0
b
4ac
..J~b2
5
+8 J57
5
7'550
= 0'319
or
5 
where a
.J57
= 4, b = 5, c = 2
(Exact solutions)
5  7'550
or~~
or 1'569
EXERCISES 3(m)
Solve the following quadratic equations using the formula, giving solutions in simplest
surd form and correct to 3 decimal places where necessary:
1.
X2
6x
2.
X2
2x  8 = 0
j
3. X2  6x  7 = 0
5. X2 + 2x  1 = 0
7. X2  2x  5 = 0
X2  2x  9 = 0
X2  15x + 56 = 0
2X2 + 5x + 1 = 0
2X2 + 3x + 1 = 0
3x2 + 2x  2 = 0
X2 + 6x + 1 = 0
21. 2X2  X  3 = 0
23. 4X2  9x + 4 = 0
25. 2X2 + X = 3
27. 2X2 + 6x + 1 = 0
29. x 2 = 2x + 2
31. 2X2 = 3x + 4
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
33. x 2 + 17 x = 60
35. 3x 2  15 = 0
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.
14.
16.
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
30.
32.
34.
36.
x 2  7x + 10 = 0
x 2  6x + 4 = 0
x 2 + 5x  1 = 0
X2 + 4x + 2 = 0
X2 + 2x  15 = 0
2X2  8x + 3 = 0
2X2  3x = 0
2X2 + 3x  5 = 0
x 2  8x + 16 = 0
5x2  7x  2 = 0
3x2  11 x  4 = 0
x(x + 3) = 2
2X2  6x = 3
X2 = 6x + 2
2x2 + lOx + 5 = 0
3x2 + 9x + 5 = 0
x(x + 1) = 1
x
X2 + 2x = 120
x 2 + 2x  120 = 0
(x + 12)(x  10) = 0
x + 12 = 0 or x  10 = 0
x+2
x = 12 or x = 10
However, since x is a number that measures length, x cannot be negative. We can accept
only the solution x = 10. In this case one dimension is 10 cm and the other is 12 cm.
Equation (1) should be x(x + 2) = 120, x > O.
Note: The Null Factor Law, which we use to solve quadratic equations, states that if
ab = 0, then a = 0 or b = 0 or a = b = O.
You should observe that it is not necessary for both a and b to be zero. So long as one of
them is zero~ then ab = O. Thus, in practical problems, we sometimes have to reject one of
the solutions.
EXAMPLE 22
The height h m of a stone t seconds after being thrown vertically upwards is given by the
equation h = 30t  5t 2 After what time is the stone at a height of 40m?
h = 30t  5t 2
Thus
40 = 30t  5t 2 when h = 40
5t 2  30t + 40 = 0
5( t 2  6t + 8) = 0
5(t  2)(t  4) = 0
t  2 = 0 or t  4
t = 2 or t = 4
Are both of these values of t acceptable? Why?
=0
EXERCISES 3(n)
1. In each of the following diagrams, the measurements are in cm. Find x in each case.
The area of the shaded regions is given in each case.
x +5
(a)
( )
(b)
c
(x 1)
(x
Area
x +1
+ 2)
r,
3
x+3
x+4
Area = 20 em1
40 em1
(e)
(d)
Area = 33 em1
x
4
x
+(X+3)~
Area = 44 em 1
Area = 22 em 1
2. In each of the following rightangled triangles, use the Theorem of Pythagoras to find
the value of x. Measurements are in cm.
(a)
xl
(c)
x+3
(d)
x+3
3. The sum of a certain positive number and the square of that number is 12. What is the
number?
_ 4. The product of two numbers is 88. What are the numbers if one number is 3 more
than the other?
5. The product of two consecutive numbers is 72. What are the numbers?
6. The height h m of a stone t seconds after being thrown vertically upwards is given by
h = 40t  5t 2 At what times is the stone at a height of (a) 60m, (b) 80m?
7. The sum of the square of a positive number and four times the number is 60. What is
the number?
12. In a rightangled triangle, one of the sides adjacent to the right angle is 4 cm longer
than the other side. Find the length of each of the three sides if the area of the triangle
is 96 cm 2
13. The perimeter of a rectangle is 40 cm and its area is 84 cm 2
(i) If the width of the rectangle is xcm, express the length in terms of x.
(ii) Write down the area of the rectangle in terms of x.
(iii) Form a quadratic equation in x and solve it to find the length and width.
are of first degree, e.g. x + y = 6, and there is an infinite number of values of x andy that
(0, 6), (1, 5), (2, 4), (4, 2), (8, 14), ...
If the coefficients are equal and opposite 'in sign, eliminate by addition.
If the coefficients are equal and have the same sign, eliminate by
subtraction.
EXAMPLE 23
Solve the simultaneous equations x
+y
= 6
2.
and x  y
x+y=6
xy=2
......................... (1)
(2)
Elimination: Since the coefficients of yare equal and opposite in sign, we can eliminate y
by adding both sides of (1) and (2).
,'. 2x = 8
x
+y
Put x = 4 in (1)
:,4
Substitution:
y = 2
From (1), y
6
2
6+x=2
2x
8
x = 4
From (1), y
6
= 6 
EXAMPLE 24
Solve the simultaneous equations 3x
+ 2y
= 10 and 4x
3x + 2y
4x + 3y
+ 3y
= 13,
10
= 13
(2)
i'
Put x
12
+ 6y = 30
+ 6y = 26
+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (3)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (4)
x = 4
2y = 10
2y = 2
y = 1
10  3x
y =
2
10 2 3x f or y III
. (2)
SubstItute
:. 4x
8x
3(10 ;
3(10  3x) = 26
+ 30  9x = 26
8x
3x)
13
(Multiply by 2)
= 4
x=4
Put x = 4 in (1)
12 + 2y = 10
2y = 2
y = 1
Sometimes it is necessary to simplify and tidy up one or both of the equations before
solving.
x
EXAMPLE 25
Solve for x and y:
:!+l=1
...................... (1)
7
4
...................... (2)
6
4
3x _ x  Y
4
2
Multiply (1) by 12. Why?
:. 2x
3y
= 12
...................... (3)
...................... (4)
= 3
Test your solutions by putting x = 3 and y = 2 into both (1) and (2).
EXERCISES 3(0)
Solve these simultaneous equations.
l.x+7y=5
x
7y
9
2. x + 5y = 34
x  5y = 6
3. 4x  5y
4x  2y
30
24
+ 5y =
16
5. 2m + 3n =
3m + 2n
8. 5x + 2y
9x  7y =
11. 2x + 3y =
3y
4
4x  5y
4. 3x  y = 5
5x + 3y = 8
7. x
+ 5y
2x
, 10. 2x
lOx
13. Y
y
13
=7
4x  2
3x + 5
14.
+ 8y
= 42
9x  (x  2y)
78
16. 3(x  y)
x  4
3(x
6. 2x
3x
14
17
= 4(y
=9
_6a__b = 9
+ 7y
+ 5y
4
5
9. 2a
3b = 5
2a  5b = 1
5
2) = 2y
17. 3a  2b
4
6
9
+ 2)
+ 20
12. 5m
2m
6n
9n
15. 2x
_l
4
x + 3y
12
= 20
5
1
4
18. x  3 = 2y
+ 1
3
3x  1
2y + 1
5  2 =
20. 2(3a  b)
= 3(a + b)
3(a  4b) + 46
5a
22. 5(x + y) + 2(x  y) = 15
5x + 6(y  2) = 0
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
EXAMPLE 27
In a pen consisting of rabbits and chickens I counted 25 heads and 80 legs. Assuming that
each rabbit has 4 legs and each chicken has 2 legs, how many rabbits and chickens are
there?
Let x equal the number of rabbits and y equal the number of chickens.
x + y = 25 (There are 25 heads) .............. (1)
4x + 2y = 80 (There are 80 legs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (2)
Multiply (1) by 2.
:. 2x
4x
+
+
2y = 50
2y
80
.................................. (3)
(4)
Put x = 15 in (1).
15
+y
25
10
mx + c is the equation of a straight line. If the line contains the points (1, 8) and
<2, 1), form a pair of simultaneous equations in m and c and solve these equations.
y=mx+c
8 = m + c (y = 8 when x
1) ................... (1)
1
2m + c (y
1 when x = 2) ................ (2)
Subtract (2) from (1).
:. 9 = 3m
m = 3
Put m = 3 in (1).
:. 8 = 3 + c
c
5
y = 3x + 5 is the equation of the line.
y
EXERCISES 3(p)
1. There are 450 students at a particular school. If there are 50 more boys than girls, how
many boys and girls are there?
2. A contractor has 8 trucks, some of which carry a load of 10 tonnes and others a load
of 5 tonnes. When the 8 trucks are filled, they contain a total load of 70 tonnes. How
many of each size of truck does the contractor own?
3. A father is 7 times as old as his daughter. In 5 years' time he will be 4 times as old as
his daughter will be then. Howald is each one now?
4. John's mother is 5 times as old as John is. Three years ago, she was 9 times his age.
What are their present ages?
5. Admission costs to a theatre are adults $5, children $2. If 1000 people paid to enter
the theatre and the total receipts were $3800, how many adults and children attended?
6. A box contains 50 coins made up of 10cent coins and 20cent coins. How many of
each are in the box if the value of the coins is $7?
7. The straight line ax + by = 12 contains the points (2, 2) and <4, 5). Form two
equations in a and b and solve them.
8. A person spent 6 nights at a motel and 5 nights at a hotel for a total cost of $250. If he
had spent 5 nights at the motel and 6 nights at the hotel, the cost would have been
$245. What is the cost per night at the motel and at the hotel?
12. The weekly wages of 5 carpenters and 3 apprentices amount to $1880 and the wages of
3 carpenters and 5 apprentices amount to $1640. Find the weekly wages of a carpenter
and an apprentice.
13. Find the equation of the straight line that contains the points
(i) (4, 1) and (1, 9)
(ii) (0, 4) and (1, 0)
(iii) (2, l~) and C4, 6)
(iv) (2, 4) and (6, 8)
EXAMPLE 29
Solve the simultaneous equations
y = X2
We are asked to find the coordinates of the point or points of intersection of the parabola
Y
X2 and the straight line y = x + 2.
This can be done either graphically, as shown in the diagram, or algebraically, by using
the method of substitution.
y = X2
y = x + 2
2 from (2).
x
X2 
X 
(x  2)(x
(1)
........................... (2)
2 = X2
2 = 0
1) = 0
x = 2 or 1
EXAMPLE 30
Solve the simultaneous equations
x + y = 5
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
X2
y2
25 .
We are asked to find the coordinates of the point or points of intersection of the straight
line x + y = 5 and the circle X2 + y2 = 25.
This can be done either graphically, as shown in the diagram, or algebraically, using the
method of substitution.
x+y=5
+ y2 25
X2
From (l),y = 5  x.
In place of y in (2) put 5  x.
Then
X2 + (5  X)2
X2 + 25  lOx + X2
2X2 
25
lOx
5x
x(x  5)
x
X2
. .......................... (1)
(2)
25
0
(Divide by 2)
0
0
0 or 5
EXERCISES 3(q)
Solve algebraically the
1. Y = 5x + 6
Y = X2
3. Y = x + 5
Y
X2  3x
5. Y = x  3
XY = 10
7. x + Y = 5
X2 + y2
13
9. x  y
1
xy = 2
11. y = 2x  6
X2  xy + 2y2
13. y  2x + 1 =
3y2  Y
2X2 =
15. x  y + 3 = 0
xy = 10
17. x + y
2
X2 + y2 = 2
19. x + 2y = 8
xy = 8
y = X2
4. x + y = 15
y = X2  6x + 1
6. y  2x = 1
X2 + y2 = 10
8. y = 2x  2
y = X2  X  2
10. y = 2x  5
y = X2  4x + 4
12. x + y = 5
16
3x2 + xy
y2 = 29
0
14. y  4x
8 = 0
0
y = 4  X2
16.
3x + y = 11
2X2  xy  y = 10
18. x = 2y  1
3x 2 = X + 2y2
20. y = x + 9
y = X2  X  6
EXAMPLE 31
Solve the simultaneous equations
3x + 2y = 4
x 2 + xy  y2 = 1
X2
3x + 2y
+ xy  y2
4
1
........................................................ (2)
From (1), 2y = 4  3x
4  3x
y=
4  3x
In place of y in (2) put 
Then
4
4
4
0
0
0
10
(Multiply by 4)
(Divide by 1)
x = II or 2
I
<
10
30
When x
II'
II + 2y = 4
30
When x
22y = 44
22y = 14
7
Y = II
(MUltiply by 11)
6 + 2y = 4
2y = 2
y = 1
2,
(!~,
7
11) and (2, 1).
+ y(4  2y) _ y2
9
3
(4  2y)2 + 3y(4  2y)  9y2
9
16
16y + 4y2 + 12y
6y2  9y2 = 9
lly2 4y + 7 = 0
l1y2 + 4y
7 = 0
(11 y  7)(y + 1) = 0
(4  2y)2
Then
y=
(Multiply by 9)
(Divide by 1)
7
7
14
When y = II'
3x + II
4
33x + 14
33x
x
When y
1.
=
=
44
30
10
(Multiply by 11)
II
3x  2
3x
x = 2 as before.
EXERCISES 3(r)
Solve algebraically the following simultaneous :equations.
1.
2x  5y = 3
2. Jy  4x = 0
X2  2y2  3x = 2
X2 + y2 = 25
3.
x + 2y = 3
4.
3x  2y
2
xy + 2x + y = 4
X2
xy + y2
21 .
5.
3x + 2y
1
6.
2x
3y + 1
xy + y2  Y = 8
xy + x + y = 23
CHAPTER 4
Plane
Geometry
4.1 Points and lines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
We represent points by dots. Perhaps we could define a point as a dot, but how then could
we define a dot? Perhaps we could define a dot as a point!
The word point we leave undefined, but we know that it has position and is infinitely
small. Thus it is impossible to draw a point. It is possible only to draw a dot or a mark that
represents a point.
Similarly, a line cannot be defined. It is not satisfactory to say that a line is an infinite
set of points, but we can think of it as such. When we use the term line, we shall consider it
as a straight line. A line continues indefinitely in both directions and has no width.
If A and B are any two points, we represent point, line, ray and line segment as follows:
Symbol
Meaning
Illustration
.A
A BorAB
...
ABor AB
A.
A.
Point
ABorAB
...
..
.B
Note: The notation AB may be used to describe a line, a ray, a line segment or the length
of an interval and the context will determine its meaning. For example, AB = CD is a
reference to lengths; X is a point on AB means that AB refers to a line segment.
4.2 An angle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
An angle is the union of two rays that have
the same endpoint. The common endpoint A
is called the vertex.
The angle can be named as angle BA C or
angle CAB or angle A.
Angle BA C is written as L BA Cor / BA C
or BAC.
A"''+~.....
The unit of angle size is the degree and it represents l!oth of a halfturn. The
magnitude of an angle is the amount of turning, measured in degrees, between the arms of
the angle and is denoted by mag L BA C or simply L BA C.
There is a positive real number between 0 and 180 that gives the measure of every angle.
The number that gives the measure of L BAC is denoted by m L BAC. It refers to the
number of degrees and does not include the unit.
If m L BA C = 30, then mag L BA C = 30. We say that angle BA C is an angle of 30 .
However, we shall use the notation L BAC or BAC to describe an angle or its magnitude
and so we shall simply say that L BA C = 30.
8
..
. ..
A
c
Right angle 90
Straight angle 1 80
Acute angle
C
Reflex angle
Obtuse angle
Adjacent angles
In the diagram, LA OB and L BOC have a
common arm OB. These angles are said to be
adjacent.
/D
A//O
B
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 87
Supplementary angles
Two angles are supplementary if their sum is 180. For example, LAOe and L.AOD are
supplementary.
Theorem:
If two straight lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal.
o
A,,.,,:;:B
a + c = 180
(Supplementary)
:. a + b = a + c
b
c
and so
LAOe = LBOD
Similarly
LAOD = L eOB
(The symbol :. means 'therefore'.)
Note: Throughout this chapter we will make certain statements without proving them.
Such statements are called axioms. Statements that are proved to be true are called
theorems.
An axiom is a statement that is accepted as true without proof
A theorem is a statement that is proved to be true.
EXERCISES 4(a)
Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following (1. to 12.):
I
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
7.
8.
cab70t (8 +2St
(2814)0 (4b
10)0
10.
13. Two straight lines PQ and XY intersect at a point R. If the rays RM and RN bisect
L QR Y and L PR Y respectively, prove that L NRM is a right angle.
14. From a point 0, rays OP, OQ, OR, OS are drawn all in the same plane and points P
and R are on opposite sides of the line SOQ. If L POQ = L ROQ, prove that L POS
LROS.
15. How many pairs of adjacent angles are formed when three straight lines intersect at a
point? How many pairs of vertically opposite angles are formed?
Two lines AB and CD are parallel if they are in the same plane and do not intersect. We
write AB II CD to indicate that the lines AB and CD are parallel.
The line PQ, which cuts across the parallel lines, is called a transversal.
L 1 and L 5, L 2 and L 6, L 3 and L 7, L 4 and L 8 are pairs of corresponding angles.
L 2 and L 8, L 3 and L 5 are pairs of alternate angles.
L 2 and L 5, L 3 and L 8 are pairs of cointerior angles.
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 89
If
1.
2.
3.
two lines are parallel and they are intersected by a transversal, then
corresponding angles are equal,
alternate angles are equal,
cointerior angles are supplementary.
EXERCISES 4(b)
Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following.
1.
2.
4.
5.
7.
8.
6.
10.
12.
'~
4 _ _ _ _ _
a+ b+ c = 180
eO
_ __
e= a+b
Theorem:
The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180.
.......:Io.C
A~:.:..
Theorem:
A n exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two remote
interior angles.
~~
____________
_____
~~e_o
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 91
" __1 C
A
BU..C
''~c
Obtuseangled triangle
(one angle > 90)
Rightangled triangle
(one angle = 90)
If AB = AC and LBAC
Since AB
LABC
Let LABC
:. 40 + 2a
a
XO
40, find x.
AC, f:.:.ABC is
XO
isosceles
A ."....;...;;..+
c
E
= LACB
aO
= 180 (angle sum of f:.:. = 180)
= 70
= L BA C + L ABC
(exterior angle = sum of interior
= 40 + 70
opposite angles)
110
110
EXAMPLE 2
If DA = DB
right angle.
A cuteangled triangle
(each angle < 90)
B
EXAMPLE 1
Solution:
B'C
= DC,
A ..e::....:;..._ _ _ _..;;._.... B
I .
Proof:
L DAB = L DBA
L DCB = L DBC
In LABC,
(6.DAB is isosceles)
(6.DCB is isosceles)
EXERCISES 4(c)
Write down the value of the pronumerals in each of the following (1. to 12.):
4:
2.
3.
5.
6.
8.
9.
II
10.
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 93
BL..I.fI'"
Note: The word "collinear" means "in the same straight line".
14. If one angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the other two angles, prove that the
triangle is rightangled.
A
8
15. Given that AC = CB and DC
prove that AB II DE.
CE,
0'"'" E
16. ABC is a rightangled isosceles triangle with the right angle at C. D and E are points
L BCE. Prove that 6 CDE is isosceles.
on AB such that L ACD
= 90.
18. In each of the two situations, prove that 6ABX and 6CDX are equiangular, i.e. the
angles are equal, given that AB and CD are parallel.
X "'''
A
0
21. The three angles of a triangle are in the ratio 3:5:7. Find the magnitude of each angle.
22. ABC is a triangle in which AB = AC. AB is produced to D so that BD = BC. Prove
that LACB = 2 LDCB.
4.5 Quadrilaterals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A quadrilateral is a plane closed figure
bounded by four straight lines. If we join
one of the diagonals, say AC, the
quadrilateral is divided into two triangles
ABC andADC.
Sum of angles of DABC = 180 0
Sum of angles of DADC
180 0
... Sum of angles of quadrilateral ABCD =
.... ....
Special quadrilaterals:
(a) Parallelogram
..
(c) Rhombus
(d) Square
.... ....
.... ....
........
DL.::.I C
360 0
(e) Trapezium
.... ....
..
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 95
EXAMPLE 3
Prove that the opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.
~I
concave
polygon
Theorem:
Construction: Join the vertices of the polygon to any point 0 inside it.
Proof: The polygon is divided into n triangles. The sum of the angles of each triangle is
2 right angles and so the sum of all the angles in the figure is 2n right angles.
Theorem:
If the sides of a convex polygon are produced in order, the sum of the
exterior angles so formed is 4 right angles.
Proof: At each vertex of the polygon, the sum of the interior and exterior angles is 2 right
angles. Since there are n vertices, the sum of all the interior and exterior angles is
2n right angles. The sum of all the interior angles is (2n  4) right angles. Hence,
4) right angles
4 right angles.
the sum of all the exterior angles is 2n  (2n
Regular
Octagon
EXAMPLE 4
Find the size of an interior angle of a regular octagon.
Sum of the interior angles = (2n  4) right angles
= 12 right angles when n = 8
1080
I
1080
E ac h mtenor ang e = 8
Alternatively
Sum of exterior angles
135
4 right angles
360
45
180  45
= 135
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 97
EXERCISES 4(d)
1. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB is parallel to DC. The bisectors of angles A and D
intersect at E. Prove that L AED = 90.
2. ABCD is a rhombus in which L BAC
65
(a) Write down 3 other angles whose size
is 65.
25.
angles.
__8
DI:.~
3. Calculate the number of degrees in each interior angle of a regular (a) pentagon
(b) hexagon (c) decagon.
4. Calculate the number of degrees in each exterior angle of a regular (a) pentagon
(b) hexagon (c) decagon.
S. How many sides has a regular polygon, each of whose angles is (a) 90 (b) 108
(c) 165 (d) 160 (e) 168 (f) 170?
6. How many sides has a regular polygon, each of whose exterior angles is (a) 45 (b) 24
(c) 22!0 (d) 10.
7. Show that it is not possible for a regular polygon to have angles of 152.
8. Each interior angle of a regular polygon is 8 times an exterior angle. How many sides
has the polygon?
9. Three of the angles of a pentagon are 98, 112 and 114. If the other two are equal,
what is their size?
AU8DDE
In the diagram above, LABC and LDEF are congruent. The three angles of one
triangle have the same si?:e as the three angles of the other and the sides opposite these
angles are equal in length, i.e.
LA = LD
BC
EF
LB
LE
AC=DF
LC = LF
AB
DE
LABC == LDEF, where == means "is congruent to".
In order to prove that two triangles are congruent, it can be sho~n that it is sufficient to
prove that:
.~~
(1) two sides and the included angle of one triangle are respectively equal
to two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS);
(2) the three sides oj one triangle are respectively equal to the three sides
oj the other triangle (SSS);
(3) two angles and a side oj one triangle are respectively equal to two
angles and the corresponding side oj the other triangle (ASA);
(4) the hypotenuse and one side oj a rightangled triangle are equal to
the hypotenuse and the corresponding side oj the other rightangled
triangle (RHS).
You will observe that two triangles are not necessarily congruent if
three angles of one triangle are equal to the three angles of the other triangle
(AAA);
(a) the
4/PLANE GEOMETRY 99
(b) two sides and an angle opposite one of these sides of one triangle are equal to two
sides and the corresponding angle of the other triangle (ASS).
(1)
(2)
(3)
possible to draw two different triangles, (1) and (2), that are not congruent.
EXAMPLE 5
Prove that (a) the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal;
(b) the line drawn from the vertex of an isosceles triangle to the midpoint of
the base is perpendicular to the base.
A
Given:
To prove:
Construction:
Proof:
= AC
= 90
Join vertex A to midpoint P of base
(a) In 6ABP and 6A CP,
BP = CP (construction)
AB
AC (given)
LACB
(b) LAPB
L..flLff~C
:. LABP = LACP
(b) It also follows from the congruent triangles that
LAPB
LAPC
=
180
90
EXAMPLE 6
Prove that the opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram are equal.
,..........:::;;1IC
________     J
L ADC, L DCB
L DAB
EXAMPLE 7
ABCD is a square, P, Q and R are points on AB, BC and CD respectively such that
AP = BQ
CR.
Prove that (a) PQ
QR
p
A
B
(b) LPQR
90
Proo!, In 6PBQ and 6 QCR
PB
QC
('.' AP
BQ and AB = BC)
Q
BQ
CR (given)
L PBQ
L QCR (right angles)
:, 6PBQ
QCR (SAS)
c
R
D
(a) :. PQ
QR
(b) L BPQ L RQC C: 6s are congruent)
:. LRQC + LBQP = 90
:. LPQR
90 (': L~QC + LBQP + LPQR = 180)
EXERCISES 4(e)
A~B
D~C
A~
_ _ _.....,B
D .LlyB...... C
..._ _ _ _...,.0
S 11:.'
DC,
8 1'.... C
E
(ii) BC = BD.
DOE
~+J
that
(i) LABD = LACD,
(ii) L BAD = L CAD.
11. ABCD is a square. X and Yare points on BC and CD respectively such that
BX
(a) AX
BY,
(b) AX ..L BY.
DF.
Show that AE = FC and AE II FC.
J21YE
A,..;::_ _ _~B
IC _ _ _""
L."':::'o"~
Z>;<ZQ
x::::r
;JCyB
..".8
D ""_ _ _Jf
;:SS;;S;B
23. PQR is an isosceles triangle with PQ PR. SQR is also an isosceles D. with SQ = SR
and S is on the side of QR opposite to P. Prove that
(a) D.PQS == D.PRS,
(b) P, X and S are collinear, where X is the midpoint of QR.
l:'kl
Dye
26. ABCD is a parallelogram. P and Q are points on AB and CD respectively such that
AP = CQ. Prove that the perpendicular distances of P and Q from the diagonal BD
are equal.
27. Prove that if one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal and parallel, then
the other pair of opposite sides are also equal and parallel.
29. Which of the quadrilaterals (a) parallelogram (b) rectangle (c) rhombus (d) square
(e) trapezium possess the following properties:
(i) opposite sides are equal,
(ii) opposite angles are equal,
(iii) diagonals bisect each other,
A
(iv) diagonals are equal,
(v) diagonals are at right angles.
30. ABC is an acuteangled triangle. The
bisector of angle A meets the perpendi
cular bisector of BC at P.
(a) Prove that DPBM == DPCM and
hence that PB = PC.
(b) Draw perpendicular lines PX and
PY to AB and AC respectively.
Prove that DAPX
DAPY and
hence that AX
A Y and P X
PY.
(c) Prove that DPXB == DPYC and
hence that XB = YC.
(d) Hence show that AB
AC.
If the intercepts cut off on one transversal by three (or more) parallel
lines are equal, the intercepts cut off by them on any other transversal are
also equal.
Given: ABC and DEF are two transversals of three parallel lines AD, BE, CF and
AB = BC
To prove: DE = EF
Construction: Draw DG and EH parallel to A C
Proof' ADGB is a parallelogram
DG
AB (opposite sides of II gram are equal)
BEHC is a parallelogram
EH = BC (opposite sides of II gram are equal)
But AB = BC (given)
DG = EHandDG II EH
In D.DGE and D.EHF
DG
EH (proved)
L DEG
L EFH (BE II CF)
DE
EF
Theorem:
~::'''c~ F
BL~
~BC
~DF
DE
!BC
2
c
2. E, F, G and H are the midpoints of the
E
A
(a) AB II SR,
(b) BC II PQ,
(c) the points A, Band C are collinear.
~(PQ +
..
SR).
AI
/
~8
..
6. Prove that the three straight lines joining the midpoints of any two of the three sides
of an equilateral triangle, divides the triangle into four equilateral triangles.
7. D is the midpoint of the side BC of ,6,ABC. Perpendicular lines BX, DY and CZ are
drawn from B, D and C respectively to any straight line through A. Prove that
XY
YZ.
:~:
a rhombus.
ORe
p .........     _____:..:::....1
A~~
AB
BC
CA
PQ
QR
RP
The tests for similarity of the triangles ABC and PQR are:
(a) LA = L P; L B
L Q; L C = L R.
(b) AB = BC
CA
'PQ QR
RP
AB
AC
(c) PQ = PR and LA
LP.
We use the symbol
'is similar to'.
1\1
,6,ABC
1\1
,6,PQR
EXAMPLE 8
If PQ II BC, prove that 6APQ III 6ABC.
Proof' In 6APQ and 6ABC,
L APQ = L ABC (corresponding angles)
L AQP = L ACB (corresponding angles)
L QAP L CAB (common angle)
A
3cm
P 2cm 8
:. The triangles are equiangular and so 6APQ III 6ABC.
Note: To prove that two triangles are.eqtiianglilar,it is sufficient to prove that .two
angles of one triangle are equal to two angles of the other. Why?
Since the two triangles overlap, it is convenient to draw them separately .
..c
Q
ALjp
_ _ _ _ _LI
3cm
The
AP _
AB The
AQ _ PQ _ 3
AC  BC  .5
If AQ
If BC
3'6cm, AC
3" x 3'6
3'2cm, PQ =
.53
x 32
6cm.
= 192cm.
A
EXAMPLE 9
Given:
To prove:
Proof'
L PAB
L BQC
L PAB
L BQC (given)
If AB = 42 cm and BQ
6ABP.
BC
BP
BP
or BC
BQ
AB
AB
BQ
CQ _ 2
AP  3"
AP
3
CQ
2
If PB = 3 cm, BC
= 3"2 x 3 cm = 2 cm
If CQ = 2'4cm, AP =
2:3
x 24cm
3'6cm
EXERCISES 4(g)
1. If the length of each side of a triangle is doubled, will the resulting triangle be similar
to the original one?
2. (a)
(b)
...c
8'~
~
3. If L S
L Q,
(a) prove DPST III DRQT,
. PS
PT
(b) complete the ratios RQ =
ST
5
p
4. If ST II QR,
(a) prove DPST III DPQR,
. PS
?
(b) comp Iete t h e ratIos PQ = QR
= PR'
. AB AC BC
6. Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following pairs of similar triangles:
(a)
(b)
3'5
(d)~
55
(c)
X~~'.5
7. (a)
(b)
AotC'._3
The instrument in (b) is called a pantograph; it is used for copying drawings, plans,
etc. on an enlarged scale from the original. The four rulers are loosely hinged at E, B,
F and D and can be moved at E and F so that EBFD is a parallelogram. Point C is
fixed. As point D moves around the original drawing, point A traces out an
enlargement. If E is at the midpoint of AB, what is the enlargement factor?
8. Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following pairs of similar triangles:
(a)
(b)
(g)
(h)
(j)
(i)
OJ) If A Y
5 cm, YC = 25 cm, XY = 8 cm, find BC.
Shadow
Shadow
Vicky's height is 1'6 m and the length of her shadow is 2'4 m. What is the height of
the tree if its shadow is 36 m long?
T
If EF = 1'6m, FM
0'8m and
MR
10m, what is the height of the
wall?
F Q8m M
R,
12. A stick 1 metre long placed vertically on the ground casts a shadow 60 cm long, and at
the same time a building casts a shadow 3 m long. What is the height of the building?
13. Jan is 12 m tall and casts a shadow 36 m long. Her friend Paul, who is standing next
to her, is 16 m tall. What is the length of his shadow?
L
:;:"',
// i
I"
2m ,
Shadow
3m
~
~ ~~~ ~ ~
4m
hillside is 80 m?
1 0 _ _
.~ 1
G
R
BC.
~~
reach?
h,ADFIII h,DBE.
behind P?
.,.,..'
"
............
""
,,'
.......
.............
C 4
F
A
G X F
10m
3m
26. A straight line through the vertex A of a parallelogram ABCD meets BC at E and DC
produced at F. Prove that
(a) DABE III DCEF (b) DABE III DADF
. AB
BE
=
DEDA. State two ratios each of which is equal to ~~.
30. D, E and F are the midpoints of BC, CA and AB respectively of DABC. Prove that
DABC III DDEF. What is the ratio of their corresponding sides?
Given:
To prove:
Construction:
Proof'
,
\1
DABC with LA = 90
BC2 = AB2 + AC2
Draw AD 1. BC
In DABD and DABC
LBDA
LBAC (right angles)8
LDBA
LABC
(common angle)
LBAD = LACB
(third angles equal)
DABDIII DABC
AB
BD
BC
AB
i.e.
. AB2
BC. BD
In DACD and DABC
LADC = LBAC (right angles)
LACD = LACB (common angle)
LDAC = LABC (third angles equal)
DACDIII DABC
AC
DC
BC
AC
i.e.
AC2 = BC.DC
Add (1) and (2)
:. AB2 + AC2 = BC.BD + BC.DC
= BC(BD + DC)
BC.BC
= BC2
(1)
(2)
~! i.e. DA 2
DB. DC (3)
c
Given:
To prove:
Construction:
Proof:
AB = DE
(construction)
BC
EF
(construction)
A C = FD
(proved)
:. 6ABC == 6DEF
(SSS)
. LABC = LDEF
90
(since L DEF = 90)
90
EXERCISES 4(h)
1. Calculate the length of the diagonal of a rectangle whose sides are: (a) 5 cm, 12 cm;
.
(b) 8 m, 10 m; (c) 15 cm, 36 cm.
2. Calculate the length of the diagonal of a square whose side is: (a) 5 m; (b) 36 cm. _,
3. Calculate the length of the side of a square whose diagonal is: (a) 12 cm; (b) 6.J2 cm.
4. Calculate the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose'side is 10 cm.
5. Calculate the length of each side of a rhombus whose diagonals are: (a) 12 cm, 16 cm;
(b) 4 cm, 9'6 cm.
6. The lengths of the sides of a rhombus and the length of one diagonal are respectively
20 cm, 24 cm. Calculate the length of the other diagonal.
7. A motorist starts from a point A and travels 32 km north, 24 km east, 25 km south
and finally returns to A. What is the total distance travelled?
8. Two roads intersect at right angles. Two cars start at the same time from the inter
section. One travels at 60 km/h along one road and the other travels at 80 km/h along
the other road. How far apart are they after (a) 6 min, (b) 15 min, (c) 30 min,
(d) 36 min, (e) 45 min, (f) 60 min?
9. In figure (a), AB = 5 cm, BC = 6cm, DE
10cm, AD
CD.
(a)
(b)
o
A
Bn?'_uE
c
B
10~'
In figure (b), AB
24 cm, AC
CD
11. The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are each 13 cm long and the base length is
10cm. Calculate the height of the triangle.
12. Calculate the length of the altitude of the isosceles triangles whose side lengths are
(a) 10cm, 10cm, 12cm
(b) 25cm,25cm, 14cm
(c) 52cm, 5'2cm, 4cm
(d) 3cm, 3cm, 36cm
24
I'
1
18
11
B
square?'
15. Two vertical poles standing on horizontal ground at points 9 m apart are of lengths
6 m and 12 m. Find the length of the straight wire joining the tops of the poles.
16. ABC is a triangle in which AB is greater than AC. AD is drawn perpendicular to BC.
Prove that
AB2
AB2
+ BC2
AD2
+ DC2
20. PQR is a triangle, right. angled at P. S is any point on PQ and T is any point on PR.
Prove that
QT2
+ RS2
QR2
+ ST2
AD2 = AE2
+ 3ED2
'
2BX. Prove
4.11 Area _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Area of rectangle = lb
= length x width
b
h
I
Area of triangle
21 area of rectangle
!bh
2 base x
1
height
Area of trapezium
= area
h,ADC
= !ah
+ !bh
+ area
h,ABC
= 2<a + b)h
1
..
.
= 2: sum of II sides x
Area of rhombus
= area
h,ADB
= 2:DB . AO
..L
height
area h,BCD
~+",,8
+ 2:DB . OC
= !DB(AO +
~C)
..
= 2:DB . AC
1
EXERCISES 40)
1. Write down the area and perimeter of the following rectangles: (a) length 20 cm,
width 8 cm; (b) length 10 m, width 5 m; (c) length 122 m, width 150 cm; (d) length
18 cm, width 120 mm.
~i
2. Find, in hectares, the area of the following rectangles: (a) length 150 m, width 90 m;
(b) length 3 km, width 120m; (c) length 2 km, width 05 km; (d) length 180m, width
40m.
3. Find the perimeter of the following rectangles: (a) area 84 cm2, length 14 cm; (b) area
144 m2, width 240 cm; (c) area 5 ha, length 1 km; (d) area 72 ha, length 800 m.
4. Find the area of the following squares: (a) length 25 cm, (b) length 16 m,
(c) perimeter 24 cm, (d) perimeter 140 m.
5. Find the perimeter of the following squares: (a) length 31 cm, (b) area 49 m2,
(c) length 130 m, (d) area 256 cm2, (e) area 16 ha, (f) area 225 ha.
6. A room 10 m by 8 m has a rectangular carpet that leaves a border 05 m all round.
What is the area of the carpet?
7. A rectangular swimming pool 30 m by
20 m has a concrete path 3 m wide all
round. What is the area of the path?
30m
~~
20m
~
'' 
~.;
8. A rectangular field has dimensions 600 m by 250 m. How many tonnes of fertilizer are
needed if it is to be applied at the rate of 70 kg per hectare?
9. How many rectangularliles 10 cm by 5 cm are needed to cover a rectangular benchtop
3m by 2m?
10. The perimeter of a rectangle whose length is twice its width is 36 cm. What is its area?
11. The perimeters of a square and of a rectangle whose length is twice its width are each
24 cm. Show that their areas are in the.ratio 9:8.
12. To cover a rectangular benchtop, 400 tiles each 10 cm by 5 cm are used. If square tiles
of length 4 cm are used, how many would be needed?
13. The dimensions of a rectangle are both increased by 10 per cent. What is the
percentage increase' in the area?
14. The midpoints of the sides of a 2 m
square are joined to form a smaller
square. What is the ratio of their areas?
15. Find the area of the following triangles. (The use of the Theorem of Pythagoras will
be necessary in some cases.) All measurements are in cm.
(C)~
(b)
10
26
35
(f)
(d)
72
(e)28~
50
16
16. (i) Find the area of the coloured region in each of the following. (Measurements are
in cm.)
3
(a)
(c)
(b)
12
(d)
(f)
(e) 1.5
17
24
.J .
(ii) Find also the perimeter of the coloured regions (b) to (f).
17. A motor mower cuts strips 40cm wide. After 6 journeys with no overlaps round 4
sides of a rectangular lawn 32 m by 26 m, what percentage of the lawn has been
mowed?
18. If the length of each side of a square is increased by 50070, by what percentage is the
area increased?
CHAPTER 5
Probability
If we toss a coin, a head may turn up or it may not turn up. Since a head or a tail must
turn up, there are two possible outcomes, H or T, and each is equally likely. We say that
Number of tosses
10
50
100
200
500
Number of heads
If you toss the coin 10 times, how many heads would you expect? If you toss the coin 50
times, how many heads would you expect? Would you be surprised if you didn't get
exactly the number you expected?
An American soldier, while a prisoner of war in World War II, performed the
experiment of tossing a coin 1000 times. He actually performed the experiment 10 times
and obtained the following numbers of heads: 502, 511, 497, 529, 504,476,507,528,504,
529.
r;;l r;:;l
~ ~
[;]
Faces
Die
A die (plural: 'dice') is a small cube with its 6 faces numbered with dots from 1 to 6 as
shown in the diagram. If the die is rolled on a table, one of the 6 numbers will appear
uppermost; for example, in the diagram, 5 appears uppermost.
Each number is equally likely to turn up. Why?
What is the probability that a 5 will appear uppermost? There are 6 possible outcomes
and one of these 6, namely the 5, is favourable to what we want. Thus the probability of
.
. 1
a 5 appeanng uppermost
P (5) =
IS {
This can be expressed in a variety of ways. There is a 1 to 6 chance that a 5 will turn up.
The odds are 5 to 1 against a 5 turning up. This means that, for every 1 favourable
/' outcome, there are 5 unfavourable outComes.
We may define probability as being the ratio of the number of favourable ol,ltcomes to
the number of possible outcomes, assuming that the outcomes are equally likely. The
probability P (A) of a particular result A is given by:
(A)
60
120
240
300
600
5/PROBABILITY 123
the probability is I?
If there are no favourable outcomes, then the probability is O. Many athletes have run
in a 100metre race but no athlete has run the distance in 5 seconds. Thus the probability
that an athlete will run 100m in 5 s is O. Probability that a 7 will appear when a die is
rolled =
o <;
P (A) <; 1
To win Lotto, you must usually pick the 6 winning numbers and you have the 40
numbers 1 to 40 to pick from. The number of different ways you can pick 6 numbers when
you have 40 to pick from is 3 838380 and only one of these is favourable.
Probability of picking the 6 winning numbers
The following table shows the number of live births and the number of males and
females born in Australia over the threeyear period 1975 to 1977.
Year
Live births
Males
Females
Proportion
of males
1975
1976
1977
233012
227810
226291
119850
116838
116551
113162
110972
109740
0'514
0513
0'515
With rare exceptions, statistics over the years indicate a slight excess of male over
female births.
number of males born
P (a newborn child is a boy)
total number of births
~ 051
Life assurance companies prepare 'life tables', Which show the number of Australian
people per 100000 alive at any given age. Such a table shows, for example, that after 60
years 74251 are expected to be alive.
P (an Australian will live until age 60) =
17062~~ ~
074
The probabilities of the events discussed are shown on the scale on page 124.
EXAMPLE 1
A die is rolled on the floor. What is the probability that the nu.mber appearin~ uppermost
is (0 odd, (ii) divisible by 3, (iii) odd or divisible by 3, (iv) odd and divisibl4 by 3?
As we have seen, there are 6 possible outcomes as a result of rolling a die and they are
equally likely.
(i) There are 3 odd numbers, namely 1, 3, 5, and hence 3 favourable outcomes.
3
1
:.P(odd)
6
2
(ii) There are 2 numbers divisible by 3, namely 3, 6, and hence 2 favourable outcomes.
=~ =~
:. P (divisible by 3)
:. P (odd or divisible by 3)
=~ =~
(iv) 3 is the only number that is odd and also divisible by 3; hence there is only 1
favourable outcome.
Certain
og
oa
07
06
A newborn child will be a boy
05
04
03
02
m
n
P(A) = n  m
i.e.
I P(A)
m
n
+ P(A)
=II
1  P(A)
"
5/PROBABILITY 125
EXAMPLE 2
A die is rolled on the floor. What is the probability that the number appearing uppermost
is not 4?
1
P(a 4 appears uppermost)
6
1
5
:. P(a 4 does not appear uppermost) = 1
,,
+
A
5~
of
~+ 4
tit
+ +.5
EXAMPLE 3
From a pack of 52 playing cards one card is drawn at random. What is the probability that
it is (i) a diamond, (ii) not a spade, (iii) an ace, (iv) a diamond or an ace, (v) a diamond and
an ace, (vi) a heart and the ace of clubs?
There are 52 equally likely outcomes.
(i) There are 13 diamonds and so
P (diamond)
= ~~
(ii) There are 13 spades and hence 39 cards that are not spades.
:. P (not a spade)
~~
16
4
:. P (diamond or an ace) 52
T3
(v) The ace of diamonds is the only card that is a diamond and also an ace .
(vi) There is no card that is a heart and also the ace of clubs.
:. P (heart and the ace of clubs) = 0
EXERCISES 5(a)
1. Select 20 lines in a page of a novel. Count the number of times each letter of the
alphabet appears. Would you expect each of the 26 letters of the alphabet to be used
in Hobart.
4. Would the following have probabilities close to 0, 0'5 or I?
(a) A person will die because of accidental drowning.
(b) A student in your class has fair hair.
(c) There will be an aircraft crash in Australia today.
(d) The cost of living will increase this year.
(e) A household has a television set.
(f) It will rain in Sydney tomorrow.
5. Perform this experiment. From a bag containing 7 black marbles and 3 white
marbles, withdraw a marble, note its colour and then replace it in the bag. Shuffle the
marbles and then withdraw a marble again. Repeat 10, 50, 100, 150, 200 times.
Complete the following table:
Number of withdrawals
10
50
100
150
200
20
40
60
80
100
Number of hearts
5/PROBABILITY 127
10. A set of 20 cards is numbered 1, 2, 3, ... 20. A card is drawn at random from the set.
What is the probability that the number on it is divisible by (i) 3, (ii) 5, (iii) 3 or 5 or
both, (iv) 3 and 5?
11. A die with its faces numbered 1 to 6 is rolled on the floor. What is the probability that
the number appearing uppermost is (i) greater than 2, (ii) greater than 3 but less than
5, (iii) odd, (iv) odd and divisible by 3?
12. A set of 10 cards is numbered 3, 4, 5, ... 12. A card is drawn at random. What is the
probability that the number on it is (i) even, (ii) odd, (iii) odd or even, (iv) greater than
7, (v) divisible by 3, (vi) even and divisible by 3, (vii) divisible by 5, (viii) odd or
divisible by 5, but not both?
13. A letter is chosen at random from the letters of the word 'Sunday'. What is the
probability that it is (i) a vowel, (ii) a consonant, (iii) 'd' or 'a'?
14. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. What is the probability
that it is (i) a heart, (ii) a king, (iii) a heart or a king, (iv) a heart and a king, (v) the
queen of diamonds?
15. A digit is chosen at random from the digits 7, 8, 9, ... 15. What is the probability
that the digit is (i) odd, (ii) odd and divisible by 5, (iii) odd but not divisible by 5, (iv) a
multiple of 2, (v) a multiple of 3, (vi) a multiple of both 2 and 3, (vii) a multiple of 2 or
3, (viii) a multiple of 2 or 3, but not both?
16. In a group of 25 students, 18 study French, 12 study German and 5 study neither
French nor German. If a student is chosen at random, what is the probability that he
or she studies (i) French only, (ii) German only, (iii) French or German or both,
(iv) both French and German?
17. A bag contains 5 blue marbles, 3 red marbles and 2 green marbles. One marble is
drawn at random from the bag. What is the probability that it is 0) blue, (ii) red,
(iii) not green, (iv) blue or green, (v) not red nor blue?
18. A box has marbles of the same size but different coloursred, white and blue. If a
marble is drawn out at random, the probability that it is red is the same as the
probability that it is white and twice the probability that it is blue.
(i) What is the smallest number of marbles the box could have?
(ii) If a marble is chosen at random, what is the probability that it is (a) red,
(b) white, (c) red or white, (d) not blue?
19. A bag contains 10 balls of which 6 are red, 3 are yellow and 1 is white. A ball is drawn
out at random. What is the probability that it is (i) red, (ii) not yellow, (iii) white or
yellow, (iv) neither red nor white, (v) not red?
20. A bag contains 12 discs of which 7 are black, 3 are white and 2 are red. A black disc is
withdrawn. What is the probability that the next disc withdrawn is (i) black, (ii) not
white; (iii) neither black nor white?
21. A survey of a certain district showed that 6010 of families have 1 child, 38010 have 2
children, 42010 have 3 children, and 10010 have more than 3 children. A family is
selected at random. What is the probability that it will have (i) some children, (ii) no
children, (iii) at least 2 children, (iv) not more than 2 children?

 .  .~.  
..
 .~ 
50m
C
D ~,
20m
equally likely.
Find the . probability that the ball will land on (i) black, (ii) an odd number,
(iii) a multiple of 3, (iv) any number from 1 to 12, (v) 15.
The payouts for a win are:
even money for red or black, odd or even numbers; 35 to 1 for any number.
If a gambler invests $1 in each of the situations (i) to (v) and wins, how much does
he or she receive back in each case?
If the gambler invests $1 on black for 37 consecutive spins, how much would you
expect he or she would win or lose?
5/PROBABILITY 129
The tossing of a die, the drawing of cards from a pack, etc., are called experiments or
trials.
In modern pFobability theory, all possible outcomes of an experiment are considered as
points in a space, called a sample 'space or probability space, <5. If <5 contains a finite
number of points, n, and if the outcomes of an experiment are equally likely, then we can
assign to each point, called a sample point, 'a probability of!, The sum of the pron
babilities of all the sample points is, therefor.e" J.,
A sample space 'of the experiment of tossing a die consists of 6 sample points. The set
<5
11, 2, 3, 4, 5, 61 gives the possible outcomes of the experiment. Three points
correspond to event A, the tossing of an even number, the other three to event B, the
ttlSsingofan odd number. 'If'mare'interested only in tbe tossing ofev,en numbers (e) and
odd numbers (0), the sample space may be considered as consisting of only two sample
points, In this case, the set <5 = Ie, 01 is a sample space, one point of which corresponds to
event A, the other to event B.
An event, then, is a set or collection of sample points in
Le" it is a subset of <5,
,A sample space of she ,experiment ,of .chowjng a lettec of the alphabet may be
considered as consisting of 26 sample points. The set
la,
e, i, 0, uJ; n(A) = 5
On the assumption that all sample points are equally likely, the probability measure of
event A is simply a measure of proportion. If we denote the probability of event A by
P(A), then
P(A)
26
We may, of course, consider the sample space as consisting of 2 sample points, vowels
I v, c1. However, this is not advisable, because each point
is not equally weighted.
spades or some other card, but the drawing of a heart excludes the possibility of drawing
the ace of spades. These two events are mutually exclusive. The events, drawing a heart or
an ace, however, are not mutually exclusive. Why?
EXAMPLE 4
If one card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards, what is the probability
that it is a heart or the ace of spades?
<5
CD.
Event A is the drawing of a heart from a pack of 52 playing cards and is, therefore, a: set
of 13 points in a sample space, <5, of 52 points.
Event B is the drawing of the ace of spades and is a set containing 1 point. That is,
n(<5)
52, n(A)
13, n(B) = 1
A U B is the set of all points belonging to A or B or both and is called the union of the
two sets. Thus A U B is a set of 14 points. Tnat is,
n(A U B)
P(A U B)
P(A)
P(B)
14
14
52
13
52
1
52
A and B have no points in common and are thus mutually exclusive, in which case:
P(A U B) = P(A)
P(B)
Before adding probabilities, one must be sure that the events are mutually exclusive.
Sometimes some of the outcomes of event A ~re included in the outcomes of event B.
EXAMPLE 5
From a set of 15 cards whose faces are numbered 1 to 15, one card is drawn at random.
What is the probability that it is a multiple of 3 or 5 or both?
5/PROBABILITY 131
There is one point in the intersection of A and B; i.e., there is one point that belongs to
both A and B, namely the number 15.
The intersection or product of A and B is the set of all points belonging to both A and B
and is denoted by A n B or AB and so n(A n B)
1.
n(A U B)
7, because the number 15 is a multiple of both 3 and 5 and must be
included only once, regarding it as a multiple of either 3 or 5.
