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INTRODUCTION

Good health depends in a part on a safe environment. Clients in all health settings
are at risk for acquiring infections because of lower resistance to infectious microorganisms, increased exposure to numbers and types of disease causing micro-organisms
and invasive procedures.1
Nosocomial infection result from delivery of health services in a health care
facility.Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital
or a health care service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. Infections
are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission
or within 30 days after discharge.2
Most of the causative organisms are present in the external environment of the
patient and are introduced into the body through direct contact or through contaminated
materials.In the United States, it has been estimated that as many as o e hospital patient in
ten acquires a nosocomial infection or 2 million patients a year. Estimates of the annual
cost range from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and up.In many instances nosocomial
infections could be prevented by strict aseptic technique and by a reduction in the use of
invasive procedures and antibiotics.3

NEED FOR THE STUDY:


Nosocomial infections have received increasing attention in recent years and are
believed to involve about 2 million clients per year. The most common settings
where nosocomial infections develop are hospital surgical or medical intensive care
units. Reports from the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System have
revealed that the urinary tract, the respiratory tract, blood stream and wounds are the
most common nosocomial infection sites.4
Nosocomial infections are most commonly transmitted by direct contact between
health personnel and patient or from patient to patient.5
In order to decrease the occurrence or continuation of nosocomial infections,
many agencies have an infection control department that investigates and sets up
policies to develop sanitary procedures. The nurse is responsible for providing the
patient with a clean and safe environment. The conscientiousness and accuracy of the
nurse in performing clean and aseptic procedures increases the effectiveness of
infection control.
Reported occurrence of nosocomial infections in United States range from 3% to
15.5% of hospital discharges, depending on the type of hospital, type of patients. On
the average, 5% to 7% of people who are admitted to general hospital acquire a
nosocomial infection.7

Nosocomial infections contributed to 88,000 deaths in the United States in 1995.


One third of nosocomial infections are considered preventable. Ms. Magazine reports
that as many as 90% of the deaths from hospital infections could be prevented.2
A study was conducted by P. Mathur A. Kapil and B. Das on nosocomial bacteraemia,
intensive care unit patients of a tertiary care centre. The study was conducted from July to
December, 2001 in the ICUs of a tertiary care centre in Northern India. The records of all
the patients who had one or more episodes of nosocomial bacteraemia during the study
period were reviewed to identify the pathogens causing bacteraemia and their
antimicrobial sensitivities. A total of 152 episodes of nosocomial bacteraemia occurred
in 140 patients. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates causing
bacteraemia in these critical care wards warrants implementation of strict antibiotic
prescribing policies and hospital infection control guidelines.
A recent study showed how serious nosocomial pneumonia is the researchers
examined three types of nosocomial infection; pneumonia, infected surgical wounds and
UTIs of the patients who died because of their infections, more than 79% had nosocomial
pneumonia.9
This initiated the researcher to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching
programme on knowledge regarding nosocomial infections among staff nurses of Bapuji
Hospital, Davangere.
Hospital Acquired Infection(HAI), also called a nosocomial infection, is an infection
that first appears between 48 hours and four days after a patient is admitted to a hospital
or other health-care facility.1 Over 1.4 million people worldwide are suffering from HAIs.
3

In the United States, it has been estimated that as many as one hospital patient in ten
acquires a nosocomial infection, or 2 million patients a year. Estimates of the annual cost
range from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and up. Nosocomial infections contributed to
88,000 deaths in the US in 1995. In France, prevalence was 6.87% in 2001 and 7.5% in
2006, some patients were infected twice. In Italy, in the 2000s, about 6.7% of
hospitalized patients were infected, i.e, between 450,000 and 700,000 patients, which
caused between 4,500 and 7,000 deaths. In Switzerland, extrapolations assume about
70,000 hospitalized patients are affected by nosocomial infections;between 2 and 14% of
hospitalized patients.2

In India, 30 to 35 percent of persons admitted to hospitals develop HAIs. Among


hospital-acquired infections 30to40% are urinary tract infections, 15 to 20% surgical
wound infections, 15 to 20% lower respiratory tract infections and 5 to 15% blood stream
infections.3 The incidence of HAI in Karnataka has been recorded 6.5%.5

The nurse should be aware of the problem of nosocomial infection, their effects on
patient morbidity, mortality and increased hospital costs, as well as the legal aspects
concerning them. The nurse also should be knowledgeable about the types of infections
seen most often, the common pathogens and how they are transmitted, factors that
predispose a patient to a nosocomial infection, how to recognize persons at risk of

infection, and the prevention and control measures necessary to decrease the incidence of
nosocomial infections.
A related study was conducted among seventy five senior nurses with questionnaire
and using two separate scales, to assess their knowledge about transmission and
precautionary measures, and their general attitudes towards HIV/AIDS as well as
willingness for patient care. The nurses showed several misconceptions regarding
disinfection and precautionary measures. 33% nurses had negative attitude and 24% were
willing to provide care for HIV infected patients. The researcher suggested that
continuous in-service training should be instituted to dispel misconceptions and to
develop favourable and non-discriminatory attitude.6
In the hospital there are many potential sources of infection, including patients,
personnel, visitors, equipments, and linen. The patient may become infected with
organisms from either the external environment or as is often seen in the severely
immunocompromised host from there own internal organisms. Most of the causative
organisms are present in the external environment of the patient and are introduced into
the body through direct contact or by contact with contaminated materials. In many
instances nosocomial infections could be prevented by practicing strict aseptic technique
when giving care to the patents. Predominantly, it is on the hand of hospital staff as good
hand hygiene could help reduce the economic burden and present distress caused by HAI,
but there is evidence that it is infrequently and poorly performed by nurses.7
Another study was done with the aim to evaluate the frequency and distribution of
yeast carriage on the hands of health care workers from different departments conducted

in surgery, intensive care unit, obstetric & gynaecology ward. The result shows hand
carriage of yeast and candida species in the three departments are 50% and 49% in
surgery, 65% and 57% in intensive care unit and 65% and 59% in obstetric and
gynaecology ward respectively. The only factor associated with yeast carriage on the
hands of health care workers was the absence of gloving during health care procedure.8

At the group level the barriers to practice hygiene was attributed to lack of
education, high work load especially when the ward was occupied to its full capacity,
understaffing, working in the critical care units, lack of encouragement and lack of role
model among the senior staff. At the individual level the barriers perceived was the lack
of knowledge and experience, lack of knowledge of guidelines set by the institution or
being a refractory non-complier. It was proved that a high workload was associated with
poor compliance to hand washing.9
A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether low staffing level
increases the infection risk in critical care. The study revealed that overall infection rate
was 64.5 episodes per 1000 patients-days. The researcher had come to a conclusion that
26.7% of all infections could be avoided if the nurse-to-patient ratio was maintained >2.2.
10

In the light of above and investigators experience working in the surgical wards
and intensive care units observed many patients with HAIs following invasive
procedures. With the increased use of invasive procedures the risk of HAIs is also
increasing. Moreover, the high frequency of nosocomial infection places a substantial
6

burden on individual patients and on the health care system and as a result, there is
increased morbidity, including delayed wound healing, delayed rehabilitation, increased
exposure to antimicrobial therapy and its potential adverse effects, and prolonged
hospitalization. To minimize the risk of infection, nursing personnel should have
adequate

knowledge

regarding

hospital-acquired

infections

following

invasive

procedures and appropriate practice to control these infections. Investigator found that the
nursing knowledge and practice in this area have remained inadequate. Therefore the
investigator felt the need to do a study on nursing staffs to create awareness among them
related to risk factors, affects, prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections
following invasive procedures.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A descriptive study to assess the knowledge of Staff Nurse regarding Infection Control
Measures at Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital Bareilly U.P with a view to
develop an information booklet.
OBJECTIVES
1) To assess the knowledge among staff nurse of operation regarding infection control
measures
2) To association t5he attitude regarding infection control measures in operation theatre
aspect with their sele5cted demographical variable that is age, sex ,religion , type of
family , qualification , and occupation .

