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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactool

using hybrid analytical-FEM technique

W. Grzesik*

Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Automation, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Opole, P.O. Box 321,

45-271 Opole, Poland

Received 4 April 2005; accepted 5 July 2005

Available online 9 September 2005

Abstract

In this study, the temperature distribution in the cutting zone was determined by integrating thermal analytical and simulation models of

orthogonal cutting process with uncoated and coated carbide tools. Primarily, 2D FEM simulations were run to provide numerical solutions

of temperatures occurring at different points through the chip/tool contact region and the coating/substrate boundary under defined cutting

conditions. In addition, an analytical model for heat transfer in the cutting tool and its partitioning, proposed in References [W. Grzesik, P.

Nieslony, Physics based modelling of interface temperatures in machining with multilayer coated tools at moderate cutting speeds, Int. J.

Mach. Tools Manufact. 44 (2004) 889901; W. Grzesik, P. Nieslony, A computational approach to evaluate temperature and heat partition in

machining with multilayer coated tools, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 43 (2003) 13111317], was employed to generate the input data to

computations of the toolchip interface temperature. The changes of the temperature distribution fields resulting from varying heat flux

transfer conditions are the main findings of the FEM simulations. Finally, the analytically and numerically predicted average temperatures

were validated against the tool-work thermocouple-based measurements and discussed in terms of relevant literature data.

q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Machining; Steels; Temperature distribution; Hybrid modelling

1. Introduction

It is a special kind of technical paradox that relatively

little effort has been directed toward measuring temperature

distribution in the tool, which is correlated directly with its

wear rate. As a substitute various simulation models which

are capable of predicting the tool temperature distribution

with satisfactory accuracy are developed. This trend is

motivated by the strong belief that the substantial

improvement of metal removal efficiency can also be

achieved by more sophisticated modelling of these

processes at a system level, that means by generation of

the house of models [1].

For the past 50 years, metal cutting researchers have

developed many modelling techniques including analytical

techniques, slip-line solutions, empirical approaches

* Tel.: C48 77 4006290; fax: C48 77 4006342.

E-mail address: grzesik@polo.po.opole.pl.

0890-6955/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.07.009

element method has particularly become the main tool for

simulating metal cutting processes [24]. Finite element

models are widely used for calculating the stress, strain,

strain-rate and temperature distributions in the primary,

secondary and tertiary sub-cutting zones. In consequence,

temperatures in the tool, chip and workpiece, as well as

cutting forces, plastic deformation (shear angle and chip

thickness), chip formation and possibly its breaking can be

determined faster than by using costly and time consuming

experiments.

Typical approaches for numerical modelling of metal

cutting processes are Lagrangian and Eulerian techniques, as

well as a combination of both called an arbitrary Lagrangian

Eulerian formulation (denoted in the literature by ALE

acronym) [2,5]. It should be noticed that all these methods

are mathematically equivalent. The major feature of

Lagrangian formulation used in this study is that the

discretized mesh is attached to the workpiece and the material

model is elasticplastic, only plastic, or viscoplastic.

Early finite element analyses were performed by Usui

and Shirakashi [6], Iwata et al. [7] and Strenkowski

652

formulations for steady-state metal cutting simulations. On

the other hand, Marusich and Ortiz [9] have developed a

Lagrangian formulation in which the material model

contains deformation hardening, thermal softening and

strain-rate sensitivity tightly coupled with a transient heat

conduction analysis appropriate for finite deformations.

Most of the early investigations on the FEM modelling of

orthogonal cutting were limited by the assumption of a

perfectly sharp cutting edge which satisfies the fundamental

2D cutting model proposed by Ernst and Merchant.

In recent years, a few trials were undertaken [10] to

extend the FEM modelling technique to real non-sharp

cutting tool geometries including round/hone and T-land/

chamfer edges. In particular, the Lagrangian thermoviscoplastic cutting simulation of 0.2% carbon steel

performed by Yen et al. [10] have revealed that plastic

deformation and interface temperature change considerably

by increasing the edge radius of the hone tools.

It is specially important that FEM analysis can help to

investigate some thermodynamical effects occurring in the

cutting zone which, so far, cannot be measured directly [3].

An example for such effects is the influence of cutting tool

coatings on the heat transfer and friction, and resulting

cutting temperature distribution in the chip and the tool.

Moreover, it can explain the controversial thermal barrier

(thermal insulation) effect provided by multilayer coatings

with an intermediate Al2O3 ceramic layer with extremely

low thermal conductivity at the contact temperature higher

than 1000 K [1113].