Thus
Thus
peA U B)
peA)
= 15
PCB)
= 15
P(AB)
peA U B)
=1=
peA U B)
1
P(A)
P(A)
P(B)
+ PCB)
but
 P(AB)
In this case, A and B are not mutually exclusive. A and B are mutually exclusive if the
O.
set of points in the intersection of A and B. is a null set, in which case P(AB)
EXERCISES 5(b)
1. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. A is the event 'drawing a
heart', B the event 'drawing the ace of clubs', C is the event 'drawing an ace'. Find
(b) B
(e) A U C
(c) C
(f) B U C
2. From a set of 17 cards numbered 1,2, 3, ...., 17, one card is drawn at random. A is
the event 'a multiple of 3', B is the event 'a multiple of 8', C is the event 'a multiple of
5'. Find the probability of these events:
(e) jj
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) A
(j) jj U C
(f) A U B
(g) A UC
(h) A U B
(i) A U C
Which of the events A, Band C are mutually exclusive?
3. A die is rolled on the floor. A is the event 'an even number', B is the event 'an odd
number', C is the event 'a number less than 4'. Find the probability of these events:
(a) A U B
(b) A U B
(c) A U C
(d) jj U C
4. An urn contains 8 red marbles, 7 white marbles and 5 black marbles. One marble is
drawn at random from the urn. What is the probability of
(a) red or black,
(b) not white,
(c) neither black nor white?
,
5. A coin is tossed three times. A denotes the event 'at least two heads', B the event
'head, tail, head', C the event 'not more than one head'. Find the probability of these
events:
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) A U B
(e) A U C
(f) B, U C
(g) A U B U C
6. An integer is chosen at random from the first 50 positive integers. A is the event
'divisible by 2', B the event 'divisible by 3', C the event 'divisible by 5'. Find the
probability of these events:
(a)" AB
(e) A U B
>,
.'(>b) AC
(f) A U C
(c). .. BC
(g) B U C
(d) ABC
(h) A U B U C
7. A die is tossed twice. A is the event 'the sum of the two numbers uppermost is 4 or
more' , B the event 'the'sum of thetwo numbers ,uppermost isJess than 6', C the event
'the two numbers uppermost are the same'. Find the probability of these events:
(a) AB
(e) A U B
(b) AC
(f) A U C
(c) BC
(g) B 'U C
(d) ABC
(h) A U B U C
8. A die is tossed twice. A is the event 'the sum of the two numbers uppermost is greater
than 5', B the event 'the sum of the two numbers uppermost is less than 8'. Find the
probability of these events:
(a) A
(b) B
(c) AB
(I) A U B
9. If P(A)
P(B)  P(A
B).
15
B) =
1
3
8;
P(A) = 8.
Find P(B).
11. In a group of 50 students, 30 study Mathematics, 25 study Physics and 20 study both
Mathematics and Physics. One student is selected at random from the group. What is
the probability that the student studies
(a) Mathematics but not Physics,
(b) Physics but not Mathematics,
(c) neither Physics nor Mathematics?
12. From a group of 100 students, 50 study History, 30 study English Literature and 20
study both. If a student is selected at random from the group, what is the probability
that the student studies
(a) at least one of these subjects,
(b) History but not English Literature,
(c) History, given that the student also studies English Literature?
5/PROBABILITY 133
Second toss
Possible outcomes
HH
HT
TH
TT
There are 4 possible outcomes (2 x 2), namely HH, HT, TH, TT, where HH means
head in the first toss followed by head in the second toss and so on. Note that HT and TH
are two different outcomesHT is head first toss, tail second toss; TH is tail first toss,
head second toss.
Are each of these four equally likely? If so,
1 2 1
P(2 heads)
4' P(l head) = 4' P(O heads) = 4
The 4 possible outcomes can also be illustrated
well by a lattice diagram.
EXAMPLE 7
First toss
A card is drawn from a pack of 52 playing cards and also a coin is tossed. If we are
interested only in whether the card drawn is a heart (h), diamond (d), spade (s) or club (c),
how many possible outcomes are there?
In drawing the card from the pack, there are 4 possible outcomes h, d, s or c. Each of
these can be associated with H or T when the coin is tossed as shown in the following tree
diagram.
Cards
Coin
Possible outcomes
h~H
hH
hT
d~H
dH
dT
s~H
sH
sT
c~H
cH
cT
,~~."
~
~~~.~.~~.
.
~.
Cards
EXAMPLE 8
On school sports day Joanna runs in the 100metre, 200metre and 400metre races. In
terms of win (W) and loss (L), there are two possible outcomes for each race. How many
possibilities are there for the three races?
200 metre
100 metre
400 metre
Possibilities
WWW
WWL
WLW
WLL
LWW
LWL
LLW
LLL
There are 8 possible outcomes (2 x 2 x 2), where WWW denotes a win in each of the
three races, WWL denotes a win in 100m, 200 m and a loss in 400 m, etc. Are the 8
outcomes equally likely? The answer is "no" unless she has a 5050 chance of winning
each race. If this is so, then
P(she wins the 3 races)
I
8
Multiplication principle
Each of the three exampies 6, 7 and 8 is an illustration of the multiplication principle,
which states:
If one operation can be performed in m different ways and if, when it has
been performed in anyone of these ways, a second operation can be
performed in n different ways, the number of ways of performing the
two operations is m x n.
.
5/PROBABILITY 135
EXERCISES 5(c)
1. A coin and a die are tossed at the same time. Draw ,a tree diagram and a lattice
diagram and list all the possible outcomes. Are they equally likely outcomes? If so,
what is the probability of (i) a head and an even number, (ii) a tail and a number
greater than 4?
2. Two cubes each have two faces painted red, another two white and another two blue.
They are rolled on the floor. Draw a tree diagram and a lattice diagram showing nine
possible outcomes of the colours appearing uppermost. Are they equally likely
outcomes? What is the probability that (i) both colours are the same, (ii) one is red
and the other white?
3. A committee consisting of one boy and one girl is to be selected from 3 girls Anne,
Karen and Helen and 4 boys Joe, Harry, Tim and Leon. How many pairs can be
formed? Illustrate with a tree diagram and a lattice diagram.
4. A carvery offers roast lamb, roast beef, roast pork and roast chicken as the main
course and apple pie, cheese cake and orange cake as sweets. Draw a tree diagram and
a lattice diagram to show the number of possible selections consisting of one item
from the main courses and one from the sweets.
If each is equally likely to be selected, what is the probability of selecting (i) roast
pork and either cheese cake or orange cake, (ii) roast chicken but not apple pie?
5. Mal has 3 shirts, 2 ties and 2 pullovers. Illustrate with a tree diagram the different
shirttiepullover combinations.
6. A die is rolled twice. Explain why there are 36 possible pairs of numbers. Are they all
equally likely? What is the probability that
(i) both numbers are the same,
(ii) the sum of the two numbers is 5,
(iii) the sum of the two numbers is 2, 3 or 12?
Illustrate with a lattice diagram. Why is it preferable to a tree diagram in this case?
7. A coin is tossed three times. Illustrate on a tree diagram the eight possible outcomes.
Are the outcomes equally likely? Find (i) P(O heads); (ii) P(1 head), (iii) P(2 heads),
11. A 20cent coin, a 10cent coin and a 5cent coin are tossed. Draw a tree diagram
showing the possible outcomes of heads and tails. What is the probability of (i) 3
heads, (ii) a head with the 5cent coin only, (iii) at least 2 tails?
12. The diagram shows a circular disc divided into
four equal sections 1, 2, 3, 4. A pointer,
pivoted at the centre, is free to rotate. The
pointer is rotated twice. Draw a tree diagram
to illustrate the 16 possible outcomes. What is
the probability that (i) the pointer lands on the
same number twice, (ii) the sum of the two
numbers is at least 5?
13. Use the lattice diagram of question 6. to find the following probabilities resulting from
rolling a die twice:
(i) the two numbers add to more than 5,
(ii) an even number with the first and an odd number with the second,
(iii) the highest total possible,
(iv) both numbers the same,
(v) the numbers sum to 10 or less,
(vi) a multiple of 3 with the first and a multiple of 2 with the second,
(vii) both numbers different and they sum to 8.
14. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. It is replaced, the pack is
shuffled and a card is drawn again. What is the probability that (i) both cards are
spades, (ii) neither card is a heart, (iii) both cards are the same suit? Draw a tree
diagram and a lattice.
I P(AB)
= P(A) .P(B)
EXAMPLE 9
If two dice are tossed, what is the probability of an even number with the first die and a 3
(2, 1)
(3, 1)
(4, 1)
(5, 1)
(6, 1)
(1, 2)
(2, 2)
(3, 2)
(4, 2)
(5, 2)
(6,2)
(1, 3)
(1, 4)
(2, 4)
(3,4)
(2,6)
(3, 6)
(4,4) . (5, 4)
(6, 4)
(5, 5) 1(6, 5)
(5, 6)
(6,6)
5/PROBABILITY 137
18 points correspond to event A, an even number with the first die and any number with
the second die.
12 points correspond to event B, a 3 or a 5 with the second die and any number with the
first die.
Thus
P(A) = 18 =
and
P(B) = 12 =
36
36
The intersection of A and B is the set of 6 points, indicated in the table thus:
A
Hence
B
6
P(AB) = 36 =
P(A)
P(B)
P(A) .P(B)
18
36
12
36
''
(2, 3), (2, 5), (4, 3), (4, 5), (6, 3), (6, 5) I
1
6
1
2
= P(AB)
This result conforms to our definition of independent events and to the everyday
meaning we attach to the word 'independent'. It is quite apparent that whichever number
happens to turn up when the first die is tossed will have absolutely no influence on the
number likely to turn up when the second die is tossed.
This example could also be solved by a careful observation of the 36 sample points.
Observe that
~ of the outcomes contain an even number with the first die and} of this
This two stage process of tossing two dice can be represented by a tree diagram with two
sets of branches. For convenience we will call a 3 or a 5 with the second die a success Sand
not a 3 or a 5 a failure F.
1st die
2nd die
E<:S
Possible
Outcomes
<'
; o~:
Probability
EF
OS
X ~
ES
OF
= ij
x
6
1H\
2
1
1 st die
EXAMPLE 10
A fair coin is tossed 3 times. What is the probability of
(a) 2 heads and 1 tail
(b) at least 1 head
The experiment of tossing a coin 3 times can be represented by a tree diagram with 3 sets
of branches or with a 3dimensionallattice.
First
toss
Second
toss
Third
toss
Possible
outcomes
H<H~:
, <;::H
n(S)
I(H H H), (H H
(TTnl
HHT
:2
H TH
:2
:2
HTT
..1
THH
T<H~T
HenceS
:2
n,
,
,
TTH
T T T
x 1.2
x :2
x :2
x :21
,
,
1
,
8
X !2
T H T
T~H
T
HHH
Probability
4x
X 1.2
n, (T T H),
(a) From an observation of the 8 sample points, we can pick out the points corresponding
to the event 2 heads and 1 tail.
A = I(HHn,(HTH),(THH)1
k+ k+ k
3
8
(b) Each of the 8 outcomes except (T Tn has at least 1 head.
:. P(at least 1 head) = 1  P(O heads)
= 1 
!8
7
8
EXAMPLE 11
Two friends, David and Colin, frequently play golf and tennis with each other. In the long
run, it has been found that David wins 3 rounds of golf out of every 5, and 1 game of
tennis out of every 4. If they play one round of golf and one game of tennis, find the
probability that David
(a) wins both,
(b) loses both,
(c) wins the round of golf only,
(d) wins either the golf or the tennis but not both.
"~
5/PROBABILITY 139
= Pr(A) ,Pr(B)
3
(b)
P(AB)
P(A) ,P(B)
(c)
P(AB)
5'4
5'4
3
20
3
10
P(A) ,P(B)
3 3
5'4
9
20
(d) The statement 'David wins either the golf or the tennis but not both' implies that
(i) David wins the golf and loses the tennis, or
(ii) David loses the golf and wins the tennis,
(i) and (ii) are mutually exclusive,
(i)
P(AB)
= P(A) ,P(B)
3
P(AB)
(ii)
5'4
2
20
5'4
9
20
' d pro b a b'l'
H ence t h e reqUIre
Iity
9 :+ 20
2 = 20'
11
= 20
In this example, there are four possible outcomes (not all equally likely). If we denote a
win by David by Wand a loss by L, then the possible outcomes are WW, WL, LW and
LL, Their respective probabilities can be illustrated by the following probability tree
diagram,
<
1.
<~
5
Possible
Outcomes
Tennis
Golf
4"
WW
WL
L<~
Probability
1
4"
LW
LL
EXAMPLE 12
A die and a coin are tossed in that order, and then a letter is taken from the set la, b, cl,
Find the probability of these events:
(a) A: a 3 with the die
(b) B: a head with the coin
(c) C: b from the set {a, b, c)
(d) ABC
P(A)
6
1
36 = 6
(b)
P(B) =
(c)
P(C) = 12 =
(d)
ABC
.. P(ABC) =
36
2
3
1(3, H, b)1
1
36
Pr(A). Pr(B) .Pr( C)
EXERCISES 5(d)
1. I toss a coin and throw a die. What is the probability of
(i) A, the event in which an even number is selected from the given set,
(ii) B, the event in which the die shows an odd score,
5/PROBABILITY 141
each of the other numbers is equally likely. If the die is tossed twice, find the
probability of
(a) two sixes,
(b) no sixes,
(c) at least one six,
(d) the sum of the numbers being 6.
12. One card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. It is replaced, and the
pack is shuffled. A second card is then drawn. What is the probability that
(a) .both cards are diamonds,
(b) neither card is a diamond,
(c) only one of the cards is a diamond,
(d) the first card only is a diamond,
(e) the second card only is a diamond,
(f) at least one of the cards is a diamond?
13. For a certain species of bird, there is a chance of 4 in 5 that a fledgling will survive the
first month after birth. From a brood of 3 chicks, what is the probability that
(a) all will survive,
(b) none will survive,
(c) at least one will survive?
14. An athlete competes in 100m, 200m and 400m races, and he estimates his chances of
winning as
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
he
he
he
he
he
~, ~ and ~ respectively.
15. Cube A has 4 red faces and 2 white faces; cube B has 3 red and 3 white faces; cube C
has 2 red and 4 white faces. The three cubes are tossed. What is the probability of
(a) 3 red faces uppermost,
(b) 3 white faces uppermost,
(c) red with A and B and white with C,
(d) red with A and white with Band C,
(e) at least one red face?
16. A coin is tossed 4 times. What is the probability of
(a) 4 heads,
(b) 4 tails,
(c) head, tail, head, tail, in that order,
(d) heads in the first 3 tosses, but not in the fourth,
(e) heads in anyone of the four tosses?
17. A die is tossed three times. What is the probability of
(a) 3 sixes,
(b) 0 sixes,
(c) 3 odd numbers,
(d) 3 even numbers,
(e) a six in the first two tosses only,
(f) a six, not a six, a six, in that order?
18. Janet and Brian play 3 tennis matches and Janet's chance of winning <;tny one match
is
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
19. An urn contains 5 white, 3 black and 2 blue balls. A ball is withdrawn, replaced and a
second is drawn. This is repeated 3 times. What is the probability of the events:
(a) 3 white balls,
(b) a black ball in the first two drawings, but not in the third,
(c) white, black, blue, in that order,
(d) white, black, white, in that order,
(e) not more than 2 white balls,
(f) a white or a black ball in each drawing?
20. A Gallup Poll establishes that, on the average, 2 out of every 3 people interviewed are
in favour of a certain proposal. What is the probability that, out of a group of 3
people interviewed:
(a) all will be in favour,
(b) none will be in favour,
5/PROBABILITY 143
(c) the first, and third persons interviewed will be in favour, but not the other one?
21. A student estimates that his chances of passing English, Mathematics and Physics are
respectively
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
he
he
he
he
~, ~ and ~.
22. The probability of a cure with drug A is 08 and with drug B is 0'6. One randomly
selected patient is treated with drug A and another with drug B. What is the
probability that
(a) neither patient is cured,
(b) both are cured.
23. One urn contains 2 red cubes and 4 blue cubes and a second urn contains 4 red cubes
and 3 blue cubes. One cube is selected at random from each of the two urns. What is
the probability that one of the cubes is red?
24. The probability that a man will be alive in 20 years is
wife will be alive is
alive, (ii) only one of them will be alive, (iii) at least one will be alive?
25. A man finds that he is late for work on 10 per cent of occasions if he is on time the
previous day and on 20 per cent of occasions if he is late the previous day. Given that
he was on time on Monday, what is the probability that he is on time on Wednesday?
Illustrate with a probability tree diagram.
26. In a certain factory, machines A, Band C manufacture 25, 35 and 40 per cent
respectively of the articles. Of their output 5, 4 and 2 per cent respectively are
defective. An article is selected at random. What is the probability that it was
manufactured by:
(a) A and is defective,
(b) B and is not defective?
27. Given three urns A, Band C. A contains 3 black and 2 white cubes, B contains 3 black
and 1 white cubes, C contains 3 black and 3 white cubes.
(i) An urn is chosen at random and from it a cube is chosen at random. Illustrate this
twostage process by a probability tree diagram.
(ii) What is the probability that the cube is black?
28. A student finds that on the average he 'misses' the school bus once every eight weeks
(5 days in a school week). Find the probability of
(a) not missing the bus on anyone morning,
(b) catching the bus on two successive mornings,
(c) catching the bus each morning for a week (5 days),
(d) missing the bus on at least one morning.
29. To open a locked safe requires a correct threedigit combination. Calculate the
probability of:
(a) succeeding at the first attempt,
(b) failing at the first attempt.
30. The first race at Randwick has 13 runners and the second race has 16 runners.
Assuming that all horses have an equal chance of winning, calculate the probability
of:
(a) a double (i.e. a winner in each race),
(b) a quinella (Le. first and second in either order) in the first race,
(c) a quinella in the second race,
(d) a quinella in both races.
31. To gain a driving licence in N.S.W. both a written test and a practical driving test
must be passed. Statistics show that 70070 pass the written test on the first attempt and
90% of those who use a second test pass that test. Also 60070 pass their first practical
test and 80070 pass their second test. The written and practical tests are independent.
Calculate the probability of:
(a) passing the written test on the second attempt,
(b) passing the written test after no more than two attempts,
(c) requiring a third written test,
(d) passing the practical test on the second attempt,
(e) receiving a licence after requiring one practical test and two written tests.
1(5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6) I
Hence
P(A)
= 36 = 6"
Hence
P(B) = 36
A
nB =
12
1
P(AB) = 36
=1=
L:h
"
E)
5
4
2nd
die 3
2 3
P(A) .P(B)
1st die
(b) Since P(A) =1= P(A) .P(B) , events A and B are not independent. Hence they are
dependent. The situation can be represented by (i) a lattice as shown (ii) listing the
6 x 6 possible outcomes. It cannot in this case be represented by a tree. Why?
(c) We are asked to find the probability of event B given that event A has happened. This
is written as P(BIA).
Since A has happened, the only possible outcomes in this case are
(5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6).
5/PROBABILITY 145
Hence P(BIA)
But
and
i.e.
1
P(AB) = 36
P(A)
6
36
P(BIA) = P(AB)
P(A)
Transposing, we get
P(AB)
P(A) .P(BIA)
P(A)
~,
3
5
The probability that the second card drawn is odd could be either ~ or
~ depending on
i.e.
P(BIA)
P(AB)
= ~.
=~
P(A) ,P(BIA)
3 2
5'4
6
2)
3)
4)
5)
(2,
(2,
(2,
(2,
1)
3)
4)
5)
(3, 1)
(4, 1)
(3, 2)
(3, 4)
(3, 5)
(4, 2)
(4, 3)
(4, 5)
(5, 1)
(5, 2)
(5, 3)
(5,4)
Note that the ordered pairs (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5) are missing. Why?
,
(1, 5), (3, 1), (3, 5), (5, 1), (5, 3).
6
P(AB) = 20
Hence
2nd draw
Possible
outcomes
Probability
00
ixt=i%
OE
20
EO
x {
5.
~ 4
~ 2
20
1st draw
tXt = k
EE
EXAMPLE 15
2nd draw
3rd draw
Outcomes
<:D~N
10
Probability
DDN
10
x.l9 x 1
=90
DND
+Ox{x+
16
720
DNN
10
N~D~:
~ N<D
NDD
iO
"9
X 81
16
720
NDN
iO
"9
X 87
720
NND
iO
NNN
1.
X 86
D~ <:D
9
112
= 720
10
112
112
120
.,
336
72fj
Note that there is a branch missing. It is not possible to have an outcome DDD. Why?
The statement 'not more than 1 defective' means 0 defectives or 1 defective.
Required probability
112
720
672
720
112
112
336
(b) Since each transistor withdrawn is replaced in the carton before the next withdrawal is
2
made, the probability of a defective being withdrawn remains the same 10 for each
withdrawal. Note carefully the difference between the two tree diagrams.
5/PROBABILITY 147
1st Draw
<;:0<::
<:0
,
0<:0
<;: <0
10
10
10
10
!O
!O
!O
!O
!O
ONN
2
x
,iJ
!O
ro
NOD
8
ro x
NON
10
!O
NNO
8
ro x
!O
NNN
PO
!O
DON
!O
ONO
!O
,aoo
32
,aoo
32
,aoo
!O
!O
!O
!O
:2
'28
,aoo
32
'0
8
,aoo
128
,aoo
,aoo
,aoo
128
!O
512
128
128
1000 + 1000
0896
Alternatively:
Required probability
10
000
!o
Required probability
!o
Probability
Outcomes
3rdOraw
2nd Draw
128
1000
512
1000
32
1000
32
1000
8 )
1000
1~'
~,
given that the first is defective and so on. The probability of a defective has altered
considerably.
If, however, we take a sample without replacement from a large population of mass
produced articles, say 1000 or more, of which 20 per cent are defective, then the
probability that the first article selected is defective is
12~~.
second article selected is defective, given that the first is defective is then
!~~ which
is
approximately 02. Hence the probability of any article being defective remains practically
unaltered by the sampling.
EXAMP.LE 16
A shoemanufacturer makes ladies' and men's shoes. Sixty per cent of the output are
ladies' shoes. If a sample of 3 pairs is chosen at random from the factory, find the
probability that the sample contains
(a) exactly 2 pairs of ladies' shoes,
2nd choice
<
p
M
(a)
<
q
3rdchoice
Outcomes
L<L
Probability
LLL
p3
LLM
p2q
~
q
M
LML
p2q
LM'M
pq2
~L
MLL
p2q
MLM
pq2
MML
pq2
MMM
q3
c; M
M~.L
q M
3p2q
= 3(0'6)2(0'4)
= 0432
(b)
Required probability =
1 p3
1  (0'6)3
0784
(c)
(0'6)2(0,4)
0144
EXERCISES 5(e)
1. A box contains 5 black cubes and 3 red cubes. Two cubes are drawn at random from
the box. Find the probability that:
(a) both cubes are black,
(b) both cubes are the same colour,
(c) both cubes are different colours.
2. A box contains 6 green balls and 4 white balls. A batch of 2 balls is drawn at random
from the box. Find the probability that the 2 balls are the same colour.
3. An angler has caught 15 fish of which 3 are undersized. A random sample of 3 fish is
drawn without replacement by an inspector. The angler is fined if one or more of the
fish in the sample is undersized. What is the probability that he is fined?
4. A carton contains a dozen eggs, 3 of which have a double yolk. If 3 eggs are required
to make a cake, find the probability that the 3 eggs used have double yolks.
5. From a group of 9 people made up of 3 males and 6 females, a random sample of 2 is .
selected. What is the probability that:
(a) the first person selected is a female,
(b) both people selected are females,
(c) one is a female and the other a male?
5/PROBABILITY 149
6. From a pack of 52 playing cards, two cards are selected without replacement. What is
the probability that:
(a) both cards are diamonds,
(b) both cards are the same suit,
(c) one card is a spade and the other a club,
(d) both cards are different suits?
7. An urn contains 3 white balls, 4 red balls and 5 black balls. Two balls are drawn at
random without replacement. What is the probability that they are:
(a) both white
(b) both red
(c) both black?
8. From 7 teachers and 5 pupils, a random selection of 2 is made. What is the probability
that:
(a) they are both teachers,
(b) they are both pupils,
(c) one is a teacher and the other a pupil?
How can the answer to (c) be deduced from (a) and (b)?
9. From the letters of the word 'promise', three letters are chosen at random. What is
the probability that the three letters are (a) vowels, (b) consonants, (c) vowel,
consonant, vowel in that order?
10. A punter correctly picked the first and second in a race of 10 horses. What is the
probability of this, if each horse is equally likely to win?
11. From a group of 5 boys and 6 girls, two are selected at random for a class committee.
What is the probability that a boy and a girl are selected?
12. A carton contains 10 electric light globes, 3 of which are defective. Two are drawn at
random. What is the probability that:
(a) the first globe drawn is defective,
(b) both are defective,
(c) neither is defective,
(d) exactly one is defective?
13. In a raffle, 20 tickets are sold and there are 2 prizes. If I buy 5 tickets what is the
probability that I win at least one of the prizes?
14. Group A contains 10 females and 5 males. Group B contains 4 females and 6 males.
Two people are selected at random. What is the probability that:
(a) they are both females if they are selected from Group A,
(b) they are both males if they are selected from Group B,
(c) one is a male, the other a female if one is selected from both groups?
15. A box of 10 chocolates contains 4 hardcentred and 6 softcentred chocolates. If two
are selected at random, what is the probability that:
(a) they both have hard centres,
(b) they both have soft centres,
(c) one has a soft centre and the other a hard centre?
16. In a lottery game, three numbers are selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, ... 40. Find the
probability that the three selected numbers are all even.
17. A sample of three items is selected at random without replacement from a batch of
i.
ten items, four of which are defective. Find the probability that there is at most one
defective item in the sample.
18. If every possible order of finishing is equally likely in a race with nine contestants,
find the probability of picking the first three placegetters in their correct order.
19. Three cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. What is the
probability that they are all from the same suit?
20. A bag contains 6 red balls and 4 white balls. A random sample of 3 is withdrawn.
What is the probability that they are the same colour if the sampling is done
(a) without replacement (b) with replacement?
21. Three cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. What is the
probability that 3 aces are drawn if the drawing is done (a) without replacement
(b) with replacement?
I.
22. A bag contains a large number of onecent coins and twocent coins in the ratio of 2
to 3. Find the probability that if 3 coins are selected from the bag:
(a) 2 of them are onecent coins,
(b) at least 2 of them are onecent coins,
(c) not more than 2 of them are onecent coins.
23. A manufacturer finds that 10 per cent of the articles made in his factory are defective.
If 3 articles are taken at random, what is the probability that:
(a) all are defective,
(b) none is defective,
(c) there are more defectives than nondefectives?
24. A hand of three cards dealt from a pack of 52 playing cards contains the ace of clubs.
What is the probability of this?
25. In a raffle, 30 tickets are sold and there are two prizes. What is the probability that a
person buying 5 tickets wins (a) neither prize (b) both prizes (c) at least one prize?
26. From a set of 10 cards numbered 1 to 10, two cards are drawn without replacement.
What is the probability that:
(a) both numbers are even,
(b) one is even and the other is odd,
(c) the sum of the two numbers is 12?
27. Three cards are selected without replacement from a pack of 52 playing cards. What
is the probability of:
(a) exactly 3 hearts,
(b) exactly 3 aces,
(c) at least 1 heart?
28. A manufacturer of metal pistons finds that on the average 20 per cent of his pistons
are rejected because they are either oversize or undersize. What is the probability that
a batch of 3 pist.ons will contain:
(a) no more than 2 rejects,
(b) at least 2 rejects?
29. It is known that in the long run 7 out of 10 students from the year 12 class of a certain
school will enter the University. Find the probability that out of a group of 3 students
chosen at random from this class:
(a) all will enter the University,
(b) some will enter the University.
5/PROBABILITY 151
30. In the long run, a marksman finds that the ratio of successes to failures in hitting the
target is 9 to 1. If 3 rounds are fired, what is the probability of:
(a) 3 successes,
(b) at least 2 successes,
(c) not more than 1 success?
31. In an assortment of chocolates the ratio of hard centres to soft centres is 3 to 5. Find
the probability that, if 3 chocolates are chosen at random:
(a) exactly 2 will have hard centres,
(b) at least 1 will have a soft centre.
32. In an opinion poll, the ratio of those in favour to those against a particular proposal
was 7 to 3. What is the probability that if 3 randomly chosen people are interviewed:
(a) all will be in favour,
(b) the majority will be in favour,
(c) not more than 2 will be against the proposal?
33. On average, it rains on 2 days out of every 7 in a particular area in summer. Find the
probability that in a given weekend it will rain (a) on both days (b) at least one day?
34. An urn contains a number of cubes, 60 per cent of which are white and the remainder
black. Two cubes are randomly selected without replacement. What is the probability
that:
(a) they are the.,same colour,
(b) they are different colours?
35. An
are
(a)
(b)
urn contains 10 cubes, 6 of which are white and the remainder black. Two cubes
randomly selected without replacement. What is the probability that:
they are the same colour,
they are different colours?
36. In a group of 10 people,S are males and 5 are females. If two people are selected at
random, what is the probability that:
(a) they are both males,
(b) at least one is a female?
37. In a large gathering of people, 50 per cent are males. If two are selected at random
what is the probability that:
(a) they are both males,
(b) at least one is a female?
38. Urn X contains 1 white cube and 2 black cubes. Urn Y contains 2 white cubes and 1
black cube. An urn is selected at random and from it two cubes are selected without
replacement. Draw a tree diagram to represent this threestage process and find the
probability that both cubes drawn are:
(a) the same colour,
(b) different colours.
39. A and B playa set of tennis. When a player wins two games, the set is won. If A has
probability 06 of winning anyone game, what is the probability that A wins the set.
CHAPTER 6
Relations and
Functions
6.1 Relations _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
You are familiar with nonmathematical phrases such as these:
is the brother of
plays football with
is taught by
travels to school by
is married to
was born in
and you are familiar with mathematical phrases such as these:
is equal to
is greater than
is the square of
is parallel to
is a multiple of
is equal to or less than
To become a sentence, each of these phrases would need to be completed by a first and
a last word. The sentence would then tell us that a certain relation exists between the two
things named. The two things named are members of two different sets, say set X and set
Y. One or more elements x E X are related to one or more elements y E Y in some way or
other, thus forming a set of ordered pairs (x, y).
EXAMPLE 1
Consider two sets of numbers X and Y such that X
{2, 3, 4, 6\ and Y
{l, 2, 4, 51.
If x is an element of X, and y is an element of Y, then a typical ordered pair is (x, y).
The set of all possible pairs is called the Cartesian product of X and Y. In symbols,
X x Y
1),
1),
1),
1),
(2,
(3,
(4,
(6,
2),
2),
2),
2),
(2,
(3,
(4,
(6,
4),
4),
4),
4),
(2,
(3,
(4,
(6,
5),
5),
5),
5)1
Any subset of this Cartesian product is a relation, and, in most cases, the relation is
defined by some rule; i.e., y is related to x in some way.
Suppose that the rule is that y is greater than x. In symbols, it is expressed as
y > x for x E X, Y E Y
This relation contains five ordered pairs, 1(2, 4), (2, 5), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 5)1, and can be
represented graphically (fig. 61).
Fig. 61
The relation can also be represented by plotting points on a plane (fig. 62).
6
5
4
3
2
1
23456
Fig. 62
A relation., is a set of ordered pairs, and is usually defined by some property or rule.
The domain of the relation is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs.
The range of the relation is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs.
Thus, in the preceding example, the domain is the set 12, 3, 41 and the range is the set
14,51.
x is called the independent variable since it may be chosen freely from the elements of
the domain and y is called the dependent variable since its value depends on the value
chosen for x.
EXAMPLE 2
Let S be the set of ordered pairs defined by y > x, x E R where R is the set of all real
numbers.
Although the rule defined by y > x is the same as in example 1, the domain of the
relation is the set of all real numbers, R. Also, the range is the set of all real numbers. The
graph of the relation is shown in fig. 63 as the halfplane above the line with equation
y = x. S contains an infinite number of ordered pairs, many of which have the same first
element, e.g. (1, 2), (1, 5), (1, 1r), (1, J2), (..[3,3), (..[3, 2'5), ...
i (
x
y>x, xeR
Fig. 63
EXAMPLE 3
Graph the relationx2 + y2 = 9
The graph of the relation (fig. 64) is the circumference of a circle whose centre is the
origin and whose radius is 3 units. The domain of this relation is not explicitly stated; in
which case it is assumed to be all real numbers for which the given relation can apply. The
domain is 3 ~ x ~ 3 and the range is similarly 3 ~ y ~ 3
y
3
3
x2 +
y2
= 9,  3 ~ x ~ 3
3
Fig. 64
There are two ordered pairs in the relation that have the same first element (with two
exceptions), e.g. (0,3), (0, 3), (1, .J8), (1, .J8), (J2, J7), (J2, J7), (1, .J8), (1, .J8), ...
For all values of x greater than 3 or less than 3, the relation is not defined. Why?
6.2 Functions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A function may be defined as a set of ordered pairs with the special property that no two
pairs have the same first element. It is, then, a special case of a relation.
In each of the following figures, a vertical line has been drawn to intersect the graphs.
In fig. 65 and fig. 67, this line intersects the graph in one point only. Thus, in
fig. 65, the only ordered pair with first member 2 is (2, 3), and, in fig. 67, the only
ordered pair with first member 2 is (2, 4). Hence these figures are the graphs of functions.
In fig. 66 and fig. 68, the vertical line intersects the graphs at more than one point.
''""  

 _
.. _
 
'
.
'  "
'
 "~
Function: y
=x +
1,
X E
Relation: x 2
Fig. 65
+ y2 = 4, 2
Fig. 66
12
1
I
I
I
Function: y
X2,
Relation: y2
Fig. 67
= x,
X ~
Fig. 68
y2 =
thereby obtaining
y=
andy =
each of these passes the test for defining a function.
y
...)9  X2 defines the function whose graph is the top semicircle in fig. 66 and
y = ...)9  X2 defines the function whose graph is the lower semicircle, both with the
same domain, 3 E;'; x E;'; 3.
y2 = X
(fig. 68)
Similarly,
is equivalent to
y = JX
y
JX defines the function whose graph is the top branch of the parabola in fig. 68
and y = JX defines the function whose graph is the lower branch each with the same
domain x ~ o.
A function, f, is fully defined when the domain and rule are stated or when the
complete set of ordered pairs is given.
We use the notation f(x) or y to mean the value of f for any value of the independent
variable x in the domain. The expression 'y is a function of x' is frequently used to
indicate a rule of the form y = f(x) e.g. y = X2, 2 ~ x ~ 2 or f(x) = x 2 , 2 ~ x ~ 2 are
used to mean the same thing. The rule tells us what to do, namely square any numbers
provided they are between  2 and 2.
e.g.
f(l)
f(  2)
= 12
= 1
= ( 2)2
f(3) is meaningless because the rule applies only for 2 ~ x ~ 2. Hence the rule, without
a statement of the domain, is not in itself the function. It is common, however, to state the
rule for f(x) without reference to its domain. If this is so, the domain is implied as being
the largest possible domain.
EXAMPLE 4
State the largest possible domain for the functions defined by the rules:
WA~=~
~A~=~
~A~
(d) f(x)
x
x
y
X2,
x ER
(b) Since the fraction 1 can be defined for all values of x except those which make the
denominator zero, the largest possible domain is all x except x = O. What is the range?
.
.. f(x) = , x*O
(c) Since the positive square root of a negative number does not exist in the field of real
numbers, x ~ O.
~, x ~ O. What is the range?
:. f(x)
(d) 4 
X2 ~
0 and so 2
~ 2.
2
:. f(x)
(e) X2
1 * 0 and so x * 1, 1.
:. f(x)
= X2 ~
l' x * 1, 1
Sometimes a function is defined by a certain rule for part of the domain and a different
rule for another part of the domain.
EXAMPLE 5
The functionf(x)
={X22, x ~
1
 x,x >
has a domain all real x, but has two different
rules: one for x ~ 1, the other for x > 1.
e.g.
f( 2) = (_2)2
4
f(3)
= 2  3 = 1
...x
...
~O
~
O~~
b
X
..
~o~~~~
a
b
X
Halfopen on left (a, b]
{x:a
<x
~ b}.
O~~~
..
< b}.
(a) f(x)
= X2
for all x.
(b) g(x) = x 2 , 1
(c) h(x)
= x2, x
The different letters f, g and h, used to name the three functions, emphasize the fact
that we have three different functions since they are defined on different domains, even
though the rule is the same in each case. g and h are called restrictions of f since their
domains are subsets of the domain of f. Note also that the range has altered.
e.g. if
then
 f(x)
x3
(X)3
8
x3
f(x)
fIx)
= x3
Since f(x) and f(  x) are opposite in sign, the portion of the graph of f for x
mirror image in the origin of the portion for which x ~ O.
0 is a
a and
e.g. if
f(x)
x 2 , then
(_X)2
X2
x =  a.
~ 0 is not an even function sincef( a) is not defined.
The recognition of oddness or evenness property of functions is useful in curve
sketching. Only details of one half of the graph need to be calculated. The other half may
be drawn using the symmetry properties. Most functions are neither even nor odd.
f(x)
x 2, x
= Ixl
EXAMPLE 6
Sketch the graphs of
(a) y = #
(b) y = 12x (c) y
x + Ixl
(d) y
Ix2  41
11
(a) y
= # =
Ixl
= x if x >
= x if x
o if x =
(b) y
12x 
11
< 0
0
1
2x  1 for x > 2"
1  2x for x <
= 0 for x
(c) y
= x + Ixl
2x if x > 0
= 0 if x
2"
:E;;
y=o
(d) y
= Ix2  41
= X2  4 if X2  4
0 i.e. x :E;; 2 or x
4  X2 if X2  4 < 0 Le. 2 < x < 2
~
EXERCISES 6
1. Which o f the following relations are functions? State their largest possible domain
and range.
(a) 1(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 5), (3, 7)1
(b) 1(3, 1), (3, 1), (8, 7), (9, 2), (11, 6)1
(c) (x, 5) for all x
(d) (2, y), y a natural number
(e) X2 + y2 = 4
(f) y
../4  X2
(g) y
X
(h) y ~ x
+
+
2
2
2. Sketch the graph of each of the following functions. State their largest possible
domain and range.
(a) f(x) = 9  x
(b) g(x) = 9  X2
(c) h(x) = ....)4  X2
(d) f(t) = Jt
7. Sketch the graphs of the following absolute value functions defined for all x and state
the range in each case.
21
14 
61
Is the relation a function? State the greatest possible domain and the range.
For each of the following functions find f(2) , f(  2), f(I4), f( 14).
= {x +
(i) f(x)
1 ~f x
2 If x
~ 1
< 1
(ii) f(x) = { x
2x if x ~ 0
(iii) f(x) {
2x if x
"*
2
if x = 2
4
x,x> 1
{I, 1 ~ x ~ 1
x, x < 1
(iv) f(x)
<0
if x
x
lXl
13. State whether the following functions, defined on their largest possible domain, are
odd, or even, or neither:
(a) f(x)
(d) f(x)
x
x3
(g)
(b) f(x)
(e) f(x)
(h) f(x)
4 
(c) f(x)
(f) f(x)
x
X
1
X2
Ixl
(x  2)2
(i) f(x)
+ 1, x
= { 1, 1 <
1
=
=
x,
< 1
x'~
2
(b) f(
(c) f(O)
1)
(d) f(2)
+ f(
2)
{ x' x < 0
~' x ~ 0
Find
(a) f(O)
(c) f( 2)
(b) f(2)
(d) f(a 2 )
..Jx  1, x ~ 1
{ xI, x < 1
Find
(a) f(1)
(b) f(
(c) f(10)
1)
x.
18. Find the largest possible range for the following functions:
(a) f(x)
(c) f(x)
(x  3)2
..J16  X2
(b) f(x)
(d) f(x)
12x 
x + Ixl
16  x 2
CHAPTER 7
Trigonometric
Ratios
7.1 Unit circle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
y
(1,0)
{1.0}X
Consider a circle of unit radius, whose centre is at the origin. The equation of this circle is
Take any point P whose coordinates are (x, y) on the circumference of this unit circle.
Consider the point P as starting from A and rotating in an anticlockwise direction, taking
up various positions on the circumference as shown in the diagrams above. In each
position L AOP = O.
We define cosine and sine as
cos 0
sin 0
x
y
xcoordinate of P
ycoordinate of P
Sin
1
x
= ()'
COS
COS ()
*0
*0
*0
J(), sin () * 0
Sin
Thus there is a restriction on the values of (). Tan and sec are not defined when cos () 0
Le. when () = 90 0 , 270 0 , 450 0 , cot and cosec are not defined when sin () = 0 i.e. when ()
= 0 0 , 180 0 , 360 0
Observe that cot, sec and cosec are the reciprocals of tan, cos and sin respectively.
The tangent may be considered as a ratio without reference to sin and cos and may be
given a distinct geometrical representation.
y
At the point A (1, 0) where the unit circle cuts the Xaxis, draw a tangent line A T. If angle
(), we define tan () as the ycoordinate of T. (Actually, this is where tan gets its
name).
If P is at B, () = 90 0 , OB is parallel to AT and so tan 90 0 is not defined.
AOP
r 
< e < 180, tan e < O. What are the values of tan 0, tan 180, tan 3601
Is tan e defined when e = 27{)01
Draw the above diagrams for ebetween 180 and 270 and also between 270 and 360
and note the positions of T.
If 90
cos (180  e) = a
sin (180  e) = b
b
cos e
sin e
tan
From this we can see that, for every angle in the 2nd quadrant, there is a corresponding
angle in the 1st quadrant whose sine, cosine and tangent ratios are numerically the same.
This angle is found by subtracting the 2nd quadrant angle from 180. Since the
xcoordinate is negative in the 2nd quadrant, the values of cos and tan are now negative;
sin remains positive.
e.g. cos 140
sin 140
tan 140
cos (180
40) = cos 40
sin (180  40)
sin 40
tan (180  40)
tan 40
>:::
>:::
>:::
0,7660
0'6428
0'8391
x
3rd Quadrant
cos e
sin e
tan
For every angle in the 3rd quadrant, there is a corresponding angle in the first quadrant
whose sine, cosine and tangent ratios are numerically the same. You can find this angle by
subtracting 180 from the 3rd quadrant angle. Since in the 3rd quadrant x < 0 and y < 0,
only tan is positive; sin and cos are both negative.
e.g. cos 220 = cos (180 + 40) = cos 40
sin 220 = sin (180 + 40) = sin 40
tan 220 = tan (180 + 40) = tan 40
0,7660
0'6428
0'8391
y
a
=
b
cos 0
sin 0
4th Quadrant
b
tan (360  0) =
= tan 0
a
For every angle in the 4th quadrant there is a corresponding angle in the first quadrant
whose sine, cosine and tangent ratios are numerically the same. You can find this angle by
subtracting the 4th quadrant angle from 360. In the 4th quadrant, only cos is positive.
e.g. cos 320 cos (360  40) = cos 40
sin 320 = sin (360  40) = sin 40
tan 320 = tan (360
40) = tan 40
~
~
0'7660
 06428
0,8391
First quadrant:
Second quadrant:
Third quadrant:
Fourth quadrant:
Try to think of some way to remember these e.g. All Stations to Central (ASTC).
Consider the point P(a, b) on the unit circle such that L AOP = (J and a point Q such that
L AOQ = 90  (J. From congruent triangles, the coordinates of Q are (b, a) because ON
PM = band QN = OM = a
sin (90 
(J)
tan (90
(J)
sec (90 
(J)
a
a
b
1
b=
b = sin
b
cos
(J
cos (90
(J) =
cot
(J
cot (90
(J)
cosec (90
(J) = 
cosec
(J
= a =
(J
tan
(J
1
= sec
a
(J
These relationships are said to be complementary. This accounts for the prefix' co' which
appears in cosine, cosec and cot.
sine and cosine, tan and cotan, sec and cosec are complementary pairs.
e.g. sin 50 = cos 40
tan 75 = cot 15
sec 80 = cosec 10
cos 60 = sin 30
cot 54 = tan 36
cosec 32 = sec 58
cos (  (J) = a
sin ((J) = b
tan
e.g.
cos
tan
sin
cot
(160)
( 245)
(  200)
( 110)
cos (  40)
tan (25)
sin (70)
= cos 160
= tan 245
 sin 200
= cot 110
((J) =
= cos 40
cos (J
sin
(J
b = tan

(J
;:::: 0'7660
cos 20
tan 65
= sin 20
= cot 70
;:::: 0,9397
;:::: 2'1445
;:::: O' 3420
= tan 20 ;:::: 03640
EXERCISES 7(a)
1. In which
(a) sin (J
(d) sin (J
(f) cos (J
> 0
< 0 and tan
(J
< 0
(e) 321 0
(j) 155 0
(iii)
(iii)
(iii)
(iii)
a)
a)
0)
117 0
251 0
342
215
0
0)
0)
A)
+ A)
0)
10. If 90 0 < 0 < 180 0 , show with the aid of a diagram of a unit circle that
(i) cos (180 0 + 0) = cos 0
(ii) sin (360 0  0)
 sin 0
11. Use the fact that sin (360 0
write down the values of
(a) sin 400 0
(d) sin 610 0
0)
0, 720 0
Fig. 71
The maximum and minimum values of sin 0 and cos 0 are 1 and 1 respectively; in
other words their amplitude is 1. If the cos curve is translated 90 to the right, parallel
with the Oaxis, it coincides with the sin curve. This follows from the fact that cos 0 =
sin (90 + 0).
y
Fig. 72
Fig. 73
Fig. 72 shows the graph of tan 0 for 0 ~ 0 ~ 360. As 0 increases, the values of tan 0
repeat themselves after an interval or period of 180. The tan function is discontinuous at
o = 90, 270, ...
Fig. 73 shows the graph of cot 0 in the domain 0 to 360. The values of cot 0 also
repeat themselves after a period of 180. The function is discontinuous at 0 0, 180,
360, ...
What transformation is necessary for the two curves to coincide?
y
1
!v=secoll
I y=coseco
I
:
I
I
Fig. 74
Fig. 75
Figs. 74 and 75 show the graphs of cosec () and sec () respectively. They also are
periodic, with period 360. What restrictions are placed on their domain? What is the
range in each case? What transformation is necessary for the two curves to coincide?
The graphs of the six trigonometric functions have been drawn in pairs of
complementary functionssine and cosine, tangent and cotangent, secant and cosecant.
As an exercise, draw thegraphs in pairs of reciprocal functionssin and ~osec, tan and
cot, cos and sec, remembering that the reciprocal of 1 is 1 and the reciprocal of 0 is not
defined. These two facts should enable you to deduce the graphs of cosec, cot and sec
from sin, tan and cos respectively.
and these ratios have only an approximate rational number value. For angles in the first
quadrant of 0 , 90, 30, 60, 45 , the ratios can be calculated exactly without the aid of
tables or a calculator.
0 and 90 can best be associated with the unit circle.
30 and 60 can best be associated with an equilateral triangle of side lengths 2 units.
45
can best be associated with a rightangled isosceles triangle of equal side
lengths 1 unit
(0,1) 8
() =
0 when P is at A
() = 90 when P is at B
sin
cos
tan
cosec
sec
cot
~
2
1
2
J2
2
~
J2
2
~
J2
1
~
1
2
~
2
1
~
1
1
J2
These exact values can best be remembered if we get a mental picture of the three
diagrams above.
These exact values can be extended to certain angles in the other quadrants.
EXAMPLE 1
Without the aid of tables or a calculator:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
sin 150
sin 30
1
2
= cos 45
cos 300
cos 60
sec 120
sec (180  60)
 sec 60
cosec 330 = cosec (360  30) =  cosec 30
1
2
2
2
EXAMPLE 2
Find all values of () between 0 and 360 for which
(a) cos ()
(d) sec () =
(b) sin () =
2
(c) tan ()
(e) sin () = 1
(a) Since cos () is positive, () lies in the 1st and 4th quadrants
1
cos () = 2
() =
60,360
60
= 60, 300
(b) Since sin () is negative, () lies in the 3rd and 4th quadrants
. ()
sm
=  ..J2
() = 180 + 45,360  45
= 225, 315
(c) Since tan () is positive, () lies in the 1st and 3rd quadrants
tan ()
1
() 45, 180 + 45
45, 225
(d) Since sec () is negative, () lies in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants
2
sec ()
. cos ()
()
2
180  30, 180 + 30
150, 210
(e) Since sin () is negative, () lies in the 3rd and 4th quadrants
1
sin ()
()
180 + 90,360  90
EXERCISES 7(b)
Without the aid of tables or a calculator, write down the exact values of: (1. to 4.)
1. (a) sin 90 0
(e) sec 135 0
00
90 0
30 0
150 0
180 0
210 0
270 0
330 0
360 0
sin ()
6. Complete the following table and draw the graph of y
to 360 0
()
00
60 0
90 0
120 0
180 0
270 0
300 0
360 0
cos ()
Find all the values of () between 0 and 360 0 for which: (7. to 18.)
7. sin () = 
J3
2
9. cosec () = 2
11. cot () = J3
13. sin () = cos ()
15. 2 cos 0 + 1
0
17. sin () + J3 cos 0
8. tan ()
10.
12.
14.
16.
18.
1
cos () = 1
sec () = .J2
sin () = 0
2 sin () = J3
cosec () = sec ()
X2 + y2
1,
and, by definition,
x = cos
it follows that
cos2 (j + sin 2 (j = 1
1  sin 2(j = cos2 (j
and 1  cosl (j = sin 2 (j
(j,
sin
(j,
(1)
(2)
(3)
EXAMPLE 3
If sin
(j =
~ and 90 <
0
(j
cos2
Since
+ sin2
cos2 (j
then
(j =
9
+ 25
and tan
(j
< 180 0
(j.
1,
=
16
25
4
cos2 (j
cbs (j
tan
(j
(j =
since 90 0 <
sin (j
cos
3
4
(j
tan
(j
4
5
3
4
EXAMPLE 4
Simplify
2
(i) 11  cos2 (j
 sin
(iii) ~a2
(i)
(ii) 1
(iii)
cos2 (j
Jli2+7
+ X2 where x
sin2
cos 2
+ tan2 (90
(ii) 1
(j
= ~a2
(j
(j =
(j) =
tan 2 (90 0
a tan
(j
and 0 0
(j)
<
(j
< 90
2 (j
an
1 + coP
+ a2 tan2 (j =
(j
cosec 2 (j
~a2(1
tan2 (j)
.Jill. sec 2 (j
a sec
(j
EXAMPLE 5
Prove the following identities
cos (J
.
1
sin2 (J
2
(I) . 2 (J
(ii) 1
..
sm
+ cos2 (J cos (J
 sm
(iii) tan A sin A + cos A = sec A
cos (J
1  sin
(ii)
(J 
tan
sec
(J
  = cos 2 (J
(J =
=
(iii) tan A sin A
(J
cos2 (J
1
1  sin2 (J
sin2 (J + cos2 (J
(i)
tan
(J 
+ cos A
cos (J
sin (J
 sin (J
cos
cos2 (J  sin (J (1  sin
(1  sin (J) cos (J
cos2 (J  sin (J + sin2 (J
(1  sin (J)cos (J
1
sin (J
(1  sin (J)cos (J
1
cos
sec (J
sin
(J =1=
(J)
sin A
.