ASSUMPTION
7

The Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre will have knowledge regarding Infection Control
Measure.
HYPOTHESIS
There is is significant association between knowledge score of Staff Nurse of Operation
Theatre with their selected demographic variables.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:
DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

: It refers to the study to identify pattern or trend in


a situation.

ASSESS

: TO evaluate the knowledge of Staff Nurse of


Operation

Theatre Regarding Infection Control

Measures at Rohilkhand Medical and Hospital


Bareilly.
KNOWLEDGE

The level of understanding of Staff Nurse of

Operation Theatre regarding the Infection Control


Measures..
INVASIVE PROCEDURES

: A medical procedure that invades (enters) the


body, usually by cutting or puncturing the skin or
by inserting Instruments.

SELF INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE

:Refers to a booklet on which organized

information regarding risk factors, prevention and


control measures of hospital
8

acquired infections

following invasive procedures for nurses will be


provided that is self explanatory.
STAFF NURSE

: Refers to Nurses working in the Operation Theatre


of selected hospitals.

DELIMITATION
1-The study is limited to Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre at Rohilkhand Medical
College and Hospital Bareilly
2- Study is limited to 40 Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of literature for the present study has been organized under the following
headings:
1. Studies related to risk factors associated with HAIs following invasive procedures.
2. Studies related to knowledge of hospital-acquired infections among nurses.
3. Studies Related to knowledge and practice of nurses to prevent hospital-acquired
infections following invasive procedures.
Studies related to risk factors associated with HAIs following invasive procedures:
A study was conducted to investigate a nosocomial and community outbreak of
hepatitis B to establish how the infections might have occurred in India. The risk factor
associated with it was failure of infection control in operation theaters. The study
concluded that patients admitted to hospital following invasive medical procedures in
high-prevalence countries should be nursed with stringent infection control measures
until blood borne viral infections can be excluded.11
A study was conducted to determine the epidemiology, risk factors and outcome
of nosocomial infections in a respiratory intensive care units of a tertiary care institute in
North India. The study documents a high prevalence rate of infections like pneumonia,
sepsis, bacteremia and urinary tract infections in the respiratory intensive care unit. The
main risk factor found was endotracheal intubation.12

A prospective study was carried out in a burn unit of a tertiary care referral centre in
North India. It was found that the patients who had more central venous lines inserted,
10

they acquired hospital infections more compared to those who were not inserted. The risk
factors associated with it was poor compliance with hand washing and barrier nursing
techniques and inadequate disinfection and sterilization practices.13
Studies related to knowledge of hospital-acquired infections among nurses:
A study was conducted to assess the awareness of health care professionals about
the preventive measures to be applied in the hospital to minimize the risk of HIV
transmission in Pune hospitals. It was found that 85 percent nursing staff did not apply
the Universal Safety Precautions and they have shown definite lacunae in knowledge
regarding transmission of HIV and precautions to be taken while giving care to the HIV
positive patients. 14
A study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the
different health care workers on nosocomial infections. A total of 150 health care workers
i.e 50 doctors, 50 nurses and 50 ward aids were included and interventions in the form
of an education module designed to suit the need of each of these categories. The study
showed an increase in the number of subjects in each category scoring good after the
intervention, however this declined with the progress of the time . The study proved that
there is a need to develop a system of continuous education for all categories of staff in
order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. 15

A study was conducted to identify knowledge deficit concerning nosocomial


pneumonia(NP) among critical care nurses in eastern Rajasthan States. The study
revealed that, several important deficits in nosocomial pneumonia knowledge were
11

identified indicating a need for critical care nurses to have greater exposure to
nosocomial pneumonia prevention education, guidelines, and research. 16
A study was conducted to investigate nurses knowledge and clinical practice
regarding care of patients with Indwelling Urinary Catheters (IUCs)

in preventing

nosocomial infections in four hospitals. It was found that, although the nurses knowledge
in IUC care was relatively good, the nursing care for patients with IUC in the studied
hospitals ought to be improved. This can be done by developing evidence-based,
culturally congruent guidelines for assurance of quality care. 17
Studies Related to knowledge and practice of nurses to prevent hospital-acquired
infections following invasive procedures:
A study was conducted to assess the relationship between the knowledge of nursing
staff working in a hospital and their compliance to universal precautions as a prevention
of hepatitis B viral infection. The study reveled that nurses knowledge was below the
average score in half of the items studied ,while their performance was below the average
in all the items except for care of contaminated instruments. The study reflects the need
for in- service educational and training programs on infection control for nurses.18
A study was conducted to assess the contribution of nursing practice to the
prevention of hospital acquired or Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections (NUTIs). The
study have shown that their practice differed because of lack of time to give care and to
update themselves. The consequences of under staffing were that junior and temporary
staff worked unsupervised. Those interviewed identified feelings of powerlessness in
effective preventative measures, and identified not only the role of medical staff in
12

influencing NUTIs

but also their inconsistent approach to care. All these

forces

effectively limited the nurses ability to prevent NUTIs . The study is concluded with
recommendations for changes in practice and future research. 19
A study was conducted to identify nurses practices and opinions during routine
patient care in surgical wards. The study revealed that nurses have a poor level of
knowledge concerning quality of hand washing. All nursing actions related to clean and
dirty activities were evaluated. The majority of nurses reported that they always wash
their hands after contact with contaminated and non-contaminated patients, equipments
and environment. It was found that they did need to wash their hands often but that they
were not able to do this because of dense working conditions, insufficiency of necessary
materials and drying and sore of hands after frequent washing. This study concluded that
it is important to improve the hand hygiene technique to prevent cross infection. 20
Pitt-Gomez C, Molina-Quilis R, Ruiz-Bremon A, depedro-Cuesta J (1995)
A descriptive study of nursing practices in nosocomial infection control in Spain
was conducted. During the period 1990-1991, a questionnaire, adapted from that used in
the study on the efficacy of nosocomial infection control was mailed to all Spanish
General Hospitals, public and private, having more than 400 beds, and to all those in the
public health sector having more than 100 beds.

