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Sprinting

Speed Training
Sprint Training
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The sprints include the following track events: 100 metres, 200 metres, 400
metres, 4 x 100 metre relay and the 4 x 400 metre relay. Although the sprints
are events in themselves, the ability to sprint is an important weapon in an
athlete's armoury for many track and field events and many sports.

SprintTechnique

Article Library
Anatomy & Physiology
Coaching
Fitness Development

Guidance on the sprint technique takes the form of a checklist, for each phase
of the sprint, of points for the coach to monitor. The information provided
here is for athletes using starting blocks. For details of standing or crouch
starts see the sprints start page.

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Coach Training

Blocks correctly positioned in the lane (200 metres/400 metres at a


tangent to the curve)
Correct distances from the start line to the front and rear blocks
Foot blocks at the correct angles
Blocks firmly located in the track
Athlete relaxed and focused on the race

Onyourmarks

Power Training

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Feet correctly located in the blocks


Fingers behind the line
Fingers form a high bridge
Hands evenly positioned slightly wider than
shoulder width
Shoulders back and vertically above or slightly
forward of the hands
Arms straight but not locked at the elbows
Head and neck in line with the spine
Eyes focused on the track (1 to 2 metres ahead)
Gentle breathing
Face and neck muscles relaxed

Set

Hold the breath


Hips rise slowly to a position above the shoulders
Head and neck in line with the spine
Eyes focused on the track one or two metres
ahead
Shoulders vertically above or slightly forward of
the hands
Front leg knee angle approx. 90 degrees
Rear leg knee angle approx. 120 degrees
Feet pushed hard back into the blocks

BoftheBang
Exhale
Drive the arms hard
Extend the whole body so there is a straight line through the head,
spine and extended rear leg - body approx. 45 degree angle to the
ground
Eyes Focused on the track 2 to 3 metres
Run out of the blocks - do not step or jump out of the blocks
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Driving Test
Fitness Training

DrivePhase(0-30m)
Drive the back leg forward keeping the heel low
until the shin is approx 45 to the ground and
then drive the foot down (see picture to the
right) hitting the ground just behind the body's
centre of mass
Over the next 7-8 strides (approx. 10 metres)
the angle of shin of the front leg, before it is
driven down, will increase by 6-7/stride so
that by the 7-8 stride the shin is vertical
Over the first 7-8 strides the whole body angle will increase from 45 to
approx. 30 degrees - approx. 2/step
After the first 7-8 strides you will be at approx.70% of your max
velocity
Eyes focused on the track to keep low to allow the build up of speed
Forward lean of the whole body with a straight line through the head,
spine and extended rear leg
Face and neck muscles relaxed (no tension)
Shoulders held back and relaxed, square in the lane at all times
Arms move with a smooth forward backward action - not across the
body - drive back with elbows - hands move from approx. shoulder
height to hips
Elbows maintained at 90 degrees (angle between upper and lower arm)
Hands Relaxed - fingers loosely curled - thumb uppermost
Legs - fully extended rear leg pushing off the track with the toes - drive
the leg forward with a high knee action with the knee pointing forward
and with the heel striking under the backside (not the back of the
backside as the knee is low and pointing down to the ground) - extend
lower leg forward of knee (rear leg drive will propel the foot forward of
the knee) with toes turned up - drive the foot down in a claw action with
a ball of foot/toe strike on the track vertically below the knee - pull the
ground under you into a full rear leg extension - (elbow drive assisting
the whole action)
On the ball of foot/toes at all times - feet pointing forward straight down
the lane
Elbow drive commences just before rear leg drive
Fast leg action, good stride length allowing continual acceleration
Appearance of being smooth and relaxed but driving hard with elbows
and legs
The drive is maintained for first 20-30 metres (approx.16-17 strides) at
the end of which the body is tall with a slight forward lean
At the end of this phase you will be at approx. 90% of your max velocity

StridePhase(30-60m)