+ cos A
cos A
sin2 A + cos A
cos
1
sin2 A + cos2 A
cos
=   . sm A
cos A
sec A
EXERCISES 7(c)
1. If
tan
(J =
;4
(a) sin (J
2. If tan (J =
(J
< 270
~ and 90 <
0
(J
< 180
(J
~ and u is not in the first quadrant, find, in simplest surd form, the value of
3. If cos u
cos u  2 cot u
tan u
u
4. Simplify:
(a)
sin2
(J
+ cos2 (J
2 cot ex
(c)
1 + cot2 ex
sin A
cos A
(e)
+
cos
cot2 (J
(g) cosec2 (J
(b)
2
sin (J
1  sin2
(d) (sec2 (J
(f) sin3 (J
(b) 1
(J
1) tan (90 0
sin
(J
cos2 (J
sin2 (180 0 +
(J)
(J)
5. Simplify:
(a)
X2
;=::;:====
when x
17
6. If sec ex
(b) Ja 2
asec 0
X2
when x
acos 0
x, express
1  cos2 0 .
20m terms of x.
sec
asin 0 and y
sin 0
+ 1 + cos 0
sin 0
(d)
+ ,:
1  sin 0
+ sin 0
x ;;:
~in
(b)
(h) 1
(f) 1
tan
sin 0 cos (90  0)
1 + cos t
15. (cot t + cosec t)2 = 1
 cos t
16. sin2 ex cos 2 {3  cos 2 ex sin2 {3 = sin2 ex  sin2 {3
17. sec 0 + tan 0 =
sin 0
0
cos
22.
23.
1 + cot 0
cosec
sin 0 + cos 0
cot 0 cos 0
21. cot
tan 0 + cot 0
cos 0
1 + sin 0
0
sec 0
tanO=+cot':0 = cos
cos t  sin t
1 + sin teas t
REVISION EXERCISES A
=4
:5
= 4x
(b) X2
(c) X2
= 4x
 4
(b) 3x  1 = ~
= 20
20
..
b2
ay  a . 3y  3
2.... 4 ay 2
xy
(b) 5x _ 2x :
7. Simplify (a) 25 112
+ ~.
(b) 3 0
(c) J36
+ 64
(d) 3112
x 12112
(c) a 2 18a + 56
(a) 3x  2 > 2
(c)
Ix 
11 > 1
11. (a) If V = 'lral (d  a), find the value of d if V = 1760, 'Ir = 3~, I = 35, a = 2
(b) If V = 'Ir(R + r)(R  r)h find the value of V to 3 significant figures, using a
calculator, if R = 7 '6, r = 4'1, h :;: 129
12m 2  4m
10m 2n
+ 5
22
m  m
mn
+4
5
X
(")
II
+3
X2
1 + 1 as smg
. I
'
+ 2x
e f
ractIOns.
+ 1)
+ 1) + 10
3(x  3) = 2(2y
2(3x  1) = 5(2y
15. If x = 3 X
x2y3
(b) (xyl)2
ground.
(b) J5
+ 4.J3 +
 3..J54
+ .J2O + .J8O
16
sin2 0
20. Prove that (a) (l _ sin 0)(1 + sin 0)
(b) (sin x
21. Solve the equation
x
x+
cos X)2
3x  4)
tan 2 0
(sin x
cos X)2
7
22. Express (a) the fraction 30 as a recurring decimal
(b) the recurring decimal 042 as a fraction.
24. The edges of three cubes have lengths acm, bcm and ccm respectively. Give
expressions for:
(a) the average volume of the three cubes,
(b) the edge of a cube equal in volume to the sum of the three volumes,
(c) the volume of a cube whose edge is the average of the three edges.
25. The combination lock on a safe has three concentric circular discs, each with the
digits 0 to 9 on its circumference. Only one combination of digits will open the safe.
What is the probability of opening the safe with one single trial?
26. One student has a pencil whose crosssection is square and whose faces are coloured
black, white, green and red. Another student has a pencil whose crosssection is
hexagonal (six sided) and whose faces are coloured black, white, green, red, yellow
and orange. Both pencils are rolled on the floor and the colours appearing uppermost
are noted.
21 \
5/4
3/4
(b) Simplify 3 x 15
x
=c,.=__
(b) 3x
h)3
b 1I3)(a 2/3
7x 2
6x 3
(b) (0'2)2
(c)
J7f
b I12 )2
(d) "",0'09
a W', W (j)',
(b) X4
2X2
b =
1 where x
3.J2.
34. Factorize:
(a) 16x2  1
(c) a 2  b 2 + 2a  2b
(b) 3x 2
(d) 8a 3
4x  7
27
10
36. Calculate the length of each side of a rhombus whose diagonals are 48 cm and 64 cm
long.
37. (i) 4 boys' names and 5 girls' names are in a hat. Find the probability that if two
names are drawn out without replacement:
(a) two girls' names are drawn out,
(b) at least one boy's name is drawn out.
(ii) A jar contains red buttons and white buttons in the ratio of 3 to 2. Find the
:I
'
38. State the largest possible domain for functions with the following rules:
rx=t
(a) f(x)
(c) f(x)
(d) f(x)
~ and
(ij) If tan 0
(a) sin 8
Ix 
11
0)
180 0
(b) cos O.
(b) f(x)
<
ex
<
= t, express in terms of t
8)
+

ex)
ex)
8)
(a) sin 8
(d) sec 8
(b) cos 8 = 0
(c) tan 8
(f) cosec 8
4
5
+ 1 x 4
595
9
(b)  x 
~";";
(b) a
(c)
I E xpress
46 ( .)
_ 4x  6y
; 2X2  2xy
2X2 xy
m2
.J5
+
J2.m simp
. Iest surd f orm Wit. h ratIona
.
1 d enommator_
' .
x3
+ 3x2 + x
3m + 2
O.
1
= J2
CHAPTER 8
Applied
Trigonometry
8.1 Definitions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
From your study of the trigonometry of a rightangled triangle in previous years, you have
seen how a consideration of the unit circle and similar triangles enables us to express sine,
cosine and tangent of an angle in terms of a ratio of the opposite side, the adjacent side
and the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle.
Ba>
"0
"w
a>
+'
"w0
0.
0.
Adjacent side
Fig. 81
sine A
cosine A
tan A
opposite side
hypotenuse
adjacent side
hypotenuse
opposite side
adjacent side
a
c
b
c
a
b
These trigonometric ratios provide the relationship between the angles and sides of a
rightangled triangle, while the Theorem of Pythagoras,
I c2
= a
+ b2 , I
provides the relationship between the lengths of the sides without reference to the size of
the angles.
D....
.......... B
A ~
sin
1
2
.J3
cos
.J3

1
2
.J2
tan
.J3

.J3
.J2
2
2
EXAMPLE 1
BC
= 12
Fic = 12 sin
. 30 0
(a) SIll
12
=
=
AB
12
12 cos 30
12 x
cos 30
AB
c
30
A ""~~.... 8
.J3
2
=6.J3
QR
8
QR = 8 tan 60
(b) tan 60 0
= 8.J3 .
= (8.J3)2 + 82
= 192 + 64
= 256
PR = J256
= 16
EXERCISES 8(a)
Give exact answers to each of the following, expressing lengths in simplest surd form
where necessary. (Do not use tables or a calculator).
= 90, A =
C = 90, A =
1. In DABC, B
30, AC
2. In D ABC,
45, BC
=
=
3. A vertical pole of height 15 m stands on level ground and a straight wire 30 m long
joins the top of the pole to a point on the ground. Find (i) the distance of this point
from the foot of the pole, (ii) the angle the wire makes with the ground.
'  ..
4. A ladder 10m long standing on level ground leans against a vertical wall and makes
an angle of 60 with the ground. Calculate (i) how high up the wall the ladder reaches,
(ii) the distance of the foot of the ladder from the wall.
12cm, AC 8cm, A = 60. CFis drawn perpendicular to AB to
5. In 6ABC, AB
meet AB at F. Calculate the length of (i) AF, (ii) FC, (iii) BC.
6. In the diagram, calculate the lengths of (i) AC, (ii) DC, (iii) AB, (iv) BC.
7. In the diagram, A C
(iv) AD.
20cm
12 cm. Calculate the lengths of (i) AB, (ii) BC, (iii) DC,
'I
16 cm, DC
8 cm,
~:~
9. A stepladder stands on horizontal ground with its feet 2 m apart. If the angle formed
by the legs is 60, how high above the ground is the top of the ladder?
10. The magnitude of the angle formed by the diagonal of a rectangle and one of its
longer sides is 30 . Find the dimensions of the rectangle if the length of the diagonal is
60cm.
~.~~
W~""E
s
N 30 E or 030 T means that the direction is 30 east of north. It could also be
expressed as 30 E of N or E 60 N or 60 N of E. However, the directions are usually
indicated in terms of the number of degrees east or west of north or south, as stated
above.
N
wfwkE~EW+E
or 250 0 T
NW
or315T
S
N300E
or 1300 T
or0300T
A bearing is a direction angle and indicates the direction of one point relative to another
point. In the diagram, the bearing of B from A is N 70 E or 070 T. The bearing of A
from B is S70 W or 250 0 T.
N
EXAMPLE 2
Two yachts sail in a straight line from a buoy B. One sails 12 km in the direction 038 T
and the other sails 16 km in the direction 128 T.
(i) How far apart are they then?
(ii) What is the bearing of the first yacht as seen from the second yacht?
90. Why?
Applying the Theorem of Pythagoras to l::,ABC,
AC2 == 122 + 162
144 + 256
400
AC == 'J'400
20
(I) L ABC
A
(ij) It is necessary to find the size of L ACN.
12
In 6ABC, tan LACB = 16
075
LACB = 3652'
LBCW = 38 Why?
LACN = 90  (3652'
+ 38)
158'
The bearing of A from Cis N 158' W or 34452' T
What is the bearing of C from A?
EXERCISES 8(b)
1. The bearing of B from A is 120 T, the bearing of C from A is NE and the bearing of
C from B is N. What is the bearing of (i) A from C, (ii) A from B, (iii) B from C?
2. On level ground, A is 50 m due east of O. The bearing of B from 0 is 030 T and the
distance of B from 0 is also 50 m. Find the distance and bearing of B from A.
3. A is 5 km N 37 Wand B is 12 km S 53 W from a lighthouse. Find the distance and
bearing of B from A.
4. Karen and David set out from home at the same time. Karen cycles due north at
15 kmlh and David due east at 20 km/h. Find
(i) how far apart they are after I hour,
ship.
7. Nick cycles 15 km due north, then 12 km due east and finally 20 km due south. What
are his distance and bearing from his original position?
8. Two ports A and B are such that B is due west of A. A is due north of a ship S. The
ship is on a course N 32 Wand reaches B after travelling for 3 hours at 25 km/h.
Calculate the distance between the two ports and the time it would have taken the ship
to reach A from S.
9. A hiker walks 15 km from camp in the direction S 3652' Wand then walks 7 km due
west. What are the distance and bearing of his position then from the camp?
10. A ship sails for 20 km on a cours~i S20 Wand then 25 km on a course S25 W.
Calculate (i) how far south the ship now is from its original position, (ij) how far west
the ship now is from its original position, (iii) the bearing of the ship now from its
original position.
(a)
(b)
Wall
Fig. 82
If, in (a), we look up at A from the point P, the angle ojelevation of A from P is the angle
between the line of vision PA and the horizontal line P X.
The point P is the eye of the observer and A could be, say, a point on top of a wall.
If, in (b), we look down at A from the point P, the angle ojdepression of A from P is the
angle between the line of vision PA and the horizontal line PX.
The point P is the eye of the observer, say, on top of a cliff and the observer is looking
down on a boat A in the water below.
If we look from A up to P, then L PAB is an angle of elevation.
LAPX = LBAP
i.e. angle of depression from P = angle of elevation from A.
EXAMPLE 3
From a point A, level with the foot of a vertical pole and 25 m from it, the angle of
elevation of the top of the pole is 40. Calculate (i) the height of the pole, (ii) the angle of
elevation from A of a point halfway up the pole.
p
A.::...l......:..=........
In the diagram, PQ is the vertical pole and L PA Q is the angle of elevation of P from A.
25
PQ = 25 x tan 40
= 25 x 08391
= 2098
! of 2098
1049
1049 = 04196
L RAQ
2246' (using tables or a calculator)
EXAMPLE 4
An observer in a lighthouse 100 m above sealevel is watching a ship sailing towards the
lighthouse. The angle of depression of the ship from the observer is 15. (i) How far is the
ship from the lighthouse? (ii) Some time later, the angle of depression is measured as 25 .
How far has the ship travelled in this time?
x
A~~=~
In the diagram, PQ is the lighthouse, A is the ship and L APX is the angle of depression.
However, in DPAQ, L PAQ = 15 and L APQ = 75.
(i) In DPAQ, tan 15
= ~O~
or
JOO
AQ
10~
tan 75
AQ = 100 x tan 75
= tan 150
100
02679
= 3732
The ship is 3732m from the lighthouse.
100 x 3'732
3732
150
x~p
100
15
t
25
1
3732
(ii) In the diagram, the ship has moved from A to Band L BPX is the angle of depression
~~
BQ _
100
 tan 25
100
04663
214'5
or
BQ
100
tan 65
BQ
100 x tan 65
100 x 2145
214'5
AB = AQ  BQ
= 3732  2145
= 1587
EXERCISES 8(c)
1. A person 2 m tall is standing on the ground and looking up at the top of a building. If
the person is 18 m from the building and the angle of elevation of the top of the
building is 30, calculate the height of the building.
2. An aircraft flying in a horizontal straight line at an altitude of 2000 m passes directly
over an observer on the ground. One minute later, the observer finds that the angle of
elevation of the plane is 13 24' . Calculate (i) the distance flown by the aircraft in that
time, (ii) the speed of the aircraft in km/h.
4. From an aircraft 1000 m above the ground, the angles of depression of the tops of two
houses (the same height) in line with the aeroplane are 40 and 60 respectively. How
far apart are the two houses? (Ignore the height of the houses.)
5. AB and CD are two vertical buildings with their bases A and C on level ground. The
height of AB is 50 m. The angle of elevation of B as seen from Cis 20 and that of D
as seen from A is 35.
Calculate (i) the horizontal distance between the buildings, (ii) the height of CD,
(iii) the angle of elevation of D as seen from B.
6. From the top, T, of a cliff, an observer sees two ships P and Q in line with him and at
horizontal distances of 50 m and 70 m. The angle of depression of P from Tis 25.
Calculate (i) the vertical height of the cliff, (ii) the angle of elevation of T from Q.
7. From a point 5 m above the ground, the angle of depression of the bottom of a wall is
21 and the angle of elevation of the top of the wall is 32. Find (i) the horizontal
distance from the point of observation to the wall, (ii) the height of the wall.
8. From a point A on the ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a tower is 38 and
the angle of elevation of the top of a vertical flagpole on top of the tower is 41 0. A is
80 m from the foot of the tower. The ground between A and the tower is horizontal.
Calculate the length of the flagpole.

     
Note: Since sin B is positive, B could be in first or second quadrant or perhaps both.
You will observe that the calculator provides only the first quadrant angle 31 41' . The
second quadrant angle 148 19' is obtained by subtracting 31 41' from 180.
Can B have only one of these values, or can it have both?
Since a > b, it follows that A > B.
Thus B < 52 and cannot assume the value 14819'. Also, if B
A + B > 180, which is impossible in a triangle.
Hence
B=3141'
C = 180
(A + B)
= 9619'
sin C
C
Therefore, B
sin A
12
sin 52
12 sin 96 19 '
=
sin 52
15'14
3141', C
9619',
= 15'14
EXAMPLE 7
Solve the triangle ABC, given A
= 40, BC = 20 cm and AC
30.cm.
sin A
20
sin 40
sin B
sin B
30
sin B
30 sin 40
B = 7437' or 10523'
Now test to see whether both these values of B will satisfy the specifications given.
180  (40 + 7437')
When B = 7437', C
= 6523'
10523' , C = 180  (40 + 10523')
When B
= 3437'
Thus the ambiguous case applies in this example.
9. A city building is 45 m high. From the top of this building, the angle of depression of
an object 0 on the wall of a building opposite is 50. The width of the street is 20 m.
Find (i) the height of 0 above street level, (ii) the angle of elevation of 0 from the foot
of the first building.
10. Two buildings of unequal height stand at a distance apart on horizontal ground. The
taller building is 60 m high and from its top an observer finds that lines of sight to the
bottom and the top of the shorter building are at angles of depression of 25 and 10
respectively.
Calculate (i) the horizontal distance apart of the buildings, (ii) the height of the
shorter building.
11. From the top of a lighthouse 75 m above sea level, the angles of depression of two
buoys due north of the lighthouse are 60 and 30 respectively. Find, in simplest surd
form, (i) the distance of each buoy from the lighthouse, (ii) the distance between the
two buoys.
12. From a point P on the horizontal ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a
building 40 m high is 30 and from a point Q on the same horizontal level as P and in
line with the foot of the building, the angle of elevation is 60 . Calculate, in simplest
surd form, the distance PQ.
[~=~=sfnc
where a, band c are the length measures of the sides of a triangle ABC opposite the angles
whose magnitudes are A, Band C respectively.
c
I
I
I
P:
b____"_ _"'"
4c......
Fig. 83
DAB
.....c....
Fig. 84
Let p be the measure of the length of the perpendicular from C to AB. The foot of this
perpendicular lies on AB if triangle ABC is acute angled (fig. 83) and on BA produced if
triangle ABC is obtuse angled (fig. 84).
In the rightangled triangles A CD and BCD,
p
b sin A = a sin B
and
p = b sin (180  A) = a sin B
But sin (180  A) = sin A.
b sin A
i.e.,
sin A
a sin B;
sin B
.c '
sm C
EXAMPLE 5
(This example illustrates the use of the sine rule in case (a).)
In DABC, given A
45, B = 30 and BC
5 cm, calculate C, band c.
c
::,..
"<:$
A~8
Since A
105
a
b
sin A
sin B
5
b
sin 45 = sin 30
b = 5 sin 30
sin 45
5 x 05 x ..J2
To evaluate
5 sin 30
.
. 450 , usmg a calculator, proceed as follows:
sm
Operation sequence
[9
Display
5 ~ 30 Isinl
a
sin A
35355 ..
c
sin C
5
sin 45
sin 105
5 sin 105
c =
sin 45
Fig. 85
(ii) a is less than b, but greater than CD, i.e. greater than bsin A, which, in this case, has
magnitude 3 cm.
Only when conditions (i) and (ii) are present is it possible to draw two triangles. This is
called the ambiguous case. Examples 6 and 7 will illustrate the use of the sine rule when
two side lengths and an angle opposite one of these sides are given.
EXAMPLE 6
12cm and AC = 8cm.
sin A
12
sin 52 0
sinB
8
8 sin 52
=
= 0'5253
Operation sequence
521sinl 8El12
B = 31.6912 0
31 041'
Display
3169116 ...
Note: Since sin B is positive, B could be in first or second quadrant or perhaps both.
You will observe that the calculator provides only the first quadrant angle 31 41' . The
second quadrant angle 148 19' is obtained by subtracting 31 41' from 180.
I'
B
31 41'
C = 180  (A + B)
= 9619'
c
a
sin C
sin A
c
12
12 sin 96 19 /
c
sin 52
1514
Therefore, B = 3141', C
9619', c
= 1514
EXAMPLE 7
Solve the triangle ABC, given A
40, BC = 20 cm and A C
30,cm.
sin A
20
sin 40
sin B
30
sin B
30 sin 40
sin B = 
B = 7437' or 10523'
Now test to see whether both these values of B will satisfy the specifications given.
When B = 7437', C = 180  (40 + 7437')
= 6523'
When B = 10523', C = 180  (40 + 10523')
= 3437'
Thus the ambiguous case applies in this example.
c=
a
sinA
20 sin 3437'
1768
= 2829
Fig. 86
EXERCISES 8(d)
1. In the triangle ABC, a
8, A
30 and B
~,
6 and b
5 and a
9. Find sin A.
42, angle B
28 and BC
3 sin 2A.
36 52' , B
30
30 cm, AB = 44 cm and B
12. 0, A and B (in that order) are three points in a straight line. The bearings of A and B
from 0 are 020 T. From a point P, 4 km from 0 in a direction NW, the bearings of A
and Bare 112 T and 64 T respectively. Calculate the distance from A to B.
13. In the triangle PQR, PQ
20cm, QR = 22cm and R = 15. Find two possible
values for angle RPQ and PR.
14. In the triangle ABC, A
3652' , B = 30 and the perpendicular distance from C to
AB is 3 units. Calculate lhe perimeter of the triangle ABC.
15. In DABC, the lengths of BC and AC are in the ratio 2: 1 and sin L ABC
Calculate (a) sin L BA C (b) two possible sizes for L BA C.
16. In DABC, angle B
25, angle C = 55, BC
5 m. Calculate
(a) the length 'of AC,
(b) the length of AX, where X is the foot of the perpendicular line from A to BC.
17. In DPQR, PR = 3 cm, L RPQ
40, L PQR = 60. Calculate
(a) the perimeter of DPQR,
(b) the length of the perpendicular line from R onto PQ.
18. In DXYZ, XY
5 m, L ZXY
68, L XYZ
19. An aircraft flies from point A to point B 400 km on a cour.se 040 T. It then flies on a
course 160 T from B to a point C 500 km from A. Calculate
(a) the distance BC,
(b) the bearing of C from A.
20. The bearing of a ship from a lighthouse A is N75 E and its bearing from a second
lighthouse B 44 km south of A is N 40 E. Find the distance of the ship from B.
21. Three points A, Band C lie on a horizontal plane. B is 2000 m due south of A. Cis
145 T from A and 052 T from B. Calculate the distance of C from both A and B.
22. Two points A and B on the same bank of a river are 50 m apart. C is a point on the
70. Calculate the width of the river.
other bank. Angle BA C = 80, angle ABC
A
BD
D _ _ _ _C
8.6 The cosine rule _ _ _ _ _8_ _ _
_
a2 = b 2
+ c2
2bccos A
::}
cos A
c2
+ a2
.
2ca cos B
::}
cos B =
+b
2 
2abcos C
::}
cos C
b2
c2
a2
2
ca
b2
c
I
I
pi
I
I
AL~:=,IB
1
. .....
11 C ~t
....._tl
Fig. 87
__ ,:L.::o.
b_~
Fig. 88
To prove: a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bccos A.
From C draw a perpendicular, p, to meet AB at D (fig. 87) and BA produced at D
(fig. 88). Let AD
x units.
.
Apply the Theorem of Pythagoras to DBCD.
a 2 = p2 + (c  X)2
a 2 = p2 + (c + X)2
2
p2 + c
2cx + X2
= p2 + c 2 + 2cx + X2
2
But p2 + X2
b
But p2 + X2
b2
and
x
bcos A
and
x = bcos(180  A)
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos A
= bcos A
a2
b 2 + c 2
2bccos A.
The cosine rule is really an extension of the Theorem of Pythagoras to apply to acute
If A = 90,
cos A
cos 90 = 0
a 2 b 2 + c2
If A < 90,
a2 < b 2 + c2
and if A > 90,
a 2 > b 2 + c2
Use the cosine rule to assist in solving a triangle when you are given
I
I
EXAMPLE 8
Find the magnitude of the largest angle of a triangle, the lengths of whose sides are 3 em,
5cm and 7cm.
The largest angle is the angle opposite the longest side, i.e. angle A in fig. 89.
Applying the cosine rule, we get
b 2 + c 2  a2
cos A
2bc
32 + 52
72
+ 25  49
Hence
30
15
30
0'5
180  60
120
Fig. 89
EXAMPLE 9
In triangle ABC, a
10, c
5 and B
(a) b,
(b) magnitude of C.
_9~
AN
8=10
Since two sides and the included angle are given, the cosine rule is applicable.
b 2 = c 2 + a2  2 cacos B
2 x 5 x 10 cos 3652'
= 52 + 102
= 25 + 100  100 x 08
45
b
v'45 since b > 0
= 6'708
(a)
(b) To find the magnitude of C, we can either use the cosine rule again, or use the sine
rule. It is probably quicker to use the sine rule. Using the sine rule, we get
c
b
sin C = sin B
5
6'708
sin 3652'
sin C
5 sin 3652'
sin C
6'708
C = 2634' (using a calculator)
EXAMPLE 10
Two men set out from point P at the same
time. One travels at 20 km h 1 along a
straight road in the direction 032 0 T. The
other travels at 25 km h1 along another
straight road in the direction 132 0 T. Find
their distance apart after 3 h.
After 3 h, one man is at A, 60 km from P,
and the other is at B, 75 km from P, as
shown in fig. 89.
132 0 32 0
L APB
100 0
Hence, in the triangle APB, two sides and
the included angle are known.
Fig. 810
~cp.
In fig. 87
and, in fig. 88
p
p
=
=
=
area of h,ABC =
=
b sin A,
b sin (180 0  A)
b sin A, and so
~bC sin A
.21 product of two sides and the sin of the included angle.
EXERCISES 8(e)
1. Calculate the cosine of the smallest angle of the triangle whose sides measure 9, 11
and 13cm.
9 cm and AB
8. In triangle ABC, BC
11 cm, AC
5 cm and AB = 8cm. Calculate
(a) the magnitude of angle ABC,
(b) the length of the perpendicular from A to BC,
(c) the area of the triangle ABC.
9. Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram have lengths of 8 cm and 10 cm. If the length of
the longer diagonal is 14 cm, calculate
(a) the magnitude of the angles of the parallelogram,
(b) the length of the other diagonal.
10. Find the area measure of the triangle ABC given that a
11. In triangle PQR, q
12, r
= 6,
= 7 and c = 11.
= 108. Calculate
(a) p,
13. Two cars, A and B, depart from the same position. A travels along a straight road due
east at 30kmh l B departs 15min after A, and travels along another straight road in
a northeasterly direction at 40 km h I. How far apart are they 15 min after B departs?
14. A, Band C are three towns such that B is 20 km from A in a direction 330 T and C is
30 km from A in a direction 2038' T. Find the distance from B to C.
15. P and Q are two towns 50 km apart with Q due east of P. A third town, R, to the
north of the line joining P and Q, is 70 km from P and 30 km from Q. Find the
bearing of R from (a) Q, (b) P.
16. A lighthouse is 10 km northwest of a ship travelling due west at 16 km h l . How far is
the ship from the lighthouse 45 min later? What is the bearing of the lighthouse from
the ship then?
17. ABC is a triangle in which AC = 7 cm. A circle, centre B and radius BC, cuts AB
internally at D. AD
5 cm, DC = 4cm. Calculate the length of BC and the area of
6ABC.
18. P, A, Band C are four points in a plane such that the angles BPA and CPA are
obtuse and on opposite sides of PA. PA = 8cm, BP = 10cm, PC = 12cm,
AB = 14cm andAC = 18 cm. Calculate the length of BC and the area of the triangle
. ABC.
19. P, A, B, C are four points, in order, on a straight road that runs up a hillside and
makes a constant angle of 10 with the horizontal. A flagpole whose height is h m
stands at P. From A and B, the top of the flagpole has elevations of 30 and 5
respectively above the horiiontal. If AB is 100 m long, what is the height of the
flagpole?
If BC is also 100 m long, what is the elevation of the top of the flagpole from C?
20. From a point P, a man observes that the angle of elevation of the top of a cliff A is
40. After walking 100m towards A along a straight road inclined upwards at an
angle of 15 to the horizontal, the angle of elevation of A is observed to be 50. Find
the vertical height of A above P.
21. A ship sailing in a direction 065 T observes two lighthouses in a line due north. After
travelling 4 km one of the lighthouses bears 285 T and the other 315 T. Calculate the
distance between the lighthouses.
22. The equal sides AB and A C of an isosceles triangle ABC are each 5 cm and
BC = 4cm. D is a point on AC such that DC = 1 cm. Calculate
(a) the size of angle A,
(b) the length of BD,
(c) the area of 6ABC.
24. Two sides of a triangle have lengths 32 cm and 4'8 cm and the included angle is 65.
Calculate the perimeter of the triangle to 1 decimal place.
25. Two sides of a triangular field are 60 metres and 50 metres and the included angle is
140. Calculate
(a) the length of the third side,
(b) the area of the field.
26. The sides of a triangular field have lengths 80 m, 90 m, 100 m. Calculate the area of .,
the field.
27. Two cars leave a point A at the same time. One car averages 80 kmlh along a straight
road in direction 025 T. The other car averages 90 km/h along a straight road in
direction 135 T. How far apart are they after 3 hours?
CHAPTER 9
Coordinate
Geometry
Straight Line
Mathematics leapt ahead in the seventeenth century with two great advancesthe
discovery of analytical geometry and the discovery of the calculus. Rene Descartes
(15961650) was one of the mathematicians responsible for the creation of analytical
geometry. He did this by setting up a coordinate system and applying algebra to geometry.
The name of Descartes is now commonly used as an adjective in such phrases as Cartesian
coordinates, Cartesian plane, and Cartesian axes.
,
X2
X1
:Yi
Y1
18(X21 Y2)
Fig. 91
Fig. 92
Consider two fixed points A(Xl' Yl) and B (x2, Y2) with B to the right of A.
The gradient (or slope) m of AB is defined by
If x 2 = Xl' the lineAB is parallel to the Yaxis. The gradient is not defined in this case.
If Y2 = YI' the line AB is parallel to the Xaxis. The gradient in this case is zero.
In fig. 91, the line rises from left to right and makes an acute angle f) with the Xaxis. If
X and yare measured in the same units, (x 2  Xl) and (Y2  Y 1) are both positive numbers,
and so the gradient is positive.
In fig. 92, the line falls from left to right and makes an obtuse angle f) with the Xaxis.
(X2  Xl) is a positive number, but (Y2  Yl) is negative, and so the gradient is negative.
Since in both cases tan f)
m, the gradient (or slope) may be defined by
Note: Since
'=''
X2 
Xl
'""=
EXAMPLE 1
Find the gradient of the line joining the given points and the angle the line makes with the
positive direction of the Xaxis:
(b) (3, 5) and (2, 1)
(a) (2, 3) and (4, 7)
(a)
m=
(b)
1  5
i.e., tan
f)
f)
=2
= 6326'
i.e., tan
f)
f)
2 + 3
1,2
12
180
50 12'
12948'
Fig. 93
By definition,
tan LPOR
tan LROQ
m lm2
b
a
ml
= m2
a
1 provided
i.e.,
that m l , m 2
'* O.
ml.
Fig. 94
Hence, if two straight lines are perpendicular, the product of their gradients is 1.
If the gradient of a line L is, say,
l,
~.
If a line L is rotated in the plane through 90, the gradient of the image line under this
transformation is the negative reciprocal of the gradient of L.
EXAMPLE 2
The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle ABC are (2, 1), (3, 2) and (4, 3) respectively.
Show that AB is perpendicular to BC.
2  1
1
Gradient of AB = +
5
Gradient of BC
 5
EXERCISES 9(a)
1. Find the gradient of the line containing these points:
(a) (2, 4), (0, 6)
(b) <3, 1), (5, 6)
(c) <2, 2), (6, 2)
(d) (2, 3), (3, 2)
(e) (a, b), (b, a)
(g) (1, 5), (4, 3)
2. Find the magnitude of the angle that the line joining the given points makes with the
Xaxis:
(a) (4, 2), (4, 6)
(b) (0, 5), (2, 4)
(d) (4, 5), (2, 4)
(c) (5, 6), (3, 3)
(e) (2a, b), (2b, a)
3. Show that the line joining the points (2, 3) and (4, 2) is parallel to the line joining the
points (1, 7) and (7, 12).
4. In each of the following, show that ABCD is a parallelogram:
(a) A(O, 0), B(3, 0), C(5, 5), D(2, 5)
(b) A(3, 1), B(4, 1), C(8, 5), D(I, 3)
(c) A(I, 4), B(4, 6), C(2, 7), D(3, 5)
(d) A(2, 3), B(6, 2), C(8, 7), D(O, 2)
Iy
I
y,
x 
Xl
Fig. 95
Let A(x1, Yl) be a fixed point and P(x, y) be any other point on the line AP whose
gradient is m.
, Thus
That is,
This is the equation of the line AP.
EXAMPLE 3
Find the equation of the straight line that contains the point (2, 3) and has a gradient Of~.
Y  Yl
That is,
Y  3 =
4y
m(x 
~(X
XI)
 2)
4y  12
3x  6
3x  6 = 0 is the equation of the line.
Fig. 96
Let A(x l , YI) and B(x2, Y2) be two fixed points and P(x, y) be any other point on the line
APB (fig. 96).
But
That is,
EXAMPLE 4
Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points C3, 4) and (2, 6).
m=
6
2
YI
m(x  XI)
Y  4 =  2(x + 3)
2x + 2
0 is the equation of the line.
That is,
Y
YI
Thus
x
y
<
m.
lye
_ _ _ _ ...J
That is,
x
!
y=mx+c!
Fig. 97
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY
This is a convenient form of the equation and is useful for determining the gradient of
the line when its equation is known.
EXAMPLE 5
For the line whose equation is 2y + 3x  5 = 0, find
(a) the gradient,
(b) the angle at which the line crosses the Xaxis,
(c) the Yintercept.
2y + 3x  5 = 0
2y 3x + 5
3
5
y =  x +  and so
2
2
3
(a)
m=
tan () = 1'5
() 180  5619'
12341'
(b)
(c) Smce
y
3 + 2
5.IS 0 f t h e f orm
= 2x
y = mx + c, t h e Y'
mtercept
.
IS
5
2'
y=c
(OtC)
x
Fig. 98
(C,O)
x=c
is its equation.
Fig. 99
ax
by
c = 0
where a, band c are constants. Either a or b, but not both, may be zero, and c may be
zero.
This equation may be written
J 0
Y =  ax
b _ ~
b if b ..,..,
mx
~ and Vintercept
and
ax _ ~ and y
b
b
........................ (1)
0,
(2)
a IX
Ii;"
~: respectively, can be
seen to have
(a) the same gradient, and hence are parallel when ~ = ~I,
I
(b) the product of their gradients equal to 1, and hence are perpendicular when
a . Ii:
a1 =
b
1'
, I.e., when aa l
EXAMPLE 6
Find the equation of the line passing through the point (2, 3) that is (a) parallel to,
(b) perpendicular to, the line with equation 3x + 4y  5
O.
(a)
3x
4y  5 = 0
4y = 3x
3
y = x
+5
+ 45
4
Hence the line passing through the point (2, 3) has gradient
y  Yl
y
4y
3 =
m(x
~(x
4
12 =  3x
Xl)
 2)
Thus 3x + 4y + 6 = 0 is the equation of the line. Compare the equation of this line
5
O. What do you observe?
Since the line passing through the point (2, 3) is parallel to 3x
equation is of the form 3x + 4y + k = O.
4y  5 = 0, its
m(x  Xl)
+ 3 =j(X  2)
3y + 9 = 4x  8
Y
EXAMPLE 7
Find the equation of the line that passes through the point A(4, 2), and the point of
intersection, B, of the lines with equations 4x + 2y + 2
0 and 3x + 5y  9
o.
The coordinates of Bare (2, 3); these are found by solving the simultaneous equations.
We now know the coordinates of two points on AB, and so we can find its equation.
5
3 + 2
m = 2  4 = ()
y  YI = m(x  Xl)
5
Y + 2 = ()(x
4)
5x
6y + 12 =
5x + 20
6y  8
0 is the equation of AB.
Alternative method:
Any line passing through the intersection of 4x + 2y + 2
the equation
4x
Put X
4, y
+ 2y + 2 + k(3x + 5y  9)
= 0 and 3x +
= 0 Why?
2
:. 16  4
+ 2 + k(12  10  9)
k = 2
+ 2(3x + 5y  9) 0
lOx + 12y  16 = 0
5x
+ 6y
 8
0 as before
5y  9 = 0 has
This is what we would expect. We can determine which of these three situations exists
without actually solving the equations. For the pair of equations
a,x + b1y + c, = 0
a2 x + b2 y + C2 = 0, we have
(i) intersecting lines if
a
2
bb)
a2
a2
bb,
2
EXAMPLE 8
Consider the simultaneous equations
(a) 3x + 2y
5
6x + 4y = 16
(b) 3x
6x
+ 2y = 5
+ 4y = 10
6" = 4
* 16
3
2
5
6
4
10
The lines coincide. There is no unique solution. Actually, on division by 2, 6x + 4y =
lOis equivalent to 3x + 2y = 5.
Name some values of x and y which satisfy.
3x + 2y
5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (i)
Algebraically:
6x + 4y
10 .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . ... (ii)
Multiply (i) by 2
6x + 4y
10 ......................... (iii)
Subtract (iii) from (ii)
0
0
This is a true statement, independent of x and y. We can proceed no further.
EXERCISES 9(b)
Find the equations of the following straight lines (1. to 12):
1.
Gradient~,
2. Gradient
13. 2x + 3y = 4
14. 3x  2y = 7
15. 8x
+ 2y
= 3
16. 2y = 6  3x
17. 4x
5y = 3
18. 5y  2x
26. The line with equation y = 3x  6 is rotated in the X  Y plane through a right angle
about its point of intersection with the Yaxis. Find the equation of the image line
under the transformation.
27. Show that the point (4, 1) belongs to the line with equation 2x + 3y = 5. Find the
equation of the image line under a rotation of 90 about the point (4, 1).
28. The coordinates of two points A and Bare (0, 2) and (3, 0) respectively. The
xcoordinate of a point C on AB is 6. Find
(a) the equation of AB,
(b) the magnitude of the angle that AB makes with the Xaxis,
30. ABCD is a parallelogram. The coordinates of A, Band Care (1,4), (4, 6) and (2,7)
respectively. Find
(a) the equation of CD,
(b) the equation of AD,
(c) the coordinates of D.
31. ABCD is a rectangle. The coordinates of A and Bare (1, 4) and (5, 2) respectively.
The xcoordinate of D is 2. Find:
(a) the equation of AB,
(b) the equation of AD,
(c) the ycoordinate of D,
(d) the equations of BC and DC,
(e) the coordinates of C.
32. A (0, 0), B(2, 1) and C(1, 5) are the vertices of a triangle ABC. The triangle is rotated
anticlockwise about the point A, through a right angle in the X  Y plane. Find the
equation of the image lines of
(a) the line AC,
(b) the line AB,
(c) the line BC.
33. Find the equation of the line that contains the point of intersection of 2x + 5y
o and 3x  4y + 6 = 0 and is parallel to the line with equation 4x  y
19
8.
34. The coordinates .of the vertices A, Band C of a triangle are (1, 3), (2, 5) and (1, 1)
respectively. Find:
(a) the equation of the perpendicular line from A to BC,
(b) the equation of the line through B, parallel to this perpendicular line.
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY
38. ABCD is a quadrilateral. The coordinates of A, Band Care (8, 6), (2, 4) and (5, 7)
respectively. If the diagonals are perpendicular, and DC is parallel to the Xaxis, find:
(a) the coordinates of D,
(b) the coordinates of the point of intersection of the diagonals.
39. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle ABC are (2, 5), (6, 1) and (4, 3)
respectively. Find:
(a) the equation of the line through C perpendicular to AB,
(b) the equation of the line through A perpendicular to BC,
(c) the coordinates of the point of intersection of these two perpendicular lines,
(d) the magnitude of angle ABC.
40. The equations of the sides of a triangle ABC are as follows:
AB: 5x + y
10
BC: 3x  2y = 6
CA: x  5y =  24
(a) Show that angle BA C is a right angle.
(b) Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular from A to BC.
41. Without actually solving the simultaneous equations state whether the following pairs
of lines (i) intersect, (ii) are parallel or (iii) coincide.
(a) 2x
3y = 8
(b)
x + 3y + 7
0
4x  6y = 16
2x + 7y + 16 = 0
(c) 6x  5y
24 = 0
(d) x + y
7
9x
4y  22 = 0
x + y = 8
: I
...
x+y
i!
Fig. 911
Fig. 910
x+y>l
x+y< l
Fig. 912
Fig . 913
y ~
...
.~
1
y~
Fig. 914
1 <
y~2
Fig. 915
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY 
Figure 914 shows the set of points on the Cartesian plane that lie on or below the line
with equation y = 2. This set of points is represented by the inequation y ~ 2.
Figure 915 shows the set of points on the Cartesian plane that lie on or below the line
with equation y = 2 but also above the line with equation y = 1. This set of points is
represented by the inequation 1 < Y ~ 2. Note that the line y = 2 is a continuous line
whereas the line y = 1 is a broken line. Why?
y
l
X
,~
0 1
1
Xi
1,
.x > 1
x:::. 1 or
Fig. 916
x~
1
Fig. 917
Figure 916 shows the set of points to the right of the line with equation x = 1. It does
not include the line x = 1, which is therefore a broken line. This set is represented by the
inequation x > 1.
Figure 917 shows two sets of points, one set being to the right of the line with equation
x = 1 and the other set being on and to the left of the line with equation x = 1. This
situation is represented by two inequations: x > 1 or x ~ 1.
EXERCISES 9(c)
Sketch the graph of the following inequations and shade in the required region.
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
11.
13.
> 2x
2x
3y
3x  4y ~ 6
x  y < 2
y < x + 1
2. x
4. y
3
2x < 1
6. 2y  5x < 10
8. 2 < y
10. y ~ x + 1
12. x ~ Ii
14. 3 < x + y
< 2
EXAMPLE 9
Find the solution set of the simultaneous inequations
y~x
x+y<2
x+y=2
A: y
8: x + y< 2
A n 8: y
x nx + y
<2
Fig. 918
Fig. 919
Fig. 920
The shaded region A in figure 918 is the set of points that lie on and above the line with
equation y = x and is thus y ~ x.
The shaded region B in figure 919 is the set of points that lie below the line with
equation x + y = 2 and is thus x + y < 2. Note that this set does not contain the set of
points on the line x + y = 2, which is therefore a broken line.
The region that is common to both A and B is represented in figure 920 as the shaded
region A n B and is the set of points on and above the line y = x and also below the
line x + .y = 2. It is an unbounded region i.e. it is not completely enclosed.
It is usual to indicate the three regions A, B and A n Bon the one graph, as shown in
figure 921.
A is the shaded region marked thus: IIII
B is the shaded region marked thus:
A
Two intersecting straight lines divide the plane into four regions, each of which is
defined by a pair of linear inequations.
y
y=x
x
x+y=2
Fig. 921
In the table below, we have taken some points at random on the plane and tested
whether they belong to A, B, A n B. Note that those. points which belong to A n B
belong also to both A and B.
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY 
Point
AnB
(0,0)
(1, 3)
(0, 1)
(2, 1)
(1, 4)
(3, 2)
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
y=x+1
EXAMPLE 10
.. X
"'~I''+ ' 
1
 .....
,
.
x~2n
y:>l
y~
x+ln
x~
Fig. 922
Fig. 923
Figure 922 shows the set of points on and to the left of the line with equation x = 2 and
also above the line with equation y = 1. This set is expressed as x ~ 2 n y > 1
Figure 923 shows the set of points on and below the line with equation y = x + 1 and
also on and to the left of the line with equation x = 1. This set is expressed as
y~x+lnx~1
EXAMPLE 11
Show, by shading on a sketch, the region defined by the three inequations
x  y
x + 3y
1
1
19
5x
3y
xv = 1
x
Fig. 924
x+3y=1
Fig 924 shows the required region on or below the line x  y = 1, on or above the line
3y = 1 and on or below the line 5x + 3y = 19. The region is a bounded region.
A(2, 3) is the point of intersection of x  y = 1 and 5x + 3y = 19 found by solving
the simultaneous equations.
B(I, 0) is the point of intersection of x + y = 1 and x + 3y = l.
C(5, 2) is the point of intersection of x + 3y = 1 and 5x + 3y = 19.
EXERCISES 9(d)
Describe the sets that are shaded in each of the diagrams in questions 1. to 6.
1.
....
3.
6.
=2
x =1
_1~+~~ X
4.
5.
x =1
~~1~X
1
Graph the solution set of each of the simultaneous inequations in questions 7. to 12. and
state whether the given points are in the region.
7. x
+y
8.
y~x
+Y >
+ 2y
10.
3y ~ 2x + 6
x+y>2
(2, 0), (3, 3), (4, 1)
+y
12.
y > 3x + 3
x+y<3
(0, 3), (2, 7), (1, 4)
~ 8
y < 7
(0,4), (1, 1), (9, 2)
9. x
2y > x + 2
1
(0, 0), (0, 1), (2, 5)
~ 4
x ~ 2
(0, 0), (3, 1), (1, 0)
11. 4x
In each of questions 13. to 18., write down the equation of the intersecting lines and
describe the four regions labelled P, Q, Rand S.
13.
14.
y
I:
. l
15.
y
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY 
16.
17.
~,'~1""'X
Describe the sets that are shaded in each of the diagrams in questions 19. to 21. and find,
by solving simultaneous equations, the coordinates of the points A, Band C in each case.
19.
21.
20.
y
y
Y=
x
2
+1
I~~_r Y =6 +1
~"""
x+2Y=6
Shade in the region and find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the boundary
lines for each of questions 22. to 27.
22.
x + 2
23.
y  x
y
2x + Y ~ 4
x+y~2
4x
24. Y  3x < 4
25.
y+2x<7
y
x 
x+y~2
0, y
3
2x  6
+ Y > 8
y
3x < 3
3x + 4y < 3
x  2y > 4
y~x+2
26.
>
27. x
x +y
2
xy~2
2
x
x, I
C(X2, y,)
Fig. 925
if XI
S.
5.
= AC2 + BC2
= (x2 xlF +
(Y2  YIF
Hence
EXAMPLE 12
Find AB where A
Let
(2, 3) and B
A
(Xl' YI)
(2, 3), and
B
(x2, Y2) = (6, 1).
IX2  Xj I = 16 + 21
S
IY2
Yll
1'1  31 = 4
AB ..J(x2  Xj)2 + (Y2  YI)2
= ..J64 + 16
(6, 1).
y
A(2.3)
(2,1)
..J8O
4.J5
EXERCISES 9(e)
1. Find the distance between the following points:
(b) (5, 1) and (5, 4)
(a) (4, 6) and (5, 6)
(d) (7, 2) and (6, 5)
(c) (5, 3) and (3, 1)
(f) (a, b) and (b, a)
(e) (a, 2a) and (2a, 6a)
2. Find the perimeter of the triangle whose vertices are the points (5, 1), (S, 5) and
(3, 7).
3. Prove that the points (0, 2), (6, 6), (S, 4) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.
4. Show that the points (2, 3), (5, 2) and (3, 0) are the vertices of a rightangled
triangle.
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY
5. Show that the points A(I, 4), B(4, 6), C(2, 7) and D(3, 5) are the vertices of a
parallelogram A BCD, by finding the length of the sides. Find the length of each
diagonal.
6. Show that the points P(2, 4), Q(5, 5) and R(2, 2) are equidistant from the point
(2, 1).
7. Find the length of each side of a triangle whose vertices have coordinates (2, 3),
(5, 1) and (6, 3). Hence show that the triangle is rightangled.
8. The vertices of a quadrilateral are the points A(2, 3), B(5, 1), C(1, 4) and D(2, 0).
Show that the quadrilateral is a square.
9. Show that the points (4, 1), (2, 3) and (6, 3) are the vertices of a rightangled
isosceles triangle.
10. Show that the points (1, 1), (4, 5), (0, 8) and (3, 4) are the vertices of a square.
11. The coordinates of A, Band Care (2, 19), (3, 7) and (10, 7) respectively.
(a) Show that DABC is isosceles
(b) Find the length of the perpendicular from A to BC.
12. Show that the points (2, 1), (4, 3) and (5, 2) are equidistant from the point (3, 1).
13. Show that the points (2, 2), (4, 6) and (4, 2) are equidistant from the point (1, 2).
14. The coordinates of A, Band Care (0, 4), (5, 1) and (1, 3) respectively. Find:
(a) the length of AB
(b) the perimeter of the triangle ABC.
ax +by+c
Fig. 926
The perpendicular distance of the fixed point P(x1 , Yl) from the line with equation
ax + by + c = is given by the formula
There are a number of ways to prove this formula. One method is as follows:
(i) Write down the equation of PM
(ii) Solve the simultaneous equations to find the coordinates of M
(iii) Use the distance formula to find the length of PM.
EXAMPLE 13
Find the distance from the point (4, 5) to the line with equation x
Applying the formula, we get
PM
11 x 4 + 2 x 5  41
v'P + 22
_ 1101
..[5
.... x
+......;;:.,~~
x+2y4=O
../(x2  X 1)2
+ (Y2 
+k
O.
= 3 and x + 2y = 4 yields x = 2, Y = 1.
O.
10
..[5
2..[5
The distance is 2..[5 units.
(iii) PM
2y  4
Yl)2
=m
=2..[5
Thus
= bX l  aYI
 e at M(xo, Yo), where
= b 2xl  abYI  ae
.................... (i)
abxl + a 2Yl
be .................. (ii)
_ (a 2 + b 2)Xl  (b 2xl  abYl
tie)
a2 + b 2
bx  ay
ax + by
(a 2 + b 2)xo
(a 2 + b 2)yo
Xl 
Xo
a(ax1
a2
and
(a 2
Yl  Yo
bYI
+ e)
b2
b 2)Yl  (abx l
a + b
2
b(ax l
bYI
e)
a2 + b 2
(ax l
Hence
bYI
a2 + b 2
+ bYI + el
../a 2 + b 2
lax)
EXAMPLE 14
Find the distance between the parallel lines
2x  Y + 2 = 0
and 2x  Y
5 = 0
e)2
a 2Yl  be)
9/COORDINATE GEOMETRY
171
2xy5=
J5
x
Can you think of another way of doing it?
EXERCISES 9(f)
Find the distance between the point and the line in each of the following (1. to 8.)
1.
3.
5.
7.
(1,4); 3x  4y
12 = 0
(5, 6); y + 2 = 0
(1, 12); 5x
12y + 20
0
<2, 3); 2y
x  6 = 0
2.
4.
6.
8.
4y  4 = 0; 3x  4y
+ 8 = 0; 7x
+ 1 = 0; x + y
10. 7x  24y
11. x
+y
24y
 5
16
=0
+ 58
12. A(2, 3), B(O, 3) and C(2, 4) are the vertices of a triangle ABC. Find the altitude
from A.
13. P(4, 2), Q(8, 7) and R(O, 4) are the vertices of a triangle PQR. Find the altitude
from R.
14. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (1, 1), (1, 2) and (2, 1).
15. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (1, 3), (3, 4) and (0, 2).
16. Prove that the lines x  2y
equidistant from the origin.
