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6/7/2013

PSYCHROMETRY
Part 2

BASIC MOIST AIR PROCESSES

COOLING
COOLING & DEHUMIDIFICATION
ADIABATIC AIR MIXING

6/7/2013

COOLING

COOLING OF MOIST AIR


Without loss or gain of moisture,
cooling is represented by a horizontal
line on the psychrometric chart.
Ditto with
heating.

COOLING

COOLING

6/7/2013

WHICH COOLING COIL?


Air-Cooled System

Condensing Unit (Outdoor)

Vapor Compression Cycle

Compressor

Refrigerants in pipe
Evaporator Unit

Cooler Air

Air

WHICH COOLING COIL?


Water-Cooled System

To/From Chillers and Pumps


ChWS

ChWR

Chilled Water in pipe

Cooling Coil in AHU or FCU

Air

Cooler Air

6/7/2013

COOLING

COOLING OF MOIST AIR


Cooling of Moist Air
In usual cases in Malaysia (RH: 70-90%),
seldom can get cooling without condensation.
It occurs because the cooling coil temperature
is below the dew point temperature

COOLING

COOLING OF MOIST AIR


Relative Humidity (%) For Meteorological Stations in
Malaysia For : Thursday, 30 September 2010
Station ID Station
48603
ALOR SETAR
48642
BATU EMBUN
48670
BATU PAHAT
48601
BAYAN LEPAS
96441
BINTULU
48602
BUTTERWORTH
48632
CAMERON HIGHLANDS
48604
CHUPING
48617
GONG KEDAK
48625
IPOH
96420
KAPIT
96467
KENINGAU
48672
KLUANG
48615
KOTA BHARU
96471
KOTA KINABALU

08:00 09:00
92.0
90.0
96.0
88.0
91.0
83.0
90.0
82.0
93.0
91.0
94.0
89.0
96.0
97.0
95.0
92.0
94.0
90.0
89.0
88.0
92.0
86.0
91.0
87.0
97.0
91.0
85.0
78.0
88.0
81.0

http://www.met.gov.my

6/7/2013

COOLING

COOLING OF MOIST AIR


Energy Balance:

m& a h2 + Q& = m& a h1


Enthalpy

h1 = ha1 + hv1
(per unit mass of dry air)

COOLING

COOLING OF MOIST AIR


Equation for Cooling:

Q& = m& a (h2 h1 )


OR

Q& = m& a C p (T2 T1 )

Cp = Cpa + Cpv = 0.245 Btu/(Ibma.F)

6/7/2013

COOLING
&
DEHUMIDIFYING

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


Cooling and Dehumidifying
Moist air that passes through a cooled
surface that is below the dew point
temperature will have condensation.
Normally occurs in Air Handling Units
(AHU), when air passes through the
cooling coil.

6/7/2013

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING

Cooling & Dehumidifying

Cooling & Dehumidifying


1
3: dehumidification.

3
2: cooling

6/7/2013

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


Energy Balance:

m& a ,1h1 = Q& + m& a , 2 h2 + m& w hw


Mass Balance

m& a ,11 = m& w + m& a , 2 2


Heat Transfer Equation:

Q& = m& a (h1 h2 ) m& a (1 2 ) hw

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


Cooling and dehumidifying involve:
latent heat transfer
&
&
&
sensible heat transfer Q = Qs + Ql
In cooling and dehumidifying:
Latent heat transfer rate is related to
the decrease in humidity ratio.
Sensible heat transfer rate is related to
decrease in dry bulb temperature

6/7/2013

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


Sensible Heat:

Q& s = m& a C p (T1 T2 )


Latent Heat

Q& l = m& a (1 2 )h fg

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


With respect to psychrometric chart:

Latent Heat

Q& s = m& a (h1 h3 )

Sensible Heat

Q& l = m& a (h3 h2 )

6/7/2013

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING


SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR

Q& s
SHF = &
Q

Own
Reading
refer to the protractor

Sign convention:
Heat transfer from the air is negative.
Heat transfer to the air is positive

SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOROwn


Reading

Cooling and dehumidifying means both


sensible and latent heat transfer are
away from the air, thus both are
negatives, and SHF becomes positive
When air is being cooled sensibly, but
large latent heat is gained, SHF will be
negative if the magnitude of ql is larger
than qs.

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