Nursing related information was

selected for analysis from each of three sections; staff, surveillance system and
programmes. The response rate was 70%. Most procedures proving nosocomial infection
control efficient had been implemented in 70-80% of responding hospitals. Teaching was
most qualified and intensive in medium sized hospitals.10

13

Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Mourouga P, Sauvan V, Touveneau S, Perneger


TV (2000)
A study was conducted on effectiveness of hospital wide programme to improve
compliance with hand hygiene, infection control programme. The overall compliance
with hand hygiene during routine patient care in a teaching hospital in Geneva,
Switzerland, before and during implementation of hand-hygiene campaign was
monitored. Seven hospital-wide observational surveys were done twice yearly.
Secondary outcome measures were nosocomial infection rates. More than 20,000
opportunities for hand hygiene were observed.

Compliance improved progressively

from 48% to 66%. Hand hygiene improved significantly among nurses and nursing
assistants, but remained for among doctors. During the same period, overall nosocomial
infection decreased.11
Benoit Misset, Jean-Fruncois Timsit et al (2004)
A prospective single center study in the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary care
center was conducted to assess the impact of continuous quality improvement programme
on nosocomial infection rates. 1764 patients were admitted during the 5 year study
period, 55% were mechanically ventilated and 21% died. Interventions implementation of
an infection control program based on international recommendations. The program was
updated regularly according to infection and colonization rates and reports in the
literature.12
In a 5 years following implementation of the infection control programme there was a
significant decline in the rate of nosocomial infections.

14

Rabin Saba, Dilara Iran et al (2005)


A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the hand hygiene
compliance in a hematology unit. Two observers monitored the hand hygiene compliance
of health care workers in a hematology unit during 30 minutes observation periods
distributed randomly during the day time over 2 months. The non compliance was higher
among nurses. The lowest compliance rate (4%) was observed before patient care and the
highest (60%) was after insertion of invasive devices. The study concluded that non
compliance withhand hygiene was high in this hematology unit, especially among nurses
and before activities. Variations with the type of health care worker and activity suggest
that targeted educational programs and feed back control may be useful.13
Christianes G, Barbier et al (2006)
A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene procedure for
control of nosocomial infection as first measure. The hand hygiene promotion
programme started on May 2004 at the university hospital of Liege after a baseline
survey of compliance.

An attempt was made to promote hand hygiene and most

particularly alcohol based hand disinfection. They measured MRSA transmission rates
and consumption of alcohol based hand rub solution and soap in parallel. During the
campaign, consumption of alcohol based hand rub solution and soap increased by 56%
and 24% respectively and MRSA transmission rates decreased from 1,104 to 707 cases
per 1000 admissions.14
Suchitra JB, Lakshmi Devi N (2006)

15

A study was conducted to assess the impact of education on knowledge, attitudes


and practices among various categories of health care workers on nosocomial infections.
A total of 150 health care workers, doctors (n=50), nurses (n=50) and ward aides (n=50)
were included. A questionnaire was administered. A scoring system was devised (KAP
score). They were further subjected to a series of similar questionnaires at different
intervals after an education module.

Statistical analysis was done using statistical

software. Total compliance was 63% and ward aides were most compliant 76.7%. The
study concluded that education has a positive impact on retention of knowledge, attitudes
and practices in all the categories of staff. There is a need to develop a system of
continuous education for all categories of staff in order to reduce the nosocomial
infections.15
Soh KL, Koziol-Mclain J, Wilson J, Soh KG (2007)
A study was conducted on knowledge regarding prevention of nosocomial
pneumonia among nurses.

A survey design using a mailed self-administered

questionnaire. 134 critical care nurses were identified through the nursing council of
New Zealand. The nosocomial pneumonia knowledge sore ranged from 21% to 92%.
The mean was 48%. No nurse demographic or workplace characteristics was associated
with nosocomial pneumonia knowledge. The study concluded that several important
deficits in nosocomial pneumonia knowledge were identified indicating a need for critical
care nurses to have greater exposure to nosocomial pneumonia prevention education,
guidelines and research.16
Hospital Acquired Infection(HAI), also called a nosocomial infection, is an
infection that first appears between 48 hours and four days after a patient is admitted to a
16

hospital or other health-care facility.1 Over 1.4 million people worldwide are suffering
from HAIs. In the United States, it has been estimated that as many as one hospital
patient in ten acquires a nosocomial infection, or 2 million patients a year. Estimates of
the annual cost range from $4.5 billion to $11 billion and up. Nosocomial infections
contributed to 88,000 deaths in the US in 1995. In France, prevalence was 6.87% in 2001
and 7.5% in 2006, some patients were infected twice. In Italy, in the 2000s, about 6.7% of
hospitalized patients were infected, i.e, between 450,000 and 700,000 patients, which
caused between 4,500 and 7,000 deaths. In Switzerland, extrapolations assume about
70,000 hospitalized patients are affected by nosocomial infections;between 2 and 14% of
hospitalized patients.2
In India, 30 to 35 percent of persons admitted to hospitals develop HAIs. Among
hospital-acquired infections 30to40% are urinary tract infections, 15 to 20% surgical
wound infections, 15 to 20% lower respiratory tract infections and 5 to 15% blood stream
infections.3 The incidence of HAI in Karnataka has been recorded 6.5%.5
The nurse should be aware of the problem of nosocomial infection, their effects
on patient morbidity, mortality and increased hospital costs, as well as the legal aspects
concerning them. The nurse also should be knowledgeable about the types of infections
seen most often, the common pathogens and how they are transmitted, factors that
predispose a patient to a nosocomial infection, how to recognize persons at risk of
infection, and the prevention and control measures necessary to decrease the incidence of
nosocomial infections.5

17

A related study was conducted among seventy five senior nurses with
questionnaire and using two separate scales, to assess their knowledge about transmission
and precautionary measures, and their general attitudes towards HIV/AIDS as well as
willingness for patient care. The nurses showed several misconceptions regarding
disinfection and precautionary measures. 33% nurses had negative attitude and 24% were
willing to provide care for HIV infected patients. The researcher suggested that
continuous in-service training should be instituted to dispel misconceptions and to
develop favourable and non-discriminatory attitude.6
In the hospital there are many potential sources of infection, including patients,
personnel, visitors, equipments, and linen. The patient may become infected with
organisms from either the external environment or as is often seen in the severely
immunocompromised host from there own internal organisms. Most of the causative
organisms are present in the external environment of the patient and are introduced into
the body through direct contact or by contact with contaminated materials. In many
instances nosocomial infections could be prevented by practicing strict aseptic technique
when giving care to the patents. Predominantly, it is on the hand of hospital staff as good
hand hygiene could help reduce the economic burden and present distress caused by HAI,
but there is evidence that it is infrequently and poorly performed by nurses.7
Another study was done with the aim to evaluate the frequency and distribution of
yeast carriage on the hands of health care workers from different departments conducted
in surgery, intensive care unit, obstetric & gynaecology ward. The result shows hand
carriage of yeast and candida species in the three departments are 50% and 49% in
surgery, 65% and 57% in intensive care unit and 65% and 59% in obstetric and
18

gynaecology ward respectively. The only factor associated with yeast carriage on the
hands of health care workers was the absence of gloving during health care procedure.8
At the group level the barriers to practice hygiene was attributed to lack of
education, high work load especially when the ward was occupied to its full capacity,
understaffing, working in the critical care units, lack of encouragement and lack of role
model among the senior staff. At the individual level the barriers perceived was the lack
of knowledge and experience, lack of knowledge of guidelines set by the institution or
being a refractory non-complier. It was proved that a high workload was associated with
poor compliance to hand washing.9
A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether low staffing level
increases the infection risk in critical care. The study revealed that overall infection rate
was 64.5 episodes per 1000 patients-days. The researcher had come to a conclusion that
26.7% of all infections could be avoided if the nurse-to-patient ratio was maintained >2.2.
10