= 0,
2y  5
= 0 and
2x
= 0 are
I...Q
:~
 ;,. _; __ .rl D
I
I;:;:
I I
I...Q
(x" y,)A
________ d
a  x,
C
Fig. 927
Let P(a, b) be the midpoint of the interval joining A(x1, Yl) and B(x2, Y2)'
The triangles APC and PBD are congruent
AC
PD
and
PC = BD
i.e. a XI
x2  a
i.e. b  Yl
Y2  b
2a = XI
+ x2
2b = Yl
Yl
Y2
+ Y2
2
XI
+ x2
2
YI
'
+ Y2)
2
EXAMPLE 15
Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the interval joining the points (4, 2) and (5, 7).
2; 7)
. (12' 21)
I.e.
EXAMPLE 16
Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points A(6, 4) and
B(2, 2).
Midpoint of AB
6  2 4
2 '
(2, 1)
4 + 2
=
Gradient of AB
A(6,4)
3
4
.'. Gradient of
Equation of
.l
.l
3
bisector: Y  Y 1 = m(x
y  1
3y
3
4x + 3y
~x
(2;2 )8
XI)
1:
3
 2)
3
4x + 8
11
EXERCISES 9(g)
1. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the interval joining the points
(i) (5, 1) and (2, 3)
.
(ii) (8, 8) and (4, 6)
(iii) (2, 7) and <6, 9)
(iv) (3, 5) and (5, 3)
(v) (a, b) and (c, d)
(vi) (a + b, a) and (a  b, b).
\1
2. The coordinates of the midpoint of the join of A(3, 2) and Bare (4,6). Find the
coordinates of B.
3. The vertices of a triangle are A(2, 5), B(7, 3) and C(2, 1). Find the coordinates of D
and E, the midpoints of AC and AB respectively. Show that DE is parallel to CB.
9/COORDINA TE GEOMETRY 
4. A(4, 3), B(6, 2), C(I, 5) and D(3, 2) are the vertices of a quadrilateral. Find the
coordinates of E, F, G and H, the midpoints of AB, BC, CD and DA respectively,
Show that the triangle whose vertices areA(3, 5), B(1, 1) and C(l, 3) is isosceles.
Find the coordinates of the midpoint D of BC.
Write down the gradients of AD and BC.
What property of isosceles triangles is illustrated in (c)?
10. A(3, 1), B(4, 1), C(8, 5) and D(I, 3) are the vertices of a parallelogram.
(a) Find the coordinates of the midpoints of the diagonals AC and BD.
respectively.
(b) Prove that PQRS is also a parallelogram.
14. A(4, 0), B(4, 0) and C(2, 4) are the vertices of a triangle.
(a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of AB.
(b) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of BC.
(c) Find the coordinates of the point S where the perpendicular bisectors meet.
(d) Prove that S is equidistant from each of the vertices.
CHAPTER 10
Locus and
Subsets of
the Plane
10.1 Locus _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Definition: We may define locus as a set of points in a plane that satisfies some geometric
condition or some algebraic equation. Frequently, locus is defined as 'the path traced out'
by a particle moving in a plane (or space), and a Cartesian equation gives us the nature of
the curve along which the particle travels. We have already seen that:
(a) the equation ax + by + c = 0 defines a straight line.
(b) the equation y = ax2 + bx + c defines a parabola.
In this chapter, we shall consider certain geometric conditions that define a straight line, a
circle, a parabola, etc. For example, from your earlier study of Euclidean geometry, you
have seen that the locus of all points P in a plane such that P is equidistant from two fixed
points is a straight line. We shall see that the locus of a point P in a plane such that its
distance from one fixed point is twice its distance from another fixed point is a circle. We
shall redefine the parabola in a later chapter as the locus of all points P in a plane such
that the distance from P to a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed straight line.
i'
A (1.3 )11<.:: 
,PC, x,
y)
  ' ,
~B(5,1)
o
Fig. 101
3x  y  4 = 0
EXAMPLE 2
What is the locus of a point P(x, y) that is always three units from the Yaxis?
P(x, y) is any point on the locus, and PM denotes the distance of P from the Yaxis
(fig. 102).
y
PM
3
i.e., Ixl = 3
Hence the locus is a pair of lines
M       P(x.y)
with equation x = 3.
Fig. 102
3
EXERCISES 10(a)
1. Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves in a plane such that PA
PB where
(b) A = (2, 4), B = (2, 6)
(d) A = (1, 7), B = (4, 2)
Show in each case that the locus is a straight line perpendicular to AB and passing
Find the equation of the locus of a point P(x, y) that is subject to the following
conditions: (2. to 11.)
2. A point is three units above the Xaxis.
3. A point is four units to the left of the Yaxis.
4. A point is equidistant from the line y = 5 and the Xaxis.
5. A point is
.J2 units
x.
6. The distance of a point from the Yaxis is three times its distance from the Xaxis.
7. The distance of a point from the line x
1.
8. Twice the distance of a point from the Xaxis is three times its distance from the
Yaxis.
9. The distance of a point from the line y
line x
2.
(2, 1).
13. A and B are the fixed points (a, 0) and (a, 0), Find the locus of P(x, y) such that the
gradient of AP is twice the gradient of BP.
I .
Fig. 103
(x  h)2
+ (y  k)2
r2
Consider a circle of radius r units, having its centre at C(h, k). If P is a point in the
plane with coordinates (x, y), then 'P is on the circumference of this circle if the distance
from C to Pis r units. If the measure of the distance from C to P is denoted by CP, then P
is on the circle if CP = r.
Applying the Theorem of Pythagoras to the triangle CBP in fig. 103, we have
BC2 + Bp2
k)2
i.e., (x h)2 + (y
Thus the circle is defined by the relation
The domain is h  r
The range is
k  r
~ x ~
~
h
k
Cp2
r2
+ r
+ r
k)2
y  k
= r 2 (x
= ~r2 
Y = k
 h)2
(x  h)2
~r 2  (x  h)2
0 and k
EXAMPLE 3
Find the equation of the circle with centre (3, 4) and radius 6 units.
(x  h)2 + (y  k)2 = r 2
(x + 3)2 + (y  4)2 = 36
i.e.,
X2
6x
X2
+ 9 + y2
y2 + 6x
 8y + 16
8y  11
36
0
EXAMPLE 4
Find the coordinates of the centre, and the length of the radius, of the circle whose
O.
equation is X2 + y2  4x + lOy + 14
X2 + y2  4x + lOy + 14
0
(x 2  4x + 4) + (y2 + lOy + 25) + 14
4 + 25
(x
2)2 + (y + 5)2 = 15
Since this is of the form (x h)2 + (y  k)2 r2, the coordinates of the centre are (2, 5),
and the length of the radius is vT5 units.
EXERCISES 10(b)
1. Find the equation of each of th~ following circles:
(a) centre (1, 4), radius 3 uIllts
(b) centre (3, 3), radius
(c) centre
(d) centre
.J5 units
S. Show that the point (4, 3) does not lie on the circle X2 + y2  5x + 3y + 2
Does it lie inside or outside the circle?
6. Does the origin lie inside or outside the circle X2
+ y2  4x  y +
= O.
1 = O?
0 represents a pointcircle.
10. Show that the point (2, 1) lies on the circle with equationx 2 + y2 + 6x 2y  15 = 0,
and find the coordinates of the other end of the diameter through (2, 1).
11. (a) Find the equation of a circle whose centre is the point (1,2) and whose radius has
a length of 5 units.
(b) What is the length of the intercept cut off by this circle on the Xaxis?
(c) Find the length of the tangent from the point (6, 4) to this circle.
12. Find the equation of the circle whose centre is the point (1, 3) and which touches the
Xaxis.
13. The equation of a circle is X2 + y2 + 4x  2y  20 = O. Find
(a) the length of the tangent to this circle from the point (5, 2),
(b) the length of the intercept on the Yaxis.
14. A diameter intersects the circle at the points (6, 4) and <2, 6).
(a) Find the centre and the radius of the circle.
(b) What is the length of the tangent from the point (5, 5)?
15. The coordinates of two points, A and B, are (1, 3) and (5, 7). Find
(a) the coordinates of the midpoint of AB,
(b) the equation of the circle of which AB is a diameter,
(c) the coordinates of the points of intersection of the circle and the Yaxis.
16. (a) Find the coordinates of the centre and the length of the radius of the circle
X2 + y2  4x  8y  5 = o.
(b) The point (3, 2) is the midpoint of a chord of this circle. Find the distance of the
chord from the centre and the length of the chord.
EXAMPLE 5
Find the locus of a point P which moves so that PA
and B = (4, 1). Show that the locus is a circle.
= 2PB where P
= (x, y), A
= (2,4)
y
A (2,4)_ ...
   
P( x. y}
'\
'\
'\
\8(4.1}
(6,0)
Fig. 104
PA = 2PB
i.e.,
Square both sides of this equation:
(x + 2)2 + (y  4)2 = 4[(x  4)2 + (y  1)2]
X2 + 4x + 4 + y2
8y + 16 = 4[X2  8x + 16 + y2
2y + 1]
= 4X2  32x + 64 + 4y2  8y + 4
i.e.,
3x2 + 3y2
36x + 48 = 0
X2 + y2  12x + 16 = 0 (Divide by 3)
(x2  12x + 36) + y2 + 16 = 36
(x  6)2 + y2 = 20
Since this equation is of the form (x  h)2 + (y  k)2 = r2, the locus is a circle whose
centre is (6, 0) and the radius is 2J5 units.
EXAMPLE 6
A <1, 3) and B(3, 1) are two points on the plane. Find the locus of P(x, y) such that PA is
perpendicular to PB.
Gradient of PB =
x+
3, x* 1.
 1
* 3.
x
Fig. 105
Hence
i.e.,
y  3
y
1
x+lxx3
1
(y  3)(y  1)
(x + 1)(x  3)
y2
4y + 3 =  X2 + 2x + 3
X2 + y2
2x
4y
0
(x 2  2x + 1) + (y2  4y + 4) = 5
(x
1)2 + (y  2)2 = 5
h)2 + (y
k)2
r2, it represents a circle, centre
Since this equation is of the form (x
(l, 2) and radius J5 units. This result confirms your previous knowledge of the theorem:
an angle in a semicircle is ~ right angle.
X2
y2 _ 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ __
y
X2  y2 = 0
i.e. (x  y)(x + y)
0
x y
0
or
x +y = 0
y
or
y
x
Hence the locus is the pair of intersecting straight lines
whose equations are y = x and y
x.
Fig. 106
EXERCISES 10(c)
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point P(x, y) that is 4 units from the point (2, 1).
2. What can be said about the centres of all circles that pass through the points (2, 0) and
(6, 4)? What is the locus of the centres?
3. Find the locus of a point P(x, y) that moves in a plane so that its distance from
A (3, 1) is twice its distance from B(I, 1).
4. Find the locus of a point P(x, y) that moves in a plane so that its distance from
Q(5, 2) is twice its distance from R(2, 3).
5. Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves in a plane such that PA 2 + PB2
44
where A = (3, 2) and B
(3, 2). Show that the locus is a circle and find its centre
and radius.
 ., I
6. A ladder that is 6 m long rests with one end on the horizontal ground, and the other
end against a vertical wall. Considering the ground and the wall as the X and Yaxes
respectively, find the locus of the midpoint of the ladder.
7. A point moves in a plane so that the sum of the squares of its distances from the
points (1, 2) and (5, 3) is 45. Find the equation of the locus.
8. A point P(x, y) moves so that the sum of the squares of its distances from the points
A(4, 0) and B(4, 0) is 82 units.
(a) Find the equation of the locus of P.
(b) At what points does the locus cut the coordinate axes?
9. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from the point
C4, 2) is always twice its distance from the point (5, 1). What point on the line joining
the points (4, 2) and (5, 1) is on the locus?
10. A = (4, 2) and B = (2, 8). Find the locus of a point P(x, y) that moves so that the
angle APB is a right angle.
11. A = (2, 1) and B = (2, 1). Find the equation of the locus of P(x, y) if angle APB is a
right angle.
12. A point P(x, y) moves so that its distance from (3, 4) is proportional to its distance
from (1, 2). Find the equation of the locus of P if the origin is a point on the locus.
13. A is a point where the circle with equation X2 + y2 = 16 cuts the Xaxis. Find the
locus of the midpoints of all chords of this circle that contain the point A.
14. Find the equation of the locus of the midpoints of all chords of length 4 units of the
circle with equation X2 + y2  4x + 2y = 4.
IIC"'Y)
Y  k.
lI1.k) Ix  hi'
x
Fig. 107
Graph of
(x  h)2 + (y  k)2 < r 2
x
Fig. 108
Graph of
_...,..,.'1 "
"
" ""..''~"
If the point P(x, y) lies inside the circle (fig. 107), then
CP < r
Note that in Fig. 107 and Fig. 108 the circles are drawn with a broken line. Why?
EXAMPLE 7
Sketch the region of the cartesian plane which includes all points on or inside the circle
centre (0, 0) and radius 3 units and all points
(a) to the left of the line x = 2,
(b) op. or above the line x + y = 3.
y
Y
3
3
/
3
\
\
\.
" ......
Fig. 109
Fig. 1010
+ y2
9, x
+y
3. (Fig. 1010).
EXAMPLE 8
Describe the solution set and draw the graph of the simultaneous inequations y
y ~ 2x + 3.
X2 and
The graph of the inequation y ~ X2 is shown in fig. 1011 as the set of all points in the
shaded portion of the plane, above and including the points on the parabola with equation
y = x 2
The graph of the inequation y ~ 2x + 3 is shown in fig. 1012 as the set of all points in
\ "'
x
Fig. 1011: y
~ X2
Fig. 1012: y
.1
+3
2x
the shaded portion of the plane, below and including the points on the line with equation
+ 3.
y = 2x
(3.9)
(l,n
x
Fig. 1013
The parabola and straight line intersect at (1, 1) and (3, 9). Check this by solving the
system of equations y == X2 and y = 2x + 3.
The intersection of the two shaded portions is the graph of the solution set, S.
In set language, it is expressed thus:
S = I(x, y):y ~ x 2 1
I(x, y):y ~ 2x
+ 31
EXAMPLE 9
Describe the region of the xy plane whose
points satisfy the inequationsy < 2 + x  x 2 ,
Y + 2x ~ 2.
Weare concerned with points on the plane
that are below the parabola with equation
y = 2 + x  X2, and that are also on or below
the line with equation y + 2x = 2. The
parabola and straight line intersect at (0, 2)
and (3, 4). Verify this.
Thus the graph of the solution set is the
shaded portion of fig. 1014.
\
\
\ (3.4)
'I~ I
Fig. 1014
Note that the graph of the parabola is drawn with a broken curve to indicate that points on
the parabola are not elements of the solution set; the graph of the line is unbroken to indicate
that points on the line in the interval x = to x = 3 are elements of the solution set.
EXERCISES 10(d)
Sketch the graph of the relations: (1. to 10.)
1. X2
+ y2
16
2. X2 + y2 < 4
3. (x  1)2 + y2 > 9
4. (x  3)2 + (y + 4)2
5~ (x + 3)2 + y2 < 1
6. y ~ X2 + 1
7. Y > 9  X2
8. y ~ Ixl
9. y < 2x + 4
10. y ~ 12x + 41
25
Sketch the region of the plane defined by the inequations: (11. to 20.)
11. X2 + y2 ~ l,x ~ O,y ~ 0.
12. (x  1)2 + (y  1)2 < 1, x > 0, y
13. y < 4 x2,y~ 0.
14. y < lxi, y > 0, 1 < x < 2.
> 0.
15. X2 + y2 ~ 4, y > x + 2.
16. x > 0, y ~ X2  4, x + Y < 2.
17. Y > Ix
21, y > 3.
18. y ~ 1  x2,y ~ 0.
19. X2 + y2 ~ 1, y ~ 2x, x ~ 0.
20. (xl)2+y2~1,x~0,y~1.
Sketch the region of the cartesian plane whose boundary consists of: (21. to 30.)
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
CHAPTER 11
Sequences
and Series
11.1 Sequences _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The word 'sequence' is used frequently in everyday language. We speak of a sequence of
events; your history teacher may ask you to write down certain events in their proper
sequence. We can think of the sequence of the topics treated in a text book; in a
mathematical proof it is important to put down the steps of the proof in their proper
sequence.
In all contexts in which the word 'sequence' is used, we consider a set of objects, ideas,
steps or events in some definite order, and we associate each element of the ordered set
with an element of the set of natural numbers 11, 2, 3, ... I.
Consider the set
{95, 92, 89, 84, 81, 791,
which represents the marks obtained by the best six candidates in an examination. Each of
these numbers can be associated with an element of the set of natural numbers
11,2, 3,4, 5,61,
which represent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, ... 6th places in the examination. From these two sets, we
can then form a set of ordered pairs:
1(1, 95), (2, 92), (3, 89), (4, 84), (5, 81), (6, 79)1
There is a onetoone correspondence between the elements or terms of the sequence
and the first n natural numbers. Thus we associate a sequence with a sequence junction
whose domain is either
1. N, the set of natural numbers, in which case the sequence has an infinite number of
terms, or
2. {I, 2, 3, ... , n 1 where n EN, in which case the sequence has a finite number of terms.
The sequence function may be written thus:
(1, t 1), (2, t2), (3, t3), , (n, tn), . ..
where t 1, t2 , t3, , tn, . .. are the terms of the sequence, tn being the nth term.
In order to know the values of t 1 , t2 , t3 , we must have some rule that will tell us what
1, 2, 3, ....
the nth term is for each n
EXAMPLE 1
Consider the sequence function defined by tn
When n
tn =
tl =
t2 =
t3=
= 1,
= 2,
2  1
4  1
6  1
The sequence is 1, 3, 5, ... , i.e. the set of odd natural
n
n = 3,
= 1,
= 3,
= 5,
numbers.
EXAMPLE 2
Define the sequence function for the following sequences:
(a) 2, 4, 6, 8,. . .
(b) 1, 4, 9, 16, ...
(c) 1, 2, 4, 8, ...
tl = 2 = 2 x 1
t2 = 4 = 2 x 2
t3 = 6 =,2 x 3
Thus tn = 2n
(a)
tl =
t2 =
t3 =
Thus tn =
(b)
(c)
tl
t2
t3
Thus tn
1 = }2
4 = 22
9 = 32
n2
= 1 = 2
= 2 = 21
= 4 = 22
= 2n  1
EXERCISES 11 (a)
2. Write down the first four terms of each of the following sequences whose nth term is
defined by
2
1
(b) tn = n +
(a) tn = 2
n
(c) tn
= an +
tn =
3 n
(f)
tn = n(n + 1)
(_l)n
(e) t =
n
n
(d)
4. Study the pattern of each of the following sequences, and write down the next two
terms and the nth term.
(a) 3, 5, 7, 9, ...
1 1 1
The graph of this function is a set of points, which, if joined, would form a straight line.
It is a linear function (fig. 111). Are we justified in joining these points?
a+3d
a+2d
a+d
tn
(n
1 )d.
Fig. 111
Some examples of arithmetic sequences are as follows:
1.3,5,7,9,...
a
3,d=2
2. 6, 2, 2, 6, 10,. . .
a = 6, d = 4
3. 2, 3!, 4!, 5i,. . .
a = 2, d = I!
4. 1, 1 + .j2, 1 + 2.j2,. . .
a = 1, d = .j2
5.7r+3,27r+5,37r+7, ... a
7r+3,d= 7r+2
EXAMPLE 3
Write down the arithmetic sequence whose fifth and ninth terms are 17 and 29
respectively.
t5 = a
a
t9
+ 4d = 17
+ 8d = 29
...................... (1)
(2)
From (1),
4d
d
12
12
3
5
17
a
The sequence is 5, 8, ll, ...
mean of a and c.
Since d
b  a and d = c  b
:. b  a
i.e.
2b
=a +c
EXAMPLE 4
Insert five terms in arithmetic sequence between 25 and 7.
t)
a = 25
t7 = a
25
+ 6d
+ 6d
= 7
d = 3
t)
t2
+ ... +
t3
tn
(a
d)
(a
2d)
+ ... +
[a
(n 
l)d]
d,a
2d, ... ,a
(n l)d
It is useful to be able to express this series as a formula, rather than add the successive
(a
+ d) + (a + 2d) + ... +
(I  2d)
+ (I
d)
(l  d)
(I
2d)
+ ...
+(a
2d)
(a
+ d) +
Adding, we get
2Sn
Sn
= (a + I) + (a + I) + (a + I) + ... + (a + I) + (a + I) +
n(a + I)
+ I)
(a
I)
i(a'
2n [a +
n
= 2[2a
1) d]
(n 
(n 
since 1
(n 
1) d
l)d]
S, "" q[2a
(n  l)dl. n EN.
tn = Sn  Snl' n
>
Is this obvious?
EXAMPLE 5
Find the sum of the first twenty terms of the sequence 3, 5, 7, ...
a
3, d
n
Sn = 2[2a
2, n = 20
20
and so
S20
= 2[6 +
(n 
l)d]
19 x 2]
= 440
EXAMPLE 6
How many terms of the
seri~s
Sn = 2[2a
n
531 = 2[8
(n 
+ (n
1062 = n(3n + 5)
Thus
+ 5 n  1062
+ 59) (n  18)
3n 2
(3n
l)d]
1)3]
0
= 0
n = 18
EXAMPLE 7
Find the sum of the first twenty terms of an arithmetic sequence given that the tenth term
then
a + 9d = 39
Since the sum of the first ten terms is 165,
then
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (1)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (2)
From (1)
6
9d
9d
d
= 6
= 39
45
= 5
n
Sn = 2[2a
(n
l)d]
20
+ 19 x 5]
= 10 (  12 + 95)
= 830
S20 = T[ 12
EXAMPLE 8
2n 2 + n.
tn
Sn
SnI
Sn  SnII
2n 2 + n
and so
= 2(n  1)2 + n
= 2n 2  3n + 1
Thus
~
4n  1
tl
3, t2 = 7, t3 = 11
Hence the sequence is 3, 7, 11, ... , 4n  1, ...
Alternative method:
Sn
S,
= 2n 2 + n
= 3 = tl
10:. t2 ==
S3 = 21 .'. t3 =
a = 3, d = 4
tn
a + (n ,
= 3 + (n ,
S2
Thus
and
10  3
21  10
7
11
l)d
1)4
4n  1
Hence the sequence is 3, 7, 11, ... , 4n  1, ...
EXERCISES 11 (b)
1. Which of the following are arithmetic sequences?
(a) 5,2, 1, 4,...
(b) 7, 17,27, ...
1 1 1 1
5
17 and t12
= 52.
7.
8. Find the 7th term ofthe arithmetic progression whose 5th term is m and whose 11 th
term is n.
9. Find the value of p so that p
arithmetic progression.
10. How many terms are there in the sequence 9, 12, 15, ... , (6p
+ 15)?
14. Find the sum of the first 16 terms of the arithmetic sequence 3, 4!,
5i, ....
15. Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the arithmetic sequence in which the first term is
8 and the twelfth term is 41.
16. Find the sum of all integers between 20 and 50 that are divisible by 3.
17. A body, falling freely from a height, travels 49m (metres) in the first second, 147 m
in the second second and 24'5 m in the third second. How far has it fallen (a) after 6 s
(seconds), (b) during the 6th second?
18. Find the sum of the first 50 terms of an arithmetic progression, given that the 15th
term is 34 and the sum of the first 8 terms is 20.
19. Find the sum of the first 20 terms of an arithmetic progression whose 8th term is 6 and
12th term is 9.
20. Show that the sum of the first n odd natural numbers is a perfect square.
21. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 7, the common difference is 2 and the sum
of the first n terms is 247. Find the value of n.
22. t3 = 2, t9 = 28. How many terms of this arithmetic sequence, beginning with the first
term, are required to give a sum of 1092?
23. The sum of three numbers in an arithmetic progression is 15 and their product is 105.
Find the numbers.
24. Find the sum of all the natural numbers between 0 and 101 that are (a) divisible by 2,
(b) divisible by 5, (c) divisible by 2 and 5, (d) divisible by 2 or 5 but not both.
25. The sum of the first six terms of an arithmetic sequence is 12 and the sum of the first
fourteen terms is 196. Find (a) the sum of n terms, (b) the smallest value of n if the
sum is to exceed 250.
26. The sum of the magnitudes of the angles of a pentagon (5sided polygon) is 540 0 The
magnitudes of the angles form the terms of an arithmetic progression. If the largest
angle has a magnitude of 136 0 , find the magnitude of each of the other four angles.
27. The sum of the first four terms of an arithmetic sequence is 34 and the sum of the next
four terms is 14(). Find the sum of the 9th and 10th terms.
28. The rungs of a ladder decrease uniformly in length from 40 cm (centimetres) at the
bottom rung to 30 cm at the top rung. How many rungs are there if their total length
is 525 m?
29. How many terms of the series 7
11
+ ...
30. The first three terms of an arithmetic sequence are 45,41,37. If the nth term is 1, find
the value of n and the sum of these n terms.
31. The track of a gramophone record is in the shape of a spiral curve and may be
considered as a number of concentric circles of inner and outer radius 525 cm and
10'5 cm respectively. The record rotates at 33i rev/min and takes 18 minutes to play.
Find the length of the track. (Take
7r
= 2;.)
3n 2
33. A series is such that the sum of its first n terms is n(3n + 2) for all n EN. Prove that
the sequence is arithmetic and find the eighth term.
34. The sum of the first nine terms of an arithmetic sequence is 81. If the sum of the first
and third terms is zero, find the first term and the common difference.
35. Find the sum of all integers between 200 and 400 that are divisible by 6.
36. The first and second terms of an arithmetic sequence are a and b respectively. If the
nth term is c, express n in terms of a, band c, and hence find the sum of these n terms.
37. Find the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence in which the fifth term is three
times the second term, and the sum of the first six terms is 36.
38. Logs of wood are stacked in a pile so that there are 15 logs on the top row, 16 on the
next, 17 on the next, and so on. If there are 246 logs altogether,
(a) how many rows are there;
(b) how many logs are on the bottom row?
39. The lengths of the rungs of a ladder increase uniformly from 40 cm in the top rung to
75 cm in the bottom rung. If 13'8 m of wood are used to make the rungs, how many
rungs are there?
40. The lengths of the sides of a rightangled triangle form the terms of an arithmetic
sequence. If the hypotenuse is 15 cm in length, what is the length of the other two
sides?
41. How many terms of the series 6
10
43. Find the sum of (a) the first n odd positive integers (b) the first n even positive integers
(c) the first n positive integers and find this value of n if the sum is 210.
44. For a potato race, a straight line is marked on the ground from a point A, and points
B, C, D, ... are marked on the line so thatAB = BC CD
... = 2 metres, and a.
potato is placed at each of the points B, C, D, . ... A runner has to start from A and
bring each potato by a separate journey back to a basket at A. Find the number of
potatoes so that the total distance run during the race will be 480 metres?
45. Cans of fruit in a supermarket display are stacked so that there are 3 cans in the top
ro~, 5 in the next row, 7 in the next and so on. If there are 10 rows in the display, find
(a) the number of cans in the bottom row,
(b) the total number of cans in the display.
46. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5. The ratio of the sum of the first four
terms to the sum of the first ten terms is 8 : 35. Find the common difference.
47. The angles of a hexagon form the terms of an arithmetic sequence. If the smallest
angle is 95, find the size of each of the other angles.
1;xn denotes the sum of a numbe,r of terms, each of the form xn and we give n the
n=l
values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
5
Thus
1; xn
+ X2 + x 3 + X4 + x 5
n=l
1; (2k +
+ 1 for
k=O
k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... n.
n
Thus
1; (2k +
+ 3 + 5 + ... +
1) = 1
(2n
+ 1)
k=O
10
1;rxr 
2x
3x2
+ ... +
10x9
r=1
In reverse,
n
12
22
32 +
... + n 2
1;k2
k=l
10
1 . 2 + 2. 3
1;n(n
1)
n=1
8
2x
2X2
+ ... +
1; 2xk
2x 8
k=O
(a
+ d) +
(a
d)
(a
2d)
+ ... +
(a
(n 
1) d)
is the sum of n terms each of which has the form of the nth term a + (n  l)d for values
of n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... n and can be expressed very neatly using the sigma notation.
n
Thus a
(a
+ 2d) + ... +
(a
(n  1) d) =
1; a + (k
k=1
 1) d
EXAMPLE 9
8
Evaluate 'E(1
4k)
k=1
8
'E(1
= 5 + 9 + 13 + ... + 33
4k)
k=l
= 2(5 + 33)
S8
152
8
:. 'E(1
4k) = 152
k=l
EXERCISES 11 (c)
1. Write out expansions of the series defined by:
p
(ii) 'E3r
(iii) 'E2k
k=1
r=O
8
(iV) 'Ek(k
1)
''X
I
r
n+1
1)2
(viii) 'E(3k  2)
(ix) 'E Xk
k=1
k=O
(vi) '\"""r
r=1
k=1
(vii) 'E(2k
k.
(v) 'Erxr
k=1
2. Use sigma notation to express each of the following. (There can be more than one
form.)
(i) 1 + x + X2 + ... + x lO
(ii) 12 + 22 + 32 + ... + 92
(iii) 1.3 + 2.4 + 3.5 + ... + 10. 12
(iv) 1 + 6 + 11 + ... + (5p  4)
1
1
1
1
3. Show that each of the following represents an arithmetic series and hence evaluate:
1)
n
k=1
(ii) 'E(4k
k=1
k=1
(iv) 'E(6k
10
(i) 'E(3k  7)
2)
(v) 'E(2k  1)
k=1
(iii) 'E(4k  1)
k=l
10
(vi) 'E(3k
2)
k=l
,
II/SEQUENCES AND SERIES 243
The sequence
a, ar, ar 2 , ar 3 , , arn  I, ..
is called a geometric sequence, where a and r are real numbers and n is a natural number.
a is the first term and r the common ratio.
21, ...
x3, . ..
a = 2, r = 3
a = 3, r = 5
1
a = 18, r = 2"
a = 3, r = J'i
a = x, r = x
EXAMPLE 10
Write down the geometric sequence whose third and sixth terms are 12 and 96
respectively.
t3
ar 2 = 12 ......................... " (1)
(2)
t6 = ar s = 96
Divide (2) by (1).
ar S
96
ar2
12
r3
r
From (1)
= 8
= 2
a x 4
a
12
=3
of a and c.
By definition
The square of the middle term equals the product of the other two terms.
EXAMPLE 11
Insert three terms between 2 and 162 so that the five numbers form a geometric sequence.
Show that there are two possibilities.
The first term is 2 and the fifth term is 162.
i.e. a
2 and ar4 = 162.
:. r 4 = 81
r = 3
The terms are 6, 18, 54.
+ arn 1 = 'Eark 1
= a + ar + ar 2 +
Sn
............ (1)
k=l
rSn
Subtract (2) from (1):
I Sn = a(:
=;nl j
Sn
a(rn  I)
r 1
EXAMPLE 12
Find the sum of the first eight terms of the geometric sequence 3, 6, 12, ....
3, r
= 2, n
1)
1
1)
1)
765
EXAMPLE 13
For the series 4
=8[IorJ
4, r =
2'
GrJ
1.I.e., It
..IS t h e grap h 0 f
2;
 r
wher"sn EN.
8
6
;...
Fig. 112
S5
S6
S3 = 7
S7
S4 =
It appears that, as n increases, Sn
7!
S10
1
2'
7l
=
7~
7I~
= 7:U
Soo = 4
+ 2 + 1 + 2 + 4 + ...
a(1  rn)
1 r
a
..
If
Irl <
arn
=Ir
r
00.
(~)n
n
1
4
10
00
As n 
00,
(!)
o.
arn
r
IS~
Soo does not exist if
1
2
1
16
1
1024
0
Irl
o.
~ if ITI < 1 I
1. Why?
EXAMPLE 14
I .
A rubber ball is dropped from a height of 20 m. Each time it strikes the ground, it
~ of the distance of the previous fall. Find the total distance it travels.
3
4'
n  00.
For downward motion, a = 20, r
rebounds
00
a
r
20
1 
=
For
~pward
motion, a = 15, r
80
4' n Soo
00.
15
1 _ ~
4
= 60
Total distance = 80 m
60 m
140 m
EXAMPLE 15
Find the fractional equivalent of (a)
) o 23 =
0232323 ...
+ 00023 +
= 023
where a
0'23, r = 001
023
1  001
23
99
+ 0007 +
O' 5
+ a where a
r
0.5
+ 007
= 2
0'07, r = 01
1  01
90
52
90
26
45
EXERCISES 11 (d)
1. Which of the following are geometric sequences?
(a) 3, 6, 12, ...
1
1
(b) 8, 2,
2' 8""
111 1
(e)
2. Find (a) the 6th term and (b) the sum of the first 6 terms of the sequence 4, 6, 9, ...
3. Find the first term and common ratio of a geometric sequence, given that t3
t5 = 156i.
= 25 and
4. Find the first term of the geometric progression whose 6th and 7th terms are 3; and
64
. 1y.
27 respectIve
k.
7. Find (a) the 10th term a:pd (b) the sum of the first 10 terms of the sequence 8, 4, 2, ...
+ 25 + 5 + ... (7 terms)
(6 terms)
(c)
(lOterms)
(8 terms)
terms.
8 + 4 ~ 2 + ... + 16'
13. The
6 and x
3.
14. Find x and y, given that 1, x and yare in arithmetic sequence, and 1, y and x are in
geometric sequence.
15. The first two terms of a geometric sequence are
+ .J5 and ..J7
simplest surd form with rational denominator, the common ratio.
.J5.
~jnd, in
16. The population of a certain town is 10000; if its population will decrease each year by
10 per cent of its population in the preceding year, find its population in 5 years' time.
17. The value of a car when new is $3000. If it depreciates at the rate of 15 per cent of its
value at the beginning of each year, find its value after 6 years.
18. A pump removes onehalf of the water remaining in a tank in 10 minutes. What
fraction of the original amount of water will be left in the tank after one hour?
19. A pump removes onequarter of the water from a tank every 15 minutes. If the tank
initially holds 256000 litres, how much water will remain in the tank after one hour?
20. How many terms of the series 6 + 3 +
~ + ...
(b) 4 + 3 + 2~ +
(d) (.[3
10 + 4 +
~,
+ 1) + 1 + ~(.[3  1) +
23. Find the first three terms of a geometric sequence given that the sum of the first four
terms is 21j, and the sum to infinity is 27.
24. The three numbers a, band c, whose sum is 15, are successive terms of a geometric
sequence, and b, a and c are successive terms of an arithmetic sequence. Find the
values of a, band c.
25. Insert 4 terms in geometric sequence between
~ and
128
26. How many terms of the sequence 6, 12, 24 ... are required to give a sum of 1026?
27. The first term of a geometric sequence is 8 and the sum to infinity is 32. Find the
common ratio.
28. Find a number which when added to each of 1, 1 and 5 gives three terms in geometric
sequence.
29. 2m  8,2m
values of m.
30. The sum of the first 8 terms of a geometric series is 17 times the sum of its first 4
terms. Find the common ratio.
31. The sum of the first 4 terms of a geometric series is 30, and the sum of the infinite
series is 32. Find the first three terms.
32. Find the sum of the series 12 + 8 +
33. Find the sum of the series 1 +
5t +
....
1
1
a+
+ (a + 1)2 + .... For what range of values of
34. For the geometric sequence a, ar, ar2, ... show that the sequence log a,
log (ar2) , . " is an arithmetic sequence.
lo~
(ar),
35. Find the sum of 10 terms of the series logio 3 + 10giO 6 + logio 12 + ... , given that
logio 3 = 04771 and logio 2 = 0'3010.
36. Find, without using tables or a calculator, the sum of 7 terms of the series 10giO 27
logio 9 + 10glO 3 + ....
37. For the geometric sequence
sum of the infinite series.
.J5 +
..j3,
.J5
38. Find the fractional equivalent of (a) 238, (b) 4'62 and (c) 041717 ....
39. 0323232 ...
~, wherep and q are integers with no common factor. Find the value
ofp and q.
40. Show that 1'2888 ... is a rational number by expressing it in the form m where m and
n
n' are integers with no common factor.
42. Find a number which, when added to each of 2, 6, 13 gives three numbers in geometric
sequence.
....
..
~
where P is the initial amount, An is the amount that P grows to after n periods of time,
interest .being charged at rftJo per period. The period need not necessarily be one year.
18ftJo per annum
9ftJo per 6 months
= 4!ftJo per 3 months
= l!ftJo per month etc.
EXAMPLE 16
At the beginning of each year a man invests $500. Calculate:
(i) the magnitude of his first investment at the end of 10 years,
(ii) the accumulated value of his investments at the end of 10 years, reckoning
compound interest at 8 per cent per annum.
(i) Number of dollars at end of first year
= 500 x 108
x (1'08)2
500 x (1'08)10
(ii) Value
1'08[1.08 10 1]
108  1
500 x 108 x 1'15892
500
= 782271
(using a calculator)
Thus, if a person invests $P at the beginning of each period of time at r per cent per
period compound interest, the sum of his investments at the end of n periods of time
PR + PR2
= PR(1 + R
= PR(Rn 
R  1
100
EXAMPLE 17
A person borrows $5000 and undertakes to repay $100 at the end of each month reckoned
from the date of the loan. Interest is charged on the unpaid debt at I! per cent per month.
How much does he owe after the 8th repayment?
.
R = 1
+~
=
100
1015
= (PR
= PR2
 Q)R 
Q(I + R)
Number of dollars owing after third repayment
R  1
1)
+
Rn 1)
11.12 Annuities _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
An annuity (from the latin word annus: a year) is a series of payments made at equal
intervals of time; the payments may be made yearly, halfyearly, quarterly or at more
frequent intervals. Annuities may be considered in two ways:
(i) A person, as in example 17, borrows a certain sum of money and undertakes to repay
the debt in regular instalments and interest is charged on the part of the debt
outstanding. The instalments include repayment of part of the capital and the interest.
(ii) A person invests a lump sum of money with, say, an insurance company or other
investment agency and in return receives regular payments over a number of years. In
principle, (i) and (ii) are the same.
EXAMPLE 18
A person invests $5000 on condition that he is repaid the money in 10 equal quarterly
instalments. If interest is received at the rate of 4 per cent per quarter, what is the amount
of each instalment?
As in example 17, if $P is invested and $Q is repaid at the end of each quarter, interest
at the rate of r per cent per quarter, the amount remaining to his credit at the end of n
quarters is:
Q(Rn  1)
R  1
10
Q(I'04
0,04
1)
Q
0
5000 x 104' 0 x 004
1.0410  1
= 61649 (using a calculator)
EXERCISES 11 (e)
1. In 1976, 500 students entered for a particular examination. This number increased
each year by 20 per cent of the number who entered the previous year. Calculate
(a) the number who entered in 1981, (b) the total number who entered between 1976
and 1981 inclusive.
2. If the amount of wheat harvested in a certain area in 1982 is 42 thousand tonnes and
it is anticipated that this will increase annually by 25 per cent, estimate
(a) the amount to be harvested in 1990,
(b) the total amount to be harvested over the 9 years from 1982 to 1990 inclusive.
3. At the beginning of 1981, a mining town had a population of 15000. It was estimated
that this would increase each year by 8 per cent of its population at the beginning of
that year. What should the population be at the beginning of 1985?
4. The value of a motor car when new is $8000. Its value depreciates each year by 15 per
cent of its value at the beginning of that year. After how many years will its value be
$4000?
5. A man contributes towards providing a pension a sum of $500 annually on each of his
44' birthdays from his 21st to his 64th inclusive. Find the accumulated value of these
44 contributions on his 65th birthday,. assuming that the money is invested at 10 per
cent per annum compound interest.
6. John borrowed $2000 on 1st January 1980. He agreed to pay back $300 on 1st
January in each succeeding year and to add to the debt 6 per cent per annum interest
on the amount owing during the year just completed. Find (a) the amount still owing
immediately after 1st January 1985, (b) the number of years necessary to free himself
of the debt.
7. Jan borrows $8000 and agrees to repay it in equal instalments each year for 10 years.
If interest is charged at 7 per cent per annum on any part of the unpaid debt, calculate
the amount of each yearly instalment.
S. A man is to receive six payments of $500 each, the first payment in a year's time and
subsequent payments at twoyearly intervals. He invests each payment at 9 per cent
per annum. How much will he have immediately after the last payment is made?
9. What sum of money should be invested now to provide $2000 at the end of 10 years,
assuming interest at the rate of 8 per cent per annum for the first six years and 10 per
cent thereafter?
10. A married couple borrows $50000 in order to purchase a house. They agree to repay
the loan in equal quarterly instalments for 12 years. What is the amount of each
instalment, if interest is charged at the rate of 10 per cent per annum on any money
owing?
11. A person borrows $5000 at I!OJo per month reducible and pays it off in equal monthly
instalments. What should the instalments be in order to payoff the loan at the end of
3 years?
12. A firm is established with new equipment and creates a fund to provide for the
replacement of the equipment after 6 years at an estimated cost of $20000. How
much should be paid into the fund annually if interest at 11070 can be obtained?
13. A family borrows $30000 from a building society with interest at II!OJo p.a.
(a) How much must be repaid each year if the loan is to be repaid over 30 years?
(b) How much of the loan will be outstanding at the end of the 18th year of the loan?
(c) If repayments are made at the rate of $4500 per year, over what period will the
loan be repaid?
14. A person borrows $10000 and agrees to repay the loan in equal instalments over 20
years. Interest is 12070 per annum on any money owing
(i) What is the amount of each repayment, if the repayment are made (a) annually
(b) quarterly (c) monthly (d) weekly.
(ii) Which is the cheapest of the four methods of repayment in (i)?
CHAPTER 12
Quadratic
Functions
=1=
Its domain is R, the set of all real numbers, unless otherwise stated or implied.
y
2X2  3x  5 for every real number x
y = f2 + 2t
y = 4p2  8
for every real number p
S2
is a quadratic function whose domain is the set of all positive real numbers.
'
+ B)2 +
C,
where a, Band C are constants, a =1= 0. This form is often called 'the completing of the
square' form. Since (x + B)2 is a perfect square, it is nonnegative for all real values of x
and the least value it can assume is zero, when x = B. Hence
(i) if a > 0, the minimum value of a(x + B)2 + C is C;
(ii) if a < 0, the maximum value of a(x + B)2 + C is C.
EXAMPLE 1
Express 2X2
4x  5 in the form a(x
and hence state its minimum value.
+ B)2 +
2X2  4x  5
2 [X2  2x 
2 [(x 2 _ 2x
= 2[<Xl)2
;J
= 2(x 1)2  7
Hence the minimum value of 2X2  4x  5 is 7 and it occurs when 2(x  1)2 has its least
value, namely zero, when x = 1.
y
(1,7)
Fig. 123
The graph of the function y
2X2  3x  5 is shown in Fig. 123.
Hence the range of the function is y ~ 7. The graph is symmetrical about the line
1. This line is called the axis of symmetry. The coordinates of the
with equation x
vertex are (1, 7).
EXAMPLE 2
Find, by the method of completing the square, the maximum value of 3x2  12x  7
~3X2
3
 12x
3 [ (X2
[<x
3
3(x
+4; + 4) + ~ 
+ 2)2 ~ ]
+ 2)2 + 5
Hence the maximum value of the function y = 3x2  12x  7 is 5 and it occurs when
3(x + 2)2 has its greatest value, namely zero, when x = 2.
The graph of the function is shown in Fig. 124.
The range of the function is y ~ 5. The axis of symmetry is the line x = 2. The
coordinates of the vertex are (2, 5).
y
Fig. 124
EXAMPLE 3
A piece of wire of length 12 cm is bent in the shape of a rectangle. Find the maximum area
of the rectangle.
Let OI;le dimension of the rectangle be
x cm and hence the other dimension will be
(6  x) cm. For any given x in the domain
o < x < 6, the area function is defined by
the rule
y
x(6  x), 0 < x <6
x
6x  X2
Fig. 125
 [(X2  6x + 9)  9]
=  (x  3)2 + 9 .
3; in which case, the rectangle is a square.
Hence the maximum area is 9 cm2 when x
The graph of the area function is shown in
y
Fig. 126.
Domain is 0 < x < 6
9
Range is
Fig. 126
'
EXERCISES 12(a)
Express each of the following functions in the form
y = a(x + B)2 + C
and hence find their maximum or minimum value and the range in each case (1. to 10.)
Y
2X2  4x
y = 7 + 16x
4X2
y = 8  2X2
y = 2X2
6x
10. y = x2 + X + 11
2.
4.
6.
8.
Y
X2  2x +6
y = 2x2 + 8x  3
y = 4X2 + 8x  7
y = 7  2x  X2
y = 6
lOx  5x2
1.
3.
S.
7.
9.
11. A stone is projected vertically upwards from the ground. The height, h(t) m, above
the ground is a function of time t s (t ~ 0), with rule
h(t) = 20t
5t2
where x m and y m are the horizontal distance travelled and vertical height
respectively.
Calculate the greatest vertical height reached and the horizontal distance travelled.
13. The sum of two numbers is 20. Find the numbers and their product if their product is
a maximum.
14. A piece of wire of length 60 cm is bent in the shape of a rectangle. Find the maximum
area of the rectangle.
15. A man wishes to form a rectangular enclosure using his existing fence as one side. If
he has 20 metres of fencing material available to form the other three sides, find the
area of the largest enclosure he can form and its dimensions.
16. A piece of wire 6 metres long is cut into two parts, one of which is used to form a
square, and the other to form a rectangle whose length is three times its width. Find
the lengtnsof the two parts if the sum of the areas is a minimum.
17. A large open area is to have a portion surrounded by a rectangular fence. This
rectangle is then divided into six rectangles by one dividing fence parallel to its length,
and two parallel to its breadth. If the total length of fencing available is 1200 m, find
the maximum possible area.
18. A machine comes in two sections. The weights of the sections are x kg and bkg. The
cost, c, of the machine (in dollars) is given by c = 2x + b. The earning capacity, y, of
the machine is given by y = x(x + b). If c has the fixed value 10, express y as a
function of x, and hence find the value of x for which y is a maximum. Find the
maximum value of y.
19. ABCD is a square of unit length and points E and F are taken on the sides AB and AD
respectively such that AE = AF = x. Show that the area, y, of the quadrilateral
CDFE is given by y
= ~(l + x
X2).
have?
Let us solve the general quadratic equation and discuss the nature of its roots.
ax2 + bx + c
0
X2
bx
X2
+ bx
= _ ~ (adding
a
a
X2 + ~x + (:ci)2 (:0)2
(x + :a)2 b2 4ac
c to both sides)
a
b
.Jb2  4ac
(taking square roots)
x + 2a =
b + .Jb 2  4ac
b  .Jb2  4ac
x
2a
or
2a
b+.J8
b
.J8
 or :::
where 8 (delta); called the discriminant, is equal to b 2  4ac.
Thus, the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c
0 are
b +.J8
b  .../8
2a
Case 1
If 8 > 0, .J8 is a real number and so the roots consist of 2 real numbers.
Case 2
If 8 = 0, .J8
this case is  b
0 also, and so the roots consist of one real number only. The root in
We say that the equation has one root only or two equal roots.
Case 3
If 8 is a perfect square, .J8 is a rational number and so the roots consist of two rational
numbers.
Case 4
If 8 < 0, .J8 does not exist in the field of real numbers and so there are no roots.
and the Xaxis. In other words, at the points where the parabola cuts the Xaxis, Y = O.
Hence the parabola
(j) cuts the Xaxis at two distinct points, if d > 0
(ij) touches the Xaxis at one point only, (or two coinciding points) if d
0
(iii) does not intersect the Xaxis, if d < O.
y
x
6> 0
6 = 0
a > 0
a > 0
6 < 0
a > 0
Fig. 127
In the above parabolas, the coefficient of X2 is positive and so the vertex is downwards.
y
6> 0
a < 0
6=0
a < 0
6 < 0
a <0
Fig. 128
In the above parabolas, the coefficient of X2 is negative and so the vertex is upwards.
EXAMPLE 4
Write down the discriminant of each of the following quadratic equations and hence state
whether the associated parabola cuts the Xaxis at two, one or no points.
(i) X2  5x + 6
0
y
(ii) X2  4x + 4 = 0
(iii) 2X2  3x + 3 = 0
b2
(i) d
25
4ac
24
= 1
Y
X2  5x + 6 cuts the Xaxis at two
Fig.< 129
Y
X2 
5x
(ii) ~ = b 2
 4ac
16  16
0, and so the equation has
(Fig. 1210).
o
y
(iii) ~
b2
4ac
Fig. 1210
4x + 4
= X2
9  24
= 15
(Fig. 1211).
Fig. 1211
2X2  3x
Note: The value of the discriminant merely determines whether the associated parabola
crosses the Xaxis or not. To find the actual points of intersection (if they exist), it is
necessary to solve the quadratic equation.
EXAMPLE 5
Solve the following equations
(a) 3x 2  llx  4
0
(c) X2 = 2x + 5
(a) .l
20x
(b) 4X2
(d)
2X2
+ 25
= 0
3 = 0
1
x =  or 4
3
(b).l
O. Since the discriminant is zero, 4X2
20x + 25 has rational factors, both of
which are the same, and which can be found by trial.
4X2  20x + 25 = 0
(2x  5)(2x  5)
0
x = 2!
(c) .l = 24. Since the discriminant is positive but not a perfect square, X2
2x  5 has
irrational factors. In this case, it is advisable to solve the equation either by using the
formula or by the completing of the square.
X2 
or
2x  5 = 0
 b ",J b 2
x=
2a
2 ffi
4ac .
X2 X2
2x
(x 
2 2.J6
2x
+ I =5+
1)2
xI=.J6
x
=1.J6
(d) Since Ll < 0, there are no real numbers for which 2X2
+x +
I .J6
O.
EXtRCISES 12(b)
1. Calculate the discriminant of each of the following equations and hence state whether
the\equations have two, one or no roots.
(a) ~2' + 6x + 2
0
(b) 2X2 + 3x + 4 = 0
(c) J4X2  12x + 9 = 0
(d) 3x2 + 2x
I = 0
~3 2X2 = 3x + 7
(f) 4X2  20x + 25
0
2. Without sketching the graphs of the following functions, determine whether they
crqss the Xaxis or not.
(a); y = X2  5x + 2
(b) y = 4x2 + 2x  I
(c) Y
X2  6x + 9
(d) y = 8  3x  2X2
(f) Y
x 2  X  I
(e) y = 3x 2 + 2x + 5
Calculate the discriminant of each of the following equations to help you to decide the
technique to use to solve the equations. Hence solve them (3. to 22.)
3. X2 + 2x
15
5. 12x2 = 25x  12
7. 7x2 = 63
4. X2  9x  5
0
6. 4X2  12x + 9 = 0
8. X2  6x = 0
9. (x + 1)2 = 4x
11. 2X2  x = 5
13. 3x2  7x
3 = 0
15. 4X2 = 9x  4
17. 3x2 + 4x = 5
19. X2 = 15x  56
21. 2X2 + 5x + I
0
10.
4(x  24)
2x + 2
(x + 6)2
x + 6
9x 2 + 24x + 16 = 0
2X2 + x  4 = 0
x(2x
3) = 0
5x 2  7x + 2 = 0
X2
12. 3x2
14.
