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SHIPYARD MANAGEMENT AND

PROJECT PLANNING
(LGB 20303)

TUTORIAL 7
PROJECT PLANNING USING PROGRAM
EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE

PREPARED BY:
MUHAMAD SYAZWAN BIN SUTERIS

56212114081

MUHAMMAD RAZIF FARKHAN BIN NASUHA

56212114082

SYAHRUL AFHAM BIN SAIPUL ANUAR

56212114135

PREPARED FOR:
AZIZ BIN ABDULLAH
0

LIST OF CONTENT

NO.

LIST OF CONTENT

1.0

INTRODUCTION OF PERT

PAGES

2
2.0

STEPS IN PERT PROJECT PLANNING

3.0

FOUR BASIC RULES GUIDE CONSTRUCTION

OF A NETWORK DIAGRAM

4.0

QUESTION TUTORIAL 7

5.0

THE DIAGRAM NETWORK

6.0

ANSWER THE TUTORIAL 7

7.0

MICROSOFT PROJECT

8.0

RECOMMENDATION

9.0

CONCLUSION

10.

REFERENCE

1.0

INTRODUCTION OF PERT
The Program Evaluation And Review Technique (PERT) is a statistical

tool, used in project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the
tasks involved in completing a given project. It is commonly used in conjunction

with the critical path method (CPM). PERT is a method to analyze the
involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to
complete each task, and to identify the minimum time needed to complete
the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and
scheduling of large and complex projects.
The Program Evaluation And Review Technique (PERT) also is one of
several related techniques for doing project planning. The
Evaluation

And

Review

Technique

(PERT)

Program

is a mathematically based

algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. It is an important tool for


effective project management. Commonly used with all forms of projects,
including construction, software development, research projects, product
development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among others. Any
project with interdependent activities can apply this method of scheduling.
PERT provides the following benefits:

Provides a graphical view of the project.

Predicts the time required to complete the project.

Shows which activities are critical to maintaining the schedule


and which are not.

PERT models the activities and events of a project as a network.


Activities are depicted as nodes on the network and events that signify the
beginning or ending of activities are depicted as arcs or lines between the
nodes. The following is an example of a PERT network diagram:

2.0

STEPS IN PERT PROJECT PLANNING


The technique is called PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique)

and it is a variation on CPM that takes a slightly more skeptical view of time
estimates made for each project stage. To use it, the project planner must
estimate the shortest possible time (most optimistic time) each activity will
take, the most likely length of time, and the longest time (most pessimistic
time) that might be taken if the activity takes longer than expected.
Where,
a =

most optimistic time for activity

m =

most likely time for activity

b =

most pessimistic time for activity

Thus, mean time (

t ) is given by the following formula and is used to

calculate the time to use for each project stage;

a + 4 m + b t
-------------------------6

(This formula is derived from statistical analysis of many data).


represent this in the form of a graphical statistical analysis:

We can

3.0

FOUR BASIC RULES GUIDE CONSTRUCTION OF A NETWORK

DIAGRAM
Rule 1

--

Each activity is represented by one arrow in the

network.
Rule 2

--

"Dummy'' activities are created whenever needed to

portray the logic of

the relationship between activities. A

dummy activity is depicted as a

dotted arrow and represents

an activity which takes no time and uses no


needed

when

logical

relationship

resources.

between

It

is

activities

cannot otherwise be represented correctly. For example,


suppose that in a

certain project activity F must precede by

activities B, C, D and E.
Rule 3

--

No two activities should be identified by the same

beginning event and by


Rule 4

--

the same end event.


The following questions must be answered as each

activity is added to the

network, to insure the network

correctness;
4

What activities must be completed immediately


before this activity can start?

4.0

What activities must follow this activity?

QUESTION TUTORIAL 7

Activi
ty

Immedia
te
predece
ssor

1
2

varian
ce

Es

Ef

Ls

Lf

Slac
k

CP

G, H

E, F

5.0

THE DIAGRAM NETWORK

The Critical Path Line

6.0

A+B+D+F+J

6 + 4.17 + 4 + 6.17 + 6.17

26.51

ANSWER THE TUTORIAL 7

Activi
ty

Immedia
te
predece
ssor

varian
ce

Es

Ef

Ls

Lf

Slac
k

CP

0.11

4.17

0.25

10.1
7

10.1
7

8.33

8.33

8.18

16.5
1

8.18

0.11

10.1
7

14.1
7

10.1
7

14.1
7

5.14

0.25

10.1
7

15.3
4

15.1
7

20.3
4

6.17

0.25

14.1
7

20.3
4

14.1
7

20.3
4

1
2

5
/

7.0

G, H

E, F

6
5

0.11

8.33

13.3
3

16.5
1

21.5
1

8.18

0.11

8.33

12.3
3

17.5
1

21.5
1

9.18

0.11

13.3
3

18.3
3

21.5
1

26.5
1

8.18

6.17

0.25

20.3
4

26.5
1

20.3
4

26.5
1

MICROSOFT PROJECT

The gantt chart by Microsoft Project

The network diagram by Microsoft project


8.0

RECOMMENDATION
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For example in the critical path activities are marking and cutting the
plate process, there are various ways to be used by managers to ensure that
the time needed to complete a task that is sufficient. Ways of solving the
following problems are:
i.

The number of employees should be added.

ii.

All equipment and machinery should be added and monitored


circumstances.

iii.

The technology used for the marking and cutting process must be
the latest and up-to-date.

9.0

CONCLUSION
Critical path identification is required for any project-planning phase.

This gives the project management the correct completion date of the overall
project and the flexibility to float activities. A critical path diagram should be
constantly updated with actual information when the project progresses in
order to refine the activity length/project duration predictions. There is the
several Advantages of Critical Path Method:
i.

Offers a visual representation of the project activities.

ii.

Presents the time to complete the tasks and the overall project.

iii.

Tracking of critical activities.

The initial critical path method was used for managing plant
maintenance projects. Although the original method was developed for
construction work, this method can be used for any project where there are
interdependent activities. In the critical path method, the critical activities of
a program or a project are identified. These are the activities that have a
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direct impact on the completion date of the project. Critical Path Analysis is
an effective and powerful method of assessing:
i.

Tasks which must be carried out.

ii.

Where parallel activity can be carried out.

iii.

The shortest time in which a project can be completed.

iv.

Resources needed to achieve a project.

v.

PERT can provide a probability of completing before a given time.

vi.

PERT facilitates identification of the critical path and makes this


visible.

10.

REFERENCE

Abdullah, A. (2016). Shipyard Management and Project Planning Teks Book.


Lumut: Unikl Mimet.
Armstrong-Wright, A. T. (1971). Critical path method: introduction and
practice. Longman Group.
Arnold Kaufmann, G. D. (1969). The Critical Path Method: Application of the
PERT Method and Its Variants to Production Study Programs. Taylor &
Francis.

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