In the light of above and investigators experience working in the surgical wards and
intensive care units observed many patients with HAIs following invasive procedures.
With the increased use of invasive procedures the risk of HAIs is also increasing.
Moreover, the high frequency of nosocomial infection places a substantial burden on
individual patients and on the health care system and as a result, there is increased
morbidity, including delayed wound healing, delayed rehabilitation, increased exposure
to antimicrobial therapy and its potential adverse effects, and prolonged hospitalization.
To minimize the risk of infection, nursing personnel should have adequate knowledge

19

regarding hospital-acquired infections following invasive procedures and appropriate


practice to control these infections. Investigator found that the nursing knowledge and
practice in this area have remained inadequate. Therefore the investigator felt the need to
do a study on nursing staffs to create awareness among them related to risk factors,
affects, prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections following invasive
procedures.
Nosocomial infections have received increasing attention in recent years and are
believed to involve about 2 million clients per year. The most common settings where
nosocomial infections develop are hospital surgical or medical intensive care units.
Reports from the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System have revealed that
the urinary tract, the respiratory tract, blood stream and wounds are the most common
nosocomial infection sites.4
Nosocomial infections are most commonly transmitted by direct contact between
health personnel and patient or from patient to patient. In order to decrease the
occurrence or continuation of nosocomial infections many agencies have an infection
control department that investigates and sets up policies to develop sanitary procedures.
The nurse is responsible for providing the patient with a clean and safe environment. The
conscientiousness and accuracy of the nurse in performing clean and aseptic procedures
increases the effectiveness of infection control.
Reported occurrence of nosocomial infections in United States range from 3% to
15.5% of hospital discharges, depending on the type of hospital, type of patients. On the
average, 5% to 7% of people who are admitted to general hospital acquire a nosocomial

20

infection. Nosocomial infections contributed to 88,000 deaths in the United States in


1995. One third of nosocomial infections are considered preventable. Ms. Magazine
reports that as many as 90% of the deaths from hospital infections could be prevented.2
A study was conducted by P. Mathur A. Kapil and B. Das on nosocomial
bacteraemia, intensive care unit patients of a tertiary care centre. The study was
conducted from July to December, 2001 in the ICUs of a tertiary care centre in Northern
India. The records of all the patients who had one or more episodes of nosocomial
bacteraemia during the study period were reviewed to identify the pathogens causing
bacteraemia and their antimicrobial sensitivities. A total of 152 episodes of nosocomial
bacteraemia occurred in 140 patients. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in
isolates causing bacteraemia in these critical care wards warrants implementation of strict
antibiotic prescribing policies and hospital infection control guidelines.
A recent study showed how serious nosocomial pneumonia is the researchers
examined threetypes of nosocomial infection; pneumonia, infected surgical wounds and
UTIs of the patients who died because of their infections, more than 79% had nosocomial
pneumonia. This initiated the researcher to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching
programme on knowledge regarding nosocomial infections among staff nurses of Bapuji
Hospital, Davangere.

METHODOLOGY
21

Research methodology refers to controlled investigation related to the way of obtaining,


organizing and analyzing data. Methodological studies address the development,
validation and evaluation of research instruction and technologies ( Basavanthapa . B T.
2007 )
The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures in the Rohilkhand Medical
College And Hospital Bareilly U.P
This chapter deals with the methodology adopted for the study. The methodology adopted
of the investigation is of vital importance. The Methodology of research indicates the
general pattern of organizing the procedure to gather valid and reliable data for the
problem under investigation.
2- Research Approach
Research approach is the most significant part of any research. The appropriate
choice of the purpose of the research study. (Basavanthapa B.T 2007)
A Quantitative approach was used for this study to test the knowledge among
Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures in the Rohilkhand
Medical College And Hospital Bareilly U.P.

3- Research design
22

The research design refers to the researchers overall plan for obtaining answers to the
research questions and for testing the research hypothesis. It spell out the strategies that
the researcher adopted to develop information that is accurate objective and interpretable.
The research design provide an overall blue print to carry about the study. In this study
Descriptive study sign One group Post test design was adopted for this study.
Key:O1- Post- test knowledge regarding contraceptive

among mothers reproductive age

group.
4- Schematic representation of Research Approach

RESEARCH APPROACH
QUANTITATIVE ( Evaluative approach )
23

RESEARCH DESIGN
Descriptrive
DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
Age, Sex, Stream in Intermediate,
Occupation, Family, Religion, Source Of
Information

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
Consider demographic Variables

SETTING
Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital Bareilly

SAMPLE (40 students)

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Probability Purposive sampling

INCLUSION

SAMPLING CRITERIA

EXCLUSION

TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


( structured knowledge questionnaire )

DATA ANALYSIS
DESCRIPTIVE
Frequency, mean, median,
standard deviation,
percentage, mean percentage
MAXIMUM SCORE
Excellent -100-75%
( 24-30)
Good 74-50% (1723)

INFERENTIAL
Chi-square, t-test

CRITERIA
MEASUREMENT

MINIMUM SCORE
0

DEPENDEND VARIABLES
Knowledge of Staff Nurseof O.T regarding Infection Control Measures .

Figure of schematic representation of research design

5- Variables under the study:-

24

Independent variable:It is a variable which influence the dependent variable. In this study, here demographic
variables are considered as independent variables such as Age, qualification, type of
family, source of information,.
Dependent variable:It is the response behavior or outcome that is predicted or explained in research. Changes
in the dependent variable are presumed to be caused by independent variable. In this
study , the dependent variable is refers to the knowledge of Staff Nurse of Operation
Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures.
Demographic variables:Baseline characteristic such as age , qualification , type of family , source of information
6- Setting:According to Pilot and Beck" setting are the more specific places where the data
collection occurs"
The study was conducted in Rohilkhand medical college and Hospital. The setting is
chosen on the basis of feasibility in terms of availability of the subjects.

7- Sample:-

25

Pilot and Hungler stated -"Sample is a subset of population selected to participate in a


research Study. Knowledge of Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding Infection
Control Measures, in Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital Bareilly U.P
8- Sampling technique:According to K Sharma- "Sampling refers to the process of selecting sample from the
target population represented the entire population"
In this study purposive (Continent method) sampling technique was used to select the
sample. Sample size comprised of 40 knowledge of Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre
regarding Infection Control Measures, in Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Bareilly U.P
9) Sampling criteria:Criterion sampling involves selecting cases that meet some predetermined criterion of
importance.
Inclusion criteria:
1) Student who are present on the day of data collection.
2) Student who are willing to participate in the study .

