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400KV PROTECTION

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS
OF
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

ONE & HALF BREAKER DESCRIPTION

LINE-1

2-52 CB

TIE BAY (2ND BAY ) FOR FEEDER-1 & 2

1-52 CB

MAIN BAY(1ST BAY) FOR FEEDER-1

BUS-1

3-52 CB
BUS-2

MAIN BAY(3RD BAY) FOR FEEDER-2

LINE-2

1. IN THIS TWO BUSES ARE PRIOVIDED.


2. THESE TWO BUSES ARE INTER CONNECTED BY THREE BREAKERS.
3. THEY ARE DESIGNATED AS 1-52 CB, 2-52 CB, 3-52 CB.
4. LINE-1 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB.
5. LINE-2 IS CONNECTED IN BETWEEN 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB.
6. LINE-1 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e
A. VIA BUS-1 & 1-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-2, 3-52 CB & 2-52 CB
7. LINE-2 HAVING TWO FEEDING PATHS i.e
A. VIA BUS-2 & 3-52 CB
B. VIA BUS-1, 1-52 CB & 2-52 CB
8. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-1 THE 1-52CB AND 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.
9. FOR INTURUPTING LINE-2 THE 3-52CB & 2-52CB IS TO BE TRIPPED.
10. FOR ANY PROBLEM IN LINE-1 OR LINE-2 THE MIDDLE BREAKER(2-52 CB)
MUST TRIP.
11. NORMALLY IN ALL TYPES OF BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS ONE BREAKER
IS SUFFICIENT FOR ONE FEEDER.
12. HERE TWO FEEDERS ARE CONTROLLING BY THREE BREAKERS.
13. SO THESE TWO FEEDERS CONTROLLING BY THREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
IT IS CALLED ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM.
14. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-1 & LINE-1 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-1.
15. THE BAY BETWEEN LINE-1 & LINE-2 IS CALLED TIE BAY FOR FEEDER-1 & 2.
16. THE BAY BETWEEN BUS-2 & LINE-2 IS CALLED MAIN BAY FOR FEEDER-2.

GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU


ADE/MRT/ T&C/400KV SS/
O/O CE/400KV / L&SS/ VS
APTRANSCO, HYDERABAD

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(3CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3-CT
3
P1

1-89A

3-89A

3
3

2-CT

2-89A 2-52CB
1-89L

P1

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(4CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3-CT
3
P1

1-89A

3-89A

P2

2-89A
1-89L

P1

2-BCT

2-ACT

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89T

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(5CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3 3-CT

P1

1-89A

3-89A

2-CT
P1

2-89A

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L
1L-CT

3-89T
P2

3P1

P2
P1

3 3T-CT

LINE 1
T/F-1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89
P2
P1

3-89

3 1A-CT

3A-CT

1-52CB
P2

P2

3 P1

3-52CB

3 1B-CT

3B-CT

P1

1-89A

P1

3-89A

P2

2-89A

P1

2B-CT

2A-CT

1-89L

P2

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89T

T/F-1
LINE 1

ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM


(6CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
P2

3-52CB

3 1-CT

3-CT

P1

1-89A

P1

2B-CT

P2

2-89A

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B

1-89L

3 1L-CT
P1
LINE 1

P1

3-89A
2A-CT

P2

P2

3-89T

3T-CT

P2

3 P1

T/F-1

PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME


86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB

TRIP COIL-1
3-52CB

TRIP COIL-2

TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2

BUS-1
86
ABB
-B
REL521
MTR/
MAIN
HSTR
-1

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

86-A : GROUP-A MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY


86-B : GROUP-B MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY

1
1-52CB

3
3
3

CORES
3
4

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

MAIN-2/BACKUP PROTECTION

BUS

METERING

BUS BAR CHECKUP PROT

1-89
1

P2

BUS BAR PROTECTION

3
3
3
3

SINGLE BUS SYSTEM


1-CT
5
P1

1-89L

1-CVT

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 3CT METHOD
1 CT
2 CT
3 CT
BUSBAR-1
2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CORE 1
( PS)

CORE 2
( PS)

CORE 3

PROTECTION

CONNECTED TO MAIN PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMER

BUSBAR-1 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO BACKUP PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
FOR TRANSFORMER

SPARE

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR AT/F

( 0.5 / 0.2)

CORE 4

METERING & ENERGY METER FOR FEEDER

SPARE

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-2 PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR FOR
FEEDER

BUSBAR-2 CHECKUP
PROTECTION (SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND


CONNECTED TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR FEEDER

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

(0.5 / 0.2)

CORE 5
( PS)

CORE 6
( PS)

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 3CTs METHOD)

BUS BAR PROTECTION

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

LINE PROTECTION
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB
P2

3-52CB
CORES
12 3 4 5

1-CT
2-CT

3
3
3
3
3

.
.
.

LINE 1

1-89L

METERING
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

CORES
2 3 4 5

3
3
3
3
3
3

2-89A
1

1-89A

2-52CB

3
3
3

P1

1-CVT

P1

P2

2-89B

3-89A
3-89T

T/F-1

1-52CB

3-CT

2-89A

2-52CB

1-89L
3

P1

P2

P1

3-89A
P22-89B

3-89T

LINE 1

METERING

3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3

1-89A

CORES
2 3 4 5

2-CT

3
3
3
3
3

CORES
2 3 4 5 6

3-52CB

MAIN-2 PROTECTION
LV CT

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

T/F-1

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

3-89

BUS BAR PROTECTION

3
3
3

BUS-2

1-89

3
3
3

BUS-1

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 3CTs METHOD)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 4CT METHOD
1- CT
2-BCT
2-ACT
3-CT
CT SECONDARY
CT SECONDARY
SPARE
SPARE
CORE-1
CORE IS
CORE IS
(PS)

CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

CORE-2

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

(PS)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

CORE-4
(PS)

CORE-5
(PS)

CONNECTED TO
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

SPARE

SPARE

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS & ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES ARE


CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND CONNECTED TO
MAIN PROTECTION

BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

3-89

1-52CB

CORES
2 3 4

1-CT
2B-CT

1-89A

P1

3
3
3
3
3

2-52CB

2-89A

.
.
.

LINE 1

1-89L

METERING
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

CORES
2 3 4

3-89A

3
3
3
3
3

P2

3-52CB

BUS BAR PROTECTION

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 4CTs METHOD)

3
3
3

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

LINE PROTECTION

1-CVT

P1

P2

2-89B

3-89T

T/F-1

1-52CB

1-89L
3

2-52CB

P2

P2

P1

3-89A
2-89B

P1

3-89T

LINE 1

METERING

3
3
3

2-89A

3
3
3
3
3

1-89A

CORES
2 3 4

2A-CT

CORES
4 3 2

3-CT

3
3
3
3
3

3-52CB

MAIN-2 PROTECTION
LV CT

MAIN-1 PROTECTION

.
.

T/F-1

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

3-89

BUS BAR PROTECTION

3
3
3

BUS-2

1-89

3
3
3

BUS-1

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 4CTs METHOD)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 5CT METHOD
1-CT

1-LCT

2-CT

3-TCT

3-CT

CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION
(SPARE)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

CORE-4
(PS)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(1-52)

MAIN-2
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(2-52)

BACKUP
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)
AFTER
LBB/BFR
(3-52)

CORE-5
(PS)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

3-89

P2

1-CT

CORES
1 2 3

3
3
3

1-89A

2-52CB

3-89A

3
3
3
3
3

2-89A

1-89L

1-CVT

1
5

CORES
4 3 2

P1

P1

LINE 1

3
3
3

1L-CT

3
3
3
3
3

P2

3-52CB

5
P1

TEED-2 PROT (BAY2&3)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY2&3)

1-52CB

TEED-2 PROT (BAY1&2)

1-89

TEED-1 PROT (BAY1&2)

BUS BAR PROTECTION

BUS-2

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 5CTs METHOD)

3
3

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

LINE PROTECTION

BUS-1

METERING
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

4 3 2
CORES
2-CT

2-89B
P2

3-89T

T/F-1

1-89A

1
2

P2

3-89A

3
3
3

METERING
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

3-CT

P1

3-89T

2-89B

3
3
3
3
3

P2

3T-CT

CORES
2 3 4

LV CT

4 3 2
CORES

P1

T/F-1

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

P2

LINE 1

3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
5

1-89L

1-CVT

2-CT

3-89

3-52CB

.
2-52CB P1

2-89A

3
3
3

TEED-2 PROT (BAY2&3)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY2&3)

CORES
3 4 5

TEED-2 PROT (BAY1&2)

1-52CB

TEED-1 PROT (BAY1&2)

3
3
3

3
3

(CT CONNECTIONS IN 5CTs METHOD)

1-89

BUS-2

BUS BAR PROTECTION

T/F PROTECTION

BUS-1

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
(GIS or AIS with DEAD TANK CBs)
1B-CT
CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

(SPARE)

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

1A-CT

2B-CT

2A-CT

3A-CT

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-1 PROTECTION

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
MAIN-2 PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
BACKUP PROTECTION
AFTER LBB/BFR

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS &
ENERGY METER

2CTs SECONDARIES
ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL AND
CONNECTED TO
PANEL METERS &
ENERGY METER

3B-CT
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP
PROTECTION

(SPARE)

SPARE

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS IN 6CT METHOD
1-CT

1L-CT

2A-CT

2B-CT

3T-CT

3-CT

CORE-1
(PS)
CORE-2
(PS)

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION

BUSBAR-1
CHECKUP

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

SPARE

SPARE

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

BUSBAR-2
CHECKUP

CORE-3
(0.5/0.2)

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

SPARE

METERING &
ENERGY
METER

SPARE

CORE-4
(PS)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

MAIN-2
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 1&2)

BACKUP
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-2
(BAY 2&3)

CORE-5
(PS)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

PROTECTION
(SPARE)

PROTECTION
(SPARE)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(1-52)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(2-52)

MAIN-1
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 1&2)

AFTER LBB/BFR
(3-52)

MAIN
PROTECTION

TEED PROT-1
(BAY 2&3)

COMPARISION BETWEEN
4CT METHOD & 5CT METHOD

CT PURPOSE

5 CT METHOD

4 CT METHOD

BUSBAR &
BUSBAR CHECKUP
PROTECTION

1 CT FOR BUS-1 &


3 CT FOR BUS-2

1 CT FOR BUS-1 &


3 CT FOR BUS-2

1L CT FOR FEEDER-1 &


3L CT FOR FEEDER-2

1 CT & 2B CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED


PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-1 &
3 CT & 2A CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED
PARALLEL FOR FEEDER-2

MAIN-1, MAIN-2
PROTECTION &
METERING

TEED-1 PROTECTION (HIGH Z)

ADDITIONAL
PROTECTION

(1 CT, 1L CT & 2 CT FOR FEEDERFEEDER-1 &


3 CT, 3L CT & 2 CT FOR FEEDERFEEDER-2)

TEED-2 PROTECTION (LOW Z)


(1 CT, 1L CT & 2 CT FOR FEEDERFEEDER-1 &
3 CT, 3L CT & 2 CT FOR FEEDERFEEDER-2)

STUB-1 PROTECTION

( MAINMAIN-1 DISTANCE SCHEME IS CONVERTED


TO STUBSTUB-1 WHEN LINE ISOLATOR OPENS)

STUB-2 PROTECTION

( MAINMAIN-2 DISTANCE SCHEME IS CONVERTED


TO STUBSTUB-2 WHEN LINE ISOLATOR OPENS)

TEED PROTECTION

OTHER
INFORMATION

( THE 3NOs CTs ARE CONEECTED IN TEE SHAPE


AND CONNECTED TO DIFFERENTIAL RELAY SO
IT IS CALLED TEED PROTECTION).
TEEDTEED-1 IS CONNECTED ON SUMMATION OF 3 TEE
SHAPED CTs & CONNECTED TO 33-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY .
TEEDTEED-2 IS CONNECTED TO 3 WINDING LOW
IMPEDENCE BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY OF
3 TEE SHAPED CTs.
( TEED PROTECTION WILL BE USED TO COVER
BLIND AREA BETWEEN TEE SHAPED CTs
CONNECTED IN DIFF PROTECTION)

STUB PROTECTION
( THERE IS NO UNCOVERED BLIND ZONE ) (WHEN
EVER LINE ISOLATOR OPENS MAINMAIN-1 & MAINMAIN-2
WILL BE CONVERTED TO STUB/ BUS OVER LOAD
RELAYS. STUB MEANS DEAD END)
( STUB IS INBUILT FEATURE IN ADVANCED
NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME RELAYS)

INFORMATION REGARDING
6CT METHOD

THE LOCATION OF THE CTs ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CIRCUIT


BREAKERS IS TYPICAL FOR SUBSTATIONS WITH DEAD-TANK
CIRCUIT BREAKERS or GIS CIRCUIT BREAKERS.
LIVE-TANK CIRCUIT BREAKERS MAY HAVE CTs ONLY ON ONE
SIDE TO REDUCE COST.
A FAULT BETWEEN CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND CT(END FAULT) MAY
THEN STILL BE FED FROM ONE SIDE EVEN WHEN THE BREAKER
HAS BEEN OPENED.
CONSEQUENTLY, FINAL FAULT CLEARING BY CASCADED
TRIPPING HAS TO BE ACCEPTED IN THIS CASE.
STUB PROTECTION RELAY PROVIDED IN CASE OF LINE ISOLATOR
OPENS.
1B-CT FOR BUSBAR-1 AND 3B-CT FOR BUSBAR-2 FOR BUSBAR
PROTECTION & BUSBAR CHECKUP PROTECTION.
1A-CT & 2B-CT SECONDARIES ARE PARALLED AND CONNECTED
TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION, MAIN-2 PROTECTION AFTER LBB/BFR
AND METERING.