It should be noted that the majority of previous

orthogonal metal cutting simulations is devoted to uncoated

carbide tools and now the opposite trend to consider single

and multiply coatings has been observed [6,1315]. In fact,

the first completed work focusing on the evaluation of a

predictive orthogonal cutting model for coated carbide tools

with multiple coating layers using the FEM was presented

by Yen et al. [13]. In this model, the thermal properties of

the three layer-TiC/Al2O3/TiN were implemented by

considering individual coating layers and a composite

monolayer coating with substitute (equivalent) thermal

conductivity and diffusivity. On the other hand, the

comparison with the experimental data from the literature

[16] has also been performed. Separate Lagrangian and

Eulerian calculations were used to obtain the steady-state

solution of temperature in the tool and chip/workpiece. The

main finding from this simulation was that for AISI 1045

steel the predicted steady-state interface temperatures are in

good agreement with the experimental values given in Ref.

[16] within 511% difference. Moreover, for cutting

velocity vcZ220 m/min and feed rate fZ0.16 mm/rev, the

composite layer approach which replaces TiC/Al2O3/TiN

coating has predicted slightly higher temperatures of about

30 8C.

Marusich et al. have documented in Ref. [15] that a

significant reduction in temperature which occurs for

is on the order of 100 8C cooler than the uncoated reference.

Unfortunately, the coefficient of friction was not changed

numerically when coating was added. In this case,

simulations were performed with Third Wave Systems

AdvantEdge finite element based modelling software [17].

In this paper, a Lagrangian finite element code

AdvantEdge was also applied to construct a coupled

thermo-mechanical finite element model of plane-strain

orthogonal metal cutting with continuous chip formation

produced by plane-faced uncoated and differently coated

carbide tools.

The entire cutting process is simulated, i.e. from the

initial to the steady-state phase. The workpiece material of

choice, AISI 1045 carbon steel, is modelled as thermo

elasticplastic, while the flow stress is considered to be a

function of strain, strain-rate and temperature to represent

better the real behaviour in cutting. The constant coefficient

of friction between the tool and chip is based on the

Coulomb friction.

2.1. Graphical representation of the simulation model

As mentioned above the finite element model used for the

plane-strain orthogonal metal cutting simulation is based on

the Lagrangian techniques and an explicit dynamic, thermomechanically coupled modelling software with adaptive

remeshing. This means that the initial mesh becomes

distorted after a certain length of cut as shown in Fig. 1b

and is remeshed in this vicinity to form a regular mesh

again. The upper part of mesh, which constitutes the

removed workpiece material, is finer, to enable the stress,

strain, strain-rate and temperature in the chip and the tool tip

regime to be accurately predicted. In the original model

proposed [15] constant thickness coating layers are added to

the tool substrate to create multiple coating as shown in

Fig. 1a. For the dimensions of the rest, a coarser mesh is

sufficient. In the case shown in Fig. 1b, the workpiece

consists of about 1340 six-nodded plane-strain triangular

elements and 1460 nodes. Dimensions of the element size

can range from the minimum value of 0.02 mm to maximum

one of 0.1 mm.

On the other hand, the tool model consists of the

adequate number of node planar heat-transfer elements,

because heat transfer analysis is carried out for it. The lower

half of its mesh, expected to be in contact with the chip, is

modelled with a finer mesh, in order to be able to predict the

temperature field developed in the tool.

2.2. Workpiece material modelling

The workpiece material used for the plain-strain

orthogonal metal cutting simulation is C45 steel of

653

Fig. 1. The mesh model for a TiC/Al2O3/TiN coated tool used in [13] (a) and shape of the deformed chip after a tool path of 4.0 mm with cutting edge radius of

33 mm and 1460 nodes obtained in the present study (b).

is modelled as isotropic elasticplastic with isotropic strainhardening. In the cutting processes, the deformation of the

material in the primary and secondary cutting zones occurs

at elevated temperatures and very high strains and strain

rates (105107 sK1). On the other hand, the remainder of the

workpiece deforms at moderate or even low strain rates.

Consequently, Thirdwave AdvantEdge computes the

increase in flow stress due to the strain rate sensitivity

using the following formula [15,18]:

3_p 1=m1

p

s Z sf 3 1 C p

(1)

3_o

where s is the effective von Misses stress, sf is the flow

stress, 3p is the accumulated plastic strain, 3po is a reference

plastic strain rate, m1 is the strain rate sensitivity exponent.