Exclusion criteria

26

1) Staff Nurse who are not willing to participate in the study .


2) Staff Nurse who are absent on the data collection

10) Data collection tool and technique:A) Tool- Tool are the instrument used by researcher to collect data.
A data collection instrument is a formal document used to collect and record information.
The tool was developed based on the content of Contraceptive method of family planning
which made under three sections comprised of demographic variables, structured
knowledge Questionnaire on Infection Control Measures.
B) Development of the tool:A data collection instrument is a formal document used to collect and record information
such as Questionnaire ( Pilot & Hungler 1995)
Review of literature is reviewed extensively in book, journal, magazine and internet.
Consultation was done with experts. The expert opinion were sought to ascertain the
clarity and appropriate for the items. The investigators professional knowledge and
experiments helped to construct the tool.

C) Description of tools:-

27

A structured knowledge questionnaire was prepared by research to assess the knowledge


of Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures, in Rohilkhand
Medical College and Hospital Bareilly U.P
Section A:- Demographic variables
It refers to Age , Qualification , Type of family & Source of information .
Section B:- Questionnaire
Structured knowledge questionnaire knowledge of Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre
regarding Infection Control Measures, in Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Bareilly U.P
Parameter of Question:It comprised of Structure knowledge questionnaire on Infection Control
Measures.
Knowledge related to Infection Control Measures.
Knowledge on need and importance
Knowledge on method of family planning

Mark:28

Criteria measurement
1) Maximum Marks- 40
2) Minimum Marks- 0
Key in table
Excellent

- 21 - 30

Good

- 11 - 20

Poor

- 0 10

D) Content validity of tools:According to Pilot & Back "Content validity of an instrument is the degree to which an
instrument what it is intended to measure ." In order to measure the content validity of the
tooling the present study. The tool was given to seven experts. Experts were practicing
Community health nursing the experts. Experts were practicing Community health
nursing. The experts were chosen on the basis of their clinical expertise, experience,
qualification & interest in the problem area.
Experts were requested to judge the items on the basis of their relevance clarity
feasibility & organization of the items. The response column for validating the contents
were not not relevant, relevant to some extent, relevant. There was 95% agreement
amount experts who responded to the tool with few suggestion to modify some items and
to remove some items in the questionnaire and the same were incorporated. The tools
were found to be valid for conducting the study.
E) Reliability of the tools:29

Reliability is the degree of consistency and accuracy with which an instruments measures
the attribute for which it is designed to measure.
Reliability is defined as the ability of an instrument to create reproducible results.
Therefore reliability is concerned with consistency of measurement tools. A tool only can
be considered reliable if it measure an attribute with similar results on repeated use the
reliability method Test Retest method and correlation coefficient test found by Karl
Pearson Method. the reliability of the tool was found to be 0.14 Hence the tool was found
to be reliable. The reliability found by Spearman Brown Prophesy formula .
Karl Pearson correlation coefficient formula is

r=

xy

x y

( x)
n

n
2
2

( y )

= 0.14
Spearmam Brown Prophesy formula is

R=

2r
1+r

= 0.540

10- Development and validation of information booklet

30

Assessed the knowledge based on contraceptive method of family


planning among mothers of reproductive age groups was prepared to
improve the knowledge of mothers about contraceptive method of
family planning. Contraceptive method is a integrated management of
family planning. Content of the information booklet include knowledge
related to family planning, its methods, surgical intervention. The
information booklet was given to expert for validation. The experts
was Lecturer, Rohilkhand Medical College based on the feedback by
the experts the information booklet was modified.
11- Ethical Consideration
Permission to conduct the study was taken from competent authorities
formal permission was obtained from the Rohilkhand Medical College
and Hospital for conducting study at selected ward in Bareilly (U P).
Information regarding study was given to the authorities as well as
subjects. Informed consent was obtained from subjects. The anonymity
and confidentiality of the participant responses were maintained while
reporting the finding of the study.
12- Pilot study:According to Pilot & Back" Pilot study is a small version or trail run
done in permission for a major study.

31

Pilot study is a small version or trial run in preparation for a major


study. Formal permission was obtained by the higher authority of
Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital for the Pilot study. The
researcher selected ten mothers of reproductive age group from
Rohilkhand Medical and Hospital by Purposive sampling technique. The
researcher obtain post test after the giving information booklet on
knowledge regarding Infection Control Measures and then after Post
test was conducted. The statistical analysis of the pilot study for the
effectiveness of structured information booklet Post test Mean , Mean
Percentage 70.53 , Range scores is 23-30 and over all Mean is 21.16
% so the information booklet found effective. This signified the
feasibility and Practicability to conduct the main study.
13- Process of data collection
Definition:- The collection of data from independent or networked
location via data capture, data entry or data logging data collection is
the process of gathering and measuring information in targeted
variables is an established systematic fashion which then enables one
to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcome.
The researcher conducted main study from 20 April 2016 after
obtaining the permission from authorities and informed consent from
the samples

32

Level-3 After providing information booklet Post test was conducted to


assess the level of knowledge regarding.

14- Summary
This chapter deals with methodology adopted for the study. It include
the research design, approach and description of setting, variables
under

study,

sample,

sampling

technique,

development

and

description of tool, Pilot study and procedure for data collection and a
plan for data analysis. A detailed description of data obtained from 30
students and interpretation was given in chapter IV.

33

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


This chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of data to assess the knowledge among
staff nurse of operation theatre regarding infection control measures at Rohilkhand
Hospital Bareilly UP.
Polit and Hungler (1999), described analysis as a process of organizing and synthesize
data in such a way that research questions can be answered.
Abdullah and Levin5e (1979) started that interpretation of tabulated could bring to light
the real finding of the study.
Analysis and interpretation of data was done using pre experimental statistics.
To objective of the study were:
3) To assess the knowledge among staff nurse of operation regarding infection control
measures
4) To association t5he attitude regarding infection control measures in operation theatre
aspect with their sele5cted demographical variable that is age, sex ,religion , type of
family , qualification , and occupation .
.
ORGANIZATION AND PRESENTATION OF DATA
The data was collected through an attitude scale to assess the attitude regarding infection
control measures in opera5tion theatre and was tabulated in a master sheet.
The responses obtained were organized and presented under the following sections:
34

Section I finding related to personal profile characteristics of sample.


Section II - Data related to attitude scale to to assess the attitude regarding infection
control measures in operation theatre.