ONE & HALF BREAKER ( 6 CT METHOD) WITH PROTECTION SCHEME

TYPICAL ONE & HALF BREAKER


SYSTEM ADOPTED IN GIS
DS : DISCONNECTOR SWITCH, GS: GROUNDING SWITCH, CT: CURRENT TRANSFORMER, VD: VOLTAGE DIVIDER

400KV C.T. INFORMATION


P1

PRIMARY CONNECTIONS : P1 P2
CURRENT RATING : 2000 AMPS

1S2 1S3
1S1 1S2

__

2S12
2S 3
2S

3S3 3S4
3S2 3S3

4S2 4S4 4S3 4S4


4S1 4S2 4S2 4S3

MAIN-1
5S2 5S4
5S1 5S4
PROTECTION
5S1 5S2

1
5S S2
5 S3
5 S4
5

1
1S S1
1S 2
3

MAIN-2
4S1 4S4
PROTECTION

__

4S1
4S2
4S3
4S4

EYE BOLT
DESIGN

5S1
5S2
5S3
5S4
4S1
4S2
4S3
4S4

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

PS

3S2 3S4
3S1 3S4
3S1 3S2

2S1
2S2
2S3

PS

METERING

2S2 2S3
2S1 2S2

3
3

PS

BUSBAR
CHECKUP 2S1 2S3
PROTECTION

1S1
1S2
1S3

1S1 1S3

BUSBAR
PROTECTION

500/ 1A

3S1
3S2
3S3
3S4

CORE-5

1000/ 1A

PS

CORE-3 0.5 / 0.2


CORE-4

2000/ 1A

CORE-2

PURPOSE

CORE-1

CLASS

P1 P2

3
3

CORES

SECONDARY CONNECTIONS
CURRENT RATING : 1A

P2

HAIR
PIN /
U SHAPE
DESIGN

5S3 5S4
5S2 5S3 DEAD TANK DESIGN

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


1-52 CB OPEN (3 CT METHOD)
CORECORE- 1, 2, 3 FOR 0500/1A
CORECORE- 4, 5, 6 FOR 1000/1A

1-CT
P2
S2

P1
S4

1000A

P1

S4

0A

2.0A
0A

2000-1000-500/1A

1000A

1500A

P2
S2

P1

3
3

0A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

2-52CB

1-52CB

2-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

500A

AT/F

S3 S4

S4

P2
S3

LINE

1000A

1.0A

3.0A

1.0A
3.0A

2.0A
0A

1.0A

1.0A

1.0A
3.0A
2.0A

2.0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


2-52 CB OPEN (3 CT METHOD)
CORECORE- 1, 2, 3 FOR 0500/1A
CORECORE- 4, 5, 6 FOR 1000/1A

1-CT
P2
S2

P1
S4

0A

P1

S4

1.0A

2000-1000-500/1A

0A

0500A

P2
S2

P1

3
3

1000A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

2-52CB

1-52CB

2-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

0A

S3 S4

1.0A

S4

0A

P2
S3

1.0A

0A
1.0A

0A
1.0A

500A

AT/F

LINE

1000A

0A

0A

0A
1.0A
0A

0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


3-52 CB OPEN (3 CT METHOD)
CORECORE- 1, 2, 3 FOR 0500/1A
CORECORE- 4, 5, 6 FOR 1000/1A

1-CT
P2
S2

P1
S4

500A

P1

S4

1.5A

1.0A
1.5A

2000-1000-500/1A

500A

0A

P2
S2

P1

3
3

1500A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

2-52CB

1-52CB

2-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

S3 S4

S4

0.5A

0.5A

0.5A

0.5A

0A

0.5A
0A
1.0A

1.0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

P2
S3

0A

1.0A
1.5A

500A

AT/F

LINE

1000A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS (3 CT METHOD)


LINE-1
1-CT
P2
S2

P1
S4

250A

P1

S4

0.75A

250A

S3 S4

0.25A
0.75A

2000-1000-500/1A
750A

P2
S2

P1

3
3

750A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

2-52CB

1-52CB

2-CT

2000-1000-500/1A

S4

0.25A

0.25A

0.25A

0.25A

0.75A

0.25A
0.75A
0.25A

0.25A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE-1

P2
S3

0.75A

0.25A
0.75A

500A

LINE-2

1000A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE-2

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


1-52 CB OPEN ( 4 CT METHOD)
LINE
2-ACT

2000-1000-500/1A

2000-1000-500/1A

0A

S2

1000A

P1
S4

0A

P2
S3

2-52CB

P1
S4

1000A

S4

2.0A
0A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A 2000-1000-500/1A
P1

P2

2-BCT

1500A

P2
S2

P1
S4

1.0A
2.0A

P2
S3

1-CT

1-52CB

500A

AT/F

1000A

3.0A

1.0A
3.0A

0A

1.0A

1.0A

1.0A
3.0A

2.0A

2.0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


2-52 CB OPEN (4 CT METHOD)
LINE
2-ACT

2000-1000-500/1A

2000-1000-500/1A

1000A

0A

S2

P1
S4

1.0A

P2
S3

2-52CB

P1
S4

0A

S4

0A
1.0A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A 2000-1000-500/1A
P1

P2

2-BCT

500A

P2
S2

P1
S4

0A
0A

1.0A

0A
1.0A

1.0A

0A

0A

0A
1.0A

0A

0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

P2
S3

1-CT

1-52CB

500A

AT/F

1000A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS WHEN


3-52 CB OPEN ( 4 CT METHOD)
LINE
2-ACT

2000-1000-500/1A

2000-1000-500/1A

1500A

500A

S2

P1
S4

1.5A

P2
S3

2-52CB

P1
S4

500A

S4

1.0A
1.5A

3-CT

2000-1000-500/1A 2000-1000-500/1A
P1

P2

2-BCT

0A

P2
S2

P1
S4

0.5A
1.0A

P2
S3

1-CT

1-52CB

500A

AT/F

1000A

0A

0.5A
0A

1.5A

0.5A

0.5A

0.5A
0A

1.0A

1.0A

1.0A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
AT/F

3-52CB

CT LOAD FLOW DIAGRAMS ( 4 CT METHOD)


LINE-1
2-ACT

2000-1000-500/1A

2000-1000-500/1A

750A

250A

S2

P1
S4

0.75A

P2
S3

2-52CB

P1
S4

P2

2-BCT

2000-1000-500/1A 2000-1000-500/1A
250A

P1
S4

0.25A

0.75A

3-CT
750A

P2
S2

P1
S4

0.25A
0.25A

P2
S3

1-CT

1-52CB

0.75A

0.25A
0.75A

0.75A

0.25A

0.25A 0.25A
0.75A
0.25A

0.25A

0.5A
1.0A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE-1

1000A

LINE-2

500A

MAIN-1/
MAIN-2/
METER
FOR
LINE-2

3-52CB

MAIN-1, MAIN-2
PROTECTION &
METERING
FOR LINE
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED IN APTRANSCO


FOR TRANSMISIION LINES & DISTRIBUTION LINES ( FEEDER / LINE PROTECTION )

Sr.No

VOLTAGE

MAIN- 1 PROTECTION

MAIN-2 PROTECTION/ BACKUP PROTECTION

1.

11 KV LINES
33 KV LINES
66 KV LINES
132 KV LINES

2 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )

3 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )

SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR


NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N)

3 O/L + E/F
( 50 + 50N + 51 + 51N + 67 + 67N )

220 KV LINES

NON SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR


NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N)

SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR


NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N)

400 KV LINES

NON SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR


NON SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR
NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N) NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N)

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

IF MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 ARE NUMERICAL RELAYS, BOTH SHOULD BE SEPARATE MEASURING
PRINCIPLES (CHARECTERESTICS), MODELS AND ALGORITHAMS (SHOULD NOT BE
DUPLICATED) AND ALL FEATURES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BOTH SCHEMES AND BOTH
RELAYS SHOULD BE 100% REDENDENCY IN ALL ASPECTS ( COMPLEMENTARY TO EACH
OTHER ). DISSIMILAR CARRIER SCHEMES ARE TO BE SELECTED ( POTT&PUTT ).
ZONE-1: 80% OF MAIN LINE
ZONE-2: 100% OF MAIN LINE + 50% OF SHORTEST LINE AT OTHER END
ZONE-3: 100% OF MAIN LINE + 100% OF SHORTEST LINE AT OTHER END
ZONE-4: 100% OF MAIN LINE + (100% OF SHORTEST LINE + 20% OF LONGEST LINE)
AT OTHER END.

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


P2 P2 P2

CT MB

IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

(4CT METHOD)

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

REL 521
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY

CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

C
E
CT MB
2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S2

5S2

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S4

P2 P2 P2

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD) (NEW DEVELOPMENT)
P2 P2 P2

CT MB
IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

CLASS: PS

IA =250.10 A
IB =250.10 A
IC =250.10 A
VAB =400.0 KV
VBC =400.0 KV
VCA =400.0 KV

ESC
ENABLED
TRIP

CT MB
2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

IN5 / A571

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S2

5S2

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S4

IB5 / A551
IY5 / A531
IR5 / A511

P2 P2 P2

INST
TIME
COMM
SOTF
ZONE1
ZONE2
ZONE3
ZONE4

SEL

ENT

TARGET
RESET

PH-A
PH-B
PH-C
GND
50
51
79 RESET
79 LOCKOUT

SEL- 421
PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

1-CVT
CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(5CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2

IR5 / A511
IY5 / A531
IB5 / A551

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

CT MB

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

IN5 / A571

REL 521
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR11 / E111
VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY

CORE 1
200VA
CLASS: 3P

C
E

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD)
50Z
P2 P2 P2

CT MB

1-CT

RAICA

CORE-4

LBB / BFR

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451
IN4 / C471

REL 316
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY

CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

C
E
CT MB
2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S2

4S2

4S2

4S4

4S4

4S4

RAICA
LBB / BFR
P2 P2 P2

50ZT

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(4CT METHOD) ( NEW DEVELOPMENT)
P2 P2 P2

CT MB
IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IN4 / C471

CLASS: PS

CT MB
2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

IN4 / C471

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S2

4S2

4S2

4S4

4S4

4S4

P2 P2 P2

IB4 / C451
IY4 / C431
IR4 / C411

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271

1-CVT
CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

MULTI FUNCTION NUMERICAL RELAY FOR


MULTI BREAKER, MULTI CT & CVT/PT APPLICATION
3-52 CB

BUS-1 PT

BUS-2 PT
59

50 BF-1 50 BF-2

79-1 79-2 25-1

25-2

21P 50P 51P 67P


27
21N 50N 51N 67N

3
LINE CVT
3

2-52 CB

1-52 CB

(NEW APPLICATION) (ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM or RING BUS SYSTEM)

LINE

1-52,2-52: MAIN & TIE CIRCUIT BREAKER


21P: PHASE DISTANCE PROTECTION
21N: GROUND DISTANCE PROTECTION
27: UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY
67: DIRECTIONAL RELAY
50: INST OVER CURRENT RELAY
51: TIME OVER CURRENT RELAY
59: OVER VOLTAGE RELAY
64: EARTH FAULT RELAY
50BF-1: LBB/BFR OF MAIN CB
50BF-2: LBB/BFR OF TIE CB
79-1,2: AUTO RECLOSURE RELAY OF
MAIN & TIE CB
25-1,2: CHECK SYNCHRONISAM RELAY
FOR MAIN & TIE CB

MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE


(5CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

CT MB

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

IN4 / C471

REL 316
ACTIVE START

TRIP

VR21 / E211
VY21 / E231
VB21 / E251
VN21 / E271
1-CVT

CLASS: PS

DISPLAY

CORE 2
200VA
CLASS: 3P

C
E

MULTI FUNCTION PANEL METERING & ENERGY METER


(4CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2

CT MB
IR3 / D311
IY3 / D331
IB3 / D351

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-3

3S4

3S4

3S4

3S2

3S2

3S2

IN3 / D371

CLASS: 0.5

CT MB
2-BCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: 0.5

3 3 3

CORE-3

3S2

3S2

3S2

3S4

3S4

3S4

VR31 / E311
VY31 / E331
VB31 / E351
VN31 / E371
1-CVT
CORE 3
100VA

P2 P2 P2

CLASS: 0.5

MULTI FUNCTION PANEL METERING & ENERGY METER


(5CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2

IR3 / D311
IY3 / D331
IB3 / D351

1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-3

CT MB

3S4

3S4

3S4

3S2

3S2

3S2

CLASS: 0.5/0.2
IN3 / D371

VR31 / E311
VY31 / E331
VB31 / E351
VN31 / E371
1-CVT
CORE 3
100VA
CLASS: 0.5/0.2

BUSBAR
PROTECTION
SCHEMES
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF BUSBAR PROTECTION


NEED FOR BUSBAR PROTECTION
IN ITS ABSENCE FAULT CLEARING TAKES PLACE IN ZONE-2 OF DISTANCE
RELAY BY REMOTE END TRIPPING.
THIS MEANS SLOW AND UNSELECTIVE TRIPPING AND WIDE SPREAD
BLACKOUT.

EFFECT OF DELAYED CLEARENCE


GREATER DAMAGE AT FAULT POINT.
INDIRECT SHOCK TO CONNECTED EQUIPMENT LIKE SHAFTS OF
GENERATOR AND WINDINGS OF TRANSFORMER.

BASIC THEORY
KIRCHOFFs CURRENT LAW STATES THAT THE SUM OF THE CURRENTS
ENTERING A GIVEN NODE MUST BE EQUAL TO THE CURRENTS LEAVING AT THAT
NODE.

BUS BAR PROTECTION SYSTEMS


LOW IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
THE MOST SUITABLE PROTECTION SCHEME FOR DOUBLE AND MULTIPLE
BUSBAR SYSTEMS (WITH OR WITHOUT TRANSFER BUS) WITH FEEDERS BEING
SWITCHED BETWEEN SECTIONS OF BUSBAR, WHICH OPERATES WITH FULL
SELECTIVITY FOR ALL POSSIBLE BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS.

HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENCIAL PROTECTION


THE HIGH IMPEDENCE PROTECTION SCHEME, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS A
GOOD SOLUTION FOR SINGLE BUSBAR ARRANGEMENTS , ONE & HALF BREAKER
SYSTEMS OR RING BUSBARS, PROVIDING THAT APPROPRIATE DEDICATED CT
CORES ARE AVAILABLE FOR THIS USE ALONE.

HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENCIAL PROTECTION


SENSTIVE, STABLE & FAST PROTECTION FOR SINGLE BUSBAR
ARRANGEMENTS AND ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEMS. THE SYSTEM HAS LIMITS
WHEN USED IN COMPLEX BUSBAR CONFIGUARATIONS.
HOWEVER, SPECIAL CT REQUIREMENTS, ADDITIONAL HIGH VOLTAGE
DEVICE PROTECTION, DEMANDING MAINTANENCE ETC PUT RESTRICTIONS IN ITS
APPLICATIONS.

LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY


PUTS STRINGENT REQUIREMENTS ON CTs.
NEED FOR DEDICATED CT CORES.
IDENTICAL CT RATIO, MAGNETISING IMPEDENCE.
AUX CTs RATIO CORRECTIONS UNACCEPTABLE.
IN ABILITY TO COPE WITH INCREASING FAULT CURRENT.
SLOW RESPONSE.
BASIC OPERATING TIME EXCLUDING RELAY TIME IS 15 20ms.
THIS RELAY REQUIRES CHECK ZONE FEATURE. THE TRIP COMMAND IS
ONLY GIVEN WHEN BOTH A DISCRIMINATING & CHECK ZONE SYSTEM OPERATES.

LOW IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


LOW IMPEDENCE PROTECTION(PERCENTAGE BIASED BUS DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY) IS PREFARABLE FOR THE PROTECTION OF DOUBLE AND MULTIPLE BUSBAR
SYSTEMS.

ADVANTAGES
FREE OF ANY NEED FOR MATCHED CT CHARACTERESTICS OR RATIOs,
LOW LEAKAGE REACTANCE OR RESISTANCE.
OTHER PROTECTIVE RELAYS CAN BE INCLUDED IN THE SAME CIRCUIT.
STABLE FOR INFINITE FAULT LEVELS. INSENSITIVE TO CT SATURATION.
DETECTS FAULTS WITHIN 1 2ms & INITIATES TRIPPING WITHIN 5 7ms.

BASICS OF BUS BAR PROTECTION


BASIC THEORY
KIRCHOFFs CURENT LAW STATES THAT THE SUM OF THE CURRENTS ENTERING A GIVEN NODE MUST BE EQUAL
TO THE CURRENTS LEAVING THAT NODE

EXTERNAL FAULT

INTERNAL FAULT
IF

I1

I1
I2

I3

I2
I3

I4
I5

I4
I5

I6

I6

IF

IF= I6= I1+I2+I3+I4+I5

IF= I1+I2+I3+I4+I5+I6

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSBAR SCHEMES


DETAILS

HIGH IMPEDENCE BUSBAR


PROTECTION

PERCENTAGE BIASED LOW


IMPEDENCE BUS BAR PROTECTION

PRINCIPLE

THE CURRENTS ENTERING AND LEAVING THE


BUSBAR ARE COMPARED CONTINUOSLY. IT
INVOLVES CHOOSING OF IMPEDENCE HIGH
ENOUGH STABLISE THE RELAY FOR HEAVY
EXTERNAL FAULTS

IT HAS DIFFERENTIAL AND BIAS SETTING. THE


RESULTANT BIAS IS PROPOTIONAL TO
ARITHMATIC SUM OF ALL CURRENTS, WHEREAS
THE OPERATING CURRENT IS VECTOR SUM OF
ALL CIRCUIT CURRENTS.

CTs

IT REQUIRES ALL IDENTICAL CT RATIOs & TURNS


RATIO. LOW RESISTANCE OF SECONDARY WINDING
MINIMUM KNEE POINT VOLTAGE OF 300300-500V.
LOW MAGNETISING CURRENT(FEW MILLIAMPS).

IT CAN WORK WITH CTs OF UNEQUAL RATIOS


ALSO. FREE OF ANY NEED OF MATCHED CT
CHARACTERESTIC OR RATIOs LOW LEAKAGE
REACTANCE OR RESISTANCE. OTHER
PROTECTIVE RELAYS CAN BE INCLUDED IN THE
SAME CIRCUIT.

BURDEN

IMPOSES COMPARATIVELY HIGH BURDEN ON CTs.


AUXILIARY CTs REDUCE THE PERFORMANCE OF
THE SCHEME

IMPOSES LESS BURDEN ON CTs. AUXILIARY CTs


HAVE NO EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE OF
SCHEME.

CT SATURATION

OPERATION OF SCHEME EVEN WHEN CTs GET


SATURATED DURING INTERNAL FAULTS.

OPERATION OF SCHEME EVEN WHEN CTs GET


SATURATED DURING INTERNAL FAULTS.
INSENSITIVE TO CT SATURATION.

UTILISATION

IT IS GOOD SOLUTION FOR SINGLE BUSBAR


ARRANGEMENTS, ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEMS
OR RING BUSBAR SYSTEMS.

MOST SUITABLE FOR DOUBLE AND MULTIPLE


BUSBAR SYSTEMS ( WITH OR WITHOUT
TRANSFER BUS).

OPERATING TIME
STABILITY

BASIC OPERATING TIME EXCLUDING RELAY TIME


IS 15 20 mS.
mS.

DETECTS FAULTS WITH IN 1 2 mS AND INITIATES


TRIPPING WITH IN 55-7mS.

INABILITY TO COPE WITH INCREASING FAULT


CURRENT

STABLE FOR INFINITE FAULT LEVEL.

PERFORMANCE
ADDITIONAL
PROTECTION

HIGHLY SENSITIVE FOR INTERNAL FAULTS AND


COMPLETELY STABLE FOR EXTERNAL FAULTS.

HIGHLY SENSITIVE FOR INTERNAL FAULTS AND


COMPLETELY STABLE FOR EXTERNAL FAULTS.

THIS RELAY REQUIRES CHECK ZONE FEATURE.


THE TRIP COMMAND IS ONLY GIVEN WHEN BOTH
A DISCRIMINATING & CHECK ZONE SYSTEM
OPERATES.

THIS RELAY HAS IN BUILT CHECK ZONE


FEATURE (NO SEPARATE CHECKZONE FEATURE)
i.e OVER CURRENT STARTING RELAY PROVIDED.

BUS BAR PROTECTION


(4CT & 5CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2

CT MB

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

3 3 3

CORE-1

REB 521

IN1 / B171
1S3

1S3

1S3

1S1

1S1

1S1

ACTIVE START

TRIP

IB1 / B151

CLASS: PS

IY1 / B131
IR1 / B111

BUS BAR
PROTECTION
FOR
BUS-1

DISPLAY
C
E

CT MB
IR1 / B111
IY1 / B131

3-CT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

CLASS: PS

ACTIVE START

TRIP

IB1 / B151

3 3 3

CORE-1

REB 316

1S1

1S1

1S1

1S3

1S3

1S3

P2 P2 P2

IN1 / B171

BUS BAR
PROTECTION
FOR
BUS-2

DISPLAY
C
E

BUS BAR PROTECTION


ABB RADSS BUS BAR-2 PROTECTION
BUS-2

3-52CB

33CT

6-52CB

36CT

2-52CB

31CT

5-52CB

34CT

1-52CB

4-52CB

9-52CB

39CT
8-52CB

37CT
7-52CB

12-52CB

312CT
11-52CB

310CT
10-52CB

15-52CB

315CT
14-52CB

313CT
13-52CB

BUS-1

ABB

RADSS BUS BAR-1 PROTECTION

18-52CB

318CT
17-52CB

316CT
16-52CB

BUSBAR-1 PROTECTION TRIPPING SCHEME


HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1-52 CB

1-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

4-52 CB PANEL

REB 521

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
4-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

7-52 CB PANEL
HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
7-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

DISPLAY

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1010-52 CB

1010-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB

TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK


TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

4-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

7-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

10-52CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

TO START 50 LBB

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1313-52 CB

1313-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

1-52 CB PANEL

1616-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1616-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB
+VE

BUSBAR PANEL

13-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

16-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

BUSBAR-2 PROTECTION TRIPPING SCHEME


HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
3-52 CB

3-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

6-52 CB PANEL

REB 316

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
6-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

ACTIVE

START

TRIP

9-52 CB PANEL
HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
9-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB

DISPLAY

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1212-52 CB

1212-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB

TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK


TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

6-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

9-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

12-52CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

TO START 50 LBB

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1515-52 CB

1515-52 CB PANEL
TRIP FROM 50 LBB
TO START 50 LBB

3-52 CB PANEL

1818-52 CB PANEL

HIGH SPEED
TRIP RELAY
FOR
1818-52 CB

TRIP FROM 50 LBB


TO START 50 LBB
+VE

BUSBAR PANEL

15-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

18-52 CB PANEL
TO CLOSE CKT INTERLOCK
TO BLOCK A/R
TO TRIP COIL-1
TO TRIP COIL-2
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-1
DIRECT TRIP SEND CH-2
TO DISTURBENCE RECORDER

MISCELENEOUS
RELAYS & PROTECTIONS
ADOPTED FOR LINE IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(STUB, TEED, LBB/BFR AND AUTO
RECLOSURE FUNCTIONS)
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

LINE-1

STUB-1&2
(BAY 1&2)
1-89L
REL 521
REL 316

2-52CB

1-52CB

BUS-1

STUB-1/ STUB-2 PROTECTION


3-52CB

BUS-2

AT/F-1
DISTANCE RELAYS CONVERTED TO
STUB/BUS OVER LOAD RELAYS
WHEN LINE ISOLATOR OPENS

WHEN A LINE IS SUPPLIED VIA TWO CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN A ONE & HALF CIRCUIT
BREAKER ARRANGEMENT, THE LINE PROTECTION INCLUDES THE AREA BETWEEN THE TWO
CTs. HOWEVER, WHEN THE LINE ISOLATOR IS OPEN THE LINE CVTs FOR THE DISTANCE
PROTECTION ARE CONNECTED TO THE LINE AND CANNOT PROVIDE THE CORRECT
VOLTAGE FOR THE STUB END.(i.e THE AREA BETWEEN THE LINE ISOLATOR AND CTs)
(STUB = DEAD END)
TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FOR A FAULT IN THIS AREA, REL 521/ REL 316 IS
PROVIDED WITH A STUB PROTECTION WHICH GIVES AN BUS OVER CURRENT TRIP IF THE
LINE ISOLATOR IS OPEN AND THE CURRENT EXCEEDS THE SET VALUE IN ANY PHASE.

STUB-1 (BAY 1&2)


OPERATES

STUB-2 (BAY 1&2)


OPERATES

IT OPERATES THE 3PH TRIP GR-A MAIN CB (1-52CB)


AND
3PH TRIP GR-A TIE CB (2-52CB)
IT OPERATES THE 3PH TRIP GR-B MAIN CB (1-52CB)
AND
3PH TRIP GR-B TIE CB (2-52CB)

STUB PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME


LINE ISOLATOR OPENS THIS INTER
LOCK WILL INITIATE MAIN-1 REL 521
& CONVERTED STUB-1 PROTECTION
86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
REL521
STUB-1

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2

TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2

BUS-1
86
ABB
-B
REL521
MTR/
MAIN
HSTR
-1

ABB
REL316
STUB-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR
LINE ISOLATOR OPENS THIS INTER
LOCK WILL INITIATE MAIN-2 REL 316
& CONVERTED STUB-2 PROTECTION

86-A : GROUP-A MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY


86-B : GROUP-B MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY

TEED-1 PROTECTION
{BAY1&2}(5CT METHOD)

P2 P2 P2

IR5
IY5
IB5

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

5S2

CLASS: PS

IN5

RADHA
P1 P1 P1
P2 P2 P2

IR5
IY5
IB5

2-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S2

5S4

5S4

5S2

5S2

CLASS: PS

IN5

ACTIVE START

TRIP

DISPLAY
C

P1 P1 P1

P2 P2 P2
1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

CLASS: PS

IN1
1S4

1S4

1S4

1S1

1S1

1S1

3 3 3

CORE-1

IB1
IY1
IR1
P1 P1 P1

TEED-1 PROTECTION FOR BAY 2&3 IS


ALSO SAME AS ABOVE AND THE
FOLLOWING CTs & CORES ARE USED
3-CT(CORE-5), 2-CT(CORE-1) &
3-TCT(CORE-1) ARE STARRED AND
CONNECTED TO TEED-1 PROTECTION

TEED-2 PROTECTION
{BAY1&2}(5CT METHOD)

1-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

CLASS: PS

CT MB

RAICA
LBB/BFR

CT MB

RAICA
LBB/BFR

P2 P2 P2

RADSB
ACTIVE

START

P2 P2 P2

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S2

4S2

4S2

3 3 3

TRIP

2-CT
CORE-4

DISPLAY

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2 CT MB
1-LCT
CTR: 2000-1000/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-2

2S3

2S3

2S3

2S2

2S2

2S2

TEED-2 PROTECTION
FOR BAY 2&3 IS ALSO
SAME AS ABOVE AND
THE FOLLOWING CTs
& CORES ARE USED
3-CT(CORE-4),
2-CT(CORE-2) &
3-TCT(CORE-2) ARE
CONNECTED TO
TEED-2 PROTECTION

2-52CB

TEED-1&2
(BAY 1&2)

1-52CB

BUS-1

TEED-1/ TEED-2 PROTECTION


3

3-52CB

BUS-2

TEED-1&2
(BAY 2&3)

LINE-1
AT/F-1
TEED PROTECTION IS BASED ON KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW. THREE SETS OF CTS
ARE CONNECTED IN STAR FASHION. SOME OF THE CURRENTS MUST BE ZERO. IF ANY
UNBALANCE CURRENTS ARE NOTICED THEN IMMEDIATELY TEED PROTECTION
OPERATES. IF TEED PROTECTION BAY 1&2 OPERATED THEN IT TRIPS 1-52CB & 2-52CB.
SIMILARLY IF TEED PROTECTION BAY 2&3 OPERATED THEN IT TRIPS 2-52CB & 3-52CB.