Smooth transitions from drive phase to stride phase


Eyes focused at the end of the lane - tunnel vision
Head in line with the spine - held high and square
Face relaxed - jelly jaw - no tension - mouth relaxed
Chin down, not out
Shoulders held down (long neck), back (not hunched), relaxed and
square in the lane at all times
Smooth forward backward action of the arms- not across the body drive back with elbows - brush vest with elbows - hands move from
shoulder height to hips for men and from bust height to hips for the
ladies
Elbows held at 90 degrees at all times (angle between upper arm and
lower arm)
Hands relaxed - fingers loosely curled - thumb uppermost
Hips tucked under - slight forward rotation of the hip with forward leg
drive to help extend the stride
Legs - fully extended rear leg pushing off the track with the toes - drive
the leg forward with a high knee action with the knee pointing forward
and with the heel striking under the backside (not the back of the
backside as the knee is low and pointing down to the ground) - extend
lower leg forward of knee (rear leg drive will propel the foot forward of
the knee) with toes turned up, stepping over the knee of the lead leg drive the foot down in a claw action with a ball of foot/toe strike on the

track just behind the body's centre of mass - pull the ground under you
into a full rear leg extension - (elbow drive assisting the whole action)
On the ball of foot/toes with the feet pointing forward straight down the
lane
No signs of straining or tension in the face, neck and shoulders
Appearance of being Tall, Relaxed and Smooth with maximum Drive
See the sprint technique photo sequence
At or close to the end of this phase you will have reached your max
velocity

LiftPhase(60m+)
Around 50-60 metres we will have reached max velocity and now we start to
slow down. Technique as the Stride Phase but with emphasis on:

High knee action (prancing)


Leg action fast and light as if running on hot surface
Fast arms - more urgency
Hands slightly higher at the front

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CoachingNotes
As you monitor the athlete's technique look for:
a Tall action
This means erect, running on the ball of foot/toes (not heels) with
full extension of the back, hips and legs as opposed to 'sitting
down' when running
a Relaxed action
This means move easily, as opposed to tensing and 'working hard'
to move. Let the movements of running flow. Keep the hands
relaxed, the shoulders low and the arm swing rhythmically by the
sides.
a Smooth action
This means float across the top of the ground. All motion should
be forward, not up and down. Leg action should be efficient and
rhythmic. The legs should move easily under the body like a wheel
rolling smoothly along.
Drive
This means push from an extended rear leg, rear elbow drive with
a high forward knee drive followed by a strike and claw foot action
just behind the body's centre of gravity.

SprintStarts
[1]

Canadian researchers, Sleivert and Taingahue (2004) , investigated the


relationship between sprint start performance and selected conditioning
training. When a sprinter leaves the blocks, the drive against the blocks and
the first few steps rely on concentric muscular strength. A concentric muscle
contraction occurs when a muscle shortens as it contracts.
A squat jump is an example of concentric muscle contraction which simulates
the sprint start. 4 sets of 3 repetitions with a loading of 30-70% of 1RM can
be used to develop maximal concentric force.
Lower into the squat position, hold for 1 to 2 seconds so as switch off the
stretch/reflex, stretch/shortening cycle and to allow for a more powerful
contraction. Developing concentric muscle contraction will help the athlete's
sprint start and acceleration over the first 4 or 5 strides.

Rightfootforwardorleft?
A question often asked with regards starting blocks is "which foot should be in
[2]
the rear block?" A team of researchers, Eikenberry et al. (2008) , discovered
that when the:
left foot was in the rear block, reaction time was better
right foot was in the rear block movement and total response time was
better - time from stimulus (gun) until the end of the movement
The results suggest that the right foot in the rear block will produce a more
powerful drive from the blocks.
Perhaps a way forward would be to evaluate the athlete's times over the first
ten metres, for both start positions, to determine which produces the best
acceleration phase for the athlete.

