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Some endocrine Uworld

Xanthelasmas, a type of xanthoma, are yellowish macules/papules found on the medial eyelids. They
are dermal accumulations of macrophages containing cholesterol & triglycerides, and are generally
associated w/ a primary or secondary hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia. An LDL receptor abnormality is
the most common cause.

ADH is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus.

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is due to inadequate secretion (central) or renal action (nephrogenic) of ADH.
Administration of ADH distinguishes central from nephrogenic DI. Damage to the posterior pituitary
gland may produce only transient central DI, whereas damage to the hypothalamic nuclei often causes
permanent central DI.
Leuprolide is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone adonist that causes a transient increase in pituitary
LH secretion, which leads to a rise in testosteroe levels. However, continuous use of leuprolide
suppresses LH release and leads to a decrease in testosterone production.
Pituitary tumors can present w/ headaches (mass effect), bitemporal hemianopsia (compression of
optic chiasm), & hypopituitarism (compression of surrounding pituitary). Additional psysiologic effects
depend on secretion of specific hormones. Prolactin secreting adenomas can cause galactorrhea and
amenorrhea in women. In men, they present w/ hypogonadism.
LH stimulates the release of testosterone from the leydig cells of the testes; FSH stimulates the
release of inhibin B from the sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone and inhibin B
induce negative feedback on LH and FSH production, respectively.
[If FSH receptors are permanently inactive->Inhibin B levels are decrease]