TEED-1
PROTECTION

SUMMATION OF INDIVIDUAL PHASES OF T-SHAPED


3 CTs BEFORE REACHING TO RELAY. THE CURRENT
FLOWING THROUGH IN 3-PHASES AFTER SUMMATION
IS ZERO DURING BALANCED CONDITION.
HIGH IMPENDENCE THREE PHASE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY IS USED AS TEED-1 PROTECTION.

TEED-2
PROTECTION

T- SHAPED 3 CTs ARE CONNECTED TO RELAY. THE


RELAY HAVING OPERATING COIL & RESTAIRING
COIL. BASED ON THE DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT
FLOWING THROUGH THE OPERATING COIL THE
RELAY OPERATES.
LOW IMPEDENCE PERCENTAGE BIASED THREE
TERMINAL THREE PHASE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY IS
USED AS TEED-2 PROTECTION.

TEED PROTECTION TRIP SCHEME


86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RADHA
TEED-1

TRIP COIL-1
1-52CB
TRIP COIL-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RADHA
TEED-1

TRIP COIL-1
2-52CB

TRIP COIL-1
3-52CB

TRIP COIL-2

TRIP COIL-2
BUS-2

BUS-1
86
ABB
-B
REL521
MTR/
MAIN
HSTR
-1

ABB
RADSB
TEED-2

86-A
MTR/
HSTR

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

ABB
RADSB
TEED-2

86-B
MTR/
HSTR

86-A : GROUP-A MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY


86-B : GROUP-B MASTER TRIP RELAY / HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY

BASICS OF LBB/BFR PROTECTION


LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION
A PROTECTION WHICH IS DESIGNED TO CLEAR A SYSTEM
FAULTY BY INITIATING TRIPPING OTHER CIRCUIT BREAKER(S) IN
THE CASE OF FAILURE TO TRIP OF THE APPROPRIATE CIRCUIT
BREAKER.
IN MODERN NETWORKS THE CRITICAL FAULT CLEARING
TIME MAY BE LESS THAN 200ms. HENCE, IF THE FAULT IS NOT
CLEARED DUE TO FAILURE OF THE PRIMARY PROTECTIVE RELAYS
OR THEIR ASSOCIATED CIRCUIT BREAKER, A FAST ACTING BACKUP PROTECTIVE RELAY MUST CLEAR THE FAULT.
THERE ARE TWO BASIC FORMS.
REMOTE BACK-UP.
LOCAL BACK-UP.

REMOTE BACK-UP
PROVIDES BACK-UP PROTECTION FOR THE BOTH THE
RELAYS (MAIN-1 & MAIN-2) AND BREAKERS AT REMOTE
SUBSTATION.

LOCAL BACK-UP
LOCAL BACK-UP PROTECTION CAN BE DEVIDED INTO TWO
CATAGORIES.
RELAY BACK-UP
BREAKER BACK-UP

RELAY BACK-UP
z

DUPLICATE PRIMARY PROTECTION. i.e ONE IS NON SWITCHED


DISTANCE PROTECTION AND ANOTHER IS SWITCHED DISTANCE
SCHEME OR OTHER WISE BOTH SCHEMES CHARECTERSTICS ARE
DIFFERENT (QUADRALATERAL, MHO CIRCULAR, TAMOTO & OPTICAL )
OR DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS(ABB, ALSTOM, SIEMENS, EASUN
REYROLL, SEL, GE, NXT PHASE OR BASLER) OR DIFFERENT METHODS (i.e
ELECTROMECHANICAL, STATIC, NUMERICAL{MICROPROCESSOR &DSP}).
IF MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 ARE NUMERICAL RELAYS BOTH SHOULD BE
SEPARATE CHARECTERESTICS AND SEPARATE MODELS AND ALL
FEATURES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BOTH SCHEMES AND BOTH
RELAYS SHOULD BE 100% REDENDENCY IN ALL ASPECTS
TO INCREASE THE SECURITY, THE CIRCUIT BREAKER HAS TWO
TRIP COILS, ONE IS CONNECTED TO MAIN-1 PROTECTION AND ANOTHER
IS CONNECTED TO MAIN-2 PROTECTION.

BREAKER BACK-UP
BECAUSE OF THE HIGH COST OF HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT
BREAKERS, IT IS NOT FEASIBLE TO DUPLICATE THEM.
IN CASE OF A BREAKER FAILURE THE OTHER CIRCUIT BREAKERS
CONNECTED TO THE SAME BUS AS THE FAULTED BREAKER MUST THERE
FORE BE TRIPPED.

LBB/BFR FLOW CHART


MAIN
PROTECTION
OPERATED

YES

TRIP
MAIN
BREAKER

FAULT
CLEARED

YES

RESET
BREAKER
FAILURE
SCHEME

NO

YES

INITIATE
BFR

WAIT FOR
FAULT
CLEARENCE

AND

TRIP
BACK-UP
BREAKERS

LBB/BFR TIME CO-ORDINATION CHART


FAULT OCCURS

NORMAL CLEARING TIME

NORMAL
CLEARING
PROTECTIVE RELAY
FOR EX: DISTANCE RELAY

RESETTING TIME OF THE


CURRENT MEASURING UNITS

BREAKER
INTURUPTING TIME

~30ms

~60ms

MARGIN

<12ms

SET TIME OF THE TIME MEASURING UNIT

INOPERATIVE
BREAKER

TRIPPING
RELAY
TIME

BACK-UP BREAKER
INTERUPTING TIME

BREAKER FAILURE RELAY START


TOTAL CLEARING TIME OF THE BREAKER FAILURE RELAY
MAXIMUM FAULT CLEARING TIME BEFORE SYSTEM INSTABILITY

MARGIN

LBB/BFR LOGIC
CURRENT INPUTS
PHASE L1

A/D
CONVERTER

LED
(PHASE START)
ALARM RELAY
(PHASE START)

PHASE CURRENT SET POINT

I > ISET

&

PHASE L2/E
PHASE L3

>1
I > ISET
|||

&
ALARM RELAY
(EARTH START)

EARTH CURRENT SET POINT

OUT PUT OF DISTANCE RELAY OR


SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT RELAY

LED
(EARTH START)

BINARY INPUT
CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE INITIATE

TIMING/OUTPUT
STAGE

TRIP T1
RELAY

TIME STAGE T1

LED

&
0

TIME STAGE T2
SWITCHED OFF

>1

TIME STAGE T2

O&
0

ALARM T1
RELAY

&

TRIP T2
RELAY

LED
LED
CB FAILURE
INITIATE

LBB/BFR PROTECTION
LINE1
BUS-1

AT/F-1
1-52CB

2-52CB

RAICA

RAICA

RAICA

LBB / BFR

LBB / BFR

LBB / BFR

50ZT

50Z

50Z

3-52CB

BUS-2

LBB/BFR IS LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION/ BREAKER FAILURE RELAY.


1No RELAY IS PROVIDED FOR EACH BREAKER.
THIS IS CURRENT OPERATED RELAY.
THIS RELAY IS ENERGISED WHEN MASTER TRIP RELAY(86-A OR/AND 86-B)
OPERATES AND GIVEN SIGNAL TO BREAKER FOR TRIP.
IN THIS RELAY TIME DELAY IS PROVIDED.
THIS RELAY OPERATES WHEN THE BREAKER IS UNDER TROUBLE/ FAILS TO
OPERATE.
AFTER ENERGISED THE RELAY AND TIME DELAY COMPLETES, EVEN CURRENT
IS THERE THIS THINKS BREAKER FAIL TO OPERATE AND GIVEN SIGNAL AS PER
SCHEME DESCRIBED NEXT PRESENTATION.

1-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION

DIRECT TRIP 1&2


VIA CARRIER TO
OTHER END

86-A

INITIALISATION

LBB/BFR

BUSBAR-1
PROTECTION OPTD
AND BUSBAR-1
ISOLATED

TIME
DELAY

1-52CB
TC-1
BUS-1

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2

86-B

86-B

86-A

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

TC-2

2-52CB
TC-2
TC-1

3-52CB
BUS-2

2-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION


ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

86-A

ABB
REL521
MAIN-1

DIRECT TRIP 1&2


VIA CARRIER
TO OTHER END

86-B

ABB
REL316
MAIN-2
INITIALISATION

LBB/BFR
TIME
DELAY

TO 86-B TRIP RELAY


OF LINE CB(1-52CB)

TC-1
BUS-1

INTER TRIP TO
LVCB & TBCCB
TO 86-B TRIP RELAY
OF AT/F(ICT) CB
(3-52CB)

2-52CB

1-52CB

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

3-52CB
TC-2
BUS-2

3-52 CB LBB/BFR OPERATION

ABB
RET316
MAIN-2

86-A
86-B

86-B

86-A

ABB
RET521
MAIN-1

INTER TRIP TO
LV CB & TBC CB

INITIALISATION

LBB/BFR
BUSBAR-2
PROTECTION OPTD
AND BUSBAR-2
ISOLATED

TIME
DELAY

2-52CB

1-52CB
TC-1
BUS-1

3-52CB
TC-2

TC-2

TC-1
BUS-2

AUTO RECLOSURE BASICS


FAULTS ARE THREE TYPES
1. TRANSIENT FAULT: These are cleared by the immediate tripping of
Circuit Breakers and do not reoccur when the line is re-energized.
2. SEMI-PERMANENT FAULTS: These require a time interval to disappear
before a line is charged again.
3. PERMANENT FAULTS: These are to be located and repaired before the
line is re-energized.
About 80-90% of the faults occurring are transient in nature. Hence the Automatic
Reclosure of breaker (after tripping on Fault) will result in the line being
successfully re-energized.
ADVANTAGES:
A. Decreasing outage time.
B. Improving Reliability.
C. Improving system stability.
D. Reduce fault damage and Maintenance Time.
DEAD TIME: The time between the Auto-reclosing Scheme being energized and
the operation of the contacts which energize the Circuit Breaker closing
circuit.
RECLAIM TIME: The Time Following a successful closing operation measured
from the instant the Auto-Reclosing relay closing contacts make which
must elapse before the Auto-Reclosing relay initiates another reclosing
attempt. In other words, it may be said to be the time between 1st and 2nd
Auto-Reclosure.

TYPES OF AUTO-RECLOSING SCHEMES:


1. BASED ON PHASE
A. THREE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING: This type of Auto-Reclosing causes an
immediate drift part of the two systems and hence no interchange of synchronizing
power can take place during the dead time.
B. SINGLE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING: In this, only the faulty phase(only SLG Faults) is
reclosed without causing interruption in interchange synchronizing power between two
systems through other two healthy phases.
2. BASED ON ATTEMPTS OF RECLOSURE
A. SINGLE SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING: In this scheme, Breaker is reclosed only once on
a given fault before lockout of Circuit Breaker Occurs. High-Speed Auto-Reclosing for
EHT System is invariably Single Shot.
B. MULTI-SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING: In this scheme, more than one reclosing attempts
made for a given fault before lockout of Circuit Breaker occurs.
B.I. DISADVANTAGES: Repeated closure attempts has with high fault level would
seriously affect the Circuit Breaker, Equipment and System Stability.
B.ii. CIRCUIT BREAKER LIMITATIONS: Ability of Circuit Breaker to Perform several Trip
Close operations in quick succession.
B. iii. SYSTEM CONDITIONS: In the percentage of the semi-Permanent faults (which
could be burnt out) is moderate, For example on the lines through the forest, multi
shot Auto-Reclosing is followed.
3. DEPENDING ON SPEED:
A. HIGH-SPEED AUTO-RECLOSING: This aids in fast restoration of supply but should
be done by taking into account the following factors.
I. System disturbance time can be tolerated without loss of system stability.
ii. Characteristics of Protection Schemes and Circuit Breaker.
B. LOW SPEED OR DELAYED AUTO RECLOSING: This is suitable for highly interconnected systems where the loss of a single line is unlikely to cause two sections
of the system to drift apart and loose synchronism.

METHOD OF ADOPTION IN ONE AND HALF BREAKER SYSTEM:


The Auto-Reclosure Functions used for the Bus Breakers 1-52CB & 3-52CB are set
as Masters and one for the Center Breaker 2-52CB(TIE) as Follower. Co-ordination
is required between the Auto-Reclosure Functions. A Synchrocheck function is
also loaded in each Relay to permit 3 pole Auto-Reclosing.
Each Line Protection relays starts both MAIN & TIE Circuit Breakers to trip for the
Concerned line. After a Successful reclosure of the Main Breaker, The Tie Breaker
will be reclosed after a supplementary time delay. Should the Main CB AutoReclosure relay not be successful in its reclosing attempts, the Tie CB AutoReclosure is blocked. If the Main CB is Open or its Auto-Reclosure Relay is not
ready or Out of service, The TIE CB Auto-Reclosure will reclose The TIE Breaker
after its own dead time without any supplementary time delay.
CHOICES OF EHV SYSTEM:
1. CHOICE OF DEAD TIME:
A. Lower limit is decided by deionising of Circuit Breaker.
B. Upper Limit is decided by Transient Stability and Synchronism.
C. Longer Transmission Lines Require Longer dead Time.
D. The dead time for High Speed Auto-Reclosing scheme with EHV System is 0.3 to
1.2 sec.
2. CHOICE OF RECLAIM TIME:
This should not be set to such a low value that the operating cycle of Breaker is
exceeded when two faults incident occurs close together. The reclaim time will be
in the range of 10 to 30 sec., depending the breaker opening and closing
mechanisms.
3. CHOICE OF ZONE:
This should normally kept in Zone-1. It is a Zone-1 fault and SLG fault only autoreclosure is comes in to picture. In other zones the auto reclosure is blocked.