StrideLength
The initial foot strike out of the blocks should be around 50-60cm from the
start line. The stride length should then progressively increase on each stride
by 10-15cm until they reach their optimal stride length of around 2.30
metres.
If the athlete lands at 50cm from the start line and increases their stride
length by 10cm/stride then they will reach their optimal stride length around
their 19th stride - approx 26m from the start line. If they were able to
maintain their 2.30m stride length then they would cross the finish line on
their 51st stride.
If the athlete lands at 60cm from the start line and increases their stride
length by 15cm/stride then they will reach their optimal stride length around
their 13th stride - approx. 20m from the start line. If they were able to
maintain their 2.30m stride length then they would cross the finish line on
their 49th stride.
Rehearsal of this acceleration phase should be conducted regularly. Markers
can be placed at the side of the track to assist the athlete to get the feel of
the increasing stride length and acceleration. The marker settings for an
athlete who lands at 60cm from the start line and then increases their stride
length by 15cm/stride are as follows: 0.60m, 1.35m, 2.25m, 3.30m, 4.50m,
5.85m, 7.35m, 9.00m, 10.80m, 12.75m, 14.85m, 17.10m. (Saunders 2004)
[3]
.

StrideFrequency(StrikeRate)
The time of a stride (ST) comprises of the time you are in the air (AT) plus the
time you are in contact with the ground (GT). Elite sprinters typically have a
GT of 0.09 secs and a AT of 0.11 secs giving them a ST=0.2 secs. The stride
frequency of an elite athlete is in the range of 4.8 to 5.2 strides per second
(1sec 0.2sec = 5 strides). The difference between an elite and an average
sprinter is not greater strength but reduced ground contact time (GT)
achieved with developed skill and motor co-ordination.

AccelerationTraining
[4]

Zafeiridis et al. (2005) looked at weighted sledge training and their effect on
sprint acceleration and they concluded that training with a weighted sledge
will help improve the athlete's acceleration phase. The session used in the
research was 4 x 20m and 4 x 50m maximal effort runs.
[5]

Lockie et al. (2003)


investigated the effects of various loadings and
concluded that when using a sledge a light weight of approx. 10-15% of body
weight should be used so that the dynamics of the acceleration technique are
not negatively effected.
Starts over 10-20 metres performed on a slight incline of around five degrees
have an important conditioning effect on the calf, thigh and hip muscles (they
have to work harder because of the incline to produce movement) that will
improve sprint acceleration.

SprintingSpeed
Downhill sprinting is a method of developing sprinting speed following the
acceleration phase. A hill with a maximum of a 15 decline is most suitable.
Use 40 metres to 60 metres to build up to full speed and then maintain the
speed for a further 30 metres. A session could comprise of 2 to 3 sets of 3 to
6 repetitions. The difficulty with this method is to find a suitable hill with a
safe surface.

Over speed work could be carried out on the track when there are prevailing
strong winds - run with the wind behind you.
[6]

Research by Mero et al. (1998)


indicates that an elite sprint athlete's foot
contact time with the track is 0.08 to 0.1 seconds so it is important with
plyometric training that each ground contact (approx. 1/10 of a second) is
made as dynamically as possible. Bounding, hopping and depth jumps from
low heights (30cm) can play a role in speeding up ground contact times,
triggering the appropriate neural pathways and recruiting fast twitch muscle
fibres. Example sessions for a mature athlete are:
4 x 10 bounds with a 20m run out
4 x 10 speed hops
Depth jumps off 40cm box:
4 x 4 step off, land and jump for height
4 x 4 step off, land and jump for distance
Repetitions, sets and recovery should be adjusted so as to focus on the quality
of execution not quantity of executions.

BendRunningTechnique
In the 200m and 400m set up your blocks so as to form a straight line
(tangent) to the inside line of your lane allowing you to initially accelerate in a
straight line before moving into bend running. When running the curve you
slightly twist your shoulders so that the right arm is coming across the body
to mid line, the left arm is going straight back to front above your inside lane
line. Your left foot is landing on the ground about 6 inches from the line,
remember that if you touch the lane line you will be disqualified. The right
foot comes across the front of the body landing in front of the left foot. You
will automatically lean into the curve to counteract the inertia which is trying
to pull you to your right.

TrainingPrograms
A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the
athlete and take into consideration many factors: gender, age, strengths,
weaknesses, objectives, training facilities etc. As all athletes have different
needs a single program suitable for all athletes is not possible.