The flow stress is determined using a power hardening

law model with thermal softening effect, namely

3p 1=n

sf Z so $QT$ 1 C p

(2)

3o

where so is the initial yield stress at the reference

temperature 3po, is the reference plastic strain, n is the

hardening exponent and Q(T) is the thermal softening factor

ranging from 1 at ambient to O at melt.

2.3. Heat transfer

As commonly accepted the two main sources of heat in

cutting processes are the plastic work and the dissipation of

friction energy at the toolchip interface, which are

practically fully converted into heat. Usually, the percentage

of the cutting power converted into heat is assumed to be

equal to 90% [19,20]. The portion of frictional work being

converted into heat is taken as 1.0 in this study. Because

coatings influence, the heat partition at the interface the

proper values of the heat partition coefficient, which

strongly depend on the contact temperature, are incorporated in this simulation. On the other hand, coatings can

toolchip interface and moderate tool wear [11,16]. In this

study, the coating has linear elastic mechanical but nonlinear, temperature-dependent thermal properties

2.4. Boundary conditions and process parameters

The tool geometry and the cutting conditions used for the

orthogonal metal cutting simulation are presented in

Table 1.

Machining is performed at ambient temperature assuming the initial temperature of both workpiece and the tool is

equal to 20 8C. According the simulation model proposed

previously by Yen et al. [13] the heat losses to the

environment from the non-contact surfaces of the tool and

workpiece due to convection are determined by the

distributed heat flux as

q Z hTw KTo

(3)

workpiece material hZ20 W/m2 8C [13], TW is the workpiece temperature and T0 is room temperature.

In general, the modelling concept proposed is based on

the well-known principle of the simultaneous action of two

independent heat sources, which suggests that the total heat

Table 1

Cutting conditions and tool geometry

Tool geometry

Tool rake angle

Tool clearance angle

Measured cutting edge radius

Cutting conditions

Undeformed chip thickness

Width of cut

Cutting speed

Coulomb friction coefficient

K58

58

33 mm

0.16 mm

2.0 mm

103.2 m/min

0.5

654

and sliding friction effects. There are the shear zone

(primary deformation zone-PDZ) and frictional heat sources

(secondary deformation zone-SDZ) [21].

3.1. Calculation of equivalent thermal properties

In the composite layer concept, in which all components

are represented by one proportionally thicker monolayer,

the equivalent (effective, substitute) thermal conductivity

depends on the thickness of each component and the number

of coating layers. It can be determined using the expression

well-known in thermodynamics [10], as follows

t

P

xi

leq

x1 x2

x

C C/C t

l1 l2

lt

(4)

iZ3), li is thermal conductivity of i-layer, Sxi is total

thickness of the stack (composite layer) and leq the

equivalent thermal conductivity of the total layer, t denotes

the top layer.

The equivalent thermal diffusivity can be determined as

the ratio of the equivalent thermal conductivity to the

equivalent volumetric heat capacity (Ceq). The proper

formula can be derived by summing volumes of the

individual layers Vi to obtain the total coating, as follows [22]

t

P

xi Ci

ceq Z 1 t

(5a)

P

xi

1

aeq Z

leq

Ceq

(5b)

where Ci, cpi and ri are the volumetric heat capacity, the

specific heat and density of i-layer, respectively.

Calculated values of equivalent conductivity and

diffusivity for the cutting speed of 103.2 m/min

(at corresponding measured cutting temperature of

592.3 8C) are equal to leqZ17.51 W/m K and aeqZ

5.89!10-6 m2/s.

3.2. Determination of the heat partition coefficient

and temperature components

In this modelling case study, two expressions for the heat

partition coefficient proposed by Shaw-RSH [11] and

Reznikov-RR [14] are used. The expression for RSH

coefficient is

1

p

(6)

RSH Z

1 C 0:754lTeq =lW =Aa NT

In Eq. (6), thermal conductivities of work (lW) and

tool (lTZlTeq) materials, thermal number (NT) and area

features of the interface. Adequate formulae for NT and A

are provided in [14].

The expression for coefficient RR implements the

velocity and duration of frictional heat source represented

here by Peclet and Fourier numbers, respectively. Therefore, the heat partitioning can be determined from the

following relation [14]

RR Z

1

p

1 C 3lTeq =2lW aW =aTeq

(7)

composite layer and a Teq is corresponding thermal

diffusivity.

The average interface temperature is defined as the sum

of the mean shear-plane temperature (Q s ) and the mean

temperature rise due to friction (DQ f ), namely [22]:

Q t Z Q s C DQ f

(8)

temperature rise due to friction and plastic deformation is

provided in the original form in Ref. [22].