AUTO-RECLOSURE FOR
ONE & HALF BREAKER SCHEME
TRIP COMMANDS
AUTO RECLOSURE
COMMANDS

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

79 (A/R)+
25(SYNC)
RAAAM
RASC

1-52CB

2-52CB

3-52CB

21 L1
MAINMAIN-1
REL 521

LINE-1

21 L2
MAINMAIN-2
REL 316

21 L1
MAINMAIN-1
REL 521

LINE-2

21 L2
MAINMAIN-2
REL 316

AUTO RECLOSING TIMING CHART


INSTANT OF FAULT
OPERATES

RESETS

TRANSIENT FAULT

PROTECTION
OPERATING
TIME

ARC
CONTACTS
TRIP COIL CONTACTS
ENERGISED SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
OPENING
TIME

CLOSING
TIME

ARCING
TIME

OPERATING TIME
OPERATES

DEAD TIME

RESETS

RECLOSE
ON TO FAULT

OPERATING
TIME

TRIP COIL CONTACTS


ARC
CONTACTS
ENERGISED SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

OPERATES

RESETS

PROTECTION

PERMANENT FAULT

CLOSING COIL CONTACTS CONTACTS


MAKE FULLY CLOSED
ENERGISED

OPENING
TIME

CLOSING COIL CONTACTS CONTACTS


ENERGISED
MAKE FULLY CLOSED

CLOSING
TIME

ARCING
TIME

OPERATING TIME

DEAD TIME

CONTACTS
ARC
CONTACTS
SEPARATE EXTINGUISHED FULLY OPEN

TRIP COIL
ENERGISED

SYSTEM DISTURBANCE TIME


RECLOSE INITIATED
BY PROTECTION

RELAY READY TO RESPOND


TO FURTHER FAULT INCIDENTS
(AFTER SUCEESFUL RECLOSRE)

AUTO RECLOSE
RELAY
DEAD TIME

CLOSING PULSE TIME


RECLAIM TIME

TIME

CARRIER
INTERTRIPPING
SCHEMES
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL


NSD 50/
NSD 70
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

ALARM-1
250V DC

1C
S

2+
5C
R

6+

1-

TX
TRIP
A(C)

RX
TRIP
A(C)

C
S

2+
5C
R

6+

TX
TRIP
C(A)

RX
TRIP
C(A)

ALARM-2
250V DC

DISPLAY

C
S

910+

C
R

1314+

G4AA TB: V9LB

9-

TX
TRIP
B(D)

RX
TRIP
B(D)

G4AC TB: V9LC

C
S

10+
13C
R

14+

TX
TRIP
D(B)

RX
TRIP
D(B)

GA4D TB:V9LC

PROTECTION COUPLERS FOR 400KV LINE

FOR EACH LINE 2Nos PROTECTION COUPLER PANELS PROVIDED.


FOR EACH LINE 1NO CARRIER SPEECH PANEL PROVIDED.
SO, 1 LINE REQUIRES TOTAL 3 PANELS.
CARRIER SPEECH PANEL PURELY FOR VOICE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN
TWO SUBSTATIONS, i.e THE LINE CONNECTED SUBSTATIONS.
THE VOICE COMMUNICATION ARE TWO METHODS PROVIDED.
ONE IS HOTLINE COMMUNICATION/DEDICATED/ LIFT&TALK METHOD.
ANOTHER IS DIAL METHOD.
IN PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL-1 TOTAL 3 CARDS ARE IMPORTANT FOR
SENDING & RECEIVING TRIP SIGNALS.
ONE CARD FOR ALARM i.e G4AA. ONE CARD FOR PERMISSIVE/PROTECTION
TRIP i.e G4AC & ANOTHER CARD FOR DIRECT TRIPS i.e G4AD.
IN PROTECTION COUPLER-2 PANEL ALSO 3 CARDS ARE PROVIDED SIMILAR TO
PROTECTION COUPLER-1 PANEL.
THE PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL DRAWING IS SHOWN IN PREVIOUS MENU.
1SET TX & RX FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP(G4AC)
1SET TX & RX FOR BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION IN ANOTHER
PANEL(G4AC).
1SET TX & RX FOR DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-1( G4AD).
1SET TX & RX FOR SPARE UNDER EMERGENCY(G4AD).
THE ABOVE ARRANGEMENT SIMILAR FOR PROTECTION COUPLER PANEL-2.
G4AA CARD FOR ALARM.

NSD 50

MAIN-1 PROTECTION CARRIER INTER TRIPPING


G4AC V9LC 1
G4AC V9LC 6

CARRIER RECEIVE

G4AC V9LC 5

ABB

REL521
CR
-VE

CS

G4AC V9LC 2

CARRIER SEND

G4AA V9LB 5
G4AA V9LB 6
PANEL-1

NSD 50

ABB

IN OUT

ALARM

+VE

-VE

G4AC V9LC 10
G4AC V9LC 13
G4AC V9LC 14

ABB

G4AC V9LC 9

PANEL-2

THIS IS BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP


AND CONNECTED IN ANOTHER PANEL

NSD 50

MAIN-2 PROTECTION CARRIER INTER TRIPPING


G4AC V9LC 1
G4AC V9LC 6

CARRIER RECEIVE

G4AC V9LC 5

ABB

REL316
CR
-VE

CS

G4AC V9LC 2

CARRIER SEND

G4AA V9LB 5
G4AA V9LB 6
PANEL-2

NSD 50

ABB

IN OUT

ALARM

+VE

-VE

G4AC V9LC 10
G4AC V9LC 13
G4AC V9LC 14

ABB

G4AC V9LC 9

PANEL-1

THIS IS BACKUP FOR PERMISSIVE/ PROTECTION TRIP


AND CONNECTED IN ANOTHER PANEL

DIRECT TRIP SEND CARRIER CHANNEL-1


BUSBAR PROT-2 PANEL
BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-2)
BUSBAR PROT-1 PANEL

PANEL-1

BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-1)

ABB
NSD 50

CONTROL PANEL
T NC

MAIN CB(1-52CB)
T NC

TIE CB(2-52CB)

TIE CB (2-52 CB)

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

MAIN CB (1-52 CB)

G4AD V9LC 2
G4AD V9LC 1

50 LBB/BFR FOR MAIN CB


RAICA
DC VE FROM PANEL
59L1
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
59L2
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
50 LBB/BFR FOR TIE CB
RAICA

DIRECT TRIP SEND CARRIER CHANNEL-2


BUSBAR PROT-2 PANEL
BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-2)
BUSBAR PROT-1 PANEL

PANEL-2

BUSBAR TRIP (ZONE-1)

ABB
NSD 50

CONTROL PANEL
T NC

MAIN CB(1-52CB)
T NC

TIE CB(2-52CB)

TIE CB (2-52 CB)

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

MAIN CB (1-52 CB)

G4AD V9LC 2
G4AD V9LC 1

50 LBB/BFR FOR MAIN CB


RAICA
DC VE FROM PANEL
59L1
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1
59L2
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2
50 LBB/BFR FOR TIE CB
RAICA

DIRECT TRIP RECEIVE CHANNEL-1&2


PANEL-1

ABB
NSD 50

TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
MAIN CB(152CB)
TO 86-A MASTER TRIP RELAY
(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
TIE CB(252CB)

DC +VE
G4AD V9LC 6
G4AD V9LC 5
PANEL-2

DIRECT TRIP-1
CARRIER RECEIVE
RELAY

+VE

-VE

ABB
NSD 50

TO 86-B MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
MAIN CB(152CB)

DC +VE

TO 86-B MASTER TRIP RELAY


(HIGH SPEED TRIP RELAY) FOR
TIE CB(252CB)

G4AD V9LC 6
G4AD V9LC 5

DIRECT TRIP-2
CARRIER RECEIVE
RELAY

PLCC CARRIER PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION
C

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
NSD 50
PANEL

NSD 50
PANEL
PLCC
PANEL

ELECTRICAL POWER LINE

PLCC
PANEL
NSD 50
PANEL

NSD 50
PANEL
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

FIBRE OPTIC PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION
C

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

TUNOS

TUNOS

FOX-U
FOX-515

FOX-U
FOX-515

GECOD/ SIFOX

NSD 70
PANEL

NSD 70
PANEL
GECOD/ SIFOX

NSD 70
PANEL

NSD 70
PANEL

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

REC 316*4

FIBRE OPTIC CARRIER PROTECTION SYSTEM


(TELEPROTECTION)
DIGITAL RELAY CONNECTION VIA FIBRE OPTIC
ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521
MAIN-1
PROTECTION

ABB Network Partner AG

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

FOX-U
FOX-515

REC 316*4

ABB Network Partner AG

REL 316
MAIN-2
PROTECTION

2
3
4

10
11
12

5
6

13
14

7
8

15
16

OTERM

TUNOS

TUNOS

OTERM

FOX-U
FOX-515

REC 316*4

MAIN-1 & MAIN-2


PROTECTION FOR
AUTO TRANSFORMER
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


1.

2.

3.

PURPOSE OF POWER TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


POWER T/F PROTECTION IS USUALLY INSTALLED TO DISCONNECT THE T/F AT:
A. INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUITS AND EARTH FAULTS IN THE T/F AND ITS CONNECTED
CIRCUITS.
B. EXTERNAL FAULTS ON OTHER CIRCUITS. (BACK-UP PROTECTION)
C. ABNORMAL SERVICE CONDITIONS SUCH AS OVERLOAD & OVER VOLTAGE.
PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON POWER T/F
A. OIL IMMERSED POWER T/F USUALLY HAVE A GAS DETECTOR AND OIL SURGE.
DETECTOR (BUCHHOLZ ALARAM & TRIP DEVICES), WHICH ARE EXCELLENT FOR
DETECTING INTERNAL FAULTS.
B. LOAD TAPCHANGER COMPARTMENTS MAY HAVE A SIMILAR OVER PRESSURE
DEVICE.
C. TEMPARATURE MONITORS FOR OIL & WINDING PROVIDE GOOD OVER LOAD
PROTECTION.
D. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE IS PROVIDED TO SAFE GUARD THE T/F FROM HIGH
PRESURES.
TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
IT IS WIDELY USED AS INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION FOR SHORT CIRCUIT FAULTS WITH
IN THE DIFFERENTIAL ZONE. THIS IS TREATED AS MAIN-1 PROT FOR T/F.
THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF PROTECTION IS THE CURRENT RESTRAINT TYPE.
SOME TYPE OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS REQUIRE INTERPOSING CTs FOR CT RATIO
MATCHING AND/OR PHASE SHIFT.
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CAN BE USED ON AUTO T/F & REACTORS.
IT COVERS ONE GALVANICALLY INTERCONNECTED WINDING (WDG DIFF). BUT NOT A
SEPARATE TERTIARY WINDING.
IT REQUIRES A THREE PHASE SET OF CTs AT THE NEUTRAL SIDE OF WINDING.

4.

5.

6.

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


THIS IS A HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL EARTH FAULT PROTECTION FOR ONE
WINDING OR 1-PH. IT IS SOME TIMES USED IN LOW IMPEDENCE EARTHED SYSTEMS TO
GIVE AN INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION. WHICH IS MORE SENSITIVE THAN THE
TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL ONE. TYPICAL SENSITIVITY IS 5%. THERE ARE SOME
PARTICULAR CT REQUIREMENTS, e.g. EQUAL TURNS RATIO OF THE CTs. INCASE OF T/F
HAVING EARTHED STAR WINDING ONE RELAY SUFFICIENT. T/F HAVING STAR/STAR
(BOTH EARTHED) APPLY TWO INDEPENDENT RELAYS.
BACK UP PROTECTION
A VARIETY OF RELAYS ARE AVAILABLE.
A. OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N - ANY
COMBINATION OF THESE)
B. UNDER IMPEDENCE / DISTANCE ( Z<)(21T).
C. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT PROTECTION (Un>).
OTHER TYPES OF RELAYS
A. OVER VOLTAGE RELAY (U >).
B. OVER FLUX/ EXCITATION (V/F >)( INVERSE TIME & DIFENITE TIME).
FOR 400KV/220KV, 315 MVA & 500MVA TRANSFORMERS BOTH SIDES( i.e HV & LV) OVER
FLUX RELAYS ARE PROVIDED BECAUSE BOTH SIDES HAVING GRID.

NORMALLY ADOPTED POWER TRANSFORMERS CAPACITIES IN


400KV / 220KV
CAPACITY OF
TRANSFORMER

HV
VOLTAGE

HV
CURRENT

LV
VOLTAGE

LV
CURRENT

315 MVA

400 KV

454.68 A

220 KV

0826.68 A

500 MVA

400 KV

721.71 A

220 KV

1312.20 A

NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED IN APTRANSCO


FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS & AUTO TRANSFORMERS

S.No

CAPA
CITY

VOLTAGE
RATIO

MAIN
PROTECTION

BACK UP
PROTECTION
HV

LV

7.5 MVA
16 MVA

132KV/11KV

3 OL +
1 DIR EL

3 OL +
1 EL

16 MVA
31.5 MVA
50 MVA

132KV/33KV

3 OL +
1 DIR EL

3 OL +
1 EL

3 OL +
1 DIR EL

3 OL +
1 EL

3 OL +
1 DIR EL

3 OL +
1 DIR EL

31.5 MVA
50 MVA

220KV/33KV

100 MVA

220KV/132KV

315 MVA
500 MVA

400KV/220KV

DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY

3 DIR OL
3 DIR OL
(HIGHSET) + (HIGHSET) +
1 DIR EL
1 DIR EL
(HIGHSET) (HIGHSET)

ADDITIONAL
SPECIAL
PROTECTION PROTECTION
BUCHHOLZ,
OLTC OSR
OIL TEMP
WDNG TEMP

NIL
BUCHHOLZ
OVER FLUX
OLTC OSR
PRV/PRD
OIL TEMP
WDNG TEMP

REF RELAY,
OVER LOAD
ALARM
RELAY

MAIN-1/ DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR AT/F


(4 CT METHOD)
CT MB

3-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S3

5S3

5S3

CLASS: PS

CT MB

RET 521/
RET 316
RADSB
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

AUX.CT Y/
0.689 / 0.577A

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

P2 P2 P2

5S1

5S1

5S1

5S3

5S3

5S3

3 3 3

P2 P2 P2
LV-CT
CORE-5

DISPLAY

CTR: 1200-800/1A

CLASS: PS

CT MB

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S3

5S3

5S3

5S4

5S4

5S4

P2 P2 P2

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

2-ACT

NORMALLY LOW
IMPEDENCE BIASED
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
IS USED FOR
TRANSFORMER
DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION

MAIN-1/ DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR AT/F


(5 CT METHOD)

3-TCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-5

5S4

5S4

5S4

5S3

5S3

5S3

CT MB

AUX.CT Y/
0.91 / 0.577A

P2 P2 P2

RET 521/
RET 316
RADSB
ACTIVE

START

TRIP

AUX.CT Y/
0.689 / 0.577A

CT MB

5S1

5S1

5S1

5S3

5S3

5S3

3 3 3

P2 P2 P2
LV-CT
CORE-5

DISPLAY

CTR: 1200-800/1A

CLASS: PS

SELECTION OF AUX.CTs FOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

NORMALLY 400KV/220KV AUTO TRANSFORMERS ARE OF CAPACITY 315MVA.