TrainingPathway

AthletesintheEventGroupstage
The following is a basic annual training program suitable for athletes in the
Event Group development stages for the sprint and hurdle events.
Sprint and hurdle training program

AthletesintheEventstage
The following are event specific annual training programs suitable for athletes
in the Event development stage:
100 metres
200 metres

300 metres
400 metres

TrainingMethods
The various forms of training include:
Speed
Speed endurance
Specific endurance - consists of intervals at your goal pace, but not so
long as to replicate the entire race
Special endurance - the aim is to develop the capacity for maintaining
maximal or near maximal velocity
Intensive tempo - runs completed at 75-95% effort with the aim of
overloading the lactic energy system
Extensive tempo - slower version of intensive tempo where we try to
avoid the build up of lactic
Resisted sprints - uphill running, running with a sledge or tyre, running
into a headwind
Assisted sprints - downhill running, running with the wind

DevelopingtheEnergySystems
[7]

The following table, Rogers (2000) , indicates the types of training exercises
that can be used to develop the sprinter's energy systems and can be used to
guide you in the preparation of training programs.
Type of
training

Distance

Aerobic Power

Extensive
Tempo

>100m

60-70% 30-90 sec

14003000m

Aerobic
Capacity

Extensive
Tempo

>200m

70-80% 30-90 sec

14002000m

Aerobic &
Anaerobic

Intensive
Tempo

>80m

80-90%

30-120
sec

800-1800m

Anaerobic

Speed

20-80m

90-95%

3-5 min

300-800m

Alactic

Speed

20-80m

95100%

3-5 min

300-500m

Anaerobic

Speed
Endurance

30-80m

90-95%

1-2 min

300-800m

Alactic

Speed
Endurance

30-80m

95100%

2-3 min

300-800m

Anaerobic

Speed
Endurance

80-150m 90-95%

5-6 min

300-900m

Glycolytic

Speed
Endurance

80-150m

95100%

6-10 min

300-600m

Anaerobic

Special
Endurance

150300m

90-95%

10-12
min

600-1200m

Glycolytic

Special
Endurance

150300m

95100%

12-15
min

300-900m

Lactic acid
tolerance

Special
Endurance

300600m

90-95%

15-20
min

600-900m

Energy System

Speed

Total
distance

Recovery

WeightTraining
The following is an example weight training program for a sprinter.
Phase

General

Loading

3 sets 12 RM

Power Cleans &


Snatch
3 sets 10RM
Specific
Other exercises
3 sets of 5 reps
at 10RM

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Squats
Step Ups
Bench Press
Dumbbell Arm
swings

Lunges
Single leg
squats
Bench Press
Power Cleans

Squats
Step Ups
Bench
Press
Snatch

Power Cleans
Bench Press
Step Ups
Dumbbell Arm
swings

Snatch
Bench Press
Single leg
squats
Lunges with
dumbbells
Dumbbell Arm
swings

Squats
Bench
Press

Competition

3 sets of 5 reps
at 8RM

Power Cleans
Bench Press
Step Ups
Dumbbell Arm
swings

Snatch
Bench Press
Single leg
squats
Lunges with
dumbbells
Dumbbell Arm
swings

Rest

Analysisofrunningthe100metres
[9]

The following table (Arnold 1992) provides the reaction time and 20 metres
split times for the men's 100 metres final at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992.
Athlete

Reaction 20m 40m 60m 80m 100m

Christie (UK)

0.139

2.93 4.74 6.48 8.22 9.96

Fredericks (NAM)

0.138

2.91 4.74 6.50 8.26 10.02

Mitchell (USA)

0.143

2.93 4.76 6.52 8.28 10.04

Surin (Can)

0.124

2.89 4.72 6.50 8.28 10.09

Burrell (USA)

0.165

2.99 4.82 6.58 8.32 10.10

Adeniken (NGR)

0.183

3.01 4.84 6.58 8.34 10.12

Stewart (JAM)