16.
18.
20.
22.
(d)
24
~ + 1)'  7 (x + 1) + 10
(a) Lety
Then
X2  5x
y2  2y  24
(y  6)(y + 4)
y
6
X2  5x  6
(x 6)(x + 1)
i.e.
= 0
= 0
= 0 or
= 0 or
y+4=0
X2  5x + 4
0
or (x  4)(x  1) = 0
6,
1, 1, 4
(b) Lety
X2
y2  3y  10 = 0
(y  5)(y + 2) = 0
y  5 = 0 or y + 2 = 0
X2  5 = 0 or X2 + 2 = 0
i.e.
:. (x
vIs)(x + vis) = 0 or X2 + 2 = 0 has no roots
Then
vIs
x
(c) Lety = 2x
Then y2  I2y + 32
(y  8)(y  4)
=
=
y  8 =
x
2 = 8 =
i.e.
= 0
= 22
= x + x1
(d) Let y
Then
0
0
0 or y  4
23 or 2 x = 4
3 or 2
y2
7y + 10 = 0
(y  2)(y  5) = 0
y  2 = 0 or
x + 1  2
i.e.
x
X2  2x
(x
+1
I)(x  1)
or
0 or
X2
y5
1 5
x
5x + 1
or
1 or
X=
.J2I
.J2I
EXERCISES 12(c)
Solve the following equations:
1. (x  2)2  2(x  2)  15
3. (x 2 + 2X)2 = I4(x2 + 2x)
5. (x 2 + 5X)2
6(x 2
5x)
2x
7. 3  28(3Y + 27 = 0
X
9. 4(2i  5(2Y + 1 = 0
11. 5(5)2x
26(5Y + 5
0
13. 3(3)2x
28(3Y + 9
0
15. X4  2X2  8 == 0
17.
19. 2
4(2t
+ 32
0
15
(x +~y
24
12
=0
=0
16
8. 22x
 6(2Y + 8 = 0
x
10. 4
I2(2Y + 32 = 0
12. 2(2)2X
9(2Y  4
14. I6(2)2X  33(2Y + 2
16. (2x  5)2 = 2x
5
18. X4
5x 2
6 = 0
21. x 6
23.
X4 x

25. 9
31. 9x
22. x4  13x2 + 36 = 0
24. x4  2X2  15 = 0
26. (x + 1)2 = 4X2
28x3 + 27 = 0
5x2 + 6 = 0
4(3)X + 3 = 0
1 =. 0
(X + ~)'  5 ~ + ! )+ 6 =
28.
8(2Y + 15 = 0
12(3Y + 27 = 0
30. x6  9x3 + 8 = 0
x
28(5Y + 75

32. 25
bx
* 0)
X2
+ ~x + ~
0 (a
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (1)
Then
(x
a)(x
(3)
0
i.e.
X2  (a + (3)x + a{3 = 0 .................... (2)
X2  (sum oj roots) x
i.e.
+ product oj roots
= 0
sum oj roots
product oj roots
a{3
b
a
{3
c
.............. (3)
................ (4)
(3) and (4) give us the relationship between roots a, (3 and coefficients a, b, c of a
quadratic equation.
EXAMPLE 7
Write down the quadratic equation whose roots are (a) 3 and 2
(a)
sum of roots = 1
product of roots =  6
equation isx2  x  6 = 0
(b)
(b) 3
+ .J5 and 3
.J5.
sum of roots = 6
product of roots = 4
equation is X2 + 6x + 4 = 0
EXAMPLE 8
The quadratic equation 2X2
Find the values of m.
Let the roots be a and 2a.
(m
+ 2)x +
3a = m
sum of roots
product of roots
2a 2 =
Substitute a
2(m
Then
+ 2)2
+2
.................. (1)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
(2)
36
+ 2)2
5m + 4
1)( m  4)
(m
m2 (m 
9m
0
0
1 or 4
Test that these values of m are correct by putting them in the given equation. Then solve it
to see if one root is twice the other.
EXAMPLE 9
The parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c has vertex at (3, 18) and passes through the origin. Find
the values of a, b, c.
again at x
6.
b
sum of roots
 = 6 :. b = 6a
product of roots = c
o :. c
When x = 3, y
18
18 = 9a + 3b
= 9a  18a since b
6a
a
2 and b = 12
y = 12x
2X2 is the equation of the parabola
Fig. 1212
Alternative method:
y = ax 2
When x
When x
+ bx + c
= 0, y = 0 and so
c =0
0 and so 36a + 6b
i.e. 6a + b
When x = 3, y
18 and so 9a + 3b
i.e. 3a + b
Solving (2) and (3) yields a = 2, b = "12.
=
6, y
=0
(a) 5 and 2
(c) 2
J3
1
1
2
3
(d) p and 2p
(b)  and
.............. (2)
18
6
EXERCISES 12(d)
. . . . . . . . . . . .. (1)
.............. (3)
(b) a{3
{3
(c)
bx  10
4x
~+~
+ !{3 = a a{3
+ {3 for (c)
X2
qx
px
bx
+ 73
(b) a 2
(a
(k
2)x
+ qx + r
1.
4k = 0
{32
~+
a{32
1
+ bx + c = 0 are
and 4. Find the values of band c.
13. If one root of the equation X2 + px + q = 0 is 2 show that q = 2p  4.
12. The roots of the equation 2X2
14. Find the equation of the parabola which passes through the points (1,0) and (0, 1)
and is symmetrical about the Yaxis.
15. Find the equation of the parabola through the points (2, 0), (4, 0) and (0, 8).
16. If one root of the equation X2
mx + 2
+ px 12 = 0 differ by 4.
18. If a and {3 are the roots of the equation X2 + 5x  8 = 0 find the value of
1
1
(a) a + {3
(b) a{3
(c) a + 73
(d) a 2{3 + a{32
(e) (a + 2)({3 +
17. Find p if the roots of the equation 3x2
2)x
12 = 0 have
2)
2X2  3x  5
0
i.e. (2x  5)(x + 1) = 0
.
5 or 1
l.e.
x = 2
Hence the graph of
y = 2X2
3x  5
1 and x
= ~.
y > 0 when x
< 1
or when x >
Fig. 1213
2X2  3x  5
y < 0 when 1
<x <2
EXAMPLE 11
Prove that 2X2
4x + 5
= 16
40
<0
Alternatively
2X2
4x
= 2[X2
2x +
= 2 [<X2 =
+5
~J
2x + 1)  1 +
2(x  1)2
Fig. 1214
f(x) = 2X2  4x + 5
EXERCISES 12(e)
1. For what values of x is
(i) X2  3x  10 > 0
(iii) 6
+ 11 x  2X2
:E;;
(ii) 4
X2 ~ 0
(iv) 3x 2 + 14x < 5
1 and
= 4X2
= X2 
5. Prove that X2
12x
(p
X2
ax
+ b.
7. For each of the following functions find the values of x for which y > 0
(i) Y
X2 + 4x  5
(ii) y = 4X2  3x  7
(iii) y = X2  2x  1
(iv) y = 3x2 + 2x + 1
(v) y = 1 + x  X2
(vi) y
9  X2
8. For each of the following functions, find the values of x for which y < O.
(i) y
X2  4
(ii) y = X2 + 8x  20
(iii) y = 2X2 + 4x + 1
(iv) y
2x2 + 5x + 3
9. For each of the following functions, show that y > 0 for all x.
(i) y = X2 + 2x + 4
(ii) Y
X2 + 4
(iii) y = 3x2 + 2x + 1
(iv) y = X2 + X + 6
(v) y = 2X2  3x + 4
(vi) y
2X2 + 7
4 = 0 has
m2
~ = (m  2)2  16
= m2
4m  12
(m  6)(m + 2)
= 0 when m = 6 or  2
The graph of ~ = m 2

4m  12
(Fig. 1215) cuts the maxis at m = 6
or 2.
Thus ~ > 0 when m > 6 or when
m < 2.
(Fig. 1215).
Fig. 1215
~
4m 
12
EXAMPLE 13
Prove that the equation
X2 + (k  3)x  k
0
has real roots for all values of k.
For real roots, .;l ~ 0
.;l = (k
3)2 + 4k
= k2
2k + 9
Fig. 1216
.;l
Alternatively
.;l
= k2 = k2
2k
2k
1)2
Hence
.;l ~
2k
+ 9
+ 1+ 8
+ 8
a perfect square + a positive number.
(k 
k2
8 for all k and so the equation has real roots for all k.
EXAMPLE 14
Show that the roots of the equation
X2
+ 2x
(m 2
1) = 0
.;l
is a perfect square
4 + 4(m2
1)
.;l =
= 4m 2
EXERCISES 12(f)
1. Find the values of k for which the following quadratic equations have (i) one root;
(ii) two roots.
(a) X2  3x + k
0
(b) X2 + kx + 3
0
(c) X2 + (k
l)x  (2k + 1) = 0
(d) (k  l)x2 + (k + l)x
1  k
+ (k + l)x  1
3)X2
4mx
+ m + 1 = 0,
4. For what values of m are the roots of the following equations real?
(i) X2 + 2x + m 2
1 =0
(ii) (m  l)x2 + (m + l)x + m
1 = 0
(iii) X2 + 2mx + 2(m + 12)
0
5. If the roots of the equation X2
2mx
(ii) a =1= b
which (i) a = b
l)x  3
l)x2  4(m
= 0, (m
'* 1)
5m 2 = 0, ( m
'* ~ )
b)x
ab = 0
4x
+p
= 0
8m  15 = 0
b)x
0, (a
'* 0)
= 0
b1x
C1
a2x 2
b2x
C2
These two forms of the quadratic expression are equal for all values of x. We have
merely changed the appearance of 2X2  4x  5.
EXAMPLE 15
Express X2
Method 1.
X2
+ 2x
 2
==
==
1)
bx2 + c(x
1)
a + b = 1
a+c=2
c
2
Solving these linear equations, we get a = 4, b = 3, c = 2.
Thus
X2 + 2x  2 == 4x(x + 1)
3x 2  2(x + 1)
Method 2. The identity is true for all values of x. Select 3 convenient values of x to form
c.
c
2
b = 3
2c
EXAMPLE 16
Express X2
2x  2 in the form (x
X2
+ a)2 +
2x  2 == (x
== X2
+ a)2 + b
+ 2ax + a2 +
EXERCISES 12(g)
I .. Find the constants a, band c such that
n 2 == an(n + 1)
+ x)
q(x 
+ b(n + 1) + c
+ b(3x2 + x).
1) + r(x  1)2.
+ lOx +
+ 7X2 + 6x X2
5. Express X4  6x 3
hence solve the equation X4
6. Solve the equation X4
a(x2
+ 2X)2 +
b(X2
10
6x 3
4x3
2x) + c
X2 
lOx
+ ax)2 +
= O.
o by
1)
b(X2
+ c and
O.
7. X2  4x + 6
ax)
8. 2x 2
4x  5
b)2
+ c
9. X2
10.
2X2
5x
EXAMPLE 17
Find the points of intersection of the line y = x
At the points of intersection,
X2  x  2 = x + 6
i.e.
X2  2x  8
0
(x  4)(x + 2) = 0
x = 4 or2
y = 10 or 4
X2 
X 
Fig. 1217
EXAMPLE 18
Prove that the line y  x = 1 is a tangent to
the parabola y = X2  3x + 5.
At the points of intersection (if any)
X2  3x + 5 = x + 1
i.e.
X2  4x + 4
0
2,y
x
Fig. 1218
2.
EXAMPLE 19
For what values of m does the line y
(ii) intersect
the parabola y
X2 .2x + 3?
mx  6
(iii) not intersect
(i) touch
A+
8
From the above sign diagram
(i) Ll
0, when m
8 or 4
(ii) Ll > 0, when m < 8 or m
(iii) Ll < 0, when 8 < m < 4
m
y
>4
m<4
x
Fig. 1219
Note: The principles involved in examples 17, 18 and 19 apply to the intersection of a
straight line and any curve whose defining equation is of second degree (e.g. a circle and
b)'
EXERCISES 12(h)
Find algebraically the solution set of the following systems of equations (1. to 4.).
3x + 4
1. Y = 2X2
y = 12  3x
3.
y = X2
x+y=3
2. y
Y
3x  2
.4.
2  x  3x 2
7x + 2
x  y
X2 + xy
= 1
Find algebraically the coordinates of the points of intersection of: (5. to 7.)
5. the straight line y
2x
=9
= X2
 3x
2)2
X2  X  2?
4?
X2  8x
+ 25?
~3?
x
3
17. Find the equation of the two lines which contain the point (1, 3) and are tangents to
the parabola y = X2  2x + 5.
18. Prove that the parabolas y
2X2
6x + 7 and y
and find the coordinates of the point of contact.
= X2
 2x
EXAMPLE 20
Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves in a plane so that its distance from the point
S(O, a) is equal to its distance from the line y = a.
y
x
Fig. 1220
8
v(y+a): : 2
r7
+ y2
(y  a)2 = (y
2ay + a 2 y2
+ a)2
+ 2ay +
X2 = 4ay or y
a2
X2
4a
X'
= 4ay
From your knowledge of quadratic functions, you can appreciate that this equation
defines a parabola with its vertex at (0, 0) and the Yax.is is the axis of symmetry. The fixed
point S is called the focus, and the fixed straight line is called the directrix.
The focal length is a and this is the distance of the focus from the vertex.
8y defines a parabola with a = 2:
length 2 units.
EXAMPLE 21
Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves in a plane so that its distance from the point
S(a, 0) is equal to its distance from the line x = a.
Comparing this example with example 20, you will notice that the point S(a, 0) is on the
4 ax?
M(a, y)
x
Fig. 1221
x
=8
PS = ..J(x  a)2 + y2
PM
..J(x + a)2, and so
..J(x  a')2+y2 = ..J(x
a)2
i.e.,
I,
+ a)2
+ 2ax +
a2
This equation defines a parabola with its vertex at (0, 0) and the Xaxis is the axis of
symmetry. The/oeus is the point (a, 0), the/oeallength is a units, and the directrix is the
The equation y2
12x defines a parabola with a = 3:
3 units.
We will consider now situations where the fixed point is not necessarily on the X or
Yaxis and the vertex is not at the origin.
EXAMPLE 22
Find the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that its distance from the point S(2, 1)
is equal to its distance from the line y = 3.
y
I
I
I
I
I
(2 1)S.
,
'"
x
1(2
1)
I
I
I
I
I
I
Fig. 1222
3
M(x, 3)
PS =
PM =
PS=
Jc(x=2=)2+(:y:"1):2 =
Squaring both sides we get
(x  2)2 + (y  1)2 =
(x  2)2 + y2  2y + 1 =
(x  2)2
This is of the form
~2)2
+ (y  1)2
J(Y + 3)2
PM
.Jrc(y+=3C:)2
(y + 3)2
y2 + 6y + 9
8(y + 1)
X2 = 4a Y where X
x  2, Y = Y + 1 and a
2.
Hence the locus isa parabola with vertex (2, 1), axis ofsymmetry the line x = 2, focus (2, 1),
focal length 2 units.
In general, if the parabola X2 = 4ay undergoes a translation so that its vertex is at the
point (h, k), then its equation becomes
(x  h)2
= 4a(y
 k)
The focus is (h, k + a), directrix the line y = k  a, focal length a units.
Compare this translation with that of the circle X2 + y2 = r2 which has its centre at the
origin. If the circle undergoes a translation so that its centre is (h, k), then the equation of
the circle is (x  h)2 + (y  k)2 = r2.
EXAMPLE 23
Find the equation of the parabola with focus (4, 1) and directrix the line x
Y
2.
x
Fig. 12..,23
x=2
PS
PM
~r;(x4=)2=+(:y=I:=)2
1)2 = (x  2)2
1)2
X2  4x + 4
(y  1)2
4x  12
4(x  3)
Hence the equation of the locus is (y  1)2
4(x  3). This is of the form y2
4 aX,
where Y = Y  1, X = x  3 and a
1.
Thus the vertex is at (3, 1), the axis of symmetry has equation y = 1, and S is 1 unit to
the right of the vertex.
In general, the parabola with equation y2
4ax has its vertex at (0, 0), S is a units to the
right of the vertex, and the Xaxis is the axis of symmetry.
If this parabola undergoes a translation so that its vertex is at the point (h, k), then its
equation becomes
(y  k)2
4a(x  h)
S is a units to the right of the vertex, and the axis of symmetry is the liney
k.
EXAMPLE 24
Show that the following equations represent parabolas, and find the vertex, focus and the
equation of the directrix of each. :
(a) y2  2y  2x  4
(a)
(b)x 2  6x
0
y2
2y  2x
y2  2y
i.e.,
(y 
(~,
2x
1)2
+ 5
2(X + ~)
4a(x  h).
1).
4a
4y + 15
X=
I
I
:3
x
y
Fig. 1224
Hence the focus is at the point (2, 1) and the directrix has equation x
The axis of symmetry has equation y = 1.
(b)
X2 
+ 4y + 15 = 0
X2
6x + 9 ~ 4y (x  3)2
4
(Y + ~)
4a(y  k).
(3, ~).
4a
3 (fig. 1224).
6x
i.e.,
=4
3 (fig. 1225).
You have been accustomed to writing the general quadratic function in the form
y = ax 2 + bx + c
With the aid of 'completing the square' technique we can easily change it to the locus form
(x  h)2
4a(y  k)
EXAMPLE 25
Express each of the following in the form (x
h)2 = 4a(y  k) and hence state the
vertex, focus and directrix
(i) y = X2
2x + 5
(ii) y = 2x2  8x +
Y
(i)
2x + 5
2x + 1 + 4
1)2 + 4
l(y  4)
X2 
= X2 (x
(x  1)2
4~), directrix y
31, axis
1.
_2X2 
_2[X2
8x
+ 4x 
~J

~~~
2(x
(x
+ 2)2 =
2)2 =
_2[(X2 + 4x + 4)  4!]
2(x + 2)2 + 9
9
y
y 
9)
~.
9l, axis
2.
EXERCISES 120)
Sketch the following parabolas and write down (a) the coordinates of the vertex and focus
and (b) the equation of the directrix and axis of symmetry (1. to 12.)
2 Y ~2
 12 x
8Y
3. X2
5. X2
7. y2
4y
2y
=x
9. (x  1)2
11. (y  2)2
4.
6.
8.
10.
12.
4(y + 2)
4(x + 1)
X2
X2
y2
(x
(y
=
+
+
8y
6y
2x
3)2
2y
4)2 = 3(x
1)
In numbers 13. to 17., find the equations of the locus of a point P(x, y) that moves so that
its distance from
13. the point (0, 2) is equal to its distance from the line y = 2,
14. the point (0, 4) is equal to its distance from the line y
4,
15. the point (0, 1) is equal to its distance from the line y
1,
= 2,
17. the point (2, 4) is equal to its distance from the line y = 6.
16. the point (0, 2) is equal to its distance from the line y
18. Show that the following equations represent parabolas, and find the vertex, focus and
equation of the directrix in each case.
(a) y2  4x + 2y  3 = 0
(b) y2 + 8x
4y  8
(c) X2  2x + 4y + 15 =
(d) X2 + 6x  5y
16 = 0.
Find the equation of the following parabolas and sketch each (19. to 26.)
19. vertex at (0, 0), focal length 2 units, axis of symmetry the Yaxis
20. vertex at (0, 0), focus (0, 1)
21. focus at (0, 7), directrix the line y = 7
22. vertex (2, 1), focus (2, 3)
23. the line x
24. the line x
2, focus (2, 0)
= 4a(y
k) and hence
CHAPTER 13
Indices and
Logarithms
Population
16
Original population y
After 1 h,
y
2 x (1)
2
After 2 h,
y = 2 x (2)
22
After 3 h,
y
2 X (22) = 2 3
After 4 h,
y = 2 X (23) = 24 , and so on.
Hence y defines a function whose rule is y
2x. This is an example of an index
(exponential) function.
Comparing the form of this function with a typical quadratic function, we note the
following:
Function
Quadratic
Index (exponential)
Rule
Base
Index
X2
x
2
2
x
2x
In the function given by y = x 2 , the index, 2, is fixed, and the variable base, x, takes all
values in the domain.
In the function given by y = 2x , the base, 2, is fixed, and the index, x, varies. In the
preceding example, x takes positive integer values. (See fig. 131).
Just as algebra of polynomials is needed to manipulate polynomial functions, so
algebra of indices is needed to manipulate index (exponential) functions.
In elementary work, an is defined as
an a x a x a x a x ... to n factors, where n is a natural number.
This definition will not do for other kinds of indices, e.g. a 112, for it makes no sense to talk
about a multiplied by itself half a time. We must review the meaning of aX as x takes
values successively in the integers, J, the rationals, Q, and the reals, R.
16
12
Fig. 131
We must ensure that the index laws (first derived for natural number indices) are
conserved for each new extension of the meaning of aX. We start by reviewing the
properties of aX for x a natural number.
The symbol, an, n EN denotes the product of n factors each of which is a; i.e.
an
a X a X a x ... to n factors.
The letter n is called an index or an exponent or apower. We say that 'a is raised to the nth
power' or that 'n is the index or exponent of a' because n indicates the power to which
base a is raised.
2. am
am  n
an
3. (am)n = a mn
4. (ab)n = an. b n
We now consider the proof of these laws, but only in the case where m and n are natural
numbers and a and b are real numbers.
1.
am X an
= am + n
e.g.,
a3
a 2
a.a.a x a.a
a3+ 2
= as
2. The proof of this law will be left until we consider negative exponents.
3.
e.g.,
= a
mn
3
(a )2 = a 3 a 3
a.a.a X a.a.a
= a6
4.
(ab)n
e.g.,
an = an
and so
(a
::f:::
0)
~.
an
We can now give a simple proof for the second index law:
am
an = am  n
am
= am. a n
Proof'
an
=
am  n
e.g.,
EXAMPLE 1
Simplify the following, expressing them with positive indices:
(a) 4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b)
(!}3
(c) 83
42
(!)
3
42
=
1
1
(22)2
= 23
83 = 83 = (23)3
24
(d)
Thus
24.3 9
= 24.34
= 35
EXAMPLE 2
XI
l'f
SImp
I y XI
+ x'
1 expressmg
. t h e answer WIt
' h positIve
,. m
. d'Ices.
XI
1 = 1
X
1  X2
= 1  x =
x
X
XI + 1
1 + x
x
~ =  x ~
x
x
XI 
l+x x =#:0
1 +x
(1  x)(l
x)
x =#: 1
EXERCISES 13(a)
1. Simplify the following:
(a) X2.X5.X3
(c) (P2q)4 X (q2p)5
(e) (2X2)5 x (4X3)2
(b) 2 3 x 42 X 82
(d) a 3b2 X (a 2b 2)4
(f) m2p3 x (m3n2)3
(b) 2 n
(P1)2
2ln X 23n
(2m2n)3
(d) (mn3)2 x (4ml)l
(alb)l. (ab)4
(f)
(a l b)3
(b) m2n2pl
x (mnp2t3
plq3,3
(d) p3q I r
(f) 23 (2n)l .2n
X2 .X3 .X4
x5
2n.2n3
q
(b) ap +q aP
32x 1
(d)
23
(e) 2n. 4n . 8n
a 2b 3c4
(f)
xm+n y3mn
xn~y3m
(g)
(3Xy2 )3
4x4y
(h)
1
1
1
1
1
(a) 4
(b) 16
(c)
(d) 0'125
(e) 64
(f)
(g) 025
6. Write down each of the following as a power of 10:
(a) 100
(b) 10
(c) 1
(d) 01
(f) 0'001
10~0
(g)
(h) 83
(e) 001
1
(i) 100,000
(h) 00001
(b) 2 0 x 50
(e) 63 x 25 X 33
(c) 83 X 27
(e)
2n.4n+1
8n 2
x  5
+ X I)3
X2 + 8x 1
1 + 2x 1
(d) (x2
6x 1
(f)
1  2x 1
15 n + 1 x 25 X 53n  4
(b)
9n1 x 25n2
(c) (4>2 x (2)3
10. Show that, for any positive integer n,
(1)n
1 when n is even, and
(1)n
1 when n is odd.
11. Find the value of x that makes each of the following true:
(a) 2x = 8
(b) 3x  1
27
(c) x 3
x 3
2
(d) x2
81
(f) 4x
(e)
x
(g) 9x
(h) 3x
27
(j) 3x
+ 5. 3x = 54
(k) 2 x =
64
(i)
125
32
3. 5x
(I) 5x
12. Expand and simplify the following, expressing the results with positive indices:
(a) (a I
(d) (a 2
b)(a I
b)
2b I )(a2
b)
(b) (XI
(e)
+ y)(x + yI)
I
+ b
(c) (x2
(f)
+ y2)(X2 +
y2)
We agree that !fJii, q = 2, 3, 4, 5, ... , shall mean that number which, when multiplied by
itself q times, gives a. That is
!fJii x !fJii x !fJii ... to q factors = a.
For example, ~ = .Ja means .Ja x.Ja
a i.e. a ll2 x a ll2 = a.
ifa means ifax ifa x ifa = aLe. a ll3 x a ll3 x a l/3
a.
.Ja or a ll2 is called the positive square root of a.
ifa or a ll3 is called the cube root of a or a raised to the power Of~.
e.g.,
Ia
P/ q
e.g.,
(!fJiit I
82/3 = (!JS)2
22 = 4
e.g.,
4 5/2
1
(..[4)5
1
32
EXAMPLE 3
Simplify (a) 322/5 (b) 1252/3 (c)
(a) 322/5
= (2 5)215 =
X 512 X 3/4
(d)
22
9,\ 112
( 49)
or
32215
V32)2
X512. X 3/4
(d)
9'\ 1/2
( 49)
X5123/4
X 7/4
EXAMPLE 4
1/4
2
.JfO x ~ (b) 3n  81
xnI9 n + I (c)
51/4 X .JfO x ~
(a)
(XI/2
XI 12)2
2114
(b)
3n 
3n 
x (3 2)n+ 1
(34)n I
x 32n + 2
34  n or
(X 1I2 
(c)
X 1I2 )2
= (X1I2)2
= Xl 
2x l12x 1I2 +
2xO + XI
1
=x2+
X
EXAMPLE 5
Solve the equations
(i)
52x
125 112
25
(e)
' l'f
( ) 5
1 y a
SImp
22
(X 1I2 )2
(i)
2x
=~
5312
2
3
3x
(ii)
3x
i.e.
1
16
or 22x  
0
=
22x
16
2x = 4
x = 2
x=O
EXERCISES 13(b)
1. Evaluate the following:
(a) 64 2/3
(d)(
1)2
( 1 )312
(g) \16
(j) ~ x
Ys
(c) (93)112
(f)
(1 ~5 JII3
(h) 2432/5
(i)
(k) ~
x ~
rsr
(j)
(5 112)3
\jX2y3
(k) 16 3/4 x 4 112
x J5
x (b~2 )112
(b) (aIbF
6
(a) ~x2y3 x 
I/3
(b) (y213)3/4
y112
(c) ~x2y +
JXii
54114
(e)
63/4
12112
(d) ..Ja 3b 2
(9xy) 112
X3~
yS x3y
x ~
(g) 3x X 9yl/2
5. Simplify
x (y1/St 5l3
64)213
(125
(b) 0001213
(d)
9,\ 312
( 16)
(e) 2 x 4 112
(f)
3 112 x
27112
(c) (X 1/3
yll3)(XIl3 
yll3)
1  x 2
(a)   
(c)
(Xl  2x
;,;x4
(d) $2 X
(b) (a 2
when a
+ 1)112 when x = 3
2ab
b 2 )112
4 and b
(c)
(e)
3n x 9 n + 1
(d)
(a)
(c)
2Y3
62n
32n
:=
4n + 1
22n
(b) _25_2n::,X,5n__l
3J2
x 6 112
(b) 101
(d)
.J6 x
(b)
ax  3
100005 X 1000
4 X 3 112
(c) 2x
(e) 3x . 2x
(c) 8x
(e) (3 X
9)(5 X
(d)
1) = 0
(2x  1) (3 x
(f) 32x + 1
b)
27
.1
x
Fig. 132: Graph ofj(x)
aX, a
> 1
aX, 0
<a<
If 0 < a < 1, aX decreases as x increases. For x large positive, aX is small but positive
(fig. 133).
x,
If, for example, a = ~, then (~)x = 2 and so we can consider fig. 133 as the graph of
ax, a > 1.
An exponential function has another very important property. A function is a set of
ordered pairs such that no two of the ordered pairs have the same first element. However,
several ordered pairs could have the same second element. If a function j is such that no
two pairs have the same second element, then there exists a functionjI called the inverse
function of j. The inverse function jI is a set of ordered pairs obtained by interchanging
the first and second elements in each ordered pair.
A function that has an inverse is often called a one to one function.
An expon'cntial function has the property that no two ordered pairs have the same
second element, and hence has an inverse called the logarithmic junction, which is a set of
ordered pairs obtained by interchanging the first and second elements in each ordered pair
of the exponential function.
y = aX may be written as x = 10gaY. By interchanging x and y, we get Y = logax.
Thus the exponential functionj(x)
ax, has the logarithmic functionjI, or g where
g(x) = log ,X, for its inverse.
The domain of the logarithmic function is R+ (the range of j) and its range is R (the
domain ofj). It is also an increasing and a one to one function. If we draw both graphs on
the same axes (fig. 134), we see that the resulting figure is symmetrical about the broken
line with equation y = x. This is a characteristic property of the graph of any function and
its inverse.
Consider the graph of the exponential function with equation y = 2x. Some typical
ordered pairs are (0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 4) and (3,8). Also consider the graph of the correspond
ing logarithmic function with equation y = log2 x, some typical ordered pairs of which are
(1,0), (2, 1), (4,2) and (8, 3). What do you observe? (Fig. 135.)
j(x) =
Fig. 134
Fig. 135
Note: Since y = 2x has been defined for x a rational number, we can plot points on the
graph for all rational values of x. Since a continuous curve can be drawn through these
points, it is reasonable to assume that 2 x can be defined for all x i.e., values of 2x for which
x is an irrational number can be defined.
To obtain a meaning for a number like 2Y1, we can use our known rational approxi
mations to ..[3. Then we have
17 < ..[3 < 1'8, and so 2 17 < 2Y1 < 2 18 ,
1'73 < ..[3 < 1'74 and so 2 173 < 2.ff < 2 174, and so on.
Hence 21'f can be defined to any desired degree of approximation.
The function II, which is the inverse to the exponential function given by 2x , is called
the logarithmic function (or logarithm function) to base 2, and is derived as follows. We
present a comparison between the oneone function given by I(x) = x 3 , and the derivation
of the corresponding inverse function.
I(x)
x 3 is defined by
y = x 3,
I(x)
so II is defined by
x = y3
(interchanging x and y).
To express y in terms of x, we use a
special operation called 'taking the cube
root' , symbolized by if , and we
write
y=
This defines the inverse (cube root)
function.
2x is defined by
y
2x,
so I I is defined by
x = 2y
(interchanging x and y).
To express y in terms of x, we use a
special operation called 'taking the
logarithm to base 2', symbolized by log2'
and we write
y
log2 x
This defines the inverse (logarithm)
function.
13.5 Logarithms _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
=
EXAMPLE 6
Without the aid of tables, evaluate the following:
(a) logz 16
(b) log5 125
log2 16 = x,
2x = 16
x = 4
(a) Let
then
and so
= 24
log5 125
x,
5x = 125
x
3
(b) Let
then
and so
53
(1)
(2)
(3)
Hence
toga (mn)
For example,
toga m
toga n
(4)
loga 15 = loga (5 X 3)
= loga 5 + loga 3
loglo 20 + loglo 5
loglo 100 = 2
log a 4 + loga 3 + log a 2 = loga (4 X 3 X 2) = loga 24
m
Also,
Hence
aY
aX  Y
loga (:)
x  y, and so
I log. (!fI)
log. m
log. n
7
toga (15 ) = toga 17  loga 5
For example,
0
log2 20  log2 5 = log2 ( 25 )
loglo 5
log2 4 = 2
log!. (2~)
log)o 10
(5)
If m = 1, then
loga
(~)=
=
loga n
loga 1
loga n
From this, we can see the relation between the logarithm of a number and the logarithm
of its reciprocal.
Also,
mP = (ax)p
Hence
loga (m
= a XP
= xp, and so
(6)
For example,
loga 81 = loga (3 4)
= 4log a 3
loga 96 = loga (3 X 2 5)
= log a 3 + 5log a 2
3log1o 5 = log)O (53) = log)O 125
2loga 6 = loga 36
Summary:
(~)
IOga(~)
loga n
log" m  log" n
= loga n
loga 1 = 0
loga (mp) = p loga m
Note that m and n are both positive real numbers.
EXAMPLE 7
Simplify the following without using tables or a calculator:
log)O 18  log,o
= log,o [8 x 18 x
~~ ]
= log,o 100
=2
EXAMPLE 8
If log,o 2
(a) log,o 6
(b) log,o 24
(c) loglo (;
(d) log) 0 5
(e) log)O 54
(f) log,o
9"
(;~)
(b)
loglo 24
(d)
logio 5
= loglo 2 + loglo 3
03010 + 04771
=
logio
(c)
07781
6" = iogio 6
0'7781
loglo (23 x 3)
= loglo 2 3 + loglo 3
= 3 loglo 2 + loglo 3
= 09030 + 04771
13801
logio
e~)
= loglo 10  loglo 2
=
(e) loglo 54 = loglo (2 X 33)
(~ )
(f) loglO
+ 31og lO 3
03010 + 14313
= loglo 2
=
=
= 17323
1  0'3010
0'6990
logio 2  loglo 9
loglo 2  2log lo 3
03010  09542
0'6532
Note that the logarithm of numbers less than 1 is a negative number. For example,
log, 0
~ and log) 0 ~.
Also note that the logarithm of a negative number does not exist. For example,
log) 0 2 does not exist.
log I 0 (2) = x, if it exists.
Let
lOx = 2.
Then
But there is no real number value of x, small or large, positive or negative, for which
lOx
2.
EXAMPLE 9
For what value of x is log2 (x
1)
log, (x
1)  log, (x  1)
and so
Le.,
log2 (x  1)
IOg,e
3?
IOg,[~ ~ ~J
:J= 3
x + 1
x  1
x
+ 1
x
= 23
= 8x  8
1~
7
EXERCISES 13(c)
1. Without using a calculator or tables, evaluate the following:
(b) log9 3 .
(a) log3 9
(d) loga a
(j) log5 5
(I) log3 J3
~
"~~~~
..
~
1
(e) logs 4"
(f) loga a 3
(b) log3 81 = x
(d) logx 64 = 3
35
loglo 25
(b) logx 81 = 2
(d) logx 27
15
(f) logx 343 = 3
loglo 5
3 +
+ log) 0 
(d) log)O 25
loglo 5
(f) log (X3)
log x
(h) log x
log .JX
log, 0 4
(C) Iog)O X = 12
(d oglo x
oglo
(e) 21og, 0 x + 3 = loglo (X5)
(f) log) 0 Xz
8. Find a relation between x and y that does not involve logarithms:
(a) log x + log y
log (x + y)
(b) 21og lo y  3log 1o X
(c) 2log 3 y  3log3 X = 2
(d) 21og 10 y + 3log 1o X
(e) logs y = 2 + logs x
(f) log y = log 5 + 3log
~ (g) 2log x + 3log y = 0
(h) loglo (l + y)
loglo
loglo (2x)
x
(1  y) = x
10. If X
log) 02 and y
2
(a) log)O 3'
log) 0 40
(c) log)o 15
(e) log) 0 5'4
(g) log) 0 150
0) log) 0 4'5
(k) log) 0 81
(d) loglo 54
(f) log) 0 75
(I) log) 0 18
11. If log) 0 2 = 0'3010, log)o 5 = 06990 and log) 0 6 = 0'7782, write down the value of
loglo x for the following values of x: 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 0'5,
of y
loglo x.
13. If loglo A = bt
14. If log y
log x
.
f
log 2' express x III terms 0 y.
15 If Y
16. Express log x in terms of log a, log b and log c, given that x = a 2 Jli3C.
17_ If log x
18. If y
= ae4/ ,
(~)_
= a4
loga n = y
aY
Hence
y 10gb a
10g b n
10g
b n 'f 1
y = 1
  , 1 0 gb a
O.
ogb a
. 1
 10g b n
I.e. oga n  1
ogb a
The most useful application of this formula is for conversion from any base to base 10
because usually logarithm tables to base 10 are the only tables available; in fact other
tables, except possibly tables of natural logarithms, are not necessary. Also your
calculator has a 'log' key, base 10, Hence, for practical purposes, the conversion formula
may be written as:
EXAMPLE 10
Evaluate logz 9.
Let
Then
Take logarithms of both sides to base 10.
Hence
xlog] 0 2
log] 0 9
log]o 9
x
log]02
09542
0'3010' using base 10 tables.
logz 9
Thus
3'170,
(1)
Display
Operation sequence
9 /logl
2 iIogl
Note: Since 23
between 3 and 4.
EJ
8 and 24
31699249
16 and 9 lies between 8 and 16, its follows that logz 9 lies
EXAMPLE 11
Solve the inequations (a) 2x > 9
(b) 04 x
< 03
2x slopes upwards
Operation sequence
C
3 jIog/
The graph of y
D 4/log/
Display
1'3139638
0'4 x slopes downwards to the right, and so 0'4 x < 03 when x > 1314,
EXAMPLE 12
Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of
(a) y = log2 x
(b) Y
log2 2x
(c) y
= log2 (x
 1)
IOQ2X
= IOQ2 (x
1)
Fig. 136
(a) The graph of y = log2 x crosses the Xaxis where x l , since log a 1 O. The domain
is x > 0, the range is any real number. As x  + 0 from the right, y +  00.
= 1 i.e. x = ~.
the graph of y = log2
Since log2 2x
log2 2 + log2 X = 1 + log2 x,
2x is 1 unit
above the graph of y = log2 x. The graph of y = log2 X is translated 1 unit parallel to
the Yaxis.
(c) The graph of y = log2 (x
1) crosses the Xaxis where x  I
1 i.e. x
The graph of y = log2 X is translated 1 unit parallel to the Xaxis.
2.
Note: The general shape of the log curve is not affected by the base a.
EXERCISES 13(d)
1. Use the change of base formula and a calculator to evaluate to four figures:
(i) log2 5
(ii) log3 12
(iii) logs 20
(v) log3 16
(vi) log6 4
(iv) log4 3
(ix) log2 10
(vii) logs 3
(viii) log3 5
(iii) 5x
(vi) 3x
(ix) 2x
01
5
logs x
log4 x
x
(e) 2 ~ 5
(f) 025 < 15
(g) 08 x < 3
(h) 0.7 x ~ 03
6. Using the same scale and axes, sketch the family of curves y
7. Using the same scale and axes, sketch the family of curves y
aX for a
1
2,2,3, 10.
= logo x for a =
1, 2, 3, 10.
8. Sketch the graphs of the following, stating their largest possible domain and range in
each case.
(i) f(x) = loglo 2x
(ii) f(x) = loglo x 2 , X > 0
(iii) f(x) = log) 0 (2x + 3)
(iv) f(x)
log) 0 (3x
6)
(v) f(x)
log) 0 Ixl
9. Sketch the graphs of the following, stating their largest possible domain and range in
each case.
(i) f (x) = e 2x
(ii) f(x) = 3ex + 1
REVISION EXERCISES B
1. Calculate the cosine of the smallest angle of the triangle whose sides are 5 cm, 6 cm,
7cm.
2. Prove that the triangle whose sides are 5 cm, 6 cm and 8 cm is an obtuse angled
triangle. Find the size of the obtuse angle.
3. In DABC, LB
4. (a) A(O, 0), B(6, 0), C(8, 2) and D are the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. Find the
coordinates of D.
(b) This parallelogram is rotated in the plane through 90 in an anticlockwise
direction about the origin. Find the equations of AD and AC.
5. (i) The line 3x
2y = 6 is rotated in the plane through an angle of 90 about its
point of intersection with (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis. Find the equation of the
line in these positions.
(ii) Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the lines 3y
5x  19,
3x + 5y + 9 = 0 and 4y = x + 3.
Show that the triangle with the points of intersection as vertices is right angled.
6. Find the equation of the line perpendicular to the line 3x + 4y = 5 and passing
through the midpoint of the lIne segment joining the points (3, 2) and (5, 8).
7. Find the perpendicular distance from the point (2, 3) to the line 6x
8y
5.
13. Three numbers whose sum is 15 are successive terms of an arithmetic sequence. If 1, 1
and 4 are added to these numbers respectively, the resulting numbers are successive
terms of a geometric sequence. Find the numbers.
14. If J3  1 and 2
J3 are consecutive terms of a geometric sequence, write down in
simplest surd form, the next two terms and the sum to infinity.
I~
15. (i) Express 02333 ... in the form m where m and n are integers.
(ii) The first, third and ninth terms of an arithmetic sequence form the terms of a
(c) 3 x
12
6 + 4J6
2J6  3
(c) loglo
+ loglo
2
(d) 2log (x
1)  log (x
1)  2 log (y
+ 1) + log (y
1) given x
5, y
= 2.
1
1
1
4 + 16  64 + ...
(c) 32x
 12(3)x + 27 = 0
5x
(k 
1)
(c) no roots?
o have:
(m
n)x
29. Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the line y = 2x  3 and the
parabola y = X2
4x + 5.
30. If 2X2
9x
+ 9 ==
31. For what values of m does the line y = mx  5 (a) touch (b) intersect (c) not intersect
the parabola y = X2  5x + 4?
32. Find the equation of the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves so that its distance from
the point (2, 1) is equal to its distance from the line y = 1. Express the locus in the
form (x  h)2 = 4a(y
k) and hence show that it is a parabola.
Find the vertex, focus, directrix, axis and focal length.
33. Express 4y
X2  6x + 5 in the form (x  h)2 = 4a(y  k) and hence find the
vertex, focus, directrix, axis and focal length of the parabola.
34. Complete the following table and then draw the graph of y = log2 x using graph
paper:
x
Using the same scale and axes indicate the position of the graphs of y = log2
log2 (x + 2).
X2,
> 0 andy
35. If a rectangle whose area is 192 cm2 has its length decreased by 6 cm and its width by
2 cm, it becomes a square. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.
36. The parabolay = ax2
values of a and b.
+ y2
8 and
38. A ladder 8 m long rests against a wall and its foot makes an angle of 60 with the
horizontal ground. The top of the ladder slips down the wall until its foot makes an
angle of 45 with the ground. Find, in simplest surd form, how far down the wall the
ladder slips.
39. From a point A, level with the foot of a vertical pole and 30 m from it, the angle of
elevation of the top is 40. Calculate
(a) the height of the pole,
(b) the direct distance from A to the top of the pole,
(c) the angle of elevation, from A, of a point halfway up the pole.
40. AB and CD are two vertical buildings with their bases A and C on horizontal ground.
The height of AB is 30 m. The angle of elevation of B as seen from Cis 25 and the
angle of elevation of D as seen from A is 40 .
Calculate:
(a) the horizontal distance between the buildings,
(b) the height of CD,
(c) the angle of depression of B as seen from D.
41. Two yachts sail in a straight line from a buoy B. One sails 10 km in the direction
040 0 T and the other sails 20 km in the direction 160 0 T in the same time.
(a) How far apart are they?
(b) What is the bearing of the first yacht as seen from the second?
42. (i) Calculate the distance of the point (3, 4) from the line x + y = 6.
(ii) A(l, 4), B(O, 3), C(4, 6) are the vertices of a triangle ABC. Calculate the distance
of A from the side BC and hence find the area of """ABC.
43. (a) Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points
A(4, 2) and BC6, 4).
(b) Prove that the point P(I, 3) is on this perpendicular bisector.
(c) Find the distance of P from A and B. What do you conclude?
44. (a) Prove that the points A(2, 3), B(6, 2), C(8, 7) and D(O, 2) are the vertices of a
parallelogram.
(b) Find the coordinates of the midpoints of the diagonals AC and BD.
(c) What property of parallelograms is illustrated in (b).
CHAPTER 14
Differential
calculus
The development of the calculus was centred around the solution of two classes of
problem that had puzzled mathematicians for centuries. These were finding the gradient
at a point on a curve (such as a parabola) and calculating the area enclosed by curved
boundaries. While several methods are available (e.g. coordinate geometry) for finding
the gradients of straight lines, and while areas of rectangles are given by simple formulae,
the challenge presented by general curves proved too great. /
Archimedes (287  212 RC.) made some progress with the area problem, but it was left
to Newton (England):and Leibniz (Germany) in the seventeenth century to facilitate the
breakthrough and, indeed, to show that both problems are related.
Since relationships in the real world can be represented by mathematical functions that
can, in turn, be depicted graphically, the development of the calculus has provided a
powerful tool for solving problems in science, engineering, industry, economics,
medicine, the social sciences and many other areas. Every such application is related in
some way to one of the two classes of problem mentioned previously.
An introductory problem
Suppose that a ball dropped from the top of a high building passes us (on one of the
middle floors) two seconds later. We are interested in knowing the speed with which it
passes us. The law of falling bodies tells us that the distance travelled (dm) is related to the
time in motion (ts) by the formula d = 4'9/2 , 1 ~ O. We shall assume d = 5[2 to simplify
the arithmetic.
The problem could be approached as follows:
(a) Measure the distance travelled during a small time interval, which ends as the ball
passes us.
(b) Calculate the average speed during this time interval using the formula
distance travelled
average speed
time taken
If we make our time interval very small, then we should obtain a good estimate of the
speed with which the ball goes by.
Let 11 and 12 denote the times the ball has been in motion
(i) just before it reaches us,
(ii) as it reaches us.
The corresponding distances that the ball has fallen are d 1 and d2
d  d
Hence average speed v = 2
1 1
12 
We suppose that our timing and distance measuring devices allow us to take measure
ments over successively smaller time intervals. The following table shows values of the
average speed calculated for time intervals that are made smaller and smaller.
Ij
1
15
1'9
199
1999
dl
t2
5
1125
1805
198005
19980005
2
2
2
2
2
d2
t2 
20
20
20
20
20
1
05
01
001
0001
tl
d2
dl
15
8'75
195
01995
0019995
V =
d2
dl
t2 
tl
15
175
195
1995
19995
The table shows that, as our time interval (t2  t l) becomes smaller and smaller, the
value of the average speed approaches closer and closer to 20.
A similar result is obtained if we take corresponding measurements during small time
intervals as the ball passes from our level to just below us.
However, if we put tl = t 2 , then we obtain v = 0/0. Since division by 0 is not allowed
(the resulting expression is indeterminate) we cannot find the exact speed at t
2 by
substituting t = 2 into the formula. The solving of problems like that of finding the exact
2 is what the differential calculus is all about.
speed at t
The appearance of the righthand column in the table has the characteristic form that
we met when considering the limits of geometric series. However, in the present context,
our function is continuous (unlike the earlier case) and the limitlike behaviour occurs as
t2 tl 0, instead of n  00. Then, before proceeding further, we need to obtain
further insight into the fundamental concept of limit and limiting behaviour, which are
the building blocks on which the calculus rests.
14.1 Limits _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The concept of a limit is a very important one in mathematics, and students need to
understand it before they proceed to the study of calculus. The word 'limit' is used
frequently in our everyday language; e.g., the speed limit is 60 km h 1 in the suburbs.
What is the reaction of the driver as his speed approaches the statutory limit?
In this chapter, we consider the word 'limit' in a mathematical sense. We will be
concerned with, say,f(x) as x approaches a value a. In some cases, the function will not be
defined when x
a.
The notation used for the limit of f(x) as x approaches a is lim f(x) where 'lim' is the
xa
abbreviation for 'limit'.
X a means 'x approaches the value a'.
(a) We have already considered the concept of a limit of a function in relation to the
infinite geometric series in chapter 11.
(b) Consider regular polygons of n sides, either inscribed in a circle or circumscribing a
circle.
n=4
n=5
n=6
n=8
Fig. 141
We can make the perimeter and area of the polygon as close to the circumference and
area of the circle as we please by making n sufficiently large. As n increases, the difference
between the perimeter, P n , of the polygon and the circumference, C, of the circle becomes
less and less. In the limit, i.e. as n  00, this difference is zero_ That is, n_<:x>
lim P n
C.
Similarly, as n increases, the difference between the area, An' of the polygon and the
area, A, of the circle becomes less and less. In the limit, i.e. as n  00, this difference is
zero. That is, n_o>
lim An = A.
(c) Consider a sequence of rational number approximations to .fl:
1'4,141,1414,14142,1'41421, ...
By taking a sufficiently large number of terms, we can make our approximation as
close as we please to .fl. If tn denotes the nth term of this sequence, then lim tn = .fl,
although there is no rational number whose value is exactly .fl.
n_o>
EXAMPLE 1
For the functionfwheref(x)
=x +
The domain of this function is the set of real numbers_ The following table showsf(x)
for values of x in the neighbourhood of 2.
195
199
1995  2
2005
201
205
f(x)
395
399
3995
4005
401
405
 4
The preceding table shows that, as x approaches 2 from either below or above 2, f(x)
approaches 4; Le., we can makef(x) as close as we like to 4 by making x sufficiently close
to 2. We write
lim (x + 2)
4.
x2
= f(2).
In this case, we say that the function is continuous at x = 2. However, we are not
concerned with f(x) when x
2, but when x  2, even though f(x) is defined when
2.
EXAMPLE 2
For the functionfwheref(x) =
X2 X
4 find lim
X2 
x2 X
X2  4
(x  2)(x + 2)
If x =1= 2,
2
x + 2.
x
:. lim
X2 
x2 X 
If x
=1=
4 = lim (x
x2
2, then f(x)
+ 2)
X2 
x
4.
4
is equivalent to f(x)
= x
I!
Fig. 142
EXAMPLE 3
Consider the functions
(a) f(x)
(b) f(x)
{x +
= I~I,
~ :~:~ ~ ~
!:
x*"O
xI
1'01,
1'001, ... remembering thatf(x) = x + 1 for these values of x. We use the symbol,
x  I + to indicate that x approaches 1 from above 1.
Y
Y
3
f(x)
[X+1'X~1
3, x < 1
:/
0
2 1
Fig. 143
X
1 f(x) = ~
x
Fig. 144
.,
x
x
(b)
f(x)
1 when x > 0
~ (which is indeterminate)
when x
=0
 x = I when x < 0
x
The graph is shown in Fig. 144.
O.
However, as x  0 without restriction from either below or above, lim f(x) does
EXAMPLE 4
Find lim f(x
hO
(a)
f(x
f(x
f(x
+ h)
+ h)
f(x
+ h)
f(x)
h)
 f(x)
 f(x)
X2
(b)f(x)
5x  2X2.