FOR MERZ PRICE PROTECTION IF TRANSFORMER IS CONNECTED IN STAR/STAR
THEN CT SECONDARIES ARE TO BE CONNECTED IN DELTA/DELTA.
CORRECT RATIO CTs ARE NOT AVAILABLE, THEN AUX.CTs ARE TO BE PROVIDED
FOR ACHEVING SUITABLE CURRENTS.
IF AUX CTs ARE USING THEN MAIN CT SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN STAR.
THIS IS BROUGHT TO AUX CTs. AUX CTs PRIMARY IS CONNECTED IN STAR &
SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN DELTA.
NORMALLY THE RELAY RATED CURRRENT IS 1A.
AUX.CT s SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED IN DELTA. FOR ACHIEVING 1A TO
RELAY, AUX.CT SECONDARY CURRENT IS TO BE 0.577A.
THE FULL LOAD PRIMARY CURRENT OF 315MVA AT/F IS 454.7A.
BUT THE 400KV CTs RATIOs ARE AVAILABLE : 2000-1000-500/1A
NEAREST VALUE TO FULL LOAD CURRENT IS 500/1A. HENCE IT IS ADOPTED.
HENCE AT FULL LOAD HV CURRENT i.e 454.7A, THEN SECONDARY OF CT
CURRENT WILL BE 0.91A.
SO HV SIDE AUX.CT RATIO IS 0.91/0.577A.
THE FULL LOAD SECONDARY CURRENT OF 315MVA AT/F IS 826.7A.
BUT THE 220KV CTs RATIOs ARE AVAILABLE: 1200-800/1A.
NEAREST VALUE TO FULL LOAD CURRENT IS 1200/1A. HENCE IT IS ADOPTED.
HENCE AT FULL LOAD LV CURRENT i.e 826.7A,THEN SECONDARY OF CT CURRENT
WILL BE 0.689A.
SO LV SIDE AUX CT RATIO IS 0.689/0.577A.
SPECIAL INFORMATION: LATEST NUMERICAL RELAYS NEED NOT REQUIRE AUX
CTs. IN THESE RELAYS, CT RATIOS MATCHING CAN BE PROGRAMMED.

MAIN-2/ BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F HV


(4 CT METHOD)
P2 P2 P2

CT MB

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
RAICA IB4 / C451
LBB / BFR
IN4 / C471
50Z

3-CT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S3

4S3

4S3

CLASS: PS

VR11 / E111

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

START

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

C
4S3

4S3

4S3

4S4

4S4

4S4

P2 P2 P2

VN11 / E171

3 3 3
E172
E174

CT MB

CORE-4

VB11 / E151

TRIP

DISPLAY
2-ACT

VY11 / E131

3 3

CVT
SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

IB4 / C451
IY4 / C431
IR4 / C411

CLASS: 3P

MAIN-2/ BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F HV


(5 CT METHOD)
VR11 / E111

P2 P2 P2

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
IB4 / C451

3-TCT
CTR: 2000-1000-500/1A

CLASS: PS

3 3 3

CORE-4

CT MB

4S4

4S4

4S4

4S3

4S3

4S3

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

START

VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

TRIP

3 3 3
E172
E174

IN4 / C471

DISPLAY
C

3 3

CVT
SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

MAIN-2/ BACKUP PROTECTION FOR AT/F LV


P1 P1 P1
LV-CT
CTR: 1200 800 /1A

3 3 3

CORE-4

4S2

4S2

4S2

4S1

4S1

4S1

CLASS: PS
P2 P2 P2

CT MB

IR4 / C411
IY4 / C431
RAICA IB4 / C451
LBB / BFR
IN4 / C471
50Z

VR11 / E111

RAPDK
DIR O/L & E/F
REL 505
ACTIVE

START

VY11 / E131
VB11 / E151
VN11 / E171

TRIP

3 3 3
E172
E174

DISPLAY

3 3
VOLTAGE

SELECTION
BUS-1 PT /

BUS-2 PT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

MISCELLENEOUS
RELAYS & PROTECTIONS
ADOPTED FOR
AUTO TRANSFORMER IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(OVER FLUX & REF FUNCTIONS)
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

OVER EXCITATION/FLUX RELAY


{FOR AUTO TRANSFORMER HV & LV}
VOLTAGE
SELECTION

CVT SELECTION
BUS-1 CVT /
BUS-2 CVT /
LINE CVT
CORE-1
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

RATUB

BUS-1 PT /

V/F RELAY
HV

CORE-1

RATUB
V/F RELAY
LV

BUS-2 PT
VA : 200

CLASS: 3P

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F


RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY
P2 P2 P2
400KV HV
CORE-1

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

RADHD
ACTIVE START

TRIP

CTR: 1000/1A

CLASS: PS
P1 P1 P1
P1 P1 P1

NEUTRAL
CORE-1

3 3 3

BUSHING CT
CTR: 1000/ 1A

CLASS: PS
P2 P2 P2
P1 P1 P1
220KV LV
CORE-1

3 3 3

BUSHING CT

DISPLAY

CTR: 1000/1A

CLASS: PS

P2 P2 P2

FOR RESTRICTED
EARTH FAULT
PROTECTION
AT/F BUSHING CTs
SECONDARIES ARE
CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL & TO
RELAY.
(SINGLE PHASE
HIGH IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY IS USED)

315MVA, 400KV/220KV AT/F VOLAGE SELECTION


BUS-1

LINE1

1-52CB

2-52CB

3-52CB

BUS-2

AT/F-1

FEEDER HAVING LINE CVTs &BUSES ARE HAVING BUS CVTs BUT AT/Fs ARE
NOT HAVING CVTs. FOR TRANSFORMER PANEL, PT SUPPLY IS SELECTED AS
PER SELECTION DESCRIBED BELOW FOR METERING AND PROTECTION,
WHICH IS FIRST SELECTED .

BUS-1
CVT
BUS-2
CVT
LINE
CVT

If AT/F is feeding from Bus-1 and 1-52CB & 2-52CB is closed. Then
Bus-1 CVT is selected and this supply is extended to Control &
Relay Panels for Auto Transformer.
If AT/F is feeding from Bus-2 and 3-52 CB is closed & 2-52CB is
open. Then Bus-2 CVT is selected and this supply is extended to
Control & Relay Panels for Auto Transformer.
If AT/F is feeding from Direct Line and 2-52CB is closed & 1-52 CB
& 3-52 CB is open and 389T ISO is Closed . Then line CVT is
selected and this supply is extended to Control & Relay Panels for
Auto Transformer.

MAIN-1 & MAIN-2


PROTECTION FOR
SHUNT REACTOR
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME

PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

BASICS OF SHUNT REACTOR


1.

2.

TYPES OF REACTORS :
A. BASED ON REACTOR CONNECTION
i. SHUNT REACTOR.
ii. SERIES REACTOR.
B. BASED ON REACTOR LOCATION
i. BUS REACTOR
ii. LINE REACTOR
C. BASED ON CONTROL
i. 3-PH OIL IMMERSED REACTOR WITH GAPPED IRON CORE.
ii. THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR (STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR)
(APTRANSCO UTILISING SHUNT REACTORS FOR BUS & LINE IN 400KV NETWORK)
NEED OF SHUNT REACTOR:
A. LINE REACTOR
SHUNT REACTORS ARE USED IN ORDER TO COMPENSATE FOR THE CAPACITIVE
SHUNT REACTANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES. THE REACTOR IS CONNECTED
PARALLEL TO THE LINE. THE LOCATION OF REACTOR IS OUT GOING SIDE OF LINE i.e
AFTER CIRCUIT BREAKER. LENGTH OF LINE IS MORE THERE MAY BE VOLTAGE IS
RAISING DUE TO FARANTI EFFECT(CAPACITANCE ) DURING CHARGING. IN CASE OF
ZONE-2 (OPEN JUMPER) FAULT, THE FAULT CLEARED BY REMOTE END IS FAST, BUT
THIS END IT WILL TAKE TIME DELAY DUE TO ZONE-2. DURING THIS TIME, VOLTAGE
MAY RAISING. SO, LINE REACTOR IS USED FOR CONTROLLING THE SWITCHING OVER
VOLTAGES AND SAFEGUARD THE OPERATING EQUIPMENT. NORMALLY IT IS ALWAYS
IN SERVICE. NORMALLY BOTH ENDS LINE REACTORS ARE PROVIDED. THE
ELECTRICAL INTERLOCK IS PROVIDED THAT IF REACTOR ISOLATOR CLOSSED
POSITION ONLY WILL GIVE PERMIT TO CLOSE THE LINE ISOLATOR. SIMILARLY FOR
OPENING REACTOR ISOLATOR THE LINE ISOLATOR SHOULD BE IN OPEN POSITION.

3.

4.

B. BUS REACTOR
THE REACTOR IS CONNECTED PARALLEL TO THE BUS i.e LIKE A FEEDER/LINE.
DURING LIGHTLY LOADED CONDITIONS THERE MAY BE POSSIBULITY OF RAISING
BUS VOLTAGES. FOR SAFEGUARD THE OPERATING EQUIPMENT BUS REACTORS
ARE UTILISING. NORMALLY IT IS NOT IN SERVICE. WHENEVER THE VOLTAGE
RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT IN
SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT
OF SERVICE.
SELECTION OF REACTOR
A. LINE REACTOR
NORMALLY LINE REACTORS ARE PROVIDED IF THE LINE IS MORE OR EQUAL TO
250KM. IN APTRANSCO NETWORK MAXIMUM LENTH OF LINE IS 350KM. AS PER
SYSTEM STUDIES RECOMANDATIONS IF LINE LENGTH IS 250KM TO 300KM 50MVAR
REACTOR IS TO BE USED. IF MORE THAN 300KM 63MVAR REACTOR IS TO BE
USED.
B. BUS REACTOR
NORMALLY BUS REACTORS ARE PROVIDED IF THE SUBSTATION BUS VOLTAGE IS
RAISING 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE DURING LIGHTLY LOADED
CONDITION. BASED ON THE SYSTEM STUDIES RECOMANDATIONS BUS REACTORS
ARE TO BE PROVIDED. CALCULATIONS ARE REQUIRED FOR PROVIDING BUS
REACTOR. IN THIS THERE IS NO STANDARDISATION.
LOCATION OF REACTORS WITH CAPACITY IN APTRANSCO
A. LINE REACTOR
1. 400KV KALAPAKA-KHAMMAM 1 AT BOTH ENDS 63MVAR
2. 400KV KALAPAKA-KHAMMAM 2 AT BOTH ENDS 63MVAR
B. BUS REACTOR
1. 400KV KALAPAKA SS 2 X 50 MVAR
2. 400KV NUNNA SS(PGCIL BAYS) 1 x 63 MVAR

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


THE PURPOSE OF THE PROTECTION RELAYING IS TO DISCONNECT THE REACTOR AND
LIMIT DAMAGE IN CASE OF INTERNAL SHORT CIRCUITS, EARTH FAULTS, INTERTURN
FAULTS AND OVER VOLTAGE OR OVER LOAD.THE REACTOR FORMS CERTAIN
IMPEDENCE FOR RATED FREQUENCY, AND AS IT IS SHUNT CONNECTED, AS OVER LOAD
MAY BE CAUSED BY OVER VOLTAGE OR HARMONICS IN VOLTAGE AND CURRENT.
PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR
A. OIL IMMERSED REACTOR USUALLY HAVE A GAS DETECTOR AND OIL SURGE.
DETECTOR (BUCHHOLZ ALARAM & TRIP DEVICES), WHICH ARE EXCELLENT FOR
DETECTING INTERNAL FAULTS.
B. TEMPARATURE MONITORS FOR OIL & WINDING PROVIDE GOOD OVER LOAD
PROTECTION.
C. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE IS PROVIDED TO SAFE GUARD THE REACTOR FROM HIGH
PRESURES.
REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
IT IS WIDELY USED AS INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION FOR SHORT CIRCUIT FAULTS WITH
IN THE DIFFERENTIAL ZONE. THIS IS TREATED AS MAIN-1 PROT FOR REACTOR.
IT CAN BE OF HIGH IMPEDENCE TYPE OR OF A SENSITIVE CURRENT STABILISED TYPE.
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION RELAYS REQUIRE AN EQUAL CT TURNS
RATIO ON THE PHASE AND NEUTRAL SIDE. SENSITIVITY IS 5% OF NOMINAL REACTOR CT
CURRENT.
BACK-UP PROTECTION
A VARIETY OF RELAYS ARE AVAILABLE.
A. OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N - ANY
COMBINATION OF THESE)
B. UNDER IMPEDENCE / DISTANCE ( Z<)(21R).
C. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT PROTECTION (Un>).
RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
IF, FOR SOME REASON, A SENSITIVE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION NOT CHOOSEN A
RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION CAN BE UTILISED.

SHUNT REACTOR (BUS & LINE)


(4CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

IL
INTER LOCK FACILITY:
WHEN 1-89R CLOSES ONLY
PERMIT TO CLOSE 1-89L AND
1-89L OPENS ONLY
PERMIT TO OPEN 1-89R.