0.154

2.95 4.78 6.56 8.36 10.22

Ezinwa (NGR)

0.172

2.99 4.84 6.62 8.42 10.26

Evaluationofspeed
The following table provides the speed (metres/second) of each athlete at
each 20 metre point. You will note that, with the exception of Burrell, the
athletes achieved their maximum speed at 60 metres.
Athlete

Start 20m 40m

60m

80m 100m

Christie (UK)

6.83 11.05 11.49 11.49 11.49

Fredericks (NAM)

6.87 10.93 11.36 11.36 11.36

Mitchell (USA)

6.83 10.93 11.36 11.36 11.36

Surin (Can)

6.92 10.93 11.24 11.24 11.05

Burrell (USA)

6.69 10.93 11.36 11.49 11.24

Adeniken (NGR)

6.64 10.93 11.49 11.36 11.24

Stewart (JAM)

6.78 10.93 11.24 11.11 10.75

Ezinwa (NGR)

6.69 10.81 11.24 11.11 10.87

6.78 10.93 11.35 11.32 11.17

Average

If you plot the average speed for these athletes at the 20 metre marks you
find that maximum speed is achieved around 60 metres and from this point
speed declines to the 100 metre point when it is approximately the same
speed as that achieved at 50 metres.

The objective now for coaches and athletes is to maintain acceleration through
to 80 metres and reduce the decline in speed from 80m to 100m.

17yearslater-100metresSplitTimes2009
The following table provides the reaction time and 20 metres split times for
the men's 100 metres final at the World Championships in Berlin in 2009.
Athlete

Reaction 20m 40m 60m 80m 100m

Bolt (JAM)

0.146

2.89 4.64 6.31 7.92 9.58

Gay (USA)

0.144

2.92 4.70 6.39 8.02 9.71

Powell (JAM)

0.134

2.91 4.71 6.42 8.10 9.84

Bailey (ANT)

0.129

2.92 4.73 6.48 8.18 9.93

Thompson (TRI)

0.119

2.90 4.71 6.45 8.17 9.93

Chambers (UK)

0.123

2.93 4.75 6.50 8.22 10.00

Burns (TRI)

0.165

2.94 4.76 6.52 8.24 10.00

Patton (USA)

0.149

2.96 4.85 6.65 8.42 10.34

Evaluationofspeed
The following table provides the speed (metres/second) of each athlete at
each 20 metre point. You will note now that all the athletes achieved their
maximum speed at 80m.
Athlete

Start 20m 40m

60m

80m 100m

Bolt (JAM)

6.92 11.43 11.98 12.42 12.05

Gay (USA)

6.85 11.24 11.83 12.27 11.83

Powell (JAM)

6.87 11.11 11.70 11.90 11.49

Bailey (ANT)

6.85 11.05 11.43 11.76 11.43

Thompson (TRI)

6.90 11.05 11.49 11.63 11.36

Chambers (UK)

6.83 10.99 11.43 11.63 11.24

Burns (TRI)

6.80 10.99 11.36 11.63 11.36

Patton (USA)

6.76 10.58 11.11 11.30 10.42

Average

6.85 11.05 11.54 11.82 11.40

If you plot the average speed for these athletes at the 20 metre marks you
find that maximum speed is now achieved around 80 metres and from this
point speed declines to the 100 metre point when it is approximately the
same speed as that achieved at 50-60m metres.

The objective now for coaches and athletes is to maintain acceleration through
to 90 metres and reduce the decline in speed from 90m to 100m.

UsainBolt2012LondonOlympics
The following table provides the 20 metre split times in the final of the 100
metres for Usain Bolt.
Athlete
Bolt (JAM)

Start 20m 40m 60m 80m 100m


0

2.93 4.69 6.35 7.96 9.63

The following table provides the speed (metres/second) at each 20 metre


point.
Athlete
Bolt (JAM)

Start 20m 40m


0

60m

80m 100m

6.83 11.36 12.05 12.42 11.98

If you plot the speed at the 20 metre marks you find that maximum speed is
still achieved around 80 metres and from this point speed declines to the 100
metre point when it is approximately the same speed as that achieved at 5060m metres.