In this study, numerical simulations of the heat transfer in

the cutting zone by conduction, including the tool and the

chip, were carried out for constant cutting parameters, i.e.

cutting speed of 103.2 m/min, feed rate of 0.16 mm/rev and

depth of cut of 2 mm and the tools geometrical features,

listed in Table 1.

4.1. Results of numerical simulations

4.1.1. Intensity of heat sources

As shown in Figs. 2a and b, the heat rate increases in the

vicinity of the cutting edge and changes for the cutting tool

materials used. The maximum values of volumetric cutting

energy equal to 17,742 W/mm3 was computed for a P20

uncoated carbide (Fig. 2a), whereas for a three layer coating

it reaches 19,447 W/mm3 as presented in Fig. 2b.

It should be noted that FEM programme used automatically scales the heat rate and it was not possible to establish

accurately the area of heat penetration for the cases

considered in this investigation.

4.1.2. Isotherm patterns in the cutting zone

The temperature distribution in the workpiece, tool and

chip closer to the cutting edge after a tool path of 4.0 mm,

is shown in the form of the magnified images in Figs. 3b

and 4b. The maximum temperatures located in these

selected zones determined from the thermal maps

presented in Figs. 3a and 4a and those computed

analytically are listed in Table 2.

655

Fig. 2. Distribution of heat sources for ISO P20 uncoated (a) and TiC/Al2O3/TiN (b) coated carbide tools. Cutting conditions as in Table 1.

in the tool determined by FEM and analytical method differ

substantially for both cutting tool materials of about 150 8C.

All simulations performed have revealed that cutting tool

coatings tested influenced distinctly the performance and

intensity of the thermal interactions when turning C45 carbon

steel. In particular, coatings change both the heat transfer and

its distribution in the cutting zone as shown in Fig. 4b. In

comparison to an uncoated P20 carbide tool (Fig. 3b) the

coating applied caused that the fraction of heat which flows

into the tool decreases.

On the other hand, it can be observed that more heat is

transferred to the chip and workpiece. Moreover, coatings

cause that areas with the maximum temperatures are

localized near the chip and workpiece. In consequence,

the maximum interface temperature exists in the vicinity of

the cutting edge, i.e. in the first part of the toolchip contact.

This finding agrees qualitatively with FDM predictions

documented in [23]. This effect is especially visible for

Furthermore, it was revealed based on temperature

distribution illustrated in Fig. 4b that temperature developing on the workpiece surface increases about 50 8C in

comparison to the conventional tool used.

It is evident that this effect can be related to differences in

the thermal properties of the tool materials. In particular, the

thermal conductivity of Al2O3 ceramic layer in the

TiC/Al2O3/TiN coating decreases distinctly and it is

apparent that at higher contact temperatures the carbide

substrate is partly thermally insulated by the coating. As a

result, heat flow into the substrate is more difficult than for

the coatings including TiC, TiN and TiCN layers [16].

4.2. Results of analytical predictions

Fig. 5 shows the results of analytical predictions of the

average interface temperature for uncoated and multilayer

coated tools using the heat partitioning estimated by means

Fig. 3. Isotherm patterns in ISO P20 uncoated carbide tools (a) and magnification of temperature distribution in the vicinity of the cutting edge (b). Cutting

conditions as in Table 1.

656

Fig. 4. Isotherm patterns in TiC/Al2O3/TiN coated carbide tools (a) and magnification of temperature distribution in the vicinity of the cutting edge (b). Cutting

conditions as in Table 1.

errors resulting from both calibration and computerized data

processing are comprehensively listed in Table 3. It should

be pointed out that the cutting temperatures were

determined with corresponding maximum individual percentage deviations of G33.4 and G49 8C for uncoated and

coated tools, respectively.

Fig. 5 conforms the applicability of the analytical

thermal models proposed and shows good results in light

of the thermocouple measurements. In such a confrontation

the absolute errors determined for the reference cutting

speed of 103.2 are in the range of 10-200C and tend to

decrease further for higher cutting speeds.

4.3. FEM prediction of cutting temperature

model.

4.4. Validation of the FEM and analytical predictions

The comparison between measured and computed values

of the average toolchip interface temperature is presented

in Fig. 7.