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3-CT
3
P1

1-89A

LINE
SHUNT
REACTOR

UUU

NEUTRAL
REACTOR

UUU

IL

1-89L

2-89A

P1

P1

2-52CB

P2

2-89B
3-89R

UUUU

P2

2-BCT

2-ACT

1-89R

3-89A

LINE 1

BUS
SHUNT
REACTOR

SHUNT REACTOR (BUS & LINE)


(5CTS METHOD)
BUS-1

BUS-2

1-89

IL
INTER LOCK FACILITY:
WHEN 1-89R CLOSES ONLY
PERMIT TO CLOSE 1-89L AND
1-89L OPENS ONLY
PERMIT TO OPEN 1-89R.

3-89

1-52CB
1-CT

3-52CB
P2

P2

3P1

3 3-CT

P1

1-89A

NEUTRAL
REACTOR

UUU

UUU

LINE
SHUNT
REACTOR

P2

1-RCT
P1 3

2-CT
P1

2-89A

IL

2-89B

3-89R
P2

1-89L
1-LCT

2-52CB

P2

P2

3P1

LINE 1

P1

3 3-RCT

UUUU

1-89R

3-89A

BUS
SHUNT
REACTOR

SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


PROTECTIONS

4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

LINE PROTECTION
MAIN-1 PROTECTION,
MAIN-2 PROTECTION,
METERING,
BUSBAR & BUSBAR
CHECKUP PROTECTION

AS USUAL IN 4CT METHOD

AS USUAL IN 5CT METHOD

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


MAIN PROTECTION ( 87 R )
(DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION)

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & NEUTRAL


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF LINE SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & NEUTRAL


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF LINE SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

BACK UP PROTECTION(21R)
( SINGLE STEP REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION )

HV BUSHING CT CORE-3 & SELECTED


CVT IS CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

1-RCT CORE-5 & SELECTED CVT IS


CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT


PROTECTION (64 R )

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & NEUTRAL


REACTOR EARTH BUSHING CT CORE1.2 OF LINE SHUNT REACTOR IS
CONNECTED TO 1-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & NEUTRAL


REACTOR EARTH BUSHING CT
CORE-1.2 OF LINE SHUNT REACTOR
IS CONNECTED TO 1-PH HIGH
IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

METERING

NEUTRAL BUSHING CT CORE-1 IS


CONNECTED TO REACTOR
METERING

NEUTRAL BUSHING CT CORE-1 IS


CONNECTED TO REACTOR
METERING

SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


PROTECTIONS

4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


MAIN PROTECTION (87 R)
(DIFFERENTIALPROTECTION)

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF BUS SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 3-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY.

HV BUSHING CT CORE-1 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-3 OF BUS
SHUNT REACTOR IS CONNECTED
TO 3-PH HIGH IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY.

BACK UP PROTECTION (21R )


( SINGLE STEP REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION )

3-CT CORE-5 & 2-ACT CORE-5


SECONDARIES ARE CONNECTED
PARALLEL & SELECTED CVT IS
CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

3-RCT CORE-5 & SELECTED CVT IS


CONNECTED TO SINGLE STEP
REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY.

RISTRICTED EARTH FAULT


PROTECTION ( 64 R )

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-2 OF BUS SHUNT
REACTOR IS CONNECTED TO 1-PH
HIGH IMPEDENCE DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY(REF).

HV BUSHING CT CORE-2 & EARTH


BUSHING CT CORE-2 OF BUS
SHUNT REACTOR IS CONNECTED
TO 1-PH HIGH IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY(REF).

SPECIAL PROTECTION
LINE SHUNT REACTOR
BUS SHUNT REACTOR
CVT SELECTION

STUB PROTECTION
___
LINE SHUNT REACTOR: ACCORDING
TO ISOLATORS & BREAKERS
POSITION BUS-1/ BUS-2/ LINE CVT
WILL BE SELECTED.

TEED-1: 1-CT, 2-CT, 1-LCT & 1-RCT


TEED-2: 1-CT, 2-CT, 1-LCT & 1-RCT
TEED-1: 3-CT, 2-CT & 3-RCT
TEED-2: 3-CT, 2-CT & 3-RCT
BUS SHUNT REACTOR:
ACCORDING TO ISOLATORS &
BREAKERS POSITION BUS-1/
BUS-2 CVT WILL BE SELECTED.

REACTOR BUSHING CT CONNECTIONS


CORES

LINE SHUNT REACTOR


4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

BUS SHUNT REACTOR


4 CT METHOD

5 CT METHOD

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

HV (400KV SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

CORE-2

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

CORE-3*

REACTOR IMPEDENCE
PROTECTION

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

SPARE

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

SPARE

SPARE

METERING

METERING

NEUTRAL (STAR POINT SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1

METERING

METERING

CORE-2

SPARE

SPARE

CORE-3

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

NEUTRAL REACTOR (MAIN REACTOR STAR POINT SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1.1

SPARE

SPARE

NEUTRAL REACTOR (EARTH POINT SIDE) BUSHING CTs


CORE-1.2

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION
REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

RESTRICTED EARTH
FAULT PROTECTION
REACTOR HIGH
IMPEDENCE
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

*NOTE: NORMALLY CORECORE-3 IS USED FOR REACTOR


IMPEDENCE PROTECTION. HERE IN 3 CASES WE ARE
NOT UTILISED THE CORECORE-3 FOR REACTOR
IMPEDENCE PROTECTION. IN THESE 3 CASES
OUTDOOR CTs ARE AVAILABLE. CORECORE-5 OF THESE
CTs ARE UTILISING FOR REACTOR IMPEDENCE
PROTECTION. SO, FOR REACTOR IMPEDENCE
PROTECTION EITHER CORECORE-3 OF HV BUSHING CT OR
CORECORE-5 OF EXTERNAL CT MAY BE UTILISED.

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


.

P1

CORES
3 2 1

HV BUSHING
(400KV SIDE) CTs

3
3
3

200/ 1A

.
.
CORE 1.1
.
P2

P1

200/ 1A

UUU

P2

NEUTRAL REACTOR

.
CORE 1.2
.
P1

200/ 1A

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION


SELECTED
BUSBUS-1/ BUSBUS-2/ LINE
CVT VOLTAGE

CORES
3 2 1

200/ 1A
NEUTRAL BUSHING
(STAR PONT SIDE)
CTs

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

P1

3
3
3

LINESHUNT
REACTOR

UUU

P2

(4CTs METHOD)

P2

REACTOR METERING

LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


.

(5CTs METHOD)
1-RCT

P1

1-89R

P2
1-LCT CORECORE-1

TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION-1


1-CT CORECORE-5

P1

CORES
3 2 1

200/ 1A
NEUTRAL BUSHING
(STAR PONT SIDE)
CTs

3
3
3

LINESHUNT
REACTOR

P1

UUU

P2

CORES
4 3 2

3
3
3
3
3

CORES
3 2 1

HV BUSHING
(400KV SIDE) CTs

3
3
3

200/ 1A

CORECORE-1: 20002000-10001000-500/1
500/1
CORECORE-2: 20002000-10001000-500/1
500/1
CORECORE-3: 20002000-10001000-500/1
CORECORE-4: 20002000-10001000-500/1
CORECORE-5: 20002000-10001000-500/1

.
.
CORE 1.1
.
P2

TEE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION-2

SELECTED
BUSBUS-1/ BUSBUS-2/ LINE
CVT VOLTAGE

UUU

P2

NEUTRAL REACTOR

.
CORE 1.2
.
P1

200/ 1A

P2

2-CT
CORECORE-4
1-LCT
CORECORE-2

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION

P1

200/ 1A

1-CT
CORECORE-4

2-CT CORECORE-5

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

REACTOR METERING

3-52CB
1
2

2-52CB
5

4 3 2
CORES

2A-CT

.
3 2 1
CORES

NEUTRAL BUSHING CTs


200/ 1A
(STAR PONT SIDE)

. UUU

P1

3
3
3

3
3
3

P2

3-89R

2-89B

P1

P1

3-89A

P2

3-CT

5 4 3
CORES

3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

REACTOR METERING

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION

P2

3
3

SELECTED
BUSBUS-1/ BUSBUS-2
CVT VOLTAGE

P2 3

2 1
CORES

BUS SHUNT REACTOR 200/ 1A

P1

HV BUSHING CTs
(400KV SIDE)

RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

3-89

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

BUS-2

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

(4CTs METHOD)

BUS BAR PROTECTION

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION

.
2-CT

2-52CB P1
5

4 3 2
CORES

P2

3-89A

NEUTRAL BUSHING CTs


200/ 1A
(STAR PONT SIDE)

P2 3

2 1
CORES

BUS SHUNT REACTOR 200/ 1A

P1

HV BUSHING CTs
(400KV SIDE)

3
3
3
3
3

P2

3R-CT

3 2 1
CORES

. UUU

P1

3
3
3

P2

3
3
3

P1

3-89R

2-89B

CORES
2 3 4

3-CT

P2

TEED-2 PROT (BAY 2&3)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY 2&3)

TEED-2 PROT (BAY 1&2)


TEED-1 PROT (BAY 1&2)

REACTOR IMPEDENCE PROTECTION

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

3
3
3

3
3
3
3
3

REACTOR METERING

3-52CB

CORES
3 4 5

RESTRICTED EARTHFAULT PROTECTION

3-89

P1

BUSBAR CHECKUP PROT

(5CTs METHOD)

3
3

SELECTED
BUSBUS-1/ BUSBUS-2
CVT VOLTAGE

BUS BAR PROTECTION

BUS SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION


BUS-2

CARRIER INTERTRIPPING OF LINE SHUNT REACTOR


LINE SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION TRIPPINGS WILL BE USED AS DIRECT TRIPPINGS OF LINE IN
ADDITION TO OTHER TRIPPINGS. BUS SHUNT REACTOR NEED NOT REQUIRE CARRIER INTER
TRIPPING FACILITY.
87R REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RADHA
21R REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY
RAKZB

ABB
NSD 50

LINE PROTECTION
COUPLER PANEL-1

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

64R RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

RADHD
REACTORS INTERNAL FAULTS

G4AD V9LC 2

GROUP-1/A TRIPPINGS

G4AD V9LC 1
87R REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY
RADHA
21R REACTOR IMPEDENCE RELAY
RAKZB

ABB
NSD 50

DC VE FROM PANEL

LINE PROTECTION
COUPLER PANEL-2

DC +VE
FROM PANEL

64R RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

RADHD
REACTORS INTERNAL FAULTS

G4AD V9LC 2

GROUP-2/B TRIPPINGS

G4AD V9LC 1

DC VE FROM PANEL

ADDITIONAL AND
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
(EVENT LOGGER & DISTURBANCE
RECORDER)
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

400KV SUBSTATION: MAMIDIPALLY


19 MAR 2004 13:00:00
A 13:09:37.090 # 195
A 13:09:37.096 # 188
A 13:09:37.097 # 187
A 13:09:37.100 # 181
A 13:09:37.104 # 162
A 13:09:37.110 # 196
A 13:09:37.110 # 170
A 13:09:37.111 # 161
A 13:09:37.111 # 163
A 13:09:37.111 # 169
A 13:09:37.112 # 168
A 13:09:37.113 # 182
A 13:09:37.126 # 199
A 13:09:37.140 # 185
N 13:09:37.147 # 195
N 13:09:37.148 # 196
N 13:09:37.175 # 187
N 13:09:37.176 # 181
N 13:09:37.176 # 188
N 13:09:37.185 # 182
N 13:09:37.257 # 199
N 13:09:37.279 # 185
19 MAR 2004 14:00:00
N 14:09:48.702 # 163
N 14:09:48.704 # 161
N 14:09:48.720 # 162
N 14:10:00.903 # 169
N 14:10:00.907 # 168
N 14:10:00.907 # 170
19 MAR 2004 15:00:00

EVENT LOGGER EVENTS INFORMATION

400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP


400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT STARTY
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT STARTR
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 Y-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 R-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH OPEN
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START R RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START Y RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED RESET
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 R-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 Y-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH CLOSE
400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH CLOSE

DISTURBANCE RECORDER

R PH VOLTAGE
Y PH VOLTAGE
B PH VOLTAGE
OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE
R PH CURRENT
Y PH CURRENT
B PH CURRENT
STAR/NEUTRAL CURRENT
MAIN CB R PH OPEN
MAIN CB Y PH OPEN
MAIN CB B PH OPEN
TIE CB R PH OPEN
TIE CB Y PH OPEN
TIE CB B PH OPEN
MAIN/TIE CB LBB OPTD
DIRECT TRIP CH-1/2 OPTD
BUSBAR PROT OPTD
MAIN-1 PROT OPTD
MAIN-2 PROT OPTD
OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1/2 OPTD
STUB PROT-1/2 OPTD
MAIN-1 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE
MAIN-2 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE
DF/DT OPTD
EVENT NO
NAME OF FEEDER
DATE & TIME

ISOLATOR
INTERLOCKS

NOTE: All Earth Switches


in the Bay are towards
Circuit Breaker side only.
The Line and Transformer
Earth Switches are towards
Line & Transformer.
O: OPEN
C: CLOSE
A: ACTED

BB189E : BUSBAR-1 EARTH SWITCH .


BB289E : BUSBAR-2EARTH SWITCH .
UV RELAY: UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY.