SECTION -1
DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS
The sample characteristics of the staff nurse of operation theatre described in terms of
Age , Sex, Religion, Family, Education, Occupation.
Table 1 Sample Characteristics
S.NO
1

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
AGE IN YEAR
a) < 20
b) 21-30
c) 31-40
d) 41-50
e) 50>
SEX
a) Male
b) Female
RELIGION
a) Hindu
b) Muslim
c) Sikh
d) Christian
Family
a) Nuclear
b) Joint5
c) Extended
EDUCATION
a) No formal education
b) Primary
c) Secondary
35

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE %

00
02
14
00
14

00%
6.66%
46.66%
00%
46.66%

16
14

53.33%
46.66%

29
00
01
00

96.66%
00%
3.33%
00%

03
19
08

10%
63.33%
26.66%

09
15

30%
50%

d) Senior Secondary
e) Graduate

OCCUPATION
a) Housewife
b) Private
c) Government
d) Business

06
00
00

20%
00%
00%

15
05
00
10

50%
16.66%
00%
33.33%

Figure-1 Percentage distribution of infection control measures population based on


Staff Nurse Age in years.

50%
45%

46.66%

46.66%

40%
35%
30%
percentage distribution

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

0.00%
<20

6.66%
21-30

0.00%
31-40

41-50

51>

Age

The Percentage distribution of infection control measures population according to wise


distribution of sample object as shown in table-1 reveals that majority of the population
that 0.0 Staff Nurse < 20 years of age, 6.66% Staff Nurse is 21-30 years of age, 46.66
36

Staff Nurse is 31-40 years of age and 0.0% Staff Nurse

41-50 and 46.66% Staff Nurse

>51 above age in years.

Figure-2 Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse population according to Sex.

percentage
0.54
0.52
percentage

0.5
0.48
0.46
0.44
0.42

male

female

The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to sex 53.55% are male and
46.66% are female

37

Figure-3 Percentage distribution staff nurse population according to religion.

100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
percentage distribution

50.00%

97%

percentage

40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0%

0.00%

3%

0%

The Percentage distribution of Rohilkhand hospital population according to Religion


Hindu are 96.66%, Muslim are 0.0%, Sikh are 3.33% and Christian are 0.0% .

38

Figure-4 Percentage distribution of Rohilkhand hospital population according to


Education

percentage distribution

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

50.00%
30.00%

20.00%
0.00% 0.00%

education

The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to education 30% of no formal


education, 50% of primary education, 20% of secondary education,0.0% of senior
secondary education and 0.0% of graduate .

39

Figure-5 Percentage distribution of staff nurse


family.

population according to type of

70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
percentage distribution

63%

30.00%

percentage

20.00%
27%
10.00%
0.00%

10%
nuclear

joint

extended

Family

The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to type of family 10% of nuclear
family, 63.33 % of joint family and 26.66 % of extended family.

40

Figure-6 Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to Occupation.

percentage distribution

50.00%
45.00%
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00%

50%
33%
percentage

17%
0%

occupation

The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to occupation, 50% of Housewife,


16.66% are private occupation, 0.0% is government job and 33.33% are business men.

41

Section -2
Objective -1 To

assess the knowledge among staff nurse of operation theatre

regarding infection control measures .


Table -2 Frequency and distribution of levels of knowledge among Staff Nurse of
operation theatre
Level of knowledge
Excellent
76-100
( 76- 100%)
Very Good
51-75
( 51- 75% )
Good
26-50
( 26-50 % )
Poor
0-25
(0-25%)

Frequency

Mean

Mean %

S.D

12

81.58

81.58%

74.58

18

65.61

65.61%

5.78

00

00

00%

00

00

00

00%

00

Frequency
Excellent(76-100%)(76-100)

Very Good(51-75%)(51-75)

Good(26-50%)(26-50)

Poor (0-25%)(0-25)

40%
60%

All over mean = 71.36


Mean % = 71.36%
Table -2.

42

Shows the frequency and percentage distribution of level of knowledge of to assess the
attitude regarding general well being and psychological aspect among staff nurse . 40%
staff nurse BSC ] obtained Excellent score (76-100%), 60% of staff nurse GNM

got

very Good score (51-75%), 00% of staff nurse post Bsc obtained good score(26-50) and
0.0% obtain poor score (0- 25%) .Thus, it is inferred that maximum of leprosy patients
had poor knowledge regarding infection control measures.
Objective- 2 To association the attitude regarding general well being and
psychological aspect with their selected demographical variable that is Age, Sex
,Religion , Type of Family , Qualification , and Occupation .
Table- 2 Mean attitude score of Staff Nurse related with variable age in years.
S.No
1
2
3
4
5

Selected age variable


<205
21 -30
31-40
41 50
51- above

Frequency
0
02
14
0
14

Mean
00
66.5
70.07
00
74.71

Mean %
0%
66.5%
70.07%
00%
74.71%

5
Findings related with age in years: Table 4 indicates that, <19 year of age family
members of cancer patient frequency 0 and percentage is 00% , 21-30 year of age staff
nurse frequency is 02 and percentage is 66.5%, 31-40 age of staff nurse

frequency is

14 and percentage is 70.07%, 41-50 year of Staff Nurse frequency is 00 and percentage
00%,51to above staff nurse

frequency is 14 and mean percentage 74.71%. The age

highest mean percentage 74.71% and the lowest mean percentage is 00%.

Table-2AChi- square test showing association between age and post- test knowledge
score.
43

Selected
age
variables
< 20
21-30
31-40
41 50
51>

Frequency of knowledge score


Excellent
00
00
05
00
07

Very Good
Good
00
02
09
00
07

00
00
00
00
00

ChiSquare

Degree of P value
freedom

1.21

12 degree
of
0.3634
freedom

Poor
00
00
00
00
00

Findings related with age in years: Table 4A indicates that, < 20 age group of Staff
Nurse

00 excellent 00 very good , 00 good and 00 poor , 21- 30 age group staff nurse

(ANM) 0 excellent 2 very good,0 good and 0 poor,31-40 age group 5 excellent 09 very
good ,0 good and 0 poor, 41-50 age group of staff nurse

0 excellent, 0very good, 0

good, 0 poor, 36-40 age group of TB patients 5 excellent, 11 good, 0 poor, and 51 above
7excellent ,7 very good,0 good and 0 poor.
Table-3 Mean knowledge score of Staff Nurse related with sex.

S.No
1
2

Selected sex variable


Male
Female

Frequency
16
14

Mean
71.12
73

Mean %
71.12%
73%

Finding related with Sex :- Table 5 indicates that, Male staff nurse frequency is 16 and
percentage is 71.12%, Female frequency is 14 and percentage is 73%, the highest mean
knowledge score 73 of female T.B patient , lowest knowledge score 71.12 is male staff
nurse .
Table-3A Chi- square test showing association between sex and post test knowledge
score.
44

Selected Sex
Variable

Frequency of knowledge score


Excellent

Male

Very
Good
10

female

Chid.f
Squqre

Good

Poor

0.0803

p-value

3 degree
0.7651
of
freedom

Finding related with Sex:- Table 5A indicates that, the male 6 in excellent 10 is very
good and 0 good and 0 poor, the female 6 is excellent 8 is very good ,0 is good and 0
poor. The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not significant at
0.05 level (P-1.0000).

Table-4 Mean knowledge score of Staff Nurse related with Religion.