EvaluationTests
The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the sprint athlete's
development:

10 stride test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes


150 metres Endurance test for 100 metres athletes
250 metres Endurance test for 200 metres athletes
30 metre acceleration test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
40 yard sprint test to predict your potential 400 metre time
400 metre control tests for 400 metres athletes
400 metre drop off test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
60 metre speed test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
Balke VO2 max test for endurance
Cooper VO2 max test for endurance
Flying 30 metres speed test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
Leg Elastic Strength test
Quadrathon an excellent all round test
RAST - Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test
Standing Long Jump test
Strength test - upper body (Bench Press)
Strength test - lower body (Leg Press)
Sit Ups test - abdominal strength
Sit and Reach test - lower back and hamstring test
Vertical Jump test

SprintTimePredictors
Based on test results it is possible to predict potential times for a sprint event.
The available sprint time predictors are:
Predict your 30m to 100m, 120m, 150m, 200m and 250m times based
on your current time for any of these distances
Predict your 150m, 200m, 300m, 400m, 500m and 600m times based
on your current time for any of these distances

BoundingControls
[8]

Dick (1987) provides a rough guide linking 3 Bounds (from a standing start)
and Standing Long Jump to competition performance.
Target Time

Standing Long
Jump

3 Bounds

10.70 - 10.2.0

2.90- 3.20

10.00 - 9.20

11.10 - 10.71

2.70 - 2.89

9.19 - 8.50

11.70 - 11.11

2.60 - 2.69

8.49 - 7.90

12.20 - 11.71

2.50 - 2.59

7.89 - 7.50

12.70 - 12.21

2.40 - 2.49

7.49 - 7.20

13.2 - 12.71

2.30 - 2.39

7.19 - 6.80

FreeCalculator
Free Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that you can download and use on your
computer.
100 metres to 800 metres time predictions based on a 100 metres to
800 metres time

RulesofCompetition
The competition rules for this event can be obtained from:
International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)
British Athletics

References
1. SLEVERT, G. and TAINGAHUE, M. (2004) The relationship between
maximal jump-squat power and sprint acceleration in athletes. Eur J
Appl Physiol., 91 (1), p. 46-52
2. EIKENBERRY, A. et al. (2008) Starting with the "right" foot minimizes
sprint start time. Acta Psychol (Amst), 127 (2), p. 495-500
3. SAUNDERS, R. (2004) Five components of the 100m sprint. Modern
Athlete and Coach, 42 (4) p. 23-24
4. ZAFEIRIDIS, A. et al. (2005) The effects of resisted sled-pulling sprint
training on acceleration and maximum speed performance. J Sports Med
Phys Fitness, 45(3), p. 284-290
5. LOCKIE, R.G. et al. (2003) Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint
kinematics in field-sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res., 17 (4), p. 760767
6. MERO et al. (1992) Biomechanics of sprint running. Sports Med, 13, p.
266-274
7. ROGERS, J.L. (2000) USA Track and Field Coaching Manual. Champaign
IL: Human Kinetics
8. DICK, F. (1987) Sprints and Relays. 5th ed. London: BAAB. p. 24
9. ARNOLD, M. (1992) 100 Metres Men. Athletics Coach, 26 (4), p. 11

PageReference
If you quote information from this page in your work then the reference for
this page is:
MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Sprinting [WWW] Available from:
https://www.brianmac.co.uk/sprints/index.htm [Accessed 22/10/2016]

RelatedPages
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:

Sprint Technique
Sprint Photo Sequence
Sprint Warm up Drills
Sprint Starts
Setting up the Starting Blocks
Sprint Relay
The effect of altitude and wind speed on sprint times
100 metres Training
200 metres Training
300 metres Training
400 metres Training
Planning the Training - 6 stages of development
Find a Coach
Sport/Event Specific Articles

AssociatedBooks
The following books provide more information related to this topic:
Sprints and Relays, F. W. Dick
Sprinting and Hurdling, P. Warden
How to Teach Track Events, M. Arnold

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