= X2
= (x + h)2
= X2 + 2xh +
= 2xh + h 2
2xh + h 2
h2
/~!A
 f(x)
l' 2xh + h 2
h~
lim (2x + h) if h
hO
"* 0
= 2x
(b)
f(x
hlEa
f(x)
h)
=
=
6
6
+ 5x  2X2
+ 5(x + h)  2(x + h)2
+ 5x + 5 h  2X2  4xh 
=6
 f(x) = 5h  4xh  2h2
 f(x) _ 5h  4xh  2h2
h
f(x
f(x
+ h)
+ h)
f(x
+ h)
2h2
hO
= hO
lim (5
=5
4x  2h) if h
"* 0
4x
Theorems on Limits
The theorems on limits of functions will be stated but their proofs will be omitted.
Theorem 1
For the constant functionf, wheref(x) = c,
limf(x)
xa
Theorem 2
If limf(x) = L and lim g(x)
xa
xa
= M,
then
xa
=c
= xa
lim f(x)
=L M
lim g(x)
xa
lim (X2  3x
e.g.
x2
5)
= x2
lim (X2)
+ x2
lim
 lim (3x)
x2
=46+5
=3
Theorem 3
xa
xa
xa
= L.M.
lim 2x(x 2  4)
e.g.
xJ
= xJ
lim
= 2.3
= 6
Theorem 4
. (f(X))
hm g()
xa
X
l~ f(x)
x3
xa
. X2 + 2
1l m  
e.g.
L.
= r1m g ()
X = M If M *lim (X2
2)
lim (x
1)
x3
+ 1
x3
11
4
on limits are easily remembered in verbal form:
sum = the sum of the limits.
difference = the difference of the limits.
product = the product of the limits.
quotient = the quotient of the limits.
These theorems
1. Limit of a
2. Limit of a
3. Limit of a
4. Limit of a
EXERCISES 14(a)
Evaluate the following limits (1. to 22.):
2. lim (X2
3. lim (9  X2)
4. lim (X2  2x
xJ
x3
+ 2)
5. x4
lim X2(X
7. lim (a
aJ
x~3
(x
11. lim x
x2 X
13. lim
x3 X
15. xJ
lim
6. lim (h 2
5)(x
+3
3)
10. lim X2
xo
hl~
16. x4
hm
+6
3
x  5
 9 x 5
xI
X2
2X2h + 3h
18 /~
1
h
20
h)2  4
5x
X 
14. x5
lim 2 X 2
xI
(2
x3
17 1
X~2X2  4
19
12. lim X2  5x
3+X 2
+X
x + 2
+ 1)
+ 4)
. X2  5
8. x3
hm
+
2
X
+8
+2
X2
4h
h2
3)(a  4)
4x)
x2
x3
'''.
1. lim (3x)
={
X2
+1
1
when x
when x
0,
< o.
hl~
(l
h)3
h
J"()
h
fi()
22 11m
X were J X
x_I
!
={
(c) j(x)
2x when x ~ 1,
+ 4 when x < 1.
2X
h)  j(x) where
hO
(a) j(x) = X2 
1,
(b) j(x)
2X2
3x
(d) j(x) = x(6  x).
= x 3,
2,
when x < 0,
when x > 0.
= {xx +
={
xO
X2
when x > 0,
when x < 0.
+ 1 when x > 0,
2
when x < 0.
c, is said to be continuous
xc
y
f (c)
((x)
Fig. 145
A functionjis said to be continuous in an interval (open or closed) 'if it is continuous at all
points of that interval.
For a closed interval [a, b], continuity at a and b implies that
lim j(x) = /(a), and lim_j(x) = j(b).
xa+
xb
In simple language, a function is continuous in the interval [a, b] if its graph can be
drawn from x = a to x = b without raising your pencil from the paper (fig. 145).
All the polynomial functions e.g. linear functions (straight line), quadratic functions
(parabola), are continuous. The sequence function, however, is not continuous. Why?
where a, band c are constant; the graph of the relation is a straight line. Either a or b, but
not both, may be zero.
If b
0, this relation is a linear function and may be written in the form
ax
Ii  b'
Fig. 146
Fig. 147
Consider two points P(x] , YI) and Q(X2' Y2) to the right of P. The gradient, m, of the line
segment is defined by
m = Y2  YI = '.i
.
X2  Xl
h
Y2  YI'
tan 0,
where h = x 2 Xl and k
(a) If h
0, i.e. x2 = Xl' the gradient is not defined.
(b) If k = 0, i.e. Y2 = Yl' the gradient is zero.
In fig. 146, the gradient is positive and the straight line makes an acute angle, 0, with
the positive direction of the Xaxis; the line slopes upwards to the right.
In fig. 147, the gradient is negative and the straight line makes an obtuse angle, 0, with
the positive direction of the Xaxis; the line slopes downwards to the right.
The gradient of a straight line is constant.
h h
wherek = f(x + h)  f(x).
Imagine the secant PQ revolving in a clockwise direction about the point P, taking up
the positions PQl' PQ2' and finally being the tangent PS at the point P. What happens to
"'. 
x
Fig. 148
the value of h? It obviously becomes smaller as Q gets closer and closer to P. The gradient
of the tangent at P is defined as the limit of the gradient of the secant PQ when h  O. It
is written thus:
Gradient
if
tangent at P =
/.
f(x
/~.
+ h)
. k
/lm
f(x)
hoh
EXAMPLE 5
For the graph of f, where f(x)
1.
where x
I
I
= ((1 + h)
((1)
.IzJ
x
Fig. 149
f(x)= 2X2
f(1)= 2
k
= f(1 +
f( 1 + h)
h)
f(1)
2( 1
h)2
2h2
4h
2h 2
4h +
~ = f( 1 + h)  f(1) (h =1= 0)
h
h
4h + 2h2
4 + 2h
h
= gradient of secant PQ
+ h)  f(l)
h
lim (4 + 2h)
hO
= gradient. of tangent at P
EXAMPLE 6
For the graph of fwheref(x) = X2  5x
I
I
I
I
Ik
f (x + h)  f{x)
I
I
__ ...JI
Fig. 1410
~ = f(x
2xh
h)
f(x) (h
+ h be
*" 0)
h 2  5h
= 2x + h  5
By definition, the gradient of the tangent at P
r f(x + h)  f(x)
hl~
h
= lim (2x + h  5)
(1)
hO
5
In evaluating the limit in (1), we have constructed a new function f' where
f'(X) = 2x  5, from the original function f where f(x)
X2  5x + 6. This new
function f is called
(a) the gradient function, or
(b) the derivative off, denoted by f'.
The value of the derived function at any x is denoted by
d
dy
f'(X), dx (f(x, dx or y I where y
f(x).
= 2x 
r k r
h1!!b It = l!!b
f(x + h)  f(x)
h
EXAMPLE 7
For the function in example 6, evaluate lim f(x) hO
{(X  h).
_r
We note that, this time, we are involved with secants drawn back from P the other way.
f(x)  f(i  h)
=
=
Thus
f(x)  f(x h
liE! f(x)
{(X
hl
= 2x  5
h)
2x  5
(h
* 0)
P(x, ((x))
I
I
:k
f(x)  f(x  h)
I
I
h ...JI
___
o
Fig. 1411
We note that the limit is the same whether we take Q to the right or left of P. This is a
property of all derivatives. If the lefthand and righthand limits are different, then we say
the derivative at P does not exist. Derivatives always exist at points on a smoothly
continuous curve, i.e. a curve without any sharp points or breaks.
EXAMPLE 8
(a) Differentiate 5  3x  2X2 from first principles.
(b) Find the value of f'(2).
(c) For what value of x is f'(x)
01
5  3x  2x 2
Fig. 1412
(a)
f(x
f(x+ h)
f(x) = 5  3x  2X2
h) = 5  3(x + h)
2(x + h)2
= 5  3x  3h  2X2  4xh  2h2
f(x) = 3h  4xh  2h2
f'(X)
liEA
=
=
(b)
f'(x)
f'(2)
lim f(x
hO
h)  f(x)
h
(3  4x  2h)
3  4x
3
3
4x
+8
=5
= gradient of tangent at x
(c)
f'(x)
i.e.,
3  4x
i.e.,
= 2
=0
=0
3
4
At the point on the curve where x = ~, the gradient is zero; i.e., the tangent is
parallel to the Xaxis.
Alternative Notation
So far we have used the letter h to denote the difference of two values of the variable x and
k for the corresponding difference of two values of the function, i.e. k = f(x + h)
f(x). The symbols ox or ax (delta x) and oy or ay (delta y) are frequently used in place of
hand k respectively. It must be understood that ox and oy are single numbers and do not
represent a product 0 X x or 0 X y. They merely represent a small change or increment in
the values of x and y. This increment may be positive or negative. If y = f(x) and ox is a
small increase in x, then
oy
Then, if y
= f(x +
ox)  f(x).
f(x),
dy
dx
ox)  f(x)
ox
= lim
oy
oxO ox
EXAMPLE 9
Find, from first principles, the derivative of x 3
f(x)
f(x + ox)
oy = f(x
oy
ox
f(x
+ ox)
+ ox)
= x3
= (x +
= x3 +
OX)3
3X2(OX) + 3X(OX)2 + (OX)3
3X2(OX) + 3x(ox)2 + (OX)3
 f(x)
 f(x)
dy
dx
ox
3x2
3x(ox)
lim oy
oxoox
= oxO
lim [3x 2
= 3x2
(OX)2 if ox ::1= 0
3x(ox)
+ (OX)2]
f(xl
Fig. 1413
By looking at the method used in the previous examples, it becomes obvious that f'(x)
cannot be calculated in some instances.
= 0 whenf(x) = 1
4
X2 
x
0 and x = 2
are not in the domains of f and g. In 14'5, we shall see that a function is not always
differentiable at points within its domain.
It is also evident thatf'(x) is not meaningful if y = f(x) defines a relation; for thenf(x)
h f(x)
would have several different values for a given x and lim f(x + h
hO
would be
meaningless.
Only whenf(x) is uniquely defined for each x does the calculation of the limit become
possible. We see then that the calculus is necessarily concerned with functions, and we
shall restrict the use of the symbols f andf(x) to functions.
In example 6, we found the gradient functionf'(x) = 2x  5, to have the same domain
as f, from which it was derived, This is not always the case, as is illustrat~d by the
following example.
EXAMPLE 10
Find the gradient function of the function f, where f(x)
f'(x) = lim f(x
hO
,
I1m
hO
= ,.JX,
x ~ 0,
h)  f(x)
JX+h
~
.Jx +
hh
,.JX as f 0 11ows:
___
_vX_x x rx+h +.fie (h
h
Jx + h + .fie
_
(x + h)  x
 h(Jx + h + .fie)
* 0)
y
h
h(Jx
.fie)
lim
f' (x)
hO
;==~_=
1
2.fie
2~' x
Fig. 1414
> O.
EXAMPLE 11
Find, from first principles, the derivative of!, x
x
f '(x) lim f(x
* O.
+ h)
 f(x)
hO
h
= lim ""
(A/W)
hO
1
x(x + h)
1
lim
hO
"]>x
x
* o.
Fig. 1415
when x = O.
Iff(x)
= xn,
thenf'(x)
nxnI.
I if f(x)
In general,
axn, thenf'(x)
d
dx (X4)
d
4x 3, dx (X5)
anxn I.
5x4
A formal proof of the derivative of xn will not be considered at this stage, but our result
can be justified by finding the derivative of x4, x 5 , from first principles. Furthermore,
the result is true for all n E R. For example,
(X3/2)
= ~Xll2,
(XI)
=  x2(example 10).
2. Derivative of a constant
Iff(x) = a = axo, thenf'(x)
0 (using the derivative of xn where nO).
Geometrically, f(x)
a represents a straight line parallel to the Xaxis and hence its
gradient is zero.
3. Derivative of a polynomial
In example 6, we saw that the derivative of x 2 5x + 6 was 2x  5. That is,
d
d
d
d
dx(x 2  5x + 6) = dx(x 2)  dx(5x) + dx(6)
 5
+ 0
 5
d
d
d
d
dx(5
3x  2X2) = dx(5)  dx(3x)  dx(2x 2)
= 2x
= 2x
3
 4x
From these examples, we observe that the derivative of a sum or difference of several
terms is equal to the sum or difference of the derivatives of the various terms. This is true for
all sums and differences.
If
f(x) = 3x4  5x2 + 2x + 4, then
f'(x) = 12x3  lOx + 2
EXERCISES 14(b)
1. Find f(x
+ h~
 f(x), h
2. Find f(x
0:; 
(a) f(x) = 4  3x
f(x), ox
(c) f(x)
x3
2x  1 (c) f(x)
7x  4X2
hO
h
hO
h
hh
X2
= 2 
(b) f(x)
2x  3
(c) f(x)
= x3
2X2
(b) 3  2x
(e) X4
(c) (x  1)(x + 2)
(f) 4x( 1  x 3)
4X2
(a) dy
dx
2x
(b) f'(2)
(c) f'(a)
X4
3x3
(b) f'(2)
(d) f'(3)
10. For the following functions, find the value of x for which f'(x) is zero:
(a) f(x) = x 2  4x
. (c) f(x) = X2  6x
(b) f(x) = 2x 3
(d) f(x)
x3 
6x
4X2
(b) 3x(x2  2)
(d) x(2x + 1)(3x
+ bx2 +
+ a)3
(f) ax 3
3)3
(h) (x
Hint: Expand or simplify all expressions first.
(g) (2x 
2)
ex
12. Find the gradient of the parabola y = X2  X  6 at the points where it crosses the
Xaxis.
13. For the graph off, where f(x)
f'(x) = 5.
x3
X2  6x
14. Show that the graph of y = X2 + 4x  12 crosses the Xaxis at two points. Find the
gradient of the curve at these points.
15. P(x, y) and Q(x + h, y + k) are two points on the curve with equationy = X2  3x.
(a) Find the gradient of PQ.
(b) Deduce the gradient of the tangent at P.
(c) Find the coordinates of the point on the curve at which the tangent is parallel to
(i) the Xaxis,
(ii) the line with equation 3x + 2y  5
O.
16. For the graph of f(x)
(a) f(x)( = 0
1.
.17. Find the coordinates of the points on the curve y = X2 5,X' + 6 at which the tangent:
(a) makes an angle .of 45 0 with the Xaxis,
(b) is parallel to the line with equation 3x + y  4 = 0,
(c) is perpendicular to the line with equation 2y  x + 3 = O.
18. Find the coordinates of the points on the curve y
= ~X3
~X2 + 2x +
1 at which the
tangent:
(a) is parallel to the Xaxis,
(b) makes an angle with the Xaxis whose tan is 2,
(c) is parallel to the line y  6x
1 = O.
19. Find the coordinates of the points on the parabola y
(a) the gradient is zero,
(b) the tangent is parallel to the line 2x + y
7.
X2 
2x  8 at which:
2X2
4x
1 where the
3.
x
x
Fig. 1416
Fig. 1417
~X) ~x+ 1
o
fix) = 1
Fig. 1418
Fig. 1419
I.
= x
 2 ' x '* 2
x,*O
X2 
{X
+ 11 if
x
'f
1 X
Ixl
~ 1.
< 1.
h
'
In fig 1420, try to draw one, and only one, tangent at each of the points x
a, band c.
At a and c, the function is continuous, and at b, discontinuous. At each of these points,
the function has no derivative.
I
I
I
c
Fig. 1420
EXERCISES 14(c)
Write down the value of fl(a) in each case where it exists. Sketch the graph of f in each
case.
1. (a) f(x)
(c) f(x)
2, a = 2
4
2,a=2
X2 
x+
(b) f(x)
(d) f(x)
X2 X2
4, a
2x
{X
I'.
,xX ~
id
3
> l
l' a
an a =
2. J (x) = (x _ 2)2,
=4
,x ~ 0
X2
4. f(x)
= { x + 1, x > 0' a = 0 an a = 1
5 ji()
2x, x ~ 2
2, x > 2' a
{X2
x
,x > 3
3, 3 ~ x
1, x < 3
6. f(x) =
x +
2 and a
3, a
=3
3 and a = 3
[5x
.=
!g(x). h(x)1
g '(x)h(x)
+ g(x)h '(x).
d
dx(uv)
du
v' dx
dv
u' dx
Let y = uv and let ox be a small increment in x and ou, OV and oy the corresponding
increments in u, v and y, caused by this increment in x.
Then
y + oy = (u + ou)(v + ov)
oy
As ox 
oy
ox
ox
oX
_ dy OV _ dv ou _ du ou _ 0
dx' ox
dx' ox
dx'
dy
du
dv
dx = v' dx + u' dx
0,
Thus
EXAMPLE 13
+ 2)(2x2  3x + 4).
d
dx [(3x + 2)(2x2  3x
Differentiate (3x
4) I
+ 2) dx(2x 2  3x + 4) + (2X2  3x +
= (3x + 2)(4x  3) + (2X2  3x + 4).3
18x2  lOx + 6
= (3x
4) dx(3x
2)
When dealing with simple polynomial functions, the product rule for differentiation can
be avoided by expanding the product into a sum or difference. This is so in this example.
dx(3x
2)(2x2
3x
+ 4)}
dx(6x 3
5x2 + 6x
8)
18x2
However, not all products can be expanded into a sum or difference, e.g.
x sin x.
+6
x 2 J.X+l;
lOx
g[h(x)]
where h(x) = x + 2. That is, h is the function defined by 'add 2' and g(x)
That is, g is defined by 'square'. We may also writef(x) in the form
f(x) = u 2, where u
x + 2.
x 2.
sin 3x
(d) Consider f(x) = cos2 x. For any given value of x, f(x) is calculated by finding cos x
and by then squaring the result. Then we may write
f(x) = u 2 , where u
cos x.
The derivatives of such composite functions can be found by using a simple rule,
frequently called the 'chain rule'.
If y .f(x) = g[h(x)]
g(u), where u = h(x), then
dy
dx
dy du
duo dx
oy ou
ou ox
and OU _ du
ox
dx
dy du
duo
EXAMPLE 14
Find the derivatives of the following:
(a) f(x)
(2x
(c) f(x)
(2X2  3x
(a) Lety
(2x
(b) f(x)
1)3
1)3
1)4,
u 3 , where u
dy
dy du
dx
duo dx
(d) f(x)
2x
(X3 
..J2x  1, x ~
+ 1.
3u 2 .2
1)5
= 6(2x +
1)2
(b) Lety
= (x 3
x3
1)5 = u 5 , where u
1.
dy _ dy du _ 5 4 3 2  15x2(x3 _ 1)4
dx  du' dx  u. x
(c) Let y
(2X2
+ 1)4
3x
dy
dx
=
(d) Let y
= ~2x
 1
U 112,
4(4x
3)(2x2
where u
+ 1)3
3x
2x  1, x
dy du _ !. 112 2 _
du . dx  2 u
. 
dy
dx
+ 1
&
1
;::;;====
x>
2
After a little practice, the symbol u need not be used. The result can be obtained in one
step. For example,
(X2
We can use the derivative of )('/, n a positive integer, and the chain rule to find the
derivative of x lln and xm1n .
Let y = X
(xlln)n = un where u = X11n
dy dy du
dx du'dx
d
nunI. dx(x lln )
.
e.g.
Let y
~(Xlln)
dx
_(XIl3)
dx
x m1n
(xlln)m
1
!.u1n = !.(xlln)ln
_1_
X l1n  1
 nun 1
n
n
n
1
1
1 = x2I3
= X Il3
3
3
u mwhere u = Xlin .
dy _ dy du
dx  duo dx
1 lln  1
= mumI. X
mxmlnl
d
dX(X 3/4 )
e.g.
3
3
4X3l41 = 4X1I4
Sometimes it will be necessary to use the chain rule in conjunction with the product rule
and other rules in differentiation.
EXAMPLE 15
Differentiate the following:
(a) (x 2 4x)(3x2  2x + 1)5
(a)
!(X 2  4x)(3x2  2x
(X2  4x)
(3X2  2x
(b) X2
5x
!.ix2  4
1)5
+ 1)5 + (3X2
 2x
+ 1)5
d
dx(x 2 + 5x
4)
3~
"x 2  4)
d
d
d
= _(X2)
+ (5x)
+ _(X2
 4)113
dx
= 2x + 5 +
dx
2x
dx
4>2/3,
"* 
2, 2
6. Derivative of a quotient
g(x)
If f(x) = h(x)' h(x)
"*
O,.,_th_e_n_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.
f
'( )
x
u where u
In other words, if y
g(x), v
h(x) and y
du
f(x), then
dv
v. dX  u. dX.
dy
dx
,2
= u
EXAMPLE 16
Differentiate the following, using the quotient rule.
(a) 2x
(a) Let
1 x*
(b)
2x + 1
4x  3
u
v
dy
dx
(4x  3) dX(2x
2(4x  3)  4(2x
(4x  3)2
10
y
dy
dx
(l
+
+
1)
"* 4
(4x  3)2'
(b) Let
1)  (2x
X2
::::: 
X2) ix(X) 
, x
R.
x(l
dx
X2)
l)dX(4x
3)
(xn) = nxn 1 in the case where n EN, which, of course, covers the
= x p where p
(xn)O nxn 
~(x
xn
= xn
1.(nxnl)
x2n
"* 0 is assumed).
( n)x n 
= no
Butp
dy = pxp  1
dx
Hence
d
dx
Thus
(xP)
pxp  1 for p E J
T.hroughout this chapter, certain 'rules' for differ~ntiation have been shown. These rules
have reduced the process of differentiation to a routine operation, and this is precisely the
meaning of the word 'calculus'. However, students are urged to give careful consideration
to domains of functions and their derivatives.
EXERCISES 14(d)
1. Using the product rule, find the derivatives of the following:
(x  2)(6x + 7)
(3x + 4)(X2  2x)
(2X2  5x)(x  2)
(x  1)(3x + 5)
(4x  1)(5x2  7)
(a)
(c)
(e)
(g)
(0
G) (3x  1)(3x2 + 1)
2. Show that the following are composite functions, and hence write down their
derivatives:
(a)
(c)
(e)
(g)
f(x) = (X2
4)5
Y
(X3
3X)4
y = .(riZ+3x
y = .JX2  2x
(b) f(x)
(d) y
(2x + 5)1
(f) y
(2X2 + 5x  4)4
(h) f(t) = (t2 + 4t2
(b) (X2
(1 + 2xtl
(2x  1)5
(3x 2  2x 
+ 1)112
rx+1
1)4
(f)
(h) .Jx2
2x
x+
2x + 5
x+
(b) 3x  7
4x + 5
(d)   : :    
(e)
+ 3x +
X2
4
(f)
4X2
(h) 4X2
+ 5
(g) 2x
x
x  3
2
5. Differentiate:
(a) (x 2  4)(x + 2)
(c) J(5x  1)
x  2
(e) x
+5
5x
(g) X2 
(i)
x +
(h)
(j) (x 2
2)
7x)(x
1)
6. Differentiate:
(b) (x 2 + X 3)5
(d) (x + X I)2
(a) (x  2)3
(c) J25  X2
(e) (x
4)2
(f)
(g) (x
1)6(x
(i)
X 
x
2)
+ 3x +
(h) X2
(j) 2x  7
2x + 3
7. Differentiate:
(a) x 3
(c)
(e) ~X2
(g) 2x
+ 5x
+ 7
X2
(b) 1
+ x3
(d) (4X2
(f) (x 2
(h) (x
5x +
1)2/3
2)2
3)rx=3"
CHAPTER 15
Geometrical
Applications of
Differentiation
15.1 Sign of the derivative _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
You are familiar with sketching the graphs of quadratic functions by finding their points
of intersection with the Xaxis, and by considering the sign of the function. This provides
a limited amount of information. Further information can be gained by the use of the
derivative, which enables us to find the gradient at any point and, in particular, the
coordinates of stationary points, i.e. points at which the tangent is parallel to the Xaxis.
Y
Consider the graph of a continuous function in the
neighbourhood of a stationary point B at x = b
(fig. 151). At B, f'(x) = O.
For all x in the interval a to b (written as interval
(a, b)), the curve slopes upwards, the tangent to the
curve at any point in this interval makes an acute angle
x
with the Xaxis, and so the gradient is positive; i.e.
f'(x) > O.
Fig. 151
Also, as x increases from a to b, f(x) increases, and so we say that f is an increasing
function in the interval (a, b).
For all x in the interval (b, c), the curve slopes downwards; the tangent to the curve at
any point in this interval makes an obtuse angle with the Xaxis, and so the gradient is
negative; i.e. f'(x) < O.
Also, as x increases from b to c, f(x) decreases, and so we say that f is a decreasing
function in the interval (b, c).
The point B is called a local maximum turning point.
Y
Consider the graph of a continuous function in the
b
neighbourhood of a stationary point B at x
(fig. 152). At B, f'(x) = O.
For all x in the interval (a, b), the curve slopes down
wards, and so the gradient is negative; i.e. f'(x) < O.
x
For all x in the interval (b, c), the curve slopes
upwards and so the gradient is positive; i.e. f'(x) > O.
Fig. 15~2
The point B is called a local miniumum turning point.
J'(x) > 0 if x
J'(x) = 0 at x
J'(x) < 0 if x
Fig. 153
a
a (but near a)
Fig. 154
EXAMPLE 1
Sketch the graph of a continuous functionJ, given thatJ(l)
all x < 1, andJ'(x) < 0 for all x > 1.
Since J'(1) = 0, the tangent is parallel to the
Xaxis at the point (l, 3).
Since J'(x) > 0 for all x < 1, the curve slopes
upwards when x < 1.
Since J'(x) < 0 for all x > 1, the curve slopes
downwards when x > 1.
Hence the graph of J is a curve with a local maxi
mum turning point at (1, 3) (fig. 155). Note that we
have not been given sufficient information to state
the rule of J.
3,J'(I)
x
Fig. 155
y
EXAMPLE 2
Sketch the graph of J(x)
X2 
6x
+ 8.
x
Figs 156 and 157
EXAMPLE 3
Sketch the graph off(x) x 3  12x + 16, in the domain 4 ~ x ~ 3 locating the turning
points and stating whether they are maximum or minimum points. State the range of f(x)
and the coordinates of the extreme points.
f '(x)
f '(x)
3x2 _ 12
f(x) = x 3  12x + 16
f'(x) = 3x2
12
= 3(x  2)(x + 2)
= 0 when x = 2 or x =  2
f(2)
8  24 + 16 = 0
f( 2) = 8 + 24 + 16 = 32
The coordinates of the stationary points
are (2, 0) and (2, 32).
From the graph of the gradient function
(fig. 158), we see that, in the neighbourhood of x = 2,
Fig. 158
'
.
when x < 2, f'(x)
'() > 0O} an d so (2
 , 32)'IS a 1ocal
maxImum
POInt.
w hen x > ,
2 f x <
In the neighbourhood of x = 2,
wh enx >,
f(O) = 16, and so the curve crosses the Yaxis at (0, 16).
f(4) = 0 andf(3) = 7. The coordinates of the extreme points are (4, 0) and (3, 7). The
2,32)
y
12x + 16,
(3,7)
(4,0)
Fig. 159
(2,0)
:3
x~ 3
EXAMPLE 4
The function with rule y
3x2  x 3 is defined on the domain 2 ~ x
(a) the stationary points and their nature,
(b) the greatest and least values of y in the domain. Ske~ch the graph.
4. Find
dy
dx
Y 1 = 6x  3x2 where y ,
= 3x(2  x)
= 0 when x = 0 or 2
When x = 0, y
0
When x = 2, y = 4
The stationary points are (0, 0) and (2, 4).
 2  1
When x < 0, y , < O}
d
(0
0)'
I
I
..
.
IS a oca mImmum pomt.
0 an so ,
When x > 0 ,y >
a nd so (2 , 4)'IS a IocaI
maXImum
pomt.
Wh en x > 2 ,y <
4X
EXERCISES 15(a)
1. A functionjhas the following properties:j(3) = 5,j'(3) = 1. Sketch the graph ofj
near x = 3.
2. Sketch the graph of j with the following properties: j(l) = 0, j'(X) = 2 for all x.
State the rule that defines the function.
3. Sketch the graph of a function given thatj(2)
j'(X) > 0 for all x > 2.
0,j'(2)
= O,j'(x) <
X2  5x
= O?
What is the sign of the gradient to the left and right of this point? Has the curve a
maximum or minimum turning point?
7. For the graph of j(x)
6  3x  x 2, find the values of x for which the function
(a) increases when x increases,
(b) decreases when x increases,
(c) changes from increasing to decreasing.
Sketch the graph offin the domain 2 ~ x ~ 2, locating the maximum and minimum
turning points.
= x3
6x 2 in the domain 1
13. Sketch the curve y = 2x 3 + 3x2  12x + 7 after finding the local maximum and
minimum points, and the point where the curve intersects the Yaxis.
14. Sketch the curve y
(2  x)(l + X2), locating the turning points and the points
where it crosses the coordinate axes in the domain 1 ~ x ~ 3.
15. Consider the functionf(x) = 9x(x  2)2, 1 ~ x ~ 3. Find the values of x for which
(a) f'(x) = 0
(b) f'(x) > 0
(c) f'(x) < O.
Sketch the graph of f(x) and state its range and greatest and least values.
ax 2 + bx
!x
=  2a'
~ (dY) = d
y =
dx dx
dx 2
2
f"(x) =
"
= f'(x),
If
Y = f(x) = x 3
then
y' or dy
dx
f'(x)
X2  X
3x2  2x 
+ 1,
1
(1)
i.e.,
!.(dY ) = ~(3X2 _ 2x dx dx
dx
y" or f"(X) = 6x  2
1)
6x  2
Fig. 1510 is the graph of f(x) = x 3  X2  X + 1; the + and  signs indicate positive
and negative gradiertts in the interval [1, 2].
Fig. 1511 is. the graph of f'(x) = 3x2  2x  1, and it provides all the information
concerning the gradients of fig. 1510.
y
A
f(x) = x 3
X2 
+ 1
Fig. 1510
11
)(
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
3,
I
I
Fig. 1511
I
I
11
I
I
I
I
f'1x)
I
I
I
I
,,f'(x)
)(
3x 2
2x  1
I
I
I
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
f"x) = 6x  2
)(
Fig. 1512
(1, i), the curve slopes upwards to the right; the tangent to
the curve at any point in this interval makes an acute angle with the Xaxis, and so the
gradient is positive, Le.f'(x) > O. Also, as x increases,f(x) increases, and so we say thatf
is an increasing function in the interval (1, }).
When x =
k, the tangent is parallel to the Xaxis and the gradient of the curve at this
(1) 0
k, 1), the curve slopes downwards to the right; the tangent
to the curve at any point in this interval makes an obtuse angle with the Xaxis and so the
gradient is negative, Le.f'(x) < O. Also, as x increases,f(x) decreases, and so we say that
Points of inflexion
Consider the point G in fig. 1512. At this point,f"(x) O. The corresponding point C in
fig. 1510 is called a point of inflexion. Hence points of inflexion may occur where the
second derivative is zero, but, unfortunately, this is not always so (as will be seen in
example 6).
The point corresponding to G in fig. 1511 is F, and it is readily observed that F is a
point at which the gradient f'(x) has a minimum value. Of course, the purpose of
discussing points of inflexion is to determine their meaning on the graph of the original
function.
The point on the graph of f at which f"(X) = 0 is found from fig. 1510 to be the
point C. This means that the slope of the graph of f is 'most negative' at C.
To the left of C, the slope becomes more and more negative as C is approached. Once C
is passed, the gradient increases until it reaches the value 0 at B. Thus C is the point at
, !
which the largest negative gradient occurs. The tangent to the graph at C is as shown in
fig. 1513.
Since f"(x) = 6x
2 has only one zero, C is the only point of inflexion. Hence th.ere
are no points of maximum positive gradient.
A
Fig. 1513
Fig. 1514
Fig. 1515
= x 3  X2 X + 1
= 3x2  2x 1
= (3x + 1)(x  1)
1
o when x = 3 or 1
When x
= 3'
f(x)
1
1
1
27  9 + 3 + 1
When x
1,
1  1
f(x)
1 + 1
o
f"(X)
When x
When x
6x  2
=
1,
= 0 is a local minimum
(1)
(2)
Alternatively, consider the gradients at points slightly to the left and right of x
and
3
x = 1.
When x <
When x >
O.
,
Hence j(x)
= 17
when x
1 is a local minimum.
= 1
3'
j(x)
1 is a local maximum
O. That is, 6x  2 = 0, x
= (1)3
  (1)2
  1 + 1
3
3'
16 C oord'mates 0 fpomt
' 0 f'm fl eXlOn
.
27'
1 16_\
are ( 3' 27)'
EXAMPLE 5
Sketch the graph of y = x 3( 4  x), locating the turning points and the points of inflexion.
(1)
(2)
= O.
Thus
I2x2  4x 3
4X2(3
x)
=0
=0
x
and so
When x <
d;
0 or 3
o.
dy
d; < O,}
d. >
When x > 3, dx
Hence y
27 (local maximum).
O.
24x  I2x2
I2x(2  x)
=0
=0
Points of inflexion:
i.e.,
x = 0 or 2
When x
dy
0, both dx
d 2y
0 and dx2
2, y
flexion at (0, 0). When x
maximum positive gradient.
(3,27)
x
Fig. 1516
Note: You may get the impression from our consideration of the second derivative and
points of inflexion that, if f"(X) = 0 at a point, then the curve has a point of inflexion at
that point. In fact, this condition is not sufficient. It is true that, if a curve has a point af
inflexion, then fl/(x)
0 at that point, but the converse is not necessarily true, namely
0 at a point, then the curve does not necessarily have a point of inflexion
that, if fl/(x)
at that point.
EXAMPLE 6
X4
X4
= 4x 3
Owhenx
=0
(1)
= 12x2
owhen x =
(2)
Fig. 1517
From (1), the curve has a stationary point at the origin and (2) suggests that it may have a
stationary point of inflexion there. However, this is not so, as can be seen if we consider,
by substitution in (1), the sign of the gradient at points slightly to the left and right of
x
O.
dy
When x < 0, d. <
Hence minimum value of y is 0 at (0, 0).
When x > 0, dx > O.
d;
O.}
EXERCISES 15(b)
1. Sketch the graph of y = x 3 (x  2) in the interval [1, 3], locating the turning and
inflexion points in this interval.
x2(3
(~, 1).
X2, 2
x 3
graph. Prove that it crosses the Xaxis at one point only_ Show that :
except x
1.
11. Find the greatest and least values of the function given by f(x)
domain 3 ~ x ~ 1.
12. Sketch the curve y = 2x 3
points. State the range.
3x2
X2
5x
+ 4 in the
"'(x ) =
J.
P(x)
Q(x)
and P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials with no common nonconstant factors. There is a
restriction on the domain, since a quotient is undefined when the denominator is zero, and
hence f(x) is not defined for those values of x for which Q(x) = O.
The following statements define rational functions.
1
x + 1
f(x) = for x =1= 0
Y =
for all x
f(x)
  2 for x
x
=1=
xI
for x
=1= 
3, 3
Asymptotes
0).
=1=
.,
o
Y=1x
Fig. 1518
Given f(x)
~,
we know
The following table shows the behaviour of l/x as x is given values successively closer
to O.
x
lIx
05
01
001
0001
00001
10
100
1000
10000
Clearly, as x is made closer and closer to 0 (written x  0), the value of l/x becomes
correspondingly larger and largerthere is no end to this process. To signify that the
vahie of 1/x increases without bound, we write! x
00
as x 
O.
Note: The term infinity ( 00) does not describe a real number. So 00 does not stand for a
number.
The meaning here is that, no matter how large a number we can imagine, the value of
l/x can be made to exceed that number by making x sufficiently close to O. (The graph
never reaches the Yaxis.)
There is corresponding behaviour as x  0 through negative values. For example,
~'1
10,
0'~01
negative as x  O.
To describe the total behaviour, the following notation may be used:
1
+00 as x 0+
X
'
 00
as x 
0.
Notice that there is a discontinuity in the graph at x = O. This is provided by the vertical
asymptote, x = O.
Conversely, as x is made larger and larger (both positively and negatively), the value of
lIx approaches zero. For example,
1
1
100
0'01, 10000
0,0001.
In this case, we write:
1
1
x
0+
as x 
0 as
+ 00
'
x  00
0,
Vertical asymptotes
Vertical asymptotes always occur at values of x where the numerator is nonzero and the
denominator is zero.
Horizontal asymptotes
Horizontal asymptotes are determined by examining the behaviour of the function as
Ixl 0::>.
The graphs of rational functions are very interesting and quite simple to draw if we bear
in mind general properties of functions such as domain of definition, sign of the function,
sign of the derivative, turning points, asymptotes, symmetry, points of intersection with
the axes, behaviour of function for large values 'of X, etc.
EXAMPLE 7'
Sketch the graph of f(x)

x  2'
This function is not defined when x = 2, but as x  2 from the left of 2, x  2 is a
small negative number and so f(x)   0::>. Similarly as x  2 from the right of 2, x  2 is
a small positive number and so f(x)  0::>. The line with equation x = 2 is a vertical
asymptote.
To save time and space we shall write statements like the above in the form:
f(x) 
0::> as x 
0::>, f(x) 
0+ and as x 
Axial Intercepts
1
x2
1
~ when x
Fig. 1519
~
..
. .  ...
~~~~~
Turning Points
f'(x)
= 
(x
2)2'
'* 2
so f'(x) < 0 wherever defined. Thus the gradient is always negative; there are no turning
points.
Sign of f(x)
f(x) < 0 when x < 2 andf(x) > 0 when x > 2
Actually f(x) =
x
to the Xaxis.
EXAMPLE 8
x  1
I
I
I
I
I
_I
 1    
I
y=1
12
I
f(x)
I
1
I
Fig. 1520
Axial intercepts
1 and Yaxis at y
Asymptotic behaviour
f(x)  00 as x  2+ }
x
ji()
+
ooasx
By division, f(x)
f(x)
f(x)
+
+
1+ as x  +
1 as x 
2 so x
1
00 }
00
so y
=
1
= ~.
2 is a vertical asymptote.
so
1 is a horizontal asymptote.
Turning points
f'(x) =  (x
'* 2).
:. f'(x) < 0 for all x in the domain of f, and the graph has no turning points.
Sign of f(x)
For
Actoally,/(x)
= xx
21
l unit parallel to the Yaxis. Using this fact, it could well be drawn directly from the
former graph. (See fig. 1520.)
EXAMPLE 9
1
= x + x.
Y = x
+ x1 =
X2
   x =t=
x'
O.
Graph does not cross the Xaxis, since X2 + 1 =t= 0 for any x.
Asymptotic behaviour
ASXWYoo}
_'
so x
A sx 0 , Y  00
Y = x
0 is a vertical asymptote.
+ a quantity equal to x1 which is > O' for all x > 0 and which  0 as x

00.
This
Turning points
dy
1 _
dx
7
/'
/~+
x=t=O
(x
I)(x
(',2)/ /
1)
X2
o when x
'"
1 or 1
y=x+
x
: I
Fig. 1521
Since, when x =t= 0, the denominator is positive, the sign of :
Thus :
+ 1).
=
O.
When x  I , y = 2, so the graph has a local maximum at (1, 2). When x = 1, y = 2, so
the graph has a local minimum at (1, 2).
The range of the function is the set of all real numbers except those in the open interval
between 2 and 2 (fig. 1521).
I,'
,i
EXERCISES 15(c)
Sketch the graph of each of the following, locating any stationary points and asymptotes.
State the range in each case.
1. Y
if
2. Y
3. Y
5. Y
x 
7. Y = 
x2
2x
+ x
= x + xx
1
13. Y =  + 4 x
11. Y
1
2x  3
4
4. Y
x
1
xI
9. Y
x +
x
1
2 +
6. Y
8. Y
= x + 2 + x
10. Y
x + 3 +
12. Y
2x  1
14. Y
= Ixl + x
x
9
+ 2x+
D(6X)
o} :. .
Note: This example is the same as example 3 in chapter 12. Since the area function is a
quadratic function, we can find maximum and minimum values by 'completing the
square' method (chapter 12) or by a calculus method.
Note also the importance of the domain in practical problems.

~
I
I'
Alx}
Fig. 1523
x
EXAMPLE 11
A sheet of cardboard measures 15 cm by 7 cm. Four equal squares are cut out of the
corners and the sides turned up to form an open rectangular box. Find the length of the
edge of the squares cut out, so that the box will have a maximum volume.
Fig. 1524
Let the length of the edge of the square cut out be x cm (0 < x < 3D. The dimensions of
the box will then be (15  2x), (7  2x) and xcm.
Denote the volume of the box by V.
:. V = x(l5  2x)(7  2x),
= 4x 3  44X2 + 105x
0<
< 3!
O.
dV = 12x2  88x
dx
+ 105
o when x = I! or 5i
We can reject x
When x <
I!,
1
dV
5~
> O}
:. maximum volume occurs when x
dV
= I!.
2" x 12 x 4 = 72cm 3
Fig. 1525
.~~"~~~~~~~~~
EXERCISES 15(d)
I
1. Find the maximum area of a rectangular plot of ground that can be enclosed by 160m
of fencing.
2. The sum of two numbers is 12. If one number is x, what is the other number? Find the
value of x for which the product of the two numbers is a maximum.
3. A man wishes to form a rectangular enclosure using his existing fence as one side. If
he has 20 metres of fencing material available to form the other three sides, find the
area of the largest enclosure he can form and its dimensions.
4. A piece of wire 6 metres long is cut into two parts, one of which is used to form a
square and the other to form a rectangle whose length is three times its width. Find
the lengths of the two parts if the sum of the areas is a minimum.
5. A rectangular area is to be fenced and divided into six rectangles by one dividing fence
parallel to its length and two fences parallel to its breadth. If the total length of
fencing available is 120 m, find the maximum possible area.
6. ABCD is a square of unit length and points E and F are taken on the sides AB and AD
respectively such that AE = AF = x.
13. The diagonal of the base of a box in the shape of a cuboid has a length of 10 cm. If
one edge of the base has a length of xcm, express, in terms of x, the length of the
other edge of the base. If the height of the box is equal to the length of this other edge,
express the volume of the box in terms of x and find the maximum volume of the box.
.1
14. The slant edge of a right circular cone is 6 cm in length. Find the height of the cone
when the volume is a maximum.
15. A piece of wire of length 30 cm is cut into two sections. Each section is then bent into
the shape of a square. Find the smallest possible value of the sum of the areas of the
two squares.
16. A block of metal is to be cast into the shape of a right cylinder with a total surface
area of 207rcm2 If the radiusof the base is rcm and the height h cm,
(a) express h in terms of r,
(b) express the volume, V, in terms of r,
(c) find the value of r for which the volume is greatest.
17. A piece of wire of length 50 cm is cut into two sections. One section is used to
construct a rectangle whose dimensions are in the ratio 3: 1; the other section is used to
construct a square. Find the dimensions of the rectangle and the square so that the
total enclosed area is a minimum.
18. Find the maximum volume of a right circular cone whose slant edge has a constant
length measure a.
19. A rectangular block, the length of whose base is twice the width, has a total surface
area of 300 cm2 Find the dimensions of the block if it is of maximum volume.
20. A window frame has the shape of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. The
perimeter of the frame is constant. Show that, for maximum area, the height of the
rectangle is equal to the radius of the semicircle.
21. A piece of wire of length 50 cm is to be cut into two sections, one of which is used to
form a square, the other of which is used to form a circle. If the length of the edge of
the square is x cm, find, in terms of x,
(a) the radius of the circle,
(b) the area of the circle,
(c) the total area of the square and the circle.
22
24. Find two nonnegative numbers whose sum is 12 and whose sum of their squares is a
maximum.
~.
I
A
farmer wishes to fence off a rectangular paddock using a straight section of a river
as one of the sides. Fencing material costs $10 per metre and the farmer spends $1200
on materials. Find the dimensions of the paddock for which the area is a maximum.
EXAMPLE 12
The cost of running a truck at an average speed of v km h 1 is 64
Calculate the average speed for which the total cost of running a truck from Sydney to
Katoomba, a distance of 100 km, will be a minimum. What is the minimum cost?
(64 +
1~) dollars
,/
,/
,/
,/
,/
(64 + ~\ 100
\
100) v
6400
v+,v>O
v
dy _ 1 _ 6400
dv
v2
2
v = 6400
v
80
c:;
<
,/
160
1'
...
,/
,/
,/
,/
,/
,/
80
O}
lv >
,/
,/
,/
= v+ .400
v
Fig. 1526
:.
80.
When v = 80, y
160.
The minimum cost is $160 when the average speed is 80 km h 1
The graph of the cost function is shown in Fig. 1526.
As v  0, y  00 and so the yaxis is a vertical asymptote.
As v  00, y  v and so y = v is an oblique asymptote.
j
EXAMPLE 13
A man in a boat is 3 kilometres from the nearest point 0 of a straight beach. His
destination is 6 kilometres along the beach from O. If he can row at 4 km h 1 and walk at
5 km h 1, towards what point on the beach should he row to reach his destination in the
least possible time?
The man rows in a straight line from B
to C, and then walks from C to D. Let the
8
point C be x kilometres from 0 where
~ x ~ 6.
Applying the Theorem of Pythagoras,
he rows a distance JX2 + 9 kilometres at
JX2 + 9
4 km h I , and hence rows for
4
D
3ts:c
6x
Fig. 1527
JX2+9 +
4
6  x
:;;:::=;;===;;;:
6.
S
5x  4.J.X2+9
20..Jx2 + 9
o when 5x  4..JX2 + 9 = 0
i.e. 5x = 4..JX2 + 9
25x 2 = 16x2 + 144 (square both sides
9x 2 = 144
x = 4, ignoring the negative root.
Fig. 1528
When x < 4, T'(x) <
When x > 4, T'(x) > 0 Hence mlDlmum value of Toccurs when x = 4.
O}
..
EXERCISES 15(e)
1. The area of a rectangle is 400 cm2 If the length of one of its sides is x cm, express the
length of the other side and hence the perimeter in terms of x. Find the value of x
which makes the perimeter a minimum.
!,
x >
x
origin.
3. The cost of running a ship at a constant speed of v km/h is 160
hour.
(a) Find the cost of a journey of 1000 km at a speed of 10 km/h.
(b) Find the cost, C dollars, of a journey of 1000 km at a speed of v km/h.
(c) Find the most economica! speed for the journey, and the minimum cost.
(d) If the ship were to have maximum speed of 16 kmlh, find what the minimum cost
would be.
4. A company manufactures items at $2 per item and sells them for $x per item. If the
number sold is 800 per month, find the value of x for which the company could
expect to maximize its monthly profit.
S. A man in a boat is 4 km from the nearest point 0 of a straight beach; his destination is
4 km along the beach from O. If he can row at 4 kmh l and walk at 5 kmh l , how
should he proceed in order to reach his destination in the least possible time?
6. A rectangular box whose base is a square is to be made so that its total surface area is
constant. Pr\>ve that the volume of the box is greatest if the box is a cube.
7. A traveller employs a man to drive him from Sydney to Wollongong for an hourly.
payment of P dollars. Running costs of the car, which are also paid by the traveller,
are kv 3 dollars per hour, where v km h l is the speed, and k is a constant. Find the
uniform speed that will minimize the total cost of the journey.
S. If y
i,
9. Find the dimensions of the largest rectangle that can be inscribed in the semicircle
Y = "";4  X2
10. Two straight roads intersect at right angles. Two men, A and B, are 100 kilometres
from the intersection, one on each road. They drive towards the intersection at
30 km h I and 40 km h I respectively. Find the distance of each driver from the
intersection as a function of t, the time in hours for which they are driving. Hence
find their distance apart, d(t), at any time. For what value of t is their distance apart
least?
11. The running cost (cost of fuel) for a certain ship is $3 per hour when the ship is not
moving, and this cost increases by an amount that is proportional to the cube of its
speed, Vkm h 1 If the running cost per hour is $6'75 when the speed is 15 km h ' ,
obtain a formula for the running cost per hour at speed V, and calculate the value of
V for which the total running cost for a journey of 450 km is a minimum.
12. The cost function, C(v), of running a train at an average speed, vkmh ' , is
b
C(v) = av + , where a and b are constants. If C(20) = 108 and C(25)
90, find
v
13. A closed cylindrical can is to have a capacity of 167rcm3 What are the radius of the
base and the height of the cylinder for the total surface area to be a minimum.
14. A printed page of a book is to have side margins of 1 cm, a top margin of 2 cm and a
bottom margin of 3 cm. It is to contain 200cm2 of printed matter. Find the
dimensions of the page if the area of paper used is to be a minimum.
A
R C
EXAMPLE 14
Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve y
the curve where x = 3.
Y
dy
dx
x2
x2
4x
+ 4 at the point on
4x + 4
2x  4
When x = 3, y = 9  12
+4
When x = 3 , dy
=2
dx
Hence, the point (3, 1) belongs to the curve and the
gradient of the tangent at this point is 2.
Y  YI
m(x  Xl)
Y  1 = 2(x  3)
Y = 2x
5 (equation of tangent)
Fig. 1530
The normal is a line perpendicular to the tangent. Since the gradient of the tangent is 2,
the gradient of the normal is
1.
m(x
Yl
= ~X
 3)
2
= x + 3
Y  1
2y
2y
Xl)
+X
5 (equation of normal)
EXAMPLE 15
Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve Y = ..JX at the point
where x = 4.
011
the curve
Y = x 1l2
dy
lx l12 _ _1_
dx
2
 2..JX
Whenx = 4,y
14
dy
1
1
dx
214
X Fig. 1531.
Hence, the point (4, 2) belongs to the curve and the gradient of the tangent at this point is
y  Yl = m(x  Xl)
1
j<x

Y  2
4y
l,
4)
= 4 (equation of tangent)
Y  Yl = m(x  Xl)
Y  2
4(x  4)
Y + 4x = 18 (equation of normal)
EXAMPLE 16
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve Y
= ~X3
X2 
~X3
Y
:
= X2 
=  11
 or7
3
Y  Yl = m(x Y
+ 11
3
7(x
Xl)
2)
X2
2x  1
+1
5.
3Y
7
3"
3y
21x
= 7(x  4)
at~, ~) )
EXAMPLE 17
Find the points of intersection of the parabolas Y = X2  2x and Y
4x  X2 and the
angle between the parabolas at the point, to the right of the origin, at which they intersect.
Yl
2x
X2 
Y2
= 4x 
X2
For
YI
=4
:. tan 01
01
For
Y2
m2
when x
= 4x x 2
4
2x
2
when x
:. tan O2 = 2
O2
11634'
0:
=4
= 7558'
=
= O2
01
4036' .
EXERCISES 15(f)
In questions 1. to 8. find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curves at the
points indicated:
1. Y =
2. Y
X2
at (2, 4)
X2 
3. Y = 3x 4. Y =
2X2
5. Y
2X2
6. Y
7. Y
5x
X2
at (0, 0)
+ 3x  4x +
 where x
x'
6 at (3, 0)
4, where x = 0
1, where the gradient is 4
=
2
8. Y
3x 3
7x 2 + 2x, where x
x+
!x
2 
Find the coordinates of P and Q. Also find the equations of the tangents to the
parabola at P and Q and the coordinates of the point of intersection of these tangents.