S.No

Selected religion variable

Frequency

Mean

Mean %

Hindu

29

67.55

67.55%

Muslim

00

00%

Sikh

57

57%

Christian

00

00

00%

Finding related with religion :- Table 6 indicates that, the Hindu frequency is 29 and
percentage is 67.55%, Muslim frequency is 0 and percentage is 0 %. Sikh frequency is 1
and percentage 57 %, Christian frequency is 0 so percentage is also 0%.The highest mean
percentage 67.55% of and lowest percentage 0% of H. secondary .

45

Table-4A Chi- square test showing association between religion and post-test
knowledge score.
Selected religion
Variables

Frequency of knowledge score


Excellent

Very Good

Good

Poor

Hindu

12

17

Muslim

Sikh

Christian

Chisquare

d.f

P- value

0.6897

0.4062

Finding related with religion:- Table 6A indicates that, the hindu is 12 is excellent 17 is
very good , 0 is good and 0 is poor, muslim is excellent 0 is very good, 0 is good and 0
is poor . The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not significant
at 0.05 level (P-0.5415).
Table-5 Mean knowledge score of staff nurse related with family.
S.No

Selected variable family

Frequency

Mean

Mean %

Nuclear

77.33

77.33%

Joint

19

71

71%

Extended

72.37

72.37%

Finding related with family:- Table 5 indicates that, the nuclear family frequency is 3
and percentage is 77.33%, joint frequency is 19 and percentage is 71% and extended
frequency is8 and percentage is 72.37%.

46

Table-5AChi- square test showing association between family


knowledge score.
Selected
family
variable

Frequency of knowledge score

Nuclear

Good
1

Joint

12

Extended

Excellent

Very

Chisquare

Good

Poor

00

00

00

00

00

00

and post- test

d.f

P-value

1.6450

0.4392
6

Finding related with family :- Table 7A indicates that, the nuclear family population 2 is
excellent 1 is very good, 0 is good and 0 is poor, in joint family 12 is excellent 7 is very
good ,0 is good and 0 is poor, in extended family 3 is excellent 5 is very good,0 is good
and 0 is poor The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not
significant at 0.05 level (P-0.4016).

Table-6 Mean knowledge score of Staff Nurse related with Education.

S.No
1
2
3

Selected education variable


No formal education
Primary
Secondary

Frequency
9
15
6

Mean
70.11
71.86
75.16

Senior secondary

Graduate

Mean%
70.11%
71.86%
75.16%
0%
0%

. Finding related with Education:- Table 9 indicates that, the no formal education
frequency is 9 and percentage is 70.11%, primary education frequency is 15 and

47

percentage is 71.86%, secondary frequency is 6 and percentage is 75.16%. ,secondary


education frequency is 6 and percentage is 75.16%, senior secondary frequency is 00 and
percentage 00% and graduate frequency is 00 and percentage is 00% and the highest
mean percentage is 75.16 of

population and lowest 70.11% mean knowledge score

percentage of education population


Table 6A Chi- square test showing association between education and post test
knowledge score.
Selected
education
variable

Frequency of knowledge score


Excellent

No formal 03
education
Primary
06

Very Good

Chisquare

d.f

p- value

0.4167

12 degree 0.8119
of freedom

P oor

Good
06

00

00

09

00

00

secondary

03

03

00

00

Senior
secondary
Graduate

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

Finding related with education :- Table 10A indicates that, in no formal education 3 is
excellent 6 is very good 00 is good and 00 is poor, in primary education 6 is excellent 9
is very good , 0 is good and 0 is poor, in extended in secondary education 03 is
excellent 3 is very good ,0 is good and 0 is poor, in senior secondary education 0 is
excellent and 0 is very good, 0 is good and 0 is poor. The difference in knowledge score
was tested and found statically not significant at 0.05 level (P-0.4777).
Table-7 Mean knowledge score of Staff Nurse related with Occupation.

48

S.No

Selected occupation variables

Frequency

Mean

Mean %

Housewife

15

72.86

72.86

Private

73

73

Government

Business

10

62.3

62.3

Finding related with occupation :- Table 10 indicates that, the housewife frequency is
15 and percentage is 72.86%, private frequency is 5 and percentage is 73%, government
frequency is 0 and percentage is 0%, business frequency is 10 and percentage is 62.3% ,
the highest mean percentage 73% of private occupation population and lowest mean
percentage is 0%.
Table-7A Chi- square test showing association between occupation and post test
knowledge score.
Selected
occupation
variable

Frequency of knowledge score

Housewife

Excellent

Very
Good
9

Good

Poor

Private

Government

Business

Chisquare

d.f

P- value

0.0000

9 degree of
freedom
1.0000

Finding related with occupation:- Table 9A indicates that, the house wife 6 is excellent
9 is very good, 0 is good and 0 is poor, in private occupation 2 is excellent 3 is very
49

good , 0 is good and 0is poor , in government 0 is excellent, 0 is very good , 0 is good and
0 is poor , in business 4 is excellent , 6 is very good , 0 is good and 0 is poor. The
difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not significant at 0.05 level
(P- 0.7290).
SUMMARY :This chapter deals with analysis, interpretation and discussion of data collection from 40
Staff Nurse at Rohilkhand Medical College & Hospital Bareilly. Discriptive and
inferential statistics were used for the analysis and associations between variables were
tested by computing Chi-square test. Bar graph and Pie diagrams were used to depict
some of the findings.

SUMMARY,

FINDINGS,

CONCLUSIONS,

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


50

IMPLICATIONS,

This chapter deals with the summary of the study undertaken and include its finding
and conclusion drawn. It also presents the implications, limitations and recommendations
with reference to the study.
SUMMARY
The students are the primary people who feel alone and younger people fail to achieve
his/her goal they are disturbed come in so many knowledge regarding infection control
measures. Hence the researcher felt the need to assess the knowledge of Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre and for this purpose questionnaire method was selected.
The presence of adequate knowledge among of students help in effective and immediate
knowledge among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding infection control
measures . There by reducing the crucial time lost in taking the Staff Nurse to nearest
health center. Educating patients help in providing holistic and quality care of illness.
Advancement of standard of management depends on factors, on the acceptance of
knowledge among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre about of a lifelong commitment to
continued learning.

To objective of the study were:


5) To assess the knowledge among staff nurse of operation regarding infection control
measures
51

6) To association t5he attitude regarding infection control measures in operation theatre


aspect with their sele5cted demographical variable that is age, sex ,religion , type of
family , qualification , and occupation
An extensive overview of the related literature, both research and non research was
carried out to knowledge regarding infection control measures.
Review of the related literature helped the investigator to have greater insight the area of
the study for rationalizing need for study and developing a conceptual framework of the
study and decide the methodology for present study.
In order to achieve the objective the pre experimental survey approach of was research
was used. For that collection, a questionnaire schedule was found to be appropriate.
A self administered structure questionnaire was devised to elicit relevant data regarding
learning needs and questionnaire knowledge among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre
regarding infection control measures. Validity was established by expert opinion. A series
of steps were taken to ensure relevance of items. A pilot study was conducted to establish
the feasibility for conducting the final study. Thus the tool was found to be valid, reliable
and feasible for the study.
The structured questioner schedule consisted of two parts:
Part I contained items relevant to demographic data,
Part II consisted of items relevant to assess the knowledge among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre regarding infection control measures.