Primarily, it was observed that the FEM code used

overestimated analytical predictions and consequently

employed inadequate values of the friction coefficient. For

this reason, the simulation results obtained were validated

by the comparison to appropriate toolwork thermocouple

measurements provided in [16]. For a 10 mm equivalent

800

A-P20

M-P20

700

Temperature,C

666.7C

648.9C

A-3L

M-3L

592.3C

600

581.1C

500

103.2 m/min

simulations along with corresponding values of the average

toolchip interface temperatures are shown in Fig. 6a and b.

It was established based on temperature traces with tool

travel that the time required to reach the steady-state

temperature was 0.350.60 ms depending on the tool

material used. For example, the value of the average contact

temperature of about 680 8C was computed for P20

uncoated tools and as expected a lower temperature of

650 8C was fixed for the equivalent composite layer of

10 mm thickness. It is suggested that these differences in the

contact temperatures can be referred to inadequate

Table 2

Values of maximum temperature in the tool and chip (in 8C)

Coating/substrate material

P20

TiC/Al2O3/

TiN-P20

Tool

Analytical

885.3

777.7

Chip

FEM

635.3

524.5

FEM

679.2

650.6

400

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Fig. 5. The average temperature vs. cutting speed. Symbols: A, analytical

prediction; M, measurement; 3L, substitute coating.

657

Table 3

Specification of values of percentage deviations for Figs. 5 and 7

Cutting speed (m/min)

Insert type

Average temperature (8C)

Estimated error range (8C)

Insert type

Average temperature (8C)

Estimated error range (8C)

51.37

62.34

72.24

P20 uncoated

587.62

608.49

624.92

G28.70

G29.30

G25.40

coated withTiC/Al2O3/TiN

547.00

559.15

568.62

G41.00

G43.30

G44.10

103.2

124.69

144.48

178.13

206.4

649.09

G30.60

666.70

G33.00

690.07

G30.50

708.88

G33.40

736.56

G28.90

756.72

G27.80

582.39

G45.80

592.31

G48.00

605.34

G49.00

615.71

G48.50

630.82

G44.00

641.69

G43.20

600

600

500

500

400

300

400

300

200

200

100

100

0

0

0.0000

650.6C

(b) 700

679.2C

Temperature,C

Temperature,C

(a) 700

89.06

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

0.0020

0.0025

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

Time, s

Time, s

Fig. 6. Average interface temperature trace vs. simulation time for uncoated (a) and three-layer coated (b) carbide tools. Cutting conditions as in Table 1.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a coupled thermo-mechanical model of

orthogonal metal cutting was used to determine the

distribution of temperature in the tool and the chip as

well as the average toolchip interface temperature.

Moreover, this modelling issue was extended to the

analytical prediction of the average toolchip temperature incorporating equivalent thermal properties for the

multilayer coating applied and corresponding heat

partitioning.

It is shown that the outcomes of the FEM and analytical

models provide quite satisfactory and physically

supported results, for both uncoated and three-layer

coated tools, concerning values and distributions of

cutting temperatures. However, a better accuracy can

probably be obtained by tuning friction parameter and

heat partition to coated tools with real thicknesses (in

this study they were based on the manufacturers data

not on measurements using for instance scanning

microscopy).

It is apparent that the key assumption of the constant

friction coefficient of 0.5 (Coulomb friction) in a FEM

model is not appropriate for machining with coated tools

Refs. [20] and [24] the proper values of m determined

experimentally from forces data are equal to 0.63 and

0.68 for C45-P20 and C45-TiC/Al2O3/TiN-P20 couples,

respectively.

The analytical thermal model using an equivalent onelayer coating predicts the average steady-state temperatures at the toolchip interface within the percentage

accuracy of about 2.7 and 1.9% for uncoated ISO P20

carbide and three-layer coated tools, respectively. In

contrast, these accuracies obtained in the finite element

simulation are of 1.9 and 10%. This fact evidently

confirms the need for supplying realistic coating

800

measurement

700

Average interface

temperature, C

uncoated tools both predictions provided comparable

accuracy of 35%.

simulation FEM

666.7 679.2

648.9

analytical model

592.3 650.6

581.1

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

P20

L3

Cutting tool material

tool-chip interface temperature. Cutting conditions as in Table 1. Symbols:

L3-TiC/Al2O3/TiN coating, P20-ISO conventional carbide grade.

658

cutting model.

The finite element simulations performed yield the

evidence of existence and localization of the secondary

shear zone. In particular, it was documented that for

coated tools areas with the maximum temperatures are

localized near the chip and workpiece. Also the substrate

under the thin coating is visibly cooler in comparison to

uncoated tools.

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