10. Find the equations of the tangents to the parabola y = 4x  3x 2 at the points where
the parabola cuts the Xaxis.
11. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola y = 2X2  4x
the point of zero gradient.
12. Prove that the parabolas y
2X2  6x + 5 and y
and find the equation of the common tangent.
X2  2x
1 at
13. The line y = x + 4 cuts the parabola with equation y = X2  2x at two points A and
B. Find the magnitude of the angles that the tangents to the curve at A and B make
with the Xaxis.
14. The line y = x + 1 cuts the parabola y = X2  X  2 at two points P and Q. Find:
(a) the coordinates of P and Q,
(b) the equation of the tangents at P and Q,
(c) the coordinates of the point of intersection of these two tangents.
15. Find the equations of the tangents to the \ parabola y
where
,
(a) the gradient is zero,
(b) the tangent is parallel to the line y = 2x + 1.
X2  2x
16. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola y
the point on the parabola where the gradient is 3.
4 at the points
2X2
5x
1 at
17. The normal to the curve y = (x + 2)2 at the point AC3, 1) meets the curve again at B.
Find
(a) the equation of the normal,
(b) the coordinates of B,
(c) the angle at B between the curve and the chord AB.
18. The line y = x
2 cuts the curve y = X3(X  2) at two points A and B. Calculate the
angles which the tangents to the curve at A and B make with the Xaxis and hence find
the angle between the tangents.
19. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve y = (x 2
where the curve crosses the Xaxis.
20. Prove that 20x + y = 28 is a tangent to the curve y = x2(1  2x) and find the
coordinates of the point of contact.
21. Find the coordinates of the points on the curve y = x2(2x  3) at which the tangents
are parallel to (a) the line y  12x
1 (b) the Xaxis.
22. Prove that the curve y
(x  2)(X2 + 2x + 6) crosses the Xaxis at one point only
and find the equation of the tangent at that point.
I:
We will now consider the reverse problem of finding a function f(x) when its derivative
f'(x) is known. Such a problem is one of antidifferentiation. Thus if F(x) is such that
F'(x) = f(x), then F(x) is an antiderivative or primitive of f(x). Similarly, f(x) is an
anti derivative of f'(x).
The derivative of X2 is 2x and so X2 is a primitive of 2x.
The derivative of X2 + c is also 2x and so X2 + c for any real number c is the set of
primitives of 2x.
Graphically, some members of this set are depicted in fig. 1533.
At any given x, the tangents to each of the curves are parallel.
It is always necessary to include the constant c when writing down a general primitive.
Which curve of a given family is appropriate to any given problem may be obtained by
specifying a set of conditions.
y
x
Fig. 1533
EXAMPLE 18
=
=
point
~X5 + c
th~
2x
X2 + c
When x = 2, f(x)
8, so 8 = 4 + c, i.e. c
Hencef(x) = X2 + 4 is the required curve.
The primitive of X4 is
3x 3
+ ~X3 + c
4x
+ 2 is ~X5
[ The primitive of x,
x4  2X2
4
= ~xn+1 + C, n
2x
+c
oF  \
+ c to give xn.
Observe the pattern. The power of x is increased by 1 and the coefficient is the
reciprocal of this increased power. Note also that the primitive of a constant a is ax + c.
The primitive of X 312 is ~X5/2 + c
5
~ + c.
EXAMPLE 19
The gradient function of a curve is 3x2  2x and the curve passes through the point (2, 1).
Find its equation.
When x
dy = 3x2
2x
dx
:. y = x 3  X2 + c
= 2, Y = 1 and so
1
8  4 + c
:. c
3.
Equation is y = x 3  X2  3.
EXAMPLE 20
If ~7z
: =
3x
 3 =. 3
+c
dy
.
SInce dx
3 when x
6
dy = 3x  6
dx
~X2
o = :23 
+ d since y = 0 when x
:2
~X2
3x 2
i.e. 2y
6x
+~
I2x + 9
6x
EXERCISES 15(9)
1. Find primitives of:
(i) 5x2
(iii) X2
(v) (2x
3x
1
+ 1)2
(ii) 3 + 5x + X2  3x 3
(iv) (x  I)(x  2)
(vi) 2X2  7x + 5
3x  5
X2 + 3x
4x3  6x2
(ii) f'(x)
(iv) f'(x)
(vi) f'(x)
=5
=
=
(2x  l)(x
(x + 3)2
+ 2)
=3 +
dx
(iv) y'
I
<
2x  3x2
(x  3)(x
..) d y
( VII
dx 2
3x2  2x
dx
4)
= x3 +
(ii) dy
(V): = X4 
~?z
1 (viii)
2X2
(iii) y' = X4  x 3
6x 3  4X2
(ix) y" = 0
X2
(d) f(x)
= X 312 +
2x  2 andf(l)
~
4X2
3x
x3
(f) f(x)
= ~+ $
= f(x):
= 
5
= (X2 
(b) f(x)
x2(1  3x)
3x4/3  x l12
y' = Xll2
1)(x2
+ 1)
X 512
4.
+ 1 andf(l) = 3.
4x
2 and y
= 2x
= 3.
11. Find the rule that defines a functionf, given thatf'(x) = X2  2x + b for all x, and
f'(O) = 1 and f(O)
2.
12. A curve contains the point (0, 4) and its gradient is (x  1)(x + 2) at any point on the
curve. Find the equation of the curve.
13. At all points on a certain curve,
= 2x.
its tangent at this point is inclined at 45 0 to the Xaxis. Find the equation of the curve.
14. Find primitives of:
(i) 3
+ 1
.. ) 3X3
2X2 + XI
(III X=2  
(ii) X2
(iv) 1
+2
+2
X2
X 312
(iii) J'(x)
16. Given ds
X2
= 12t 2
+

(iv) J'(x)
d 2s
ds
~~
= 24 and s
dx
(b) x
2X ll2
0 when t = 0, find
(b) s when
.
d 2x
dx
18. GIven dt 2 = 2 for all t ~ 0 and dt
(a) dt
2X1I2
O.
5 and x
~~
0
4 when t
= 0, find t when
CHAPTER 16
Integral
Calculus
16.1 Area _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
In chapter 14, we considered one aspect of the calculus, namely the derivative of a
function, and we saw how it measures the gradient of a curve and in chapter 19, we shall
see how it measures rate of change.
Another very important aspect of the calculus is its use in finding the area measure of a
region of a plane surface bounded wholly or partly by curved lines. At first thought, there
may appear to be no connection between these two aspects of the calculus. However,
Newton, in the seventeenth century, discovered that these two apparently unrelated
concepts are in fact intimately connected by way of the primitive functions.
We shall be concerned with the area measure of the region of a plane surface bounded
by the graph of a continuous function, the Xaxis and the lines x
a and x = b, where
b > a.
y
Fig. 161
Fig. 162
The method of finding the area of a rectangle is familiar. The region ABCD in figs. 161
and 162 is bounded partly by the curved line DC. The first estimate of its area would be
that it is greater than the area of the lower rectangle, ABED, but less than the area of the
upper rectangle, ABCF. This, of course, gives a very rough estimate (fig. 161).
In fig. 162, the interval AB has been divided into several parts, and with these parts as
base, upper and lower rectangles have been constructed. The area measure of the region
ABCD is greater than the sum of the areas of the lower rectangles but less than the sum of
the areas of the upper rectangles. This would give a better estimate.
As the number, n, of subdivisions of the interval AB increases, the difference between
the sum of the areas of the lower and upper rectangles decreases.
As n  00, the difference approaches zero.
EXAMPLE 1
Consider the problem of calculating the area, A, enclosed between the parabola y
x 2,
the Xaxis and the ordinates at x = 0, x = 5.
There is no commonly known formula of mensuration by means of which the area
can be evaluated. Partition the interval [0, 5] into 5 sections of equal width, as shown in
fig. 163.
y
234
Fig. 163
The actual area A lies between the sum of the areas of lower rectangles such as PQRS and
the sum of the areas of upper rectangles such as PQUT.
Denoting the lower sum by SL and the upper sum by Su we have
SL
0 + l(P) + 1(22) + 1(3 2) + 1(42) = 29
(Using Area =
breadth x height
l(P) + 1(22) + 1(3 2) + 1(42) + 1(5 2)
54 for each rectangle)
29 < A < 54.
Hence
Now partition the interval into 10 equal sections of width
~. In this case
SL
= (~y
Su
= (~)3[p + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + 62 + 72 + 82 + 92 + 102]
[P
+ 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + 62 + 72 + 82 + 92] = 2~5
35~
Hence
35i
== 385
= 48k
Su
Hence
(!)3[1 2 + 22
4
+ 32 + ... + 202]
3812
32 < A < 441.2
32
44~
Evidently as the number of subdivisions increases, the approximation to the true area
by the upper and lower rectangles improves. If we make 100 subdivisions of the above
interval and use a calculator to evaluate the sums, then it is found that
SL
4104 and Su = 42'29, so that 4104 < A < 4229.
It seems that A can be calculated to any desired degree of approximation by taking n
sufficiently large. We must return to the general case to determine a method for
calculating the exact value of A.
I.
Letfbe a continuous and increasing function in the interval [a, b]. Divide this interval
into n parts, not necessarily equal, by the points XI' X2, x 3' ... xn such that a = Xo < XI <
x 2 < . . . < xn = b (fig. 164).
Y
= X O X,X2
+
Fig. 164
Using the subdivisions (XI  x o), (x 2  XI) ... (xn  x n I) as bases, construct upper and
lower rectangles as shown. If we denote the sum of the areas of the lower rectangles by Sv
then
SL
= f(xo)(x l
 xo)
+ f(x l)(X2
+ ... + f(xnI)(xn 
XI)
x n I)
and if we denote the sum of the areas of the upper rectangles by Su, then
Su
= f(xl)(x l
 xo)
+ f(x 2)(X2
+ ... + f(xn)(xn
XI)
 x n 1)
It is obvious from fig. 164 that Su > SL and that Su  SL equals the sum of the areas of
the shaded rectangles. If we denote the area bounded by the curve, the Xaxis and the
ordinates X = a and X = b by A~ then SL < A < SUo
If we divide the interval [a, b] into a very large number of parts, i.e. n  00, the sum of
the areas of the shaded rectangles becomes very small; i.e.,
Su  SL  0 and Su and SL approach the same limit, A.
y
8
feb)
A
f(a)
x x+
ox b
Fig. 165
Consider now what could be described as a typical rectangle of width ox at any point X
in the interval [a, b] (fig. 165). The area of a typical lower rectangle is f(x) ox and of a
typical upper rectangle is f(x + ox) ox.
b
Then
SL = I:f(x)ox
and
Su = I:f(x
ox) ox
.E f(x) ox < A
Thus
<
As n 
00,
0 and Su 
ox 
SL and so
b
= ox_o
lim E f(x) ox.
a
,
A
Dividing by ox
=1=
f(x) < A (x
As ox  0, f(x
ox) ox.
ox)
0, we get
Thus !A(X) = f(x), from which it follows that A(x) is a primitive of f(x).
That is, A(x)
F(x) + c, where F'(x) = f(x) and c is any real number.
When x
a, A(a)
0 and so 0 = F(a) + c.
Hence
A(x)
F(x)  F(a)
When x
b, A(b) = A and so A = F(b)  F(a). That is,
r f(x)dx = F(b) b
F(a)
" a
1:
f(x)dx
= [F(X)I
= F(b)  F(a)
~ ~~'== ==~'=~~=~~===
EXAMPLE 2
Evaluate the following:
f,3(X 2
(a)
(a)
3(X2
x)dx
(b)
[3
x) dx =
 X
r:(X 2X2 + 3x 3
4)dx
2J3
(9  ~) (~  ~)
= 4j
(b)
DX
EXAMPLE 3
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the graph of the straight line y = 2x + 3, the
Xaxis and the ordinates x = 1 and x = 5.
y
Fig. 166
+ 3x
(25 + 15)  (l + 3)
36
area = 36 sq. units.
Hence
This area can be checked arithmetically by calculating the area of the shaded trapezium.
=
EXAMPLE 4
Find, by integration the area of the region enclosed between the parabola y
J:X dX =
2
GX J:
X 53 
3
41~.
x2, the
Fig. 167
=!
x
1,,__ _.
EXAMPLE 5
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the graph of the parabola f(x)
7x + 10, the Xaxis, and the ordinates x = 3 and x = 4.
X2 
Fig. 168
X3 _ Zx 2
[ 32
(~
 56
lOX] 4
3
40)  (9 
6i + 30 )
2~
The integral in this case is a negative number which represents the measure of the signed
area of the shaded portion in fig. 168. Since, however, we associate the measure of area
by a positive number, we say that the area is 2~ sq. units.
EXAMPLE 6
Find (a) the signed area, and (b) the area, bounded by the graph of
f(x)
x(x  2)(x
X =
1)
1, 0 and 2.
y
f(x)=x(x ~x+1)
1
Fig. 169
The signed area is 2! sq. units and denotes the algebraic sum of Al and A 2
(b) It is necessary to evaluate
IA II
and A2 separately.
Jo\X 3 X2 
Al
= {~  x'
= 4
Thus
IAII
A2
2x)dx
X{
 4
= 2j
2~.
= Jc:(X'
=
 X2  2x)dx
[X4 _ x 3 _ X2] 0
4
1
oO+~
1)
12
5
Total area = 2i + 12
3& sq. units
Some properties oj the integral:
1.
J>(X)dX =  Jbf(X)dX
2. i.f(X)dx + I'f(X)dx
3. I:f(X)dX
1:
g(x)dx
1:
({(x) gx)dx
No formal proof of these properties will be given, but we will verify them with a few
numerical examples.
EXAMPLE 7
Evaluate:
(a) I:X 2dx, I:X2dX and verify that I:X 2dx=  I,'X 2dx
(b)
2
X2 dX, J:X 2dx, I'X 2dX2 and verify that I,2x2dx + I2'X 2 dX =I'X2dX
I:(X 2 + 2x)dx
I'X 2 dx + J:2XdX
J.'(4X 2 + 8x)dx
4J:(X2 + 2x)dx
(a)
(b)
=9
9
1
3  3 = 21
(c)
8~
f2Xdx =[x,]: =9 1 =8
=(9+9)0+ 1)
= 16~
= 8j + 8
(d)
!.'<4X'
= (36
+ 36)  0
72
4[(9
+ 9)  0] = 72
EXERCISES 16(a)
Evaluate the integrals (1. to 21.):
1
1.
Jo (2X 
4.
3
f1 (2t
7.
5)dx
 4)dt
r:<3X + f)dx
3.
S.
f:
6. f:(2x
(u
2

2u)du
10. fo (X
2)3dx
13. fo\aX2
bx
c)dx
f_:(X
2.
4)dx
1)2dx
9. f_:(2X 2  8x
Q
12. fb 3x2dx
15. f04X1l2dX
8)dx
16.
f_~l/2( x3)dx
19. fOl(Vi
18. fo'(XI/ 5
~)dx
20.
f 1!2(
114
1)
3"
21J(
dx
xl/3)dx
~)' dx
X2
24. Find the area of the region bounded by the Xaxis and the graph of y
2  x  x 2
25. Find the area of the region bounded by the Xaxis and the graph of y
x2(1  x).
26. Calculate the area of the region bounded by the graph of f(x) = X2
Xaxis, and the lines x
1 and x = 4.
4x
27. Find the area of the region bounded by the curve with equation y
and the Xaxis.
28. If/0(4  2x)dx
= 4,
4, the
5x  2X2
= (x
33. Find the positive number, k, such that the area of the region bounded by the graph of
f(x) = kx(2  X)2 and the Xaxis is equal to 1 unit.
34. For the graph of f(x)
(x
1)(x
1)2 calculate:
(a) the area bounded by the curve, the Xaxis and the ordinates x
o and x = :21
36. Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y = x(x  2)2 and the Xaxis.
37. Show, by integration, that the area of a
unit square is
(a) bisected by the line y = x
(b) trisected by the curves y = X2 and .
y = Vi
~ andy = x.
curves y = x 3 , Y
y
H
(0,1)1.(1,1)
fa
(x)dx 
f:
fb g(x)dx
a
(x)  g(xdx
Fig. 1610
EXAMPLE 8
Calculate the a ea of the region enclosed by the graphs of f(x) = x
g(x) = X2  x
2.
It is necessar first to find the
+ 1 and
f(x)=x+1
g(x)=x2x2
(3,4)
x  2 = x +
2x  3 = 0
(x  3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 3 or 1
(1,
x=3
and A ::::;
E (f(x)
 g(x)) bx
Fig. 1611
x=I
As n  00, i.e. bx  0, the limit of the sum of the areas of the approximating
rectangles approaches the area A.
x=3
Hence
A = lim
(f(x)  g(x) )bx
oxo x=I
= J~(f(X) =
f:( x
:\X
+
2
 X3
+
3
g(xdx
1)  (X2  X  2dx
2x
X2
3)dx
]
3x
I
( 9 + 9 + 9 )
0
I  3)
EXAMPLE 9
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the Xaxis and the curves with equations
y = .Jx and y = 6  x.
At the point of intersection of the
Y
curves,
.Jx = 6  x
x = 36  12x + X2
X2  13x + 36 = 0
(x  9)(x  4) = 0
Thus x = 4, since x = 9 does not satisfy
.Jx = 6  x but corresponds to the point
of intersection of the curves defined by
x
y =  .Jx and y = 6  x.
Fig. 1612
The point of intersection P is (4, 2).
It will be necessary to divide the interval [0, 6] into two intervals [0, 4] and [4, 6] because
a typical approximating rectangle in the interval [0, 4] has length .Jx and in the interval
[4, 6] has length (6  x). Hence the required area is given by
Now
6
/4 (6 
and
x)dx
[6X  ~X2J:
=2
x
1  _y3
1 ]
= [ 6y  _y2
= 7~
23
(units2)
Fig. 1613
EXERCISES 16(b),
1. Calculate the area ofthe region bounded by the line y
2. Calculate the area of the region enclosed by the line y
y =
X2
= x2
2.
= x 2 , g(x) = x;,
x > 0 and the line
x = 3.
61
8. A straight line through the origin cuts the parabola y = 4x  X2 at the point where
x = 3.
(a) Find the equation of this line.
(b) Calculate the area of the region bounded by
(i) the parabola and the straight line,
(U) the parabola and the Xaxis. ""
,~.

10. Calculate the area of the region bounded by the parabolas y = X2 and y = 4  x 2
Find also the area of the region bounded by the parabolas and the Xaxis.
11. In what ratio does the Xaxis divide the area of the region bounded by the parabolas
y = 4x  X2 and y = X2  x?
12. Part of a vertical section of an ore deposit takes the form illustrated in fig. 1614,
which is not drawn to scale. Exploration by vertical drilling at P and Q, along with
y
Fig. 1614
:1
geological interpretation of the rock formations in the light of evidence from other
sections, have indicated the distances shown on the diagram. Taking the axes OX and
OYas indicated, find
(a) the equation of the straight line AB,
(b) the depth of muck at R,
(c) the equation of the curve COD, assuming it is of the form y = ax 2n ,
(d) the total area of the section, ABDC, of the ore deposit.
I'
Consider a continuous function in the interval [a, b]. If the plane section ABDC is rotated
about the Xaxis, we thereby generate a solid as shown in Fig. 1615 the vertical cross
sections of which are circles. Such a solid is called a solid oj revolution.
y
Fig. 1615
P(x, y) is a point on the curve y = J(x) and Q(x + ox, y + oy) is a point close to P. The
ordinate PM describes a circle of area 7ry2 and QN describes a circle of area 7r(Y + oy)2.
The typical lower rectangle PRNM describes a cylinder of volume 7ry2 ox and the typical
upper rectangle describes a cylinder of volume 7r(y + oy)2ox. If a typical layer PQNM
describes a solid of volume 0 V, then
7ry 2ox
Thus
E(Y + oy)20X.
<
b
As ox 
0,
V = lim
ox o
E 7ry 2ox
a
b
i 7ry 2dx
7r ibY2dX
EXAMPLE 10
Find the volume of a right circular cone height h and radius of the base r.
The cone may be considered as a solid of revolution generated by rotating the right
angled triangle GAB about the Xaxis (Fig. 1616)
The equation of GA is y = ~x.
h
= /)xo
lim
E 7ry
ox
Fig. 1616
EXAMPLE 11
Find the volume of a sphere of
radius r.
The volume of the sphere may be
considered as the volume generated
by rotating the semicircle defined by
y = ..Jr2  x 2, r ~ x ~ r
about the Xaxis.
Hence
V =
7r
f~(r2
7r
 x2)dx sincey2
r2  X2
Fig. 1617
.  . ......,..........". ~.~=.~
.~.~~~~~=..~.=,=
..=.. ~=~~~~~~
EXAMPLE 12
The part of the parabola y = X2
between x = 1 and x = 3 is rotated
about the Yaxis. Find the volume
generated.
A typical layer cut perpendicular
to the Yaxis would be approxi
mately cylindrical in shape with
radius x and width oy and volume
oV given by
oV Z 7rX2oy
and the total volume V would be
given by
v = 11:~'X'dY
3
Fig. 1618
11:
=y
= 407r
EXAMPLE 13
Find the volume of the solid formed when the area bounded by the parabola y = 4  X2
and the Xaxis is rotated about (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis.
y
4
y
2
Fig. 1619
Fig. 1620
(b) . V
2
[ 8 + x1]
[(32  ~ + 3;)  (32 + ~  3nJ
7r 16x  x 3
3
11:
512
= If7r
5 2
[4Y ~y~:
11:
=
=
7r[(16  8) : 0]
87r
EXERCISES 16(c)
1. Find the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating the arc of the parabola
y = X2 between x = 0 and x = 3 about the Xaxis.
2. Find the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating the line y
x = 0 and x
4 about the Xaxis.
= 2x between
3. A cone is formed by rotating about the Xaxis the segment of the line joining the
points (1, 0) and (3, 4). Find the volume of the cone.
4. The semicircle y
J9  x 2 is rotated about the Xaxis. Calculate the volume of the
sphere generated.
5. The region bounded by the parabola y = x  X2 and the Xaxis is rotated about the
Xaxis. Find the volume of the solid so formed.
6. Find the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the parabola
y = 1  X2 and the Xaxis is rotated about (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis.
:,
8. The segment of the line joining the points (0, 3) and (6, 0) is rotated about (a) the
Xaxis (b) the Yaxis. Find the volume of the cone formed in each case.
9. A football has a volume approximately the same as the volume generated by rotating
the ellipse 9x2 + 16y2 = 144 about the Xaxis. Find the volume.
10. Find the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the parabola
y
9  X2 and the coordinate axes is rotated (a) about the Xaxis (b) about the
Yaxis.
11. A drinking glass has the shape of a truncated cone. If the internal radii of the base
and the top are 3 cm and 4cm respectively and the depth is 10cm, find by integration,
its capacity. If the glass is filled with water to a depth of 5 cm, find the volume of the
water.
12. A hemispherical bowl of radius a units is filled with water to a depth of units. Find,
by integration, the volume of the water.
13. Find the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the parabola
y = 4  X2 and the line y = 1 is rotated about the Yaxis.
14. Find the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the parabola
y = X2  2 is rotated about (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis.
I
15. Find, by integration, the volume of the sphere generated by rotating the circle
X2 + y2 = 16 about the Xaxis.
2xJ 1  X2 between x = 0 and x = 1 is rotated about
16. The area under the curve y
the Xaxis. Find the volume of the solid so formed.
+ y2 =
18. The region bounded by the curve x l12 + yll2 = 2 and the coordinate axes is rotated
about the Xaxis. Find the volume of the solid generated.
19. The region bounded by the curve xy = 1, the Xaxis and the lines x = 1 and x = a,
a > 1 is rotated about the Xaxis. Find V, the volume generated. Hence find lim V.
a_<x>
20. The area bounded by the parabola y = 2x  x 2 , the Yaxis and the line y
rotated about the Xaxis. Find the volume generated.
,'I
= 1 is
21. Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the region bounded by the
parabola y = 1  X2 and the lines x = 1, y = 1 about (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis.
22. A cone is formed by rotating the segment of the line x + 2y = 4 cut off by the axes
about (a) the Xaxis (b) the Yaxis. Find, by integration, the volume of the cone in
each case.
However, we may be unable to find exactly what this number is because of our inability to
find the primitive of f(x) in many cases. The art of integration lies in our ability to find a
function F(x) such that F '(x) = f(x). This is not always possible. There is, for example, no
familiar function F(x) corresponding to f(x) = .Jf+X4 or f(x) = ex2 . Sometimes we
have to invent a function as in the case of the natural logarithm function .
Although we may be unable to find the integral exactly, there are methods available to
find this number approximately. One simple method is to draw a graph of the function
using graph paper and then to count squares; but this is rather tedious . We shall consider
two simple methods.
y
y = f(xl
f(al
y = f(xl
f(a}
f(bl
f(b)
Fig. 1621
Fig. 1622
The simple application of the trapezoidal rule substitutes a straight line in place of the
curve between x = a and x = b as shown in Fig. 1621 . The area of the trapezium is used
as an approximation to the area under the curve.
Using the formula for the area of a trapezium as
o 
,.
':
(b
Ja f(x)dx
~ 2(b  a)[f(a)
+ f(b)]
The shaded area in Fig. 1621 indicates the error involved. If the graph of f(x) were a
straight line, there would be no error.
The error can be reduced but not completely eliminated by subdividing the interval
[a, b] into n subintervals of equal width h = b  a and constructing a trapezium on each
n
subdivision as shown in Fig. 1622. In general, the more subdivisions, the smaller the
error. In this case
EXAMPLE 14
Evaluate
f02
(a) 2 subintervals
(b) 4 subintervals.
(8)
(b)
/
o
Fig. 1623
Fig. 1624
05
1'5
f(x)
1936
1732
1'323
r~4 
15
05
x'dx '"
= 1[2 + 3464 + 0]
2'732
4[2
2996
2/(0'5)
3872
2/(1)
3464
2/(1'5)
2646
+ /(2)]
0]
X2
II
 X2 dx
is
7r(:::::
stimates the area in (a) with an error of about 0'410 or 13070 and in (b) with an error of
about 0'146 or 4'6%.
x a;
... . V
parabola
"'\\
f
(a
b)
2
a+b
2
f(x)
f(b)
Fig. 1625
It can be proved that the area under the parabola through these three points is
b 
a~(a)
4f~
; b)+ f(b)]
fa/(x)dx ::::: b
b
We can, of course, break that interval up into subintervals and apply Simpson's rule to
each subinterval.
EXAMPLE 15
Evaluate f02 ~4  X2 dx (as in the previous example) using Simpson's rule with
(a) 3 function values
0'5
1'5
f(x)
1936
1732
1323
2 and a
(a) Taking a = 0, b
f02
~4 
b = 1, we get
X2 dx
= [2
+ 6'928 + 0]
3
2976
(b) We break up the interval [0, 2] into two subintervals [0, 1] and [1, 2], then apply
Simpson's rule to each subinterval and add the two areas.
Lvf4 
x'dx =
I  0 [/(0)
= ~[2 +
= 1913
7'744
+ 4/(05) + /(l)]
+
1'732]
2
1
~4  X2 dx ~ i[f(l) + 4f(I'5) + f(2)]
= ~[1'732 + 5292 + 0]
= 1171
:_ fo'vf4 
= 3084
This differs from the correct value of 7r by less than 2 per cent.
Simpson's rule gives an exact value whenf(x) is a quadratic or cubic polynomial just as
the trapezoidal rule will give an exact value when f(x) is a linear function.
EXAMPLE 16
Evaluate J'x,dx (a) by integration (b) by using Simpson's rule with 3 function values:
2
x 2dX
fI
(a)
(b) a
1, b = 2, a
= [!x312 = ~ _ ! = Z
+ b = 1 5
JI
,,
fX2dx '" b 
= 6[1 +
~(a)
4f& ;
b)+ f(b)]
4 x 225 + 4]
. (
3"7 as III
a)
+ c,
n+
except when n = 1. Although the primitive does exist, it is not of the form _1lxn+l.
EXAMPLE 17
EvaluateJ 3 !dx using (a) the trapezoidal rule with 4 strips (b) Simpson's rule using 5
IX
function values.
X
1'5
f(x)
0'6667
2'5
05
04
03333
Fig. 1626
Fig. 1627
fIx)
15
25
15
~dX '"
25
Simpson's rule
Trapezium rule
(a)
0'5 [f(I)
i[1
1'3333
08
03333]
= 1'1166
The exact value to 4 decimal places is 10986. The trapezium rule overestimates the
result by 00180 which is less than 2 per cent error_
J
f ~dX
2
!dx
:::=;
~ X ~
2 and 2
~ X ~
3 we get
06945
IX
'" 3
J: dx
IX
:::=;
2 [f(2)
06945
+ 4.f(25) + f(3)]
04056
04056
1'1001
Simpson's rule overestimates the result by 00015 which is less than 02 per cent error.
EXERCISES 16(d)
1. Evaluate
14
subintervals.
LX2 d:
f:..,;x' + 9 tix.
"I
3. Evaluate
1 (a) using the trapezoidal rule by dividing the interval [0, 1] into 2
12x3dx (a) by integration (b) using Simpson's rule with three function
Jor~~x.dx using
1:
(b) the
1\/XdX using
Also, calculate the percentage error with the approximations used in (b) and (c).
8. Evaluate
f.2!dX.
IX
0>3
{l>S
places.
dx to 5 decimal
11. Evaluate
f:.J1
12. Use Simpson's rule with five function values to estimate the volume of the solid
formed by rotating the curve y
X2
2 and x
= 2.
CHAPTER 17
Trigonometric
( Circular)
Functions
17.1 Radian measure of an angle _ _ _ _ _ __
We shall see later in this chapter, when dealing with the calculus of the trigonometric
functions, that degrees are not a satisfactory measure of angle size in many situations.
The measure of an angle commonly in use is the radian. Consider the unit circle.
Starting from the point A, mark off, in an anticlockwise direction, an arc of length
measure 1. We define the magnitude of the angle which this arc sub tends at the centre of
the circle as 1 radian. If we mark off an arc of length measure (J, then the magnitude of the
y
angle that this arc subtends at the centre of
the circle is (J radian. The same number
measures the length of the arc and is also the
measure in radians of the angle.
If the magnitude of an angle is 8 radians,
we write this as (Jc, but frequently we omit
the symbol c
An arc of length measure 'Ir subtends a straight angle of magnitude 'lrC at the centre of
the circle, and, as we already know, the magnitude of a straight angle is 180 0 This gives
us a convenient and accurate relation between the radian and degree measure of an angle,
even though 'Ir is an irrational number and 180 a rational number.
I
i.e.,
and
lc
'lr
= (1!0)0
= 1800 I
5718'
1
= (1;0) and so
0'
C8~OY and 0 = (1~~)'
c
The relations 7r
180 and 1
7rc
180 enable us to convert radians to degrees and
degrees to radians.
7r C
7r C
47r c
77r c
180
4.6 c = 4'6 x 180
7r
7r
= 137.509 ...
= 263.560 ...
= 13731'
26334'
sin 2'4c and, say, cos 46 c can be found, using a calculator, without first converting
2'4
2.4
radians to degrees. Press the mode key so that RAD appears on the display. Then proceed
as follows:
Display
Operation sequence
2 41 sin 1
0'67546 .. .
4[] 6
Note that cos 46c is a Qegative number. Why?
0,11215 .. .
=
=
160 x
279
1~~
7532'
75.533 ... x.
1~~
EXERCISES 17(a)
1. Express the following angles in radian measure, in terms of 7r.
(a) 30
(d) 210
(g) 330
(b) 225
(e) 315
(h) 144
(c) 72
(f) 11230'
(b) 77r
(c) 67r
4 8 5
57r
(d) 37r
(f) 117r
(e)
2
12
117r
(g) 187r
(h) 8
3. Express, in degrees, with the aid of a calculator, the angles whose radian measures are
as follows:
(a) 05
(d) 426
(g) 524
(b) 1'82
(e) 272
(h) 4'782
(c) 3
(f) 3'426
(b) 74
(e) 489'
(h) 728'
(c) 105
(f) 220
5. Express, in degrees, with the aid of a calculator, the angles whose radian measures are
as follows:
(a) 06
(b) 042
(c) 2
(d) 172
(e) 43
(f) 6
(g) 286
(h) 54
radius r units.
1=
r()
= rlJ
Fig. 172
LAOB
27r
()
7rr2
27r
= !r2()  !r2sin ()
2
2
That is, area measure, A, of a segment is
given by
Fig. 173
A
EXAMPLE 1
Find the length of the arc of a circle of radius 12 cm if the arc subtends an angle of
(a) 15 radians
(b) 40 at the centre.
(b) I
(a) I = r()
= 12 x 15
= 18
r()
7r
= 12 x 40 x 180
Arc length is 18 cm
= 83776
Arc length is 84 cm
EXAMPLE 2
An arc AB of a circle, centre 0, of radius 10cm is 8 cm in length. Calculate (a) L AOB in
degrees and minutes (b) the area of the sector AOB.
I = r()
:. 8 = 10()
() = 08 c
(a)
x 180
= 0.8
7r
(b)
= ~r2()
= ~ x
= 40
100 x 08
Fig. 174
EXAMPLE 3
An arc AB subtends an angle of 12652' at the centre of a circle, centre 0, of radius length
6 cm. Calculate
(a) the length of arc AB,
(b) length of chord AB,
(c) the area of the sector AOB,
(d) the area of the minor segment cut off by the chord AB.
(a)
= 2'214 c
I = r()
= 6 x 2214
= 13'284
Fig. 175
(c)
= 2,1 x
36 x 2214
39'85
!2
18(2,214  0'8)
= 18 x 1414
2545
EXERCISES 17(b)
1. Calculate, in degrees and minutes, the magnitude of the angle subtended at the centre
of a circle of radius length 8 cm by an arc whose length is 15 cm.
2. Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius 15 cm if the arc subtends an angle of 70
at the centre.
3. An arc of a circle subtends an angle of 100 at the centre. If the radius length of the
circle is 12 cm, calculate the arc length in terms of 'Ir.
4. The area of a sector OAB of a circle, centre 0, radius length 20cm is 240cm2 ,
Calculate
(a) the magnitude of the angle A OB,
(b) the length of arc AB,
(c) the length of the chord AB.
5. A chord PQ, 24 cm long, is 5 cm from the centre of the circle. Calculate the length of
the arc PQ.
6. A point Pis 8 cm distant from the centre of a circle of radius length 5 cm. Find the
length of the major arc between the points of contact of the tangents drawn from P to
the circle.
7. A chord AB of a circle with centre 0 has length 16cm. If the radius of the circle is
10 cm, calculate
(a) the magnitude of angle AOB,
(b) the length of the minor arc AB,
(c) the area of the minor segment formed by the chord AB.
8. The minute hand of a clock is 20 cm long. Calculate
(a) the arc length along which the tip of the hand travels in 16min,
(b) the shortest distance between the initial and final positions of the tip of the hand.
9. An arc AB subtends an angle of 60 at the centre of a circle of radius 15 cm. Calculate
the difference in the lengths of the chord AB and the minor arc AB in terms of 'Ir.
10. From a circular piece of metal 6 cm in diameter, a sector of angle 30 is removed.
Find the area remaining. Express your answer in terms of 'Ir.
#.
11. A chord subtends an angle of 140 0 at the centre of a circle of radius 16cm. Find the
difference in length between the chord and the arc.
12. Calculate, in terms of 7r, (a) the area of
the shaded region between the two circular arcs, centre 0 and (b) the
perimeter of the shaded region.
,\0"
45
~~ ..
7SC;;;:::;;:;
13. The minute hand of a clock is 3 cm in length. What area is swept out by the hand in an
interval of 40 min? Express your answer in terms of 7r.
14. A circular metal plate is cut into two segments along a chord equal in length to the
radius. What is the ratio of the areas of the two segments?
15. A sheep, grazing in a paddock, is tethered to a stake by a rope 20 m long. If the stake
is 10 m from a fence, find the area over which the sheep can graze.
16. A sector of angle 160 0 is cut out of a circular piece of thin cardboard of radius 10 cm.
The cut edges of the sector are brought together to form a cone. Find the
circumference of the circular base of the cone.
17. Find (a) the perimeter (b) the area of a piece of land in the shape of a circular sector of
radius 25 metres and angle 30 0
18. A pendulum 40 cm long swings through an angle of 25 0 Find (a) the length of arc
(b) the shortest distance between the extreme positions of the bob.
i
t
19. Two circles, each of radius length 10 cm, have theircentres 16 cm apart. Calculate the
area common to each circle.
20. Three circles are drawn with radius length 5 cm. Their centres are at the vertices of an
equilateral triangle whose sides are of length 10 cm. Calculate the area between the
circles.
17.4 Definitions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
We can define circular or trigonometric functions as functions of real numbers and, for
this purpose, we consider a circle of unit radius defined by the equation X2 + y2 = 1.
Starting from the point A, we can mark
off an arc of length measure () for each real
number (). The arc AP subtends an angle of
()c at the centre of the circle. The same
number () measures the length of the arc and
the number of radians in angle AOP. If
() > 0, we mark off the arc in an anti
c
clockwise direction; if () < 0, in a clockwise
direction. If P() is the endpoint of this arc,
and if P is the point whose coordinates are
(x, y), we define the functions cosine and
sine as
Fig. 176
1
These two functions have for domain the set of real numbers and,since 1 ~ x ~ 1 and
~ Y ~ 1, their range is [1, 1].
The circumference of our unit circle is 21r units.
At A, 0 = 0; the coordinates of A are (1, 0), and so cos 0 = 1 and sin 0 = O.
At B, 0
At C, 0
0 and sin ~
1.
1r; the coordinates of Care (1, 0), and so cos 1r = 1 and sin 1r = O.
What are the values of cos 31r sin 31r, cos 21r, sin 21r?
2
The points P(O), P(21r + 0), P(41r + 0), ... all coincide. In general, P(O) and
P(2k1r + 0), k E J, coincide, and so cos (2k1r + 0) = cos 0 and sin (2k1r + 0) = sin O.
Such functions, whose values recur at regular periods, in this case 21r, are called
periodic junctions.
There are four other circular or trigonometric functionstangent, cotangent, secant
and cosecant (their abbreviations are tan, cot, sec and cosec respectively) that can be
defined in terms of cos and sin.
sin 0
0' cos 0 =# O.
x = cos
cos 0 .
cot 0 = x = '0'
Y
sm sm 0 =# O.
1
1
sec 0
0' cos 0 =# O.
x
cos
tan 0
y

cosec 0
1
y
: I
J
sm O' sin 0 =# O.
Thus there is a restriction on the domain of each of these functions. Tan and sec
.
1r 31r 51r
are not defined when cos 0 0, I.e., when 0 = 2' 2' 2' ... ; cot and cosec are not
defined when sin 0 = 0, i.e' 1 when 0
0, 1r, 21r, ....
Observe that cot, sec and cosec are reciprocal functions of tan, cos and sin respectively.
Degrees
sin (90 0
0)
Radians
cos 0
0

0)
cos (180  0)
0)
sin (180
tan (180
0)
(i"  OJ = cos 0
cos (f
~ sin 0
sin
(~  0)
cot 0
tan
cos 0
sin 0
 tan 0
cos (1r  0)
cos 0
sin (1r  0) = sin 0
tan (1r  0)
tan 0
cot
cos (180 0 + 0)
sin (180 + 0)
tan (180 0 + 0)
cos 0
sin 0
tan 0
0) = cos 0
0) =  sin 0
0) =  tan 0
=
=
=
cos (360 0
sin (360 0
tan (360
1I"C
6 ,60 = :3
Since 0 = OC,30
,90
1I"C
be rewritten as:
0
sin
11"
J3
11"
4
2:
J3
cos
tan
11"
6
11"
J2
1
2
J2
J3
cosec
2
2
sec
J2
2
1
J3
cot
J2
J3
J3
These exact values can be extended to certain angles in the other quadrants"
EXAMPLE 4
Without the aid of tables or a calculator find the values of:
(.")
. 6
511"
SIn
(iii)
i)
tan 411" = tan ( 11" + j)
(iv)
sin 311"
(ii)
cos 5 11"
(v) cos (  5
(vi)
(vii)
sin (11"
sec ( 11" 
cosec (211" 
cosec 1111"
cos
11"
tan !!
3
. 11"
+ ~)
cos 511"
sec 2311"
2:
cos (11"
1r) =
. ( 11"  6
11")
SIn
SIn
cos
j)
11"
1
1
2
3"
sec
i)
2:
11"
3"
2
11"
cosec 6 = 2
EXAMPLE 5
Find all values of () between 0 and 211" for which:
(i) cos ()
(iii) tan ()
(v) sin ()
(ii) sin ()
.J3
1
(i) Since cos () is positive, () lies in the 1st and 4th quadrants
cos ()
:2
!! 211"  !!
3'
3
11" 511"
()
3'3
(ii) Since sin () is negative, () lies in the 3rd and 4th quadrants
. ()
sm
()
~
11"
11"
+ 4' 211"
11"
4
511" 711"
4'4
(iii) Since tan () is positive, () lies in the 1st and 3rd quadrants
tan ()
1
11"
11"
(iv) Since sec () is negative, ().1ies in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants
sec () =
. cos():;::
.J3
T
() = 11" 
11"
11"
6' 11" + 6
511" 711"
6'6
(v) Since sin () is negative, () lies in the 3rd and 4th quadrants
sin () = 1
11"
2
EXERCISES 17(c)
1. Express each of the following as a trigonometric function of x:
(i) sin (11" 
x)
(ii) cos
(f  x)
x)
x)
(vi) cot
(~ 
x)
2. If 0 is an angle in the 2nd quadrant, state whether the following are positive or
negative:
(a) cos (7r  0)
(e)
+ 0)
(c) sin
(f)
cos (7r
0)
(~ 
(iv) cos
(vi) cosec
t, express in terms of t,
4. If tan 0
(a) cot
tan(~ 
0)
0)
( v) sin (7r + x)
x)
(~
(b) cot
(e)
(~
0)
cot (7r  0)
(c)
tan (7r  0)
(f)
tan (7r
0)
(i) sec x
(iv) cos (27r  x)
6. If ~ < x < 7r, show with the aid of a diagram of a unit circle that:
(i) cos (7r
+ x)
cos x
Without the aid of tables or a calculator write down the exact values of: (7. to 10.)
7. (a) sin ~
27r
(b) cos
(f) cot
8. (a) sin 7r
(b) cos
(e) sec
37r
47r
(c) tan
57r
57r
T
(g) cosec
77r
. 77r
( h) smT
457r
(g) tan 7r
9. (a) sin 3 7r
2
(b) tan
57r
T
(c) cosec
(f) cos
6137r
117r
117r
. 137r
(b) sm6
57r
(f) cos T
(f) sec
(e) cos
2:7r
(d) cos 7r
(c) tan
97r
Find all the values of x between 0 and 27r for which: (11. to 22.)
' x
11 . sm
.J3
= T
14. cos x = 1
12 . tan x
= 1
15. cot x
.J3
13 . cosec x = 2
16. sec x
57r
,.j2
18. sin x = 0
.J3
21. sin x
0
+
0 22. cosec x = sec x
19. 2 cos x
+ .J3 cos x
X)
(b) tan (3 7r  x)
2
.e" )
(c) sm
(d) cot (3 7r
2
Tx
X)
Fig. 177
In fig. 177, the graph of y = sin x is represented by the continuous curve and the graph
of y = cos x by the broken curve and the graphs are drawn in the domain 27r to 2 7r. The
graphs, however, for domain R are unlimited curves and their form from 27r to 0 is the
same as from 0 to 27r and from 27r to 47r and so on. In other words, as x increases, the
values of sin x and cos x repeat themselves after an interval or period of 27r; sin and cos
are therefore called periodic junctions, the period being 27r. We saw earlier in this chapter
that the points P(O), P(27r + 0), P(47r + 0) on our unit circle all coincide and hence
cos O.
sin (27r + 0) = sin 0 and cos (27r + 0)
The maximum and minimum values of sin x and cos x are 1 and 1 respectively; in other
words their amplitude is 1. If the cos curve is translated ~ units to the right, parallel
with the Xaxis, it coincides with the sin curve. This follows from the fact that
cos
sin(~ +
x).
y
21r X
Fig. 178
Fig. 179
Fig. 178 shows the graph of y = tan x for 0 ~ x ~ 211". As x increases, the values of
tan x repeat themselves after an interval or period oj 11". The tan function is undefined at
x
, 311",
... Fig. 178 shows the graph of y
2
of cot x also repeat themselves after a period of 11". The function is undefined at x = 0, 11",
211", ...
y
cosec x
:
Fig. 1710
Fig. 1711
00
as y 
! is decreasing on the interval [1, 0). Thus, for example, since sin x increases from zero to
1 as x increases from 0 to
, it follows that
the same interval. These facts enable us to deduce the graphs of cosec, cot and sec from
sin, tan and cos respectively.
17.8 Graphs of y
a sin bx and y
a cos bx __
We consider now the transformations on the sin and cos curves caused by the constants a
and b. Since the maximum and minimum values of sin x and cos x are 1 and 1
respectively, it follows that the maximum and minimum values of a sin x and a cos x are a
and a respectively; in other words, their amplitude is lal. The effect of the transformation
caused by a is to dilate (i.e. either stretch or compress) the graph parallel to the Yaxis.
We have also seen that as x increases, the values of sin x and cos x repeat themselves
after a period of 211". In place of x we have bx and thus putting bx = 211" i.e. x = 211" the
values of sin bx and cos bx repeat themselves after a period of 2 1l". The effect of the
b
EXAMPLE 6
Sketch the graphs of (i) y = 3 sin 2x
(i) Amplitude
Period
3
2'1r
(ii) y = 2 cos
(ii) Amplitude = 2
=
2'1r
Period
'1r
3
2
o
1
y = 3 sin 2x
...
2... X
"4
1
2
2
3
Fig. 1713
Fig. 1712
EXAMPLE 7
Sketch the graphs of (i) y = 3 sin 2
(x  i )
(ii) Y
2 cos 3
(x + j) showing one
complete cycle.
i has not altered the amplitude or period. It merely ha~ the effect of
moving the graph of y = 3 sin 2x, i units parallel to the Xaxis in a positive direction
(fig. 1714).
3
2
3 sin 2
(x . f)
y = 2 cos 3
(x 
~)
Fig. 1714
Fig. 1715
f has moved the graph of Y = 2 cos 3x, f units parallel to the Xaxis in
EXAMPLE 8
Using the same scale and axes sketch the graphs of Y = 3 sin x and Y
sketch the graph of Y
3 sin x + 2 cos 2x for 0 ~ x ~ 27f.
= 2 cos 2x.
Hence
The graphs of YI
3 sinx andY2 = 2 cos 2x are drawn in fig. 1716 by broken lines. To
obtain points on the graph of Y = 3 sin x + 2 cos 2x, we use the process of addition of
ordinates of the component curves, taking sign into account. Let Y
YI + Y2 where
YI = 3sinxandY2
2 cos 2x
7f
e.g. at x = 0, Y = 0 + 2 = 2
atx = 2'Y = 3
2 = 1
atx
27f, Y
at x
0+2 =2
7f,Y
=
+2
atx
2
3
OA, AD = AB
atx
+ AC and so on.
3 sinx
Y1
37f
3 sin x + 2 cos 2x
5
Fig. 1716
EXERCISES 17(d)
1. Sketch the graph of each of the following, stating period and amplitude:
(i) Y = 4 sin x, 0 ~ x ~ 27f.
(ii) Y = 3 cos 2x, 0 ~ x ~ 27f.
(iii) Y
(v)
sin
~, 0 ~ x ~ 27f.
(iv) Y
7f
7f
3 tan 2x,  2 ~ x ~ "2'
cos x, 0
= 5
~ X ~
7f.
2.
3. Sketch the graph of Y = sin x, 7f ~ X ~ 7f and from it sketch the graph of:
(i) Y
2 sinx
(ii) Y = 2 sinx
(iii) Y = 3  2 sinx
4. Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing one complete cycle
(i) y
(iii) Y
(v) Y
2 sin
(0 
(ii)
(iv) y
(vi) Y
tan 2(&
7f)
3 cos
5 cos 3 (0
i)
j)
~).
(ii) y = 3 cos 0  2
4sin (0  i) + 3
4 sin 3
(0 
*)
(jv) y
= 2 cos 2 (0
(vi) y
=3
 i) +
sin(o  ~).
4cos 20 
sin 0
(vi) y
sin 0
sin 20.
EXAMPLE 9
Solve the equation sin x
1  2x.
g(x)
Fig. 1717
1 2x
The sketch shows that the graph of f(x) = sin x and g(x) = 1
2x intersect at
approximately x = 03 and hence this provides an approximate solution of the equation
sin x = 1  2x. Furthermore, it has only one solution.
x
03
04
0335
sin x
1  2x
02955
04
03894
02
03288
033
Using a calculator to find the sin values, the table above shows that the solution is between
x = 03 and x = 04. A better solution is approximately x = 0335 after a few trials.
EXERCISES 17(e)
Use a graphical method to solve the following equations 1. to 4. to two decimal places:
. 2
1. SIn x
1
= 2"x
2. cos x
4. tan x
1  x
5. A rectangular strip of metal 10 Gm wide is bent to form a water channel, the section
perpendicular to the length being a circular arc whose chord is 6 cm long. Show that,
if the circular arc subtends an angle of 2x radians at the centre of the circle,
5 sin x = 3x
Solve this equation graphically to three decimal places and find the area of the cross
section of the channel in cm2
6. A semicircle of radius r is divided into two parts of equal area by a chord parallel to
the base. If the chord subtends an angle of x radians at the centre, prove that
7r
x  2" = smx
Solve this equation graphically, finding x correct to two decimal places.
7. The chord of a segment of a circle subtends an angle of ~
+x
and the area of the segment is onequarter that of the circle. Prove that x
solve this equation graphically correct to three decimal places.
8. Show from a rough sketch that the equation 2 
~x
= cos x and
approximately 1. With the aid of tables or a calculator, find the solution to 2 decimal
places.
9. Show graphically that the equation
x
810g lo (O'Ix + 0'5) = 2
has a solution between x = 2 and x = 4. Find the solution correct to 2 decimal places.
10. An arc AB of a circle, centre C, is 20 cm long. If the chord AB is 15 cm long and
subtends an angle of x radians at C, show that 8 sin
~x
0 to
7r.