52

The study was conducted in Rohilkhand College of Nursing Bareilly U.P. on obtaining
formal administrative approval from the medical and nursing superintendent of the
respective hospital, a total of 40 sample subjects were selected by a convenient sampling
technique from the knowledge among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding
infection control measures in the Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital Bareilly U.P.
during the period of study.
The questioner schedule was administered to assess the knowledge among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre regarding infection control measures. The tool was administered
personally to all the sample subjects. Descriptive study statistics were used for analysis of
the data. The analysis of data was arranged under the following sections:
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
PART-I DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
Description of sample characteristics in term of frequency and percentage distribution.
PART-II DATA ABOUT KNOWLEDGE AMONG STAFF NURSE OF OPERATION
THEATRE REGARDING INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES
Description of data was done using frequency and percentage distribution.

MAJOR STUDY FINDINDS


53

FINDINGS OF PART I
The Percentage distribution of infection control measures population according to wise
distribution of sample object as shown in table-1 reveals that majority of the population
that 0.0 Staff Nurse < 20 years of age, 6.66% Staff Nurse is 21-30 years of age, 46.66
Staff Nurse is 31-40 years of age and 0.0% Staff Nurse

41-50 and 46.66% Staff Nurse

>51 above age in years.


The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to sex 53.55% are male and
46.66% are female.
The Percentage distribution of Rohilkhand hospital population according to Religion
Hindu are 96.66%, Muslim are 0.0%, Sikh are 3.33% and Christian are 0.0% .
The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to education 30% of no formal
education, 50% of primary education, 20% of secondary education,0.0% of senior
secondary education and 0.0% of graduate .
The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to type of family 10% of nuclear
family, 63.33 % of joint family and 26.66 % of extended family.
The Percentage distribution of Staff Nurse according to occupation, 50% of Housewife,
16.66% are private occupation, 0.0% is government job and 33.33% are business men

FIENDING OF PART- II
Findings related with age in years: Table 4 indicates that, <19 year of age family
members of cancer patient frequency 0 and percentage is 00% , 21-30 year of age staff
54

nurse frequency is 02 and percentage is 66.5%, 31-40 age of staff nurse

frequency is

14 and percentage is 70.07%, 41-50 year of Staff Nurse frequency is 00 and percentage
00%,51to above staff nurse

frequency is 14 and mean percentage 74.71%. The age

highest mean percentage 74.71% and the lowest mean percentage is 00%.
Findings related with age in years: Table 4A indicates that, < 20 age group of Staff
Nurse

00 excellent 00 very good , 00 good and 00 poor , 21- 30 age group staff nurse

(ANM) 0 excellent 2 very good,0 good and 0 poor,31-40 age group 5 excellent 09 very
good ,0 good and 0 poor, 41-50 age group of staff nurse

0 excellent, 0very good, 0

good, 0 poor, 36-40 age group of TB patients 5 excellent, 11 good, 0 poor, and 51 above
7excellent ,7 very good,0 good and 0 poor.
Finding related with Sex:- Table 5A indicates that, the male 6 in excellent 10 is very
good and 0 good and 0 poor, the female 6 is excellent 8 is very good ,0 is good and 0
poor. The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not significant at
0.05 level (P-1.0000).
Finding related with religion :- Table 6 indicates that, the Hindu frequency is 29 and
percentage is 67.55%, Muslim frequency is 0 and percentage is 0 %. Sikh frequency is 1
and percentage 57 %, Christian frequency is 0 so percentage is also 0%.The highest mean
percentage 67.55% of and lowest percentage 0% of H. secondary .
Finding related with religion:- Table 6A indicates that, the hindu is 12 is excellent 17 is
very good , 0 is good and 0 is poor, muslim is excellent 0 is very good, 0 is good and 0
is poor . The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not significant
at 0.05 level (P-0.5415).

55

Finding related with family:- Table 5 indicates that, the nuclear family frequency is 3
and percentage is 77.33%, joint frequency is 19 and percentage is 71% and extended
frequency is8 and percentage is 72.37%.
Finding related with family :- Table 7A indicates that, the nuclear family population 2 is
excellent 1 is very good, 0 is good and 0 is poor, in joint family 12 is excellent 7 is very
good ,0 is good and 0 is poor, in extended family 3 is excellent 5 is very good,0 is good
and 0 is poor The difference in knowledge score was tested and found statically not
significant at 0.05 level (P-0.4016).
. Finding related with Education:- Table 9 indicates that, the no formal education
frequency is 9 and percentage is 70.11%, primary education frequency is 15 and
percentage is 71.86%, secondary frequency is 6 and percentage is 75.16%. ,secondary
education frequency is 6 and percentage is 75.16%, senior secondary frequency is 00 and
percentage 00% and graduate frequency is 00 and percentage is 00% and the highest
mean percentage is 75.16 of

population and lowest 70.11% mean knowledge score

percentage of education population

CONCLUSION
In this we conclude that, 73.33% of students had adequate knowledge to recognize
infection control measures.
About 56.66% among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre had knowledge about infection
control measures.
Further it was concluded that 33.33% Staff Nurse know about infection control measures
At last it only 3.33% Staff Nurse know his/her rights.
IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY
Finding of the study revealed that assessment of knowledge among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre is essential to update knowledge and skills for providing effective and

56

efficient patients. The findings of this study have therefore several implications, which
are directed towards regarding Infection Control Measures.
.
NURSING PRACTICE
Identification of the knowledge among Staff Nurse of Operation Theatre about Infection
Control Measures should be done in various settings of practice and homes. Thus
motivation needs to be maintained by providing education to students regarding Infection
Control Measures.

NURSING ADMINISTRATION
Nursing Administration need to take initiative for organizing the health education
program related to Infection Control Measures. Appropriate teaching learning material
and audio-visual aids should be made available for the education among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre.
Standard need to be developed in nursing to ensure quality nursing care which will
motivate of Staff Nurse to gain knowledge regarding Infection Control Measures.
.
NURSING EDUCATION
The nurse educator should be oriented, guided and motivated in the health education
program about Infection Control Measures.
.
NURSING RESEARCH
The finding imply that the nurse researcher should be able to conduct similar studies Staff
Nurse of Operation Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures. He/she should find out
the highest priorities areas of learning need and co-ordinate with the students and
administrator to organize the health education program regarding Infection Control
Measures.

57

RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations for further study
Similar study can be conducted no larger samples with different demographic
characteristics for a wider generalization.
Different approaches may be applied for similar study to identify the learning
need from different source.
A further study could be conducted to know the views among Staff Nurse of
Operation Theatre regarding Infection Control Measure.
On the basis of the findings an assessment among Staff Nurse of Operation
Theatre regarding Infection Control Measures.
Could be planned, conducted and evaluated to find out the effectiveness of the
program on experimental basis.

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