S.NO

ISOLATOR
OPEN/CLOSE

EQUIPMENT-1

EQUIPMENT-2

EQUIPMENT-3

EQUIPMENT-4

INTERLOCKS REQUIRED FOR CONCERNED ISOLATOR / EARTH SWITCH OPEN OR CLOSE

BAY - 1
1

1 - 89

ISO

BB189 E

189 AE

189 E

152 CB

1 89 E

ES

189 A

189

--

--

1 89 A

ISO

189 AE

189 E

152 CB

--

1 89 AE

ES

189 A

189

--

--

1 89 L

ISO

189 LE

152 CB

252 CB

--

1 89 LE

ES

189 L

UV RELAY

--

--

2 89 A

ISO

289 BE

289 AE

252 CB

--

2 89 AE

ES

289 B

289 A

--

--

2 89 B

ISO

289 BE

289 AE

252 CB

--

10

2 89 BE

ES

289 B

289 A

--

--

11

3 89

ISO

BB289 E

389 AE

389 E

352 CB

12

3 89 E

ES

389 A

389

--

--

13

3 89 A

ISO

389 AE

389 E

352 CB

--

14

3 89 AE

ES

389 A

389

--

--

15

3 89 T

ISO

LV89 E2

389 TE

252 CB

352 CB

16

3 89 TE

ES

389 T

LV89 T

--

--

BAY - 2

BAY - 3

LIST OF PANELS
ADOPTED IN
ONE AND HALF
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SCHEME
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

LIST OF PANELS
1. CONTROL PANEL FOR LINE & AT/F (ICT) CP
2. 400KV LINE CB RELAY PANEL RLA
3. 400KV LINE PROTECTION PANEL RLB
4. 400KV TIE CB RELAY PANEL RTB
5. 400KV AT/F(ICT) CB RELAY PANEL RTRA
6. 315MVA AT/F(ICT) PROTECTION PANEL
FOR HV (400KV SIDE) RTRB
7. 315MVA AT/F(ICT) PROTECTION PANEL
FOR LV RTRC
8. 220KV AT/F(ICT) CB RELAY PANEL RTRD
9. CONTROL PANEL FOR AT/F LV - KT

CONTROL PANEL CP/KT


1. IT IS HAVING PANEL METERS i.e AMMETER,
VOLTMETER, MW METER, MVAR METER.(NOW
MULTIFUNCTION PANEL METERS ARE AVAILABLE).
2. ANNOUNCIATION FACIA FOR PROBLEMS, ALARMS
ENCOUNTERED.(NOW MICROPROCESSOR BASED
ANNOUNCIATION FACIA IS AVAILABLE).
3. INDICATING LAMPS FOR RELAYS HEATHINESS &
INTERLOCKS.
4. TNC SWITCHES FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER/ ISOLATOR
FOR MANUAL TRIP/CLOSE OPERATION.
5. PANEL INDICATING LAMPS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER/
ISOLATOR POSITION i.e CLOSE/OPEN.
6. SYMAPHORES FOR EARTH SWITCHES POSITION
i.e CLOSE/OPEN.
7. SYNCHOROSCOPE SOCKETS ONE No FOR EACH
CIRCUIT BREAKER UTILISED AT THE TIME OF
CLOSING.
8. ENERGY METERS.

400KV LINE CB RELAY PANEL-RLA


1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

ANNOUNCIATION RELAYS.
AUTO RECLOUSER WITH CHECK SYNCHRONISING RELAY
(79 A/R + 25).
MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-A( 86-A WITH 3 Nos 1PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS, 1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY
SUPERVISION).
MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-B( 86-B WITH 3 Nos 1PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS, 1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY
SUPERVISION).
DC SOURCE-1 (GR-A) HEALTHINESS.
DC SOURCE-2 (GR-B) HEALTHINESS.
TRIP CIRCUIT-1 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR MAIN CB (152CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
TRIP CIRCUIT-2 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR MAIN CB (152CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL 1/ 2 RECEIVED RELAYS & FLAG RELAYS.
LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP/ BREAKER FAILURE RELAY ( 50 LBB)
FOR MAIN CB(152CB).
UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY FOR LINE EARTH SWITCH INTERLOCK.
FLAG RELAYS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER TROUBLES.

400KV LINE PROTECTION PANEL-RLB


1.
2.

MAIN-1 PROTECTION FOR LINE( 29 L1, WITH NECESSARY


AUX RELAYS & DC GR-A HEALTHINESS).(TEED(TEED-1 PROTECTION RELAY IN CASE 5CT METHOD )
MAIN-2 PROTECTION FOR LINE( 29 L2, WITH NECESSARY
AUX RELAYS & DC GR-B HEALTHINESS).(TEED(TEED-2 PROTECTION RELAY IN CASE 5CT METHOD)

FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE IN MAIN-1/ MAIN-2(REL521/ REL 316)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

4 TO 6 SETTING IMPEDENCE ZONES WITH 4 TO 6 SETTING GROUPS (21 + 21N).


DIR / INST / TIME OVERCURRENT & EARTH FAULT FUNCTION( 50 + 51 + 67 + 50N + 51N + 67N).
EIGHT COMMUNICATION SCHEMES.
SWITCH ON TO FAULT PROTECTION(21 SOTF).
PHASE SELECTION(R,Y,B).
POWER SWING BLOCKING(PSB)(68 + 68T).
FUSE FAILURE SUPERVISION(PT FFR).
AUTO RECLOSER RELAY WITH SYNCHROCHECK AND VOLTAGE CHECK(79 A/R + 25 +86).
WEEK END INFEED LOGIC(27 WI).
SYSTEM SUPERVISION.
STUB PROTECTION(STUB).
OVER VOLTAGE/ UNDER VOLTAGE FUNCTION(27+ 59).
LBB/BFR FUNCTION(50 BF).
DISTANCE TO FAULT LOCATOR(21 FL).(SHOWS IN 1. %, 2. KM & 3. R+JX )
16 PROGRAMABLE SIGNALLING RELAYS WITH LEDs.

16.

RECORDABLE 10Nos LATEST DISTRUBANCES WITH BASIC EVALUATION DISTURBANCE RECORDER.

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

EVENT RECORDER RELATED TO RELAY EVENTS.


PRE-FAULT, FAULT & POST-FAULT VALUES OF ANALOG POINTS WITH IMPEDENCE DETAILS.
USER CAN BE CONFIGUARED PROGRAMABLE LOGIC FUNCTIONS.
TELE / CARRIER INTER TRIPPING SCHEMES(85 +21)(PUTT, POTT).
TRIP CIRCUIT MONITORING(74 TC).
METERING FUNCTION (INSTANTANEOUS VALUES DISPLAY FUNCTION).
4 QUADRANT ENERGY METER FUNCTION (KWH,KVAH,KVARH)(KYZ PULSE OUTPUT).

400KV TIE CB RELAY PANEL-RTB


1. ANNOUNCIATION RELAYS.
2. AUTO RECLOUSER WITH CHECK SYNCHRONISING
RELAY (79 A/R + 25).
3. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-A( 86-A WITH 3 Nos 1PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS, 1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY
SUPERVISION).
4. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-B( 86-B WITH 3 Nos 1PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS, 1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY
SUPERVISION).
5. DC SOURCE-1 (GR-A) HEALTHINESS.
6. DC SOURCE-2 (GR-B) HEALTHINESS.
7. TRIP CIRCUIT-1 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR TIE CB (252CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
8. TRIP CIRCUIT-2 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR TIE CB (252CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
9. LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP/ BREAKER FAILURE RELAY ( 50 LBB)
FOR TIE CB(252CB).
10. FLAG RELAYS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER TROUBLES.

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F(ICT) HV CB


RELAY PANEL (400KV SIDE) - RTRA
1. ANNOUNCIATION RELAYS.
2. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-A( 86-A WITH 1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY SUPERVISION).
3. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-B( 86-B WITH 1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY SUPERVISION).
5. DC SOURCE-1 (GR-A) HEALTHINESS.
6. DC SOURCE-2 (GR-B) HEALTHINESS.
7. TRIP CIRCUIT-1 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR MAIN CB (352CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
8. TRIP CIRCUIT-2 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR MAIN CB (352CB)
FOR 3 PHASES.
9. LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP/ BREAKER FAILURE RELAY ( 50 LBB)
FOR MAIN CB(352CB).
10. VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS FOR METERING.
11. FLAG RELAYS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER TROUBLES.

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F(ICT) HV


PROTECTION PANEL (400KV SIDE) - RTRB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

MAIN-1 PROTECTION/ DIFFERENTIAL RELAY (87T).


HV OVER FLUX RELAY (99T HV).
OVER LOAD RELAY/ HIGH CURRENT RELAY (51 O/L).
VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS FOR PROTECTION.
FLAG RELAYS FOR TRANSFORMER INTERNAL FAULTS &
PROBLEMS FOR ALARAM & TRIPS.
6. DC SUPERVISION FOR RELAYS.
7. DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT RELAYS FOR
HV (MAIN-2 PROTECTION)(67 R,Y,B, 67N).
8. FUSE FAILURE RELAY(PT FFR).

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F(ICT) LV


PROTECTION PANEL (220KV SIDE) - RTRC
1. LV OVER FLUX RELAY (99T LV).
2. RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY, SINGLE PHASE HIGH
IMPEDENECE RELAY (64T).
3. VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS FOR PROTECTION.
4. FLAG RELAYS FOR TRANSFORMER INTERNAL FAULTS &
PROBLEMS FOR ALARAM & TRIPS.
5. DC SUPERVISION FOR RELAYS.
6. DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT RELAYS FOR
LV (MAIN-2 PROTECTION)(67 R,Y,B, 67N).
7. FUSE FAILURE RELAY(PT FFR).

315MVA, 400KV/220KV/33KV AT/F(ICT) LV CB


RELAY PANEL (220KV SIDE) - RTRD
1. ANNOUNCIATION RELAYS.
2. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-A( 86-A WITH 1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY SUPERVISION).
3. MASTER TRIP RELAY GR-B( 86-B WITH 1No 3PH TRIP RELAYS,
1No PUSH BUTTON FOR RESET & HEALTHY SUPERVISION).
4. DC SOURCE-1 (GR-A) HEALTHINESS.
5. DC SOURCE-2 (GR-B) HEALTHINESS.
6. TRIP CIRCUIT-1 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR LV CB
FOR 3 PHASES.
7. TRIP CIRCUIT-2 SUPERVISION RELAYS FOR LV CB
FOR 3 PHASES.
8. LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP/ BREAKER FAILURE RELAY ( 50 LBB)
FOR LV CB.
9. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT RELAY.
10. VOLTAGE SELECTION RELAYS FOR METERING.
11. FLAG RELAYS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKER TROUBLES.

OTHER
INFORMATION
REGARDING
RELAYS AND
TESTING
EQUIPMENT
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

ABB RELAYS
ABB Network Partner AG

ABB Network Partner AG

REL531

REL 521

ABB Network Partner AG

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

REL 316*4

C
E

ALSTOM RELAYS

P444

P443

P442

E-PAC

P437

GE MULTILIN
RELAYS

SIEMENS
RELAYS

SEL RELAYS
ENABLED
TARGET
RESET

TRIP

IA =250.10 A
IB =250.10 A
IC =250.10 A
VAB =400.0 KV
VBC =400.0 KV
VCA =400.0 KV
ESC

ENT

INST TIME COMM SOTF

INST
TIME
COMM
SOTF
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
ZONE 3
ZONE 4

PH - A
PH - B
PH - C
GND

79 RESET
79 LOCKOUT

ZONE
C

FAULT TYPE

TARGET TARGET FAULT SET


RESET NO /
YES /
CANCEL SELECT

51

COMM
ENABLED

RECLOSE
ENABLED

ALT
SETTINGS

CB
CLOSED

RELAY
TEST

CB
OPEN

SEL- 321- 5 - 2

TARGET
RESET

TRIP

EN

MC
ENABLED

50
51

2ENABLED
3

TRIP

SPT
ENABLED

PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

50
O/C

METER STATUS OTHER GROUP


EXIT

SEL

SEL- 421
PROTECTION
AUTOMATION
CONTROL

SEL

NXT PHASE RELAYS

DISTANCE
RELAYS

CHARACTERESTICS
1. MHO CIRCULAR CHARACTERSTICS.
2. QUADRILATERAL CHARACTERSTICS.
3. LENS/OPTICAL CHARACTERSTICS.
4. TOMATO CHARACTRESTICS.
5. ABB REL521/316 CHARACTERESTICS.

5
3

RELAY MODELS OF LINE (DISTANCE) & TRANSFORMER( M & B ) OF DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS


MANUFACTURERS

TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION

T/F PROTECTION

MAIN-1

CURVES

MAIN-2

CURVES

DIFFERENTIAL

DIR O/L,E/F

ABB

REL 521

QUAD

REL 316

QUAD

RET 521
RET 316

REL 505
RAPDK

ALSTOM

MICOMHO P443
MICOM P444
MICOM P442

QUAD/
MHO

MICOM P437
E-PAC 3000,
OPTIMHO

QUAD/
MHO

MICOM P633
KBCH/ MBCH

MICOM P141
MICOM P127

SIEMENS
( SIPROTEC )

SIPROTEC
7SA63

QUAD/
MHO

SIPROTEC
7SA522

QUAD/
MHO

7UT 612/ 3
7UT 512/ 3

7SJ 62/3/4/5
7SJ 52/3/4/5

SEL

SEL 421

QUAD/
MHO

SEL 321
SEL 311C

QUAD/
MHO

SEL 387

SEL 351

GE
MULTILIN

ALPS-L/D

QUAD/
MHO

LPS-L/D
DLP-L/D, D-6O

QUAD/
MHO

DTP 32DH
SR 7465

DMS
SR 750/60

EASUN
REYROLE

THR 4 PE 24

MHO

THR 4 PE 16
THR 3 PE 18

MHO

---

---

NXT
PHASE

L-PRO

QUAD/
MHO

L-PRO

LENS/
TOMAT0

T-PRO

F-PRO

RELAY TESTING EQUIPMENTS


1. PROGRAMA_GE (MODEL: FREEJA-300)
3. OMICRON (MODEL: CMC 256-6)

2. MANTA TEST SYSTEMS (MODEL: MTS 4000)


4. DOBLE ( MODEL: F 6150)

RELAY TESTING EQUIPMENTS


1. MEEGER_AVO (MODEL: MPRT 8430)
3. KOCOS (MODEL: ARTES 440 II)

2. RES (MODEL: APTS 3)


4. EURO SMC ( MODEL: TRES)

DISPLAY