= O. As x
gradient of the sine curve is positive, and decreases from 1 to 0, corresponding to the fact
that cos x is positive, and decreases from 1 to 0 in the same interval. As x increases from ~
to 7r, the gradient of sin x is negative (the curve slopes downwards to the right), and
decreases from 0 to 1, corresponding to the fact that cos x is negative, and decreases from
o to 1 in the same interval. You should now compare the gradient of the sine curve and
the values of cos x from 7r to 27r. We conclude from this that the derivative of sin x is
probably cos x. This is certainly not a mathematical proof.
y
cos x,'"
/
I
I
2T X
Fig. 1718
Likewise, consider the graph of cos x from x
corresponding to the value of sin x when x
O. As x increases from 0 to
i, the gradient of
cos x is negative, and decreases from 0 to 1, in comparison with sin x, which is positive
. and increases from 0 to 1 in the same interval. As x increases from
cos x is negative, but increases from 1 to 0, in contrast with sin x, which is positive, but
decreases from 1 to 0 in the same interval. It seems feasible to conclude that the derivative
of cos x is probably given by sin x,
Consider the unit circle, fig, 1719,
Starting from the point A, mark off
arcs AP and A Q of length measure x
and x + h respectively. Hence the
length measure of arc PQ is h,
By definition,
A
sin x
MP
sin (x + h) = NQ
Thus sin (x + h)  sinx = RQ
sin (x + h)  sinx
RQ
and
RQ PQ
PQ'h
cos LPQR, ~Q
Fig, 1719
As h + 0, the point Q approaches P, the measure of the angle PQR approaches the
measure of angle POM, i.e. x, and the length measure of the chord PQ approaches h, the
length measure of the arc PQ, In fact, both 0, but in such a way that
PQ + 1.
h
, sin
 sin x
Thus I1m ':. = cos X
j'(x), wherej(x) = sin x
110
l1x
(sin
xl =
cosx
i.
of x and you are recommended to consider the situation with P in other quadrants,
making use of the symmetry properties of the sine function.
Consider again the unit circle (fig. 1719).
OM
By definition
cos x
cos (x + h) = ON
NM = RP
cos (x + h)  cos x = ON  OM
Thus
cos (x + h)  cos x
RP
and so
h
RP PQ
'Il
sin LPQR. PhQ
As before, when h Thus
/~
0, PhQ 
cos (x
1.
h)  cos x
sin x
f'(x)
i.e.
sin x wheref(x)
= cos x.
We can use the derivative of sin x and the chain rule to deduce the derivative of cos x.
Let
y = cos x
sin
(i  x)
sin u where u
dy _ dy du
dx  du .
cos u. (1)
cos
(i  x)
sin x
Note: x represents a real number or an angle of x radians but not an angle of xO.
d (.
0)
dx sm x
d fc. 'il'"X )
dx ,sm 180
'il'"
'il'"X.
h'
'il'"
 180 cos x
= tan x
sin x
cos x
where u
sin x and v
cos x.
du
dv
vlTucr
x
x (quotient rule)
Ix
+ sin2 x
cos 2 x
x
=
sec2 x.
J
Let y
ax
dy du
du dx
= cos
= a
b
dy
dx
cos (ax + b)
cos u where u
u. a
cos (ax
sin u. a
=  a sin (ax +
b)
Ix
sin (ax
b) = a cos (ax
d
dx cos (ax
b)
a sin (ax
d
dx tan (ax
b)
a sec 2 (ax
EXAMPLE 10
Differentiate: (i) sin 3x
(i) Let
(ii) Let
y = sin 3x
dy
dy du
dx = du . dx
y
cos2 x
dy = dy . du
dx
du dx
(iii) Let
ax
dy du
du dx
y = sin (X2)
dy
dy du
du . dx
dx
(ii) cos2 X
sin u where u
cos u . 3 = 3 cos 3x
u 2 where u
3x.
cos x.
sin u where u
X2
b)
b)
b)
b)
'
EXAMPLE 11
+ 3 sin x).
y = X2 sin x
= uv where u
X2 and v = sin x.
dy
du
dv
dx = v. dx + u. dx (product rule)
sin x . 2x + X2 cos X
= 2x sin x + X2 cos X
(ii) Let
sin x tan x
= uv where u
sin x and v = tan x.
dy
du
dv
dx = v. dx + u. dx (product rule)
= sin x (1 + sec2 x)
(iii)
= 2 cos x + 3 sin x.
= (2 cos x + 3 sin x) . 1 +
(2
3x) cos x
+ (3 
x(  2 sin x
2x) sin x
+ 3 cos x)
EXERCISES 17(f)
1. From the derivative of sin x and cos x deduce the derivatives of:
(a) cot x
(b) sec x
(c) cosec x
3. 3 sin x
6. sin x + ~ cos x
9. sin 2x  cos 2x
i)
12. 2x tan x
14. X2 cos' x
15.
4. cos 2x
7. tan 2x
10. x sin x
. 1
1
13. sm 2x + 2cOS x
16.
sin x
17. x 3 sin 2x
sin x
18. sin (X3)
~)
22. X2
f)
26. cos2 2x
27. sin2 3x
28. cos3 x
31. 3x
32. 2 cos2 x
33.
36. x cos 2x
37. sin x (1
39 . ..Jsin 2x
x sm x
19. cos 3 x
sin x
+ tan 2x
+ 2 cos x
. 1x
34. 3 sm
2
 sin
3
4 cos 2x
+ cos x)
~x
x
3
= !axf(t) dt
defines a function.
((t)
Fig .. 1720
e.g.
F(x) J:3t dt
2
In either case
~~ =
= [
x.
This property has lead to a traditional and widely used notation for an antiderivative. It
is readily observed that in each of the above cases the form of the integral value is x 3 + c
where c = 1 and a 3 respectively, i.e. it can be regarded as specifying an antiderivative of
the integrand.
The integral is said to be 'indefinite' in that the upper terminal is not a pr~scribed
number but a variable.
In this case it has become customary to abbreviate the notation by omitting the
terminals, and writing the result in the form
f3X2dX = x 3
i
!
This symbolism which depends directly upon the link between antidifferentiation and
integration afforded by the Fundamental Theorem is frequently divorced from the latter
and used purely in the context of antidifferention.
Thus
just as
!
!
Examples showing the use of the 'indefinite integral' notation for antiderivatives are
+ c for n * n + 1
JXndX = ~
f cos x dx = sin x
+c
   
= cos x,
Since !
+ b)
sin (ax
= sin x +
then fcos x dx
c.
a cos (ax
+ b) + c etc.
sin (ax
The following table gives a summary of the derivatives and primitives of the
trigonometric functions.
f(x)
f'(x)
sin x
cos x
sin (ax
b)
a cos (ax
cos x + c
1
cos (ax + b)
a
sin x + c
b)
sin x
cos x
cos (ax
Jf(x)dx
b)
a sin (ax
1 sin (ax
a
b)
sec 2 x
a sec 2 (ax + b)

tan x
tan (ax + b)
sec 2 x
b)
tan x + c
EXAMPLE 12
f
f
(..)f .
f
(i)
(sin x
+ sin 3x)dx =
(U)
(cos 2x
III
1 dx
sm 2"x
(iv)
cos x
2 cos x)dx
= 
(2 sin x
2 cos 2"x
1
3 cos x) dx
~ sin 2x
+
2 sin
x + c.
 } cos 3x
+ c.
c.
= 
2 cos x
6 sin x
c.
EXAMPLE 13
7r12
Evaluate (i)
J
7r/3
cosxdx
(ii)
(cos 2x
3 sinx)dx
1.
sin 2xdx
(iii)
7r
(7r/3
(iv)
,_
~,
0)
7r/6
7r12
~3
cos x dx
[J
sin x
7r12
~3
7r
SIn  
7r
SIn 
f.
7r/4
sec2 x dx
f
1T
(ii)
sin 2x dx =
f: sec x
14
(iii)
(iv)
dx
1T/3
[1
2 sin 2x
+2
r tan
=1
 0
+ 3 cos X
1T/6
1T/3
1T/6
= (
424
1r)
3 cos 6
3  3J3
2
f:!2cos (2X
(v)
= 2 SIn
 21.sm
( 2
1r)
=+=1
11
EXAMPLE 14
Calculate the area bounded by the curve y
1r
1r
X
3" and x = 2'
Area
f.1T12
1T/3
sin x dx
1T/2
cos
1T/3
(cos~)  ( cos~)
=0+
11"
11"
3 2:
Fig, 1721
EXERCISES 17(g)
Write down the primitive (indefinite integral) of (1. to 18.):
1. sin 2x
4. sin x
7. cos 3x
2. cos
cos x
2x
3. sec2 x
(x + r)
S. 2 sin x  3 cos x
6. sin
8. 2 sin 2x
9. 3 cos
3"x
11"
. 1
1
10. sm 4x + cos 4x
II
13. cos
(2X  I)
1
"
 1sm
2x
16. cos x
(2X +~)
12. sin
14. sec 2 3x
15.
17. X2 + sin 2x
18. Xl/2 
sin 2x
cos x
21 cos x
19.
.f
21.
7rsin x dx
71'
22.
71'/3
+ cos x)dx
24.
71'/2
25.
f
f
J
J
(cos x
sin 2x)dx
26.
71'/6
(2 sin x
71'/3 (
3 cos 3x 
7r12
31.
71'12
_:sin xdx
71'/4
(sin 2x
7r
28. fo (sin
+ sin 2x)dx
71'/4
29.
cos x dx
cos 2x)dx
71'/8
71'/4
27.
sec2 x dx
71'12
cos 2xdx
23. fo7r(Sin x
71'/3
20.
1)
2 sin 2x dx
30.
4 cos 2x) dx
32.
fJi
f
~x + cos ~X)dX
sin x  cos
X)dX
71'13
(3 sin 2x
cos (x +
~)dx
71'/4
a and x = b is defined as
~ a f.bf(X) dx
+ 3 sin x between x =
2~
2~"
and x
34. Find, by integration, the area bounded by the curve y =. cos x and the Xaxis between
x =
and x =
2"
= tan x between x =
the Xaxis. What is the volume of the solid of revolution. Use the fact that
tan 2 x = sec 2 x  1.
37. Sketch the graph of f(x)
=1
cos x, 0
.
(7r12
x ~ ~. Evaluate 0 f(x)dx and indicate
.../1  cos2 x, 0
~ x ~ 2~ and evaluate
37r/2
71'
f(x)dx.
39. Evaluate
511"/3(1
11"/3
41. Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the curve y
,""cos x between
and x
i.
43. Calculate the measure of area bounded by the given curves, the Xaxis and the given
ordinates:
(a) y
1 + cos x; x = 0, x = 1r
o,x
(b) y = 1 +~ sin 2x; x
2
1
1
1r
1r
1rX
b
(c) y = 2: + 2: cos x; x = 4:' x = 4:
(d) y = a sin 7J;x = O,x = 2:
1r)
= 2
cos 2x
fbf(x)dx
.,0
i, f].
cos () for
Approximate integration.
EXAMPLE 15
Evaluate
1l"/2
sin x dx:
(a)
(b)
11"/2
sin x dx
[J
cos x
11"/2
x
sin x
Fig. 1722
i units
Error is 1
0948
0948
(c) Taking a
Jo'l2 sin x dx
b  a
~(a) + 4f(a
+ f( b)]
; b)
~
(sin 0 + 4 sin !! + sin !!) =
12
4'
2
1002
(i,
1 )
and (7r
EXERCISES 17(h)
1
1. Given that
0
/.
+ X2 dx ==
(ii)
107f~sin x dx
Find the exact answer to (i) and hence find the percentage error involved by using
Simpson's rule.
3. Calculate the value of 2
1
7r 7r 37r
7r, and use Simpson's rule with
+ cosx for x = 0, 4' 2'
.
/.7f 2
f unctIOn
. va Iues to estImate
these f lve
o
dx
+ cos x
4. Use Simpson's rule with three function values to estimate the value of:
57r/6
(i)
7f/3
sin2 xdx
(ii)
7f/6
17f/3
cos 2 x dx
S. Use Simpson's rule with three function values to estimate the volume of the solid
generated when the region bounded by the curve y = ~sin x between x
0, x = 7r,
and the Xaxis is rotated about the Xaxis. Find the exact volume by integration and
hence calculate the percentage error involved in using Simpson's approximation.
6. Complete the table, of values for f(x) = x sin x.
x
f(x)
7r
2
J.'lrx sin x dx
{'lr/4
7. Evaluate J 0
sec2 x dx by
10 J 1 + cos
'lr
2X
dx.
Find the approximate iength using Simpson's rule with three function values.
CHAPTER 18
Exponential
and
Logarithmic
Functions
This chapter may be studied in conjunction with Chapter 13.
hO
lOX + h
h)  I(x)
h

lOx
hm ::,
hO
= lim 10x(10h 
1)
hO
10h  1
= 10x hO
1I m  
10 h 
f(x)
= 10"
hash  0
10h  1
h
25893
2'4404
2'3293
2'3159
2'3052
23029
h
0,1
0'05
0,01
0,005
0,001
00001
10h  1
h
20567
21750
22763
22894
22999
23023
Fig. 181
As h 
10 h
is seen to approach a
I(x)
I' (x)
Illustration
"2 x
3x
lOx
06931 x 2x
10986 x 3x
23026 x lOX
Fig. 182
Fig. 183
Fig. 184
y
f(x) =
Fig. 182
In general, !(a X )
Fig. 183
10x
Fig. 184
Obviously, the most convenient function to work with would be the one for which the
multiplier, k, has the value 1. From the preceding table of derivatives, and with reference
to fig. 182 and fig. 183, we see that the base a will have a value between 2 and 3, but we
need not know this information in order to find it.
We shall denote this particular base bye, so that
18.2 Evaluation of e
Put
lOb, so that eX
10 bx ,
(1)
d
d
(ex) = _(lObx)
and so
(2)
dx
dx
y = 10 bx = lOu, where u
dy
dy du
dx = du . dx
Let
Hence
bx.
2'3026 x lOu. b
= 23026b X 10 bx
(lObx)
eX = 2'3026be x
so
Hence
1
2'3026
04343
(using a calculator)
= 10'4343 = 2 7183
ex
g(x)
/ Y
"
)(
"
"" /
"
),<
/'
/
/
/
/
/
Fig. 185
Display
2 llnxl
06931472
10 1/nxl
2'3025851
Let
kx
dy = dy du = eU k
ke kx
dx
duo dx
.
is then a function whose derivative is proportional to the
k = 2 , dx
.!f (e 2x ) = 2e 2x
Put
k =  3 , dx
.!f (e 3x )
k =
3e3x
!L(e 1l2X)
2' dx
+c
Le.
Put
~e2x15 + c
k=
+c
EXAMPLE 1
Differentiate (a) ex2 (b) e sin x
(a) Let
= ex2 = e where u =
U
dy _ dy du
dx  du' dx
= eU .2x
x2
= 2x e
X2
(b) Let
(chain rule)
(a) Let
(a) (2X2
e sinx
: . du
e where u
U
+ I )e 3x
(b) eX cos x
y = (2X2 + l)e 3x
= uv where u = 2X2 + I and v =
e 3x
dy
du
dv
dx = v. dx + u. dx (product rule)
(chain rule)
e cos x
cos x e sin x
EXAMPLE 2
Differentiate
y
dy
dx
sin x
(b) Let
= ex cos x
= uv where u = eX and v = cos x
dy
du
dv
dx = v' dx + u' dx
EXAMPLE 3
Evaluate
re
lx
(a)
(b)
1'5
[!e J:
lx
dx
=
1 4
e
2
~(5460
2680
1
eo
2
 1) since
[+J
(ex  eX)dx =
ex
ex
{)5
eO
15
0'5
= 24496
The values of ex and e X e.g. e4, e l ' 5 , e I ' 5 etc can be found with the aid of a calculator.
Some calculators have an ex key; if not, use 27183 as its approximation and proceed as
follows using the yx key.
Operation sequence
e
e
l '5 :
207183
2
e I ' 5 : 2
eO
e{)'5 :
7183
[2]
[2]
or4~
4
1
4'48173
50
D 7183 0 1 =:J 5
D
5
7183 ~ D 5 Ed
207183 ~
20
Display
545996
EJ
5E2J
or
0223128
.0
or[}]
164873
0
0'606529
EXAMPLE 4
For the function f(t) = 2te0' 5t , find the value of t for which f(t) has a maximum, and
hence calculate this maximum value. Sketch the graph of f(t)
te0' 5t + 2e0' 5t
= (2
t) e0' 5t = 0
e0' 5t =1= 0 for any t
2  t = 0, when t
2
f' (t)
and
(product rule)
2
(2, '47)
Fig. 186
The curve in fig. 186 crosses the Iaxis where 2IeO5t = 0 and since eO 5t > 0 for all I, it
The curve slopes upwards to the right for all I < 2, sincef'(t) > 0 for these values of I.
The curve slopes downwards to the right for all I > 2, since f' (t) < 0 for these values
of I; however, it does not cross the Iaxis again. The Iaxis is an asymptote.
EXAMPLE 5
Calculate:
(i) the area bounded by the curve y = e'5x, the coordinate axes and the line x
_ (ii) the volume obtained by rotating this area about the Xaxis.
(i) Area
Jo e'5Xdx
2
= 2
= [~el.'xJ:
2
= 3(e3  eO)
:::::: 1272
x
Fig. 187
y
7f" J02y2dX
(ii) Volume
7f"
where y
e'5x
7f"
6
= (e
3
eO)
7f"
:::::: (4034  1)
3
= 4214
Fig. 188
EXERCISES 18(a)
1. Write down the derivative of:
(a) e4x
(d) e 4x  e 3x
2ex
(g) 3ex
(c) 4e 3x  e2x
(b) 2ex12
(e) 2e 3x + e X
+ 'ie2x
(h) 4e 2x
(i) e 2x (e x  ex)
2. Differentiate:
(b)(2x + l)e x
(e) e xx 3
(c) (X2 + X
(f) sin xe x
(g) e 2xcos':!
(i) x 3  xe 2x
(j) eXcos 4x
(k) x 2
(I)
(a) x 3e 3x
(d) xe2x
x 3e x
(cos x
+ l)e 2x
+ sin x)e x
3. Differentiate:
(a) e2x + 3
(d) 2e 3x 
(b)
(e)
ex2  2x
e3x  1 + e4x + 2
(c) 3ex3
(f) e sin 2x
.(i) 3e 2x2
(g) ex..JX
(h) e COSX
(j) xe~
(k) 3e 2x 
(I)
e sin x
+ cos x
4. If y
(i) dy
dx
d 2y
dy
 2  10 + 16y
=0
d 2x
dt 2
= 0
dx
5. If x
(l
dx
dx
10dt
+ 25x
> 0
(ii) dy
dx
>0
O.
xoo
(a) f'(x)
(iii) f'(x)
< 0
12. The concentration of a certain drug in the blood at time I hours after taking the dose
is x units, where x = 03 le I lt . Determine the maximum concentration and the time at
which it is reached.
The drug kills germs only if its concentration exceeds 006 units. Find, from the
graph, the length of time during which the drug is able to kill germs.
13. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = e 2x at the point where x = 1. Find
also the coordinates of the points where this tangent intersects (i) the Xaxis (ii) the
Yaxis.
14. Find the value of I for which e t
15. Write down the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve y = 2
point where x = O.
16. Sketch the graph of J(t) = 2
+ 3e t '
+ e
at the
I ~ O.
(a) Show that J' (t) > 0 for all values of I in the domain.
(b) Find t_oo
limJ( I).
(c) State the range of the function.
17. J(x) is defined by the ruleJ(x) = e Xcos x in the domain 0
7r.
(347r) = O.
:1
Fig. 189
e3x
(f) e2x  e X
(g) .!.(eO'5X
(d) 5e 2'5x
e{)'5x)
20. Find:
(a)
f exdx
(d)
f (e t 
l)dl
il
(b)
(e)
f (e 2u + u 2)du
(f)
(b)
fo2e 2xdx
(c)
II
e l12x dx
(c)
3x
e dx
1,
le l'5t dl
fO'5
(e)
0'5
e2t dl
e l12x dx
(g)
10'
(e 2x
e2X)
1'5
dx
(i)
(eO
05
e3)dO
0) fI\e x  expdx
e2x + e2x , the Xaxis and the lines
23. (a) Calculate the area bounded by the curve y = ex, the coordinate axes and the line
x = 2.
(b) Write down the equation of the tangent to y = ex at the point where x = 2.
(c) Calculate the area bounded by y = ex, the coordinate axes and the tangent at
x = 2.
(d) Calculate the area bounded by y = eX, the Yaxis and the liney = e2.
24. Calculate the area bounded by the curves y = eX, y = e Xand the ordinate x = 2.
25. Calculate the area bounded by the curve y
x = 1.
=E;;
x
=E;;
=E;;
eX + e Xbetween x
1 and x
= 1 is
30. Using Simpson's rule with three function values, find approximately the value of
fllx2exdx
31. Plot the graph of y = xeO' 4x for integral values of x from 1 to 5 and evaluate, using
Simpson's rule with five function values,
5
fl xe o'4xdx
32. Use Simpson's rule with three function values to evaluate
ire"" dO
f."'xexdx
34. Write down the derivative of (x  1)& and use your result to evaluate f_:xexdx
35. (a) Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y = eX, the coordinate axes
and the line x = a, a > O.
(b) Find the limit of this area as a  00.
(c) Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the region in (a) about the
Xaxis and find the limit of this volume as a  00.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
We have already seen that!(x) ex and g(x) = loge x define an inverse pair of functions
(See fig 185). One of the characteristic features of a pair of inverse functions is that the
graph of one of the functions is the reflection of the graph of the other in the line y = x
i.e. the rule for one function is obtained by writing x in place of y in the rule for the other
(their domains and ranges interchange). This leads to an important property relating their
gradients at any point.
If, in the chain rule,
dy _ dy du
dx  du . dx
we write x in place of y,
then
d(x)
dx
dx du
du'dx
du
dx
dx du
du' dx
dx
l/
du
i.e.
Hence
since !(X)
Let
i.e.,
l/dx
dy
y == loge
x = eY
(1)
Hence
i.e.
i.e.
dy
dx
l/ dx
dy
=1
x
d
1
(/ogex) = , x > O.
x
dx
J~dX =
loge x
+c
_1_ xn  1 + c
n + 1
'
1. We have now filled in the exceptional case.
XndX
except when n
f(x)
f(x) =
log~x
Fig. 1810
Graph of f(x) = logeX', x > O.
The slope of the curve is
I
'
steadily with a very steep slope for x small but this slope decreases as x increases. When x
is large, the slope approaches zero. The function is thus oneone and so has an inverse.
The curve crosses the Xaxis at x = 1 (since loge 1 = 0) at an angle of 45 0
For all
x > l,f(x) > 0
e.g. loge 2 =
IOge~
i.e. by the measure of the area bounded by the graph of the rectangular hyperbola
f(l) =
~,
(I
> 0), the (axis and the ordinates ( = x and ( = 1. (fig. 1811)
RM
RM
f(t)
f(t) =
"
Fig. 1811
2 e3
Fig. 1812
.r.X~dt
 loge 1
= loge x
.r.
1
el
,dt = 1, t > O.
The number e is such that the area bounded by the graph off(t) =
loge (ax)
= loge a + loge
dy = 0
dx
> 0 _ _ _ _ _ __
+1
X
1
X
or, let
loge u where u
dy
1
dx = u a
a
Y
ax
ax
=1
> O.
Fig. 1813
Note" that the derivatives of loge X and loge ax are both l/x. What does this tell us about
their graphs?
The graph of loge ax is loge a units above or below the graph of loge X depending on
whether a > 1 or 0 < a < 1. They are 'parallel' curves in the sense that they are a
common distance apart and their gradients are equal at each corresponding point.
EXAMPLE 6
Differentiate with respect to x:
(a) X2 loge 2x
(a) Let
y = X2 loge 2x
dy
du
dv
dx = v. dx + u. dx (product rule)
1
= 2xloge2x + X2.,X
>0
x
= x(210g e 2x + 1)
(b) Let
x loge x
uv where u = sin x and v = loge x
du
dv
v . dx + u. dx (product rule)
y = sin
=
dy
dx
cos x loge x
+ sinx x
i
I
b) _ _ _ _ _ _ __
y = loge (ax + b)
loge u where u = ax
dy
dy du
.
dx = du . dx (cham rule)
Let
a
u
a
ax
Hence
ax  b
dx
loge (ax
a
b)
+ c.
EXAMPLE 7
y
=
dy _
dx 
(X3
u'1 3x
3x
u1 (2x
+ 2)
2x + 2
+
(iii) Let y
2x
X2
+ 2x + 1
loge (sin x)
= loge u where u = sin x
dy du
dy
dx = du . dx
= . cos x
u
cosx
sin x
= cot
You will notice that the derivative of these three logarithmic functions is a quotient in
each case in which the numerator is the derivative of the denominator i.e.
d
f'(x)
dx[logef(x)] = f(x)
I
<
f j(~i dx = logef(x) + c
or
+c
EXAMPLE 8
Find the indefinite integral of:
( 0)
I
2
2x  3
2x
(i)
II
X2
Jj(~)
3 dx
( 000) 4x
(00)
+4
X2 :
4 dx
2 /(x)
1
= 210ge (x 2
(iii)
f_4X__6dX
3x
4)
X2
X2 
2f2X  3 dx
X2  3x
X2 
II :x
2J~(~; dx where/(x)
(iv)
eX
(IV) 1 + eX
dx where f(x) = 2x  3
loge (2x  3)
(ii)
6
3x
X2 
III
I~(~; d; where/(x)
eX
= loge (1
ex)
3x
eX
EXAMPLE 9
dy
I f dx =
x1 and
y
h I .
2' express y III terms of x.
w en x
dy _!
dx  x
y =
I~dX
= loge
When x
x + c
= 2' y = 0 and so
o=
=
2+
loge 2
loge
c = loge 2
y = loge x
loge 2x
loge 2
il
EXA"MPLE 10
The gradient of a curve at any point on it is X 24: 1 and the curve passes through the point
(0, 0)_ Find the equation of the curve_
f'(x)
f(x) = 2 JX2 2: 1dx
210g e (x 2 + 1) + c
o = 210g e 1 + c and so c
f(x)
210g e (x 2 + 1)
Since f(O) = 0,
EXAMPLE 11
(. )J
J x + 1dx,
Evaluate
, I
(I)
(iii)
(iv)
dx= 3
Jlx+l
(i)
2X
3X
 1 2 dx
X
J:
1)
3 [loge 3  loge 2]
310ge 15
12165
[lOge (x 2
loge 10  loge 4
loge 25
(ii)
o 2
JIx+l
dx
= 3 [lOge (x
X _
2)J 4
x'
X2
=[2
J4
loge x
loge 4)  (2  loge 2)
6  loge 2
53069
= (8
=
~
=
(iv)
7r12
cos
+'
dx
sm x
10ge(2
sin x)
= loge 3  loge 2
=
~
2x  1 d
loge 15
04055
7r12
2 x,
3X 2 7r12
4X2 
"
cos _x dx
sm x
EXAMPLE 12
Find
(a) the area bounded by the curve y = loge x, the Xaxis and the ordinate x == 2,
(b) the volume of the solid of revolution formed by rotating the area bounded by
the curve y = loge x, the coordinate axes and the line y = loge 2.
y = loge
I
I
Fig. 1814
x = eY
Area ABED =
loge 2
eY dy
[eYJ :oge 2
=
eloge 2 
=
=
2  1
eO
2 x 06931
1 = 03862 units 2
r10~2
Volume
=
7r
7r
x 2 dy where x
loge 2
e2ydy since X2
eY
(eY )2
= e2y
~(4  1)
37r
. 3
umts
EXAMPLE 13
Differentiate x loge x and hence find the primitive function of loge x and so evaluate
f1210geXdX
'\
y = xlog e x
= uv where u
Let
=x
and v
loge x
d
1
d (xloge x ) = 1. loge X + x.  (product rule)
x
x
= loge x + 1
loge x
IIOg,XdX
flOg,XdX
dx(xlog e x)  1
= !<xlog, x)dx  II dx
= xlogex  x
+ c
= [ xlog, X
J:
 X
(2 loge 2  2)  (loge 1  1)
= 2log e 2 ~
EXAMPLE 14
Find the volume generated by rotating the area beneath the curve y
1
JX
between x =
'Tr
[lOg, xJ :
y 2 dx where y
= JX
'Tr(loge 9  loge 4)
'Trlog e 225
2548 (using a calculator).
x
Fig. 1815
EXERCISES 18(b)
1
1. Differentiate:
(i) loge 2x
(ii) 2log e X
2. State .the largest possible domain of each of the following functions and find their
derivatives:
(i) f(x) = loge (3x + 2)
(iii) f(x) = loge (X2  4x + 4)
3. Differentiate:
(i) x In x
I
(iv) (x 2 + 1) In 2x
(vii) cosx In 2x
x
(x) .' loge x
(ii) x 3 In x
(v)
(2x  5) In x
(viii) eX In x
(xi)
loge x
x
(iii) (x + 2) In (x
(vi) tan x In x
(ix) e 2x In 2x
00) loge x
(XII
eX
2)
4. Differentiate:
(a) loge (x2  2x)
(d) loge (X3)
(g) loge (x 2 
(j)
1)
sin (loge x)
(e) loge (x
x +
33)
(k) e10geX
(0) loge
vX
8. Find all values of x between 0 and 27r for which loge (sin x) is defined and state the
maximum value of loge (sin x).
9. Using the same axes sketch the graphs of y = loge x andy
their gradients are equal for all values of x.
Write down the equation of the tangent to the curve y
(1
~l
= loge 2,x)
(f)
(e)
13. If ddY
x
(c)
2
2x +
(d)
sin x
 cos x
( ) C?S x
(h)
x+
= x1 and y = 0 when x
g smx
eX
2, express y in terms of x.
14. The gradient of a curve at any point on it is 2x ~ 1 and the curve passes through the
point (1, loge 3). Find the equation of the curve.
15. Find the rule which defines f(x) given that f' (x)
and f(O)
16. Evaluate:
(a)
J,
1
(3 2
ldx
(b) )0 x + 3 dx
x
(c)
J
0
25
dx
+ 2x
(5 2x
(e) )
X2 _ 1 dx
(4
(d)
)2 2t _ 3 dt
J.
+ 3 dx
(b)
3
13
1dx
(d)
fU
17. Evaluate:
(a)
(c)
(e)
4X2 ;:
7r/6
(g)Jr
7r12
sin x
X2 :
~2)dX
(f)f(x+x l )dx
f (x  ;,)2 dx
~os x x dx
dx
(h)
 cos
2x
(h)
18. Sketch the graph of f(x) = 2x ~ 1 and find the area enclosed by the curve, the Xaxis
= 1 and x = 3.
ordinates x
2 and x = 4.
0, x
2.
its asymptotes. Find also the area enclosed by the curve, the Xaxis and the lines
x = 1 and x = 2.
22. Show that
1.
3
0 X2
2x
+ 9 dx = loge 2.
23. Write down the derivative of loge (cos x) and hence find the primitive function of
tan x. Use this result to find the area enclosed by the curve y = tan x, the Xaxis and
24.
the lines x
0 and x =
7r
3'
lex
+ exdx
1.
26. Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the region enclosed by the curve
y2 =
~,
27. Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating the area beneath the curve
y = ==1== between x = 6 and x = 11 about the Xaxis.
28. Given a > 1, sketch the curve y = loge x, 1 ~ x ~ a and find the area enclosed by the
curve and the lines y = 0, x = a.
The region enclosed by the curve and the lines x = 0, y = logea and y = 0 is
rotated about the Yaxis to form a solid of revolution. Find its volume.
29. Sketch the curve y
;2'
curve is rotated about the Yaxis to form a solid of revolution. Find its volume.
30. Sketch the curve y = === from x
+x
0 to x
2
=== and the Xaxis between x
8 and
x = 10 is rotated about the Xaxis. Find the volume of the solid so formed.
3 and
5 is rotated about the Xaxis. Find the volume of the solid so formed.
3X
logex using
.., I
~C logexdx using
(a) Simpson's rule with five function values (b) the Trapezoidal rule using two strips.
CHAPTER 19
Applications of
Calculus to the
Physical World
'*
f{x) = 2X2
f{l)
+ 2h (h
+ 4h + 2h2
'* 0)
1.
This concept of the derivative is a very important one in the study of the differential
calculus. It was developed in the seventeenth century by Leibniz and Newton.
There are many practical situations in which the change in a physical quantity depends
on time. If a vessel is being filled with water, the volume V of water in the vessel is a
function of time.
c::: is the rate at which the volume changes. It mayor may not be a constant tate.
The population P of a town may increase or decrease with time and c::: is the rate of
change of population.
If a spherical balloon is being inflated, then
volume with respect to time. Its radius is also increasing and c:;; is the rate of change of the
radius.
4
V = 7('r 3
3
dV
dr
~~ measures
47('r 2
Boyle's Law states: 'The pressure, P, of a given mass of gas varies inversely as the
volume, V' i.e. the pressure P is a function of V where
P
dP
dV
= kV1
V2
EXAMPLE 1
A cubical block of ice has an edge of 10 cm. It melts so that its volume decreases at a
constant rate of 25 cm 3 per hour and the block remains cubical. Find:
(a) the volume V at any time t
(b) the time required to completely melt the ice.
(a) Since the volume decreases at a constant rate of 25 cm 3 per hour,
dV
dt
V
(b) When V
= 1000 and so c =
= 1000  25t
0 = 1000  25t
0, V
:. V
When t
=
0,
25
= 
f25dt
25t + c
1000
t
40
1000
The volume at any time t is given by
V = 1000  25t, 0 ~ t ~ 40.
1000  25t
Fig. 191
40
EXERCISES 19(a)
1. A cubical block of ice has an edge of 10 cm. It melts so that its volume decreases at a
constant rate and the block remains cubical. If its edge measures 5 cm after 70 minutes,
find (a) the rate at which the volume decreases (b) the volume at any time t.
2. A trench is being dug by a team of labourers who remove V cubic metres of soil in
t minutes, where
t2
V = lOt  20
(a) State the domain of the function, Le. the values of t during which soil is being
removed.
(b) At what rate is the soil being removed at the end of 40 minutes?
(c) Are the labourers working at a constant rate?
(d) What is their initial rate of work i.e. when t = O?
(e) At what time are they removing soil at the rate of 5 m3 per minute?
3. A water tank is being emptied and the quantity of water, Q litres, remaining in the tank
at any time, t minutes, after it starts to empty is given by:
TO Celsius
0
100
10
15
20
25
30
85
74
64
56
48
44
Plot the graph showing the relation between temperature and time and from it estimate
the rate at which the temperature is falling
(a) after 15 minutes
(b) when the temperature is 80 C.
5. A machine manufactures items at a variable rate given by:
~9
2t
+ 1, t ~ 0
o
o
2
10
16
. 25
36
100
16
32
64
1024
100
1030 (approx.)
In 1968, the Club of Rome was formed by an international group of concerned people.
Their study on the 'predicament of mankind', as they called it, was published in 1972
under the title of The Limits to Growth. This book is all about exponential growth and
decline in the world systemgrowth of factors like population and pollution, and decline
of factors like natural resources and quantity of food per head of population.
The general principle behind their reasoning can be appreciated if we imagine the
vertical axis in fig. 192 to represent population or pollution, and the horizontal axis to
represent time.
An increase of 1 unit in x, from x
1 to x = 2, causes only a small absolute increase in
y, from 2 to 4. This is like world population growth in past centuries. However, an
increase in one unit of 'time', from x = 10 to x = 11, causes y to increase by more than
1000. This illustrates the catastrophic growth that can occur when we have a growing
variable that is large enough to be on the steeply rising part of the curve. Exponential
decline is equally dramatic and this accounts for the current concern about the use of non
renewable resources.
y
y = 2x
,,
I
48
40
I
I
32
I
I
I
24
I
I
I
16
Fig. 192
.I
I
I
There are many examples of exponential growth and decay in the physical world, e.g.,
population growth, growth of bacteria, the increase in girth of a tree, the decrease in the
pressure of the atmosphere at higher altitudes, the cooling rate of substances, the decrease
in the intensity of light passing through water or glass, the dying away of vibrations,
radioactive decay.
In each case, they follow the exponential law:
y = Aekx
dy
dx
then
k Aekx
ky
dy  k
dx  Y
This states that the rate of change of one quantity, y, with respect to another quantity, x,
is proportional to y.
The rate of growth of bacteria in a culture is proportional to the number of bacteria
present at any instant. That is,
dN
kN
dt
The rate of decay of a radioactive element is proportional to the mass of that element
present at any time. That is,
d::
The rate of cooling of a body is proportional to the difference between the temperature
of the body and that of the surrounding medium (Newton's Law of Cooling). That is,
d{) = k{)
dt
where () is the temperature difference at any instant.
The rate of decrease of the pressure of the atmosphere with respect to height above sea
level is proportional to the pressure at that height. That is,
dP
kP
dh
Light passing through a transparent medium loses its intensity as it penetrates to greater
depths. The rate of loss of intensity with respect to the depth is proportional to its
intensity at that depth. That is,
dI = kI
dx
In each of these cases, we have a differential equation of the form
dy  k
dy  Y
It is important to appreciate the role played by the constants A and k in the equation
y = Aekx
Whenx = 0, y
Aeo = A.
= ky, k
0.
Ify = Aekx
EXAMPLE 2
The annual growth rate of the population of two towns P and Q are 10070 and 5070
respectively of their populations at any time. If the initial population of Pis 20,000 and of
Q is 10,000, find their populations 3 years later.
Let N denote the population at any time t (years).
P:
dN
dt
:. N
Q:
O'IN
AeOo 1t
Since
N = 20000 when t
then
A
20000
:. N = 20oo0eOo lt
When t = 3, N = 20000eOo 3
~ 27000
dN
dt
:. N
0,
Since
then
= 0'05N
= AeOo05t
N = 10000 when t = 0,
When t =
A
:. N
3, N
= 10000
=
~
100ooeoo05t
10000eOo 15
11600
To find 20000eOo 3 using a calculator proceed as follows: (Use 2718 in place of e if there is
no key for e).
Operation sequence
20000
718
G03
Display
or 20000
GJ 0 3 0 B
269964
N('OOO)
p
30
20
a
101 N
= 10 000 eOos,
Fig. 193
EXAMPLE 3
t (years)
A vessel containing water is being emptied and the volume V(t) cubic metres remaining in
the vessel after t minutes is given by:
V(t) = Aekt
(a) If V(O) = 100, find the value of A.
(b) If V(5) = 90, find the value of k.
(c) Find V(20).
100.
i/
(c)
: : : 67 (using a calculator).
Operation sequence
100 x 2
718 ~
D4
Display
4EJ
or 100 x
670348
key.
EXAMPLE 4
The pressure of the atmosphere, P cm of mercury, decreases with the height, h km above
sea level, according to the law P = 76eQ2h.
Find the rate at which the pressure falls with respect to height above sea level when
(a) h = 5,
(b) P = 20.
P
dP
dh
76eQ'2h
0'2 x 76eQ'2h
15'2eo'2h
(1)
(2)
0'2P
~~ as a function of h,
~~ as
a function of P.
dP
dh
15'2e 1
5,59
5.
20 in (2), we get
dP
dh
0,2 x 20
4
76
Fig. 194
10 h(km)
Estimate what the air pressure would be on Mount Everest, which is about 9 km high.
EXAMPLE 5
The mass M of a radioactive substance is initially 10 grams and 20 years later its mass is
9.6 grams.
(a) Find the annual decay rate given that the rate of decay of a radioactive substance is
proportional to the mass of that substance present at any time.
(b) In how many years will the mass be halved?
dM
kMand so
dl
M
Aekt
(a) When 1
0, M = 10 and so A
10.
When 1 = 20, M
96 and so
9'6 = 10e20k
096
e20k
 20k = logeO96
= 0,0408
k
0002
M = 10eQ,002t
d::
= _ 0.02eQOO2t
0'002M
5 = 10eQ,002t
05 = eQ'OO2t
. 00021 = logeO'5
= 0'69315
1 = 347
(b) When M
5,
EXERCISES 19(b)
1. If
= 2y and y =
dN
2. If (jj = 05N and N
100 when 1
3. If ~~ = 0'4Q and Q
4 . If dy
dl
5 . If dM
dl
3y and y
0, express Q as a function of I.
50 when 1
20 when 1
O'OIM and M
0, express N as a function of I.
0, express y as a function of I.
10 when 1
0, express M as a function of I.
6. If y = Ae kt and y = 1000 when 1 0 and y = 368 when 1 = 2, find the values of A
and k.
7. If N
Aekt and N = 200 when 1 = 0 and N = 1478 when 1 = 5, find the values of A
and k.
~~
= k V
(b) If one quarter of the vessel is emptied in the first 5 minutes, what fraction remains
after 10 minutes?
/
(c) At what rate is the liquid flowing out
(i) after 10 minutes
(U) when one quarter of the vessel is empty?
15. For a period of its life, the increase in the diameter of a tree follows approximately the
law:
D(t)
Aekt
where D(t) is the diameter of the tree t years after the beginning of this period.
(a) If initially the diameter is 50 cm, find the value of A.
(b) If D I (t)
01 D(t), find the value of k.
(c) After how many years is the diameter 61 cm?
16. The charge, Qunits, on the plate of a condenser t seconds after it starts to discharge is
given by the formula
Q = Ae: kt
=  2000 when Q =
17. The rate of increase in the number N of bacteria in a certain culture is given by
dN
015Nwhere t is time in hours.
dt
(a) If the original number of bacteria is 1000, express N as a function of t.
(b) After how many hours has the original number of bacteria doubled and what is
the rate of increase at this time?
18. Sunlight transmitted into water loses intensity as it penetrates to greater depths
according to the law
I(d) = I(O)e kd
where I(d) is the intensity at depth d metres below the surface. If 1(300) = 03 1(0)
find
(a) the value of k
(b) the depth at which the intensity would be decreased by one half.
19. The rate of increase in the population p(t) of a particular island is given by the
equation !P(t)
=k
~M.
21. Newton's Law of Cooling states that the rate of cooling of a body is proportional to
the excess of its temperature above that of its surroundings i.e.
~;
= kt where TO is
the excess of temperature above its surroundings at any time t. The temperature of a
room is 25 and the outdoor temperature is 5. A thermometer which has been kept in
the room is moved outdoors. In five minutes the thermometer reading is 15. What
would its reading be in another five minutes?
22. The number N of bacteria in a colony grows according to the law:
dN = kN.
dt
If the original number increases from 4000 to 8000 in 4 days, find the number after
another 4 days.
19.3 Kinematics _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
,I
Kinematics deals with the study of the motion of a particle without consideration of the
force or forces causing the motion. Associated with a moving particle there are certain
quantities such as position coordinate, displacement, distance, velocity, speed and
acceleration, all of which depend on time. Our discussion will be restricted to the motion
of a body in a straight line.
'Particle' is the term used to represent a body such that all applied forces acting on the
body may be regarded as acting through a point. This definition of particle means that
quite large bodies e.g. trains can be classified as particles provided the stated condition
applies.
Position coordinate
X'~~+~~~~~X
Velocity
Consider the equation x = f(1) which gives the position coordinate, x, of a particle
moving in a straight line at time t.
X
t + h, fIt + h)
f( t
+ h)
f( t)
t+h
Fig. 195
At time t, the particle is at A and at time (t + h) it is at B (fig. 195). Thus in the small
time interval h, the particle has changed its position by an amount k = f(1 + h)  f(l).
The average velocity in the time interval [t, t + h] =
fs"t+
r f(l + h)  f(l)
'l~h
~~ or x
hh  f(l) (h
*' 0).
Velocity is defined as the rate of change ofposition with respect to time, or as the time
rate of change of position in a given direction.
EXAMPLE 6
Consider the equation x = 5 + 4t  t2, which defines the position x metres from 0, at
time t seconds (t ~ 0), of a particle moving in a straight line.
(a) Find the average velocity in the interval [t, t + h],
(b) Deduce the velocity at time t.
(c) Discuss the sign of the velocity in the time interval [0, 6],
f(t) 5 +
f(t + h) = 5 +
= 5 +
f(t + h)
f(t)
4h
(a)
f(t + h)  f(t)
h
4t  t 2
4(t + h)
(t + h)2
4t + 4h  t2
2ht
2ht
h 2
4  2t
h, h
"*
h2
v(t)
lim Ji'..!{_t_+_h=)_'Ji'..!{~t)
h
4  2t.
hO
(c) When t = 0,
X
8
(2.9)
Vlt)
x = 5 + 4t
c
Fig. 196
t2
10,4)
(6, 7)
Fig. 197
Acceleration
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. Acceleration, like velocity, may
be positive or negative or zero. A positive acceleration indicates that the velocity is
increasing, and a negative acceleration indicates that the velocity is decreasing. A negative
acceleration is frequently called a deceleration or retardation.
If we denote the velocity by v(t), then the average acceleration over the interval
[t, t
+ h]
v(t
+ hh  v(t).
lim v(t
and
.j
+ h)  v(t)
h
hO
..
dv d 2x
..
IS denoted by v' (I), a(l), f"(t), dt' dt 2 or x
In example 6, we saw that the velocity at any time t was given by v(t) = 4  2t.
The velocity is continuously changing. The rate of change of the velocity, namely, the
acceleration, is v' (I) = 2 m/s2; i.e., the velocity is decreasing at a constant rate of 2 mls
every second. The velocity is decreasing continuously and uniformly from 4 mls to 8 mls
in the time interval [0, 6].
EXAMPLE 7
A particle moves in a straight line such that its position x m from a fixed point 0 on the
line at time t s (I ~ 0) is given by x = t 3  12t + 16. Find
(a) its initial position, velocity and acceleration,
(b) the time when its velocity is zero, and its position and acceleration at that time.
(a)
(1)
x= t 3  12t + 16
dx
v  3t 2  12
(2)
dt
dv
(3)
a =  = 6t
dt
When t = 0, x = 16, from (1). Hence, the initial position is 16 m from O.
When t = 0, v = 12, from (2). Hence, th~ initial velocity is 12 m/s.
When t = 0, a = 0, from (3). Hence, the initial acceleration is zero.
(b)
12 =
2) =
t = 2 (t ~ 0)
Hence its velocity is zero after 2 s. The particle changes direction after 2 s.
When t = 2, x = 0, from (1). The particle is at O.
3t 2
3(t  2)(t
You should draw the graphs of equations (1), (2) and (3) for t ~
In the examples considered, we have been given an equation defining the position
coordinate x of a particle at any time t, and have deduced equations for velocity and
acceleration by means of the derivative.
On the other hand, if we are given an equation defining the acceleration at any time, we
can deduce equations for velocity and position by means of the indefinite integral and
additional information.
EXAMPLE 8
A particle starts from rest 5 m from a fixed point 0 and moves in a straight line with an
acceleration a ml S2 where a 3 t  4. Find the velocity and position of the particle at any
time t.
a = 3t  4
J (3t  4)dt
= ~t2
When t
= 0,
= 0 and so c =
 4t
O.
Thus
v = ~t2  4t
and so,
When t
0, x
+c
J(~t2  4t) dt
1
2,t3  2t 2
+d
= 5 and so d = 5.
I.
x = 2,t3  2t 2 + 5
Hence,
Unit
Time
Position
s
cm,m
Velocity
cm/s, m/s
Symbol
t
x (or s)
dx .
v, dt' x
dv d 2x ..
a, f 'dt' dt 2' x
Acceleration
EXAMPLE 9
A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a building 30 m high with an upward
velocity of 25 m/s. Find:
(a) the time taken to reach the highest point,
(b) how long it will take the ball to reach the ground,
(c) the speed with which the ball strikes the ground.
Consider acceleration due to gravity as 10 m/s 2 (approximately).
If we consider the upward direction as positive, then a
10; v = 25 andx = 30 when
t = o. It is convenient to consider the origin of motion at 0, ground level.
a = = 10
(1)
= X =  J10dt
lOt
+c
When t = 0,
x=
25 and so c = 25
x=
x
25  lOt
(2)
(25  10t)dt
25t  5t 2 + d
When t = 0, x = 30 and so d = 30
= 30
+ 25t 
5(2
5(6 + 5t  (2)
(3)
Equations 0), (2) and (3) give the acceleration (constant), velocity and height x above the
ground at any time t ~ O.
(a) At the highest point, x
O.
Hence from (2),
o =.25  lOt
t = 2!
t 2 5t  6
0
(t  6) (t + 1) = 0
t = 6 since ( ~ 0
30
25
Fig. 198
The ball strikes the ground with a speed of 35 m/s. What is the significance of the negative
sign?
EXERCISES 19(c)
1. A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x m from a fixed point 0 on the
line, at any time t s (t ~ 0) is given by x = t 2 5t + 6. Find:
(a) its initial position,
(b) its initial velocity,
(c) when it first passes through 0 and with what velocity,
(d) when it passes through 0 for the second time and with what velocity,
(e) when and where its velocity is zero.
2. The position x m at time t s (t ~ 0) of a particle moving in a straight line is given by
x = t 2 5t + 4.
(a) At what time is its velocity zero?
(b) What is the acceleration at this time?
(c) What is the distance travelled in the first 4 s?
(d) At what time is the velocity 8 m/s?
3. A point moving in a straight line is distant s m from the origin 0 at time (, where
2t 3
15t2 + 36t
(a) Find the velocity and acceleration at any time (.
(b) Find the initial velocity and acceleration.
x = 21 3  9/ 2 + 121 + 6
Find:
(a) when its acceleration is zero and its velocity then,
(b) when its velocity is zero and its acceleration then.
5. Two bodies, starting at the same time, move along a straight path, so that their
displacement s m from a fixed point 0 at any time 1 is given by s
1 + 6 and
s = 12 + 4 respectively. At what times are they (a) together (b) travelling with the
same velocity?
6. A body starts from 0 and moves in a straight line. After time 1 units, its velocity is
12  4/ 3 Find, in terms of I,
(a) the position x,
(b) the acceleration.
7. The velocity v ml s at time 1 s (t
0, is
t ~ O. The particle starts from 0 with a velocity of 24 m/s. After what time is its
velocity zero and what is its position at this time?
14. Two cars, A and B, travel along a straight road and in the same direction. Their dis
tances, x kilometres, from a fixed point 0 at any time, t hours, are given by the rules
A: x = SOt  20t 2
B: x = SOP + 20t
(a) Calculate their speeds at the point O.
(b) After what time are they travelling at the same speed?
(c) If both cars reach a point Q at the same time, calculate the distance from 0 to Q.
(d) A third car, travelling at uniform speed, is 2 km ahead of A and B when they pass
the point O. If it arrives at Q at the same time as A and B, find a rule connecting x
and t for this car.
15. The displacement x(t) at time t ~ 0 of a particle moving in a straight line is given by
x(t) = 2t3 .,. 9t 2 + 12t + 6
Find:
(a) when its acceleration is zero and its velocity at that time.
(b) when its velocity is zero and its acceleration at that time.
16. A particle moves in a straight line so that its displacement x(t) from a fixed point in
~
0 is given by
x(t) = 3
+ 4t  5~
Find the displacement when the particle comes to rest.
EXAMPLE 10
A particle moves in a straight line and at any time t seconds (t
x metres from a fixed point 0 in the line is given by:
x(t)
7r
2 cos 5t, 0
:E;
:E;
20
Sketch the graph of the displacement and find when its velocity is zero.
Discuss the motion.
xtt)
=4 +
2 cos ~ t
10
Fig. 199
15
20
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