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Ralph Waldo Emerson (Situmorang, 1980: 8) says that poetry teaches as much as possible with

as few words as possible.

Matthew Arnold (in Tarin 1985: 3) states that poetry is the only way the most beautiful,
impressive, and the most effective way to play your things.
4.Poetry is what gets lost in translation. - Robert Frost

5.Poetry lies its way to truth.- John Ciardi

6.Poetry is the deification of reality.- Edith Sitwell

opinion from according definition of plato that poetry is an art.

Poetry and Poetics - Genre


aristotle literary example criticism

As a science of interpretation, poetics has consistently been concerned with delineating its proper
field of study ("What is a poetic text?") and then subdividing it into genres ("What kind of poetic
text is under consideration and what interpretive approaches does it select?").

Classical poetics.
Although classical writers on the subject of literary types failed to formulate a comprehensive
system of genres, they did fix certain distinctions that would continue to play a rolefirst
prescriptive, then descriptivein the Western poetic tradition. To begin with, the term poetics as
Aristotle defined it exclusively pertains to literary works composed in verse. The verse form,
however, is a less important criterion than the notion of poisis, which perhaps would be best
understood as "fiction." While it was common practice in antiquity to present scientific material
in verse form, Aristotle decisively limited the term poetry to fictional representations. Homer is a
poet; Empedocles is not (1447b). Prose, which was then restricted to oratory, historiography, and
Aristotle's own manner of philosophical discourse, belongs instead to the realm of rhetoric. The
fact that Aristotle neglected to account for the fictional use of prose, for example, in the fable, is
already an indication of his general lack of comprehensiveness.
In a similarly broad move, Plato (c. 428348 or 347 B.C.E.) had divided all literary genres into
two primary categories: poetic representations by way of described action, as in epic poetry; and
representations by way of impersonated action, as in drama. When Plato was faced with the fact
that Homeric epic in fact employs both modes of representation, the philosopher added the
"mixed mode," where the related action alternates between straight narrative and re-created
dialogue (392394). The existence of what we would call lyric poetry (for example, iambic

poetry, elegy, melic poetry, or choral odes) is vaguely acknowledged by Plato in Book 10 of the
Republic, but only to be condemned as beautifully contrived falsehoods passed off as truth.
Aristotle, whose explicit intention at the beginning of On Poetics is to give an account of "poetry
in itself and its kinds or forms [ eid ]" (1447a), summarily abandons a discussion of lyric
composition by reverting to Plato's fundamental division between narration and impersonated
This persistent lacuna, however, hardly played a role in the development of European poetics.
The crucial point rather is that both Plato and Aristotle insisted that poetry is an art of
representation or imitation (mimsis). Placed alongside a nascent theory of genre, the idea of
mimesis introduces the important issue of decorum (what is appropriate for certain characters to
say or do in certain situations). An ancient concern for genre thereby anticipated one of the
fundamental tenets of later formalism, namely that representational content is inseparable from
representational form. With the identification and accumulation of more poetic forms in Latin
treatises such as Horace's Ars poetica and Quintilian's Institutio oratoria, classical genre theory
could be further codified to serve as a system of prescriptive rules for composition as well as for
the critic's evaluation.

Neoclassicism and its critics.

The rediscovery of Aristotle's On Poetics in the sixteenth century gave rise to a fresh and
impassioned interest in codifying a system of poetic forms. In addition to debates on the viability
of particular "mixed forms," for example, Giovanni Guarini's scandalous defense of his
tragicomedy, Il pastor fido (1590; The faithful shepherd), this period established the doctrine of
the three "unities" of time, place, and action, which would have a decisive influence on dramatic
productions well into the eighteenth century. Lodovico Castelvetro's seminal commentary on
Aristotle's Poetics (1570) is the key source of much of the normative poetics promulgated by
European Neoclassicism. Another high point is Nicolas Boileau's elaborate typology, outlined in
his Art potique (1674), where the fundamental categories of epic and drama (both tragic and
comic) are joined by the pastoral poem, the elegy, the ode, the epigram, and satire. As is
generally the case with neoclassical movements, the rationale for such divisions as well as the
demand that each genre remain distinct from the others are proffered as self-evident and entirely
natural. Twentieth-century critics of ideology, for example, Fredric Jameson, will argue that it is
precisely this naturalness that indicates that all genre theories reinforce the hegemonic order. The
hierarchies of generic explication and their attendant ideals of decorum dictate the relations
between the high, middle, and low spheres and thereby have deep implications for societal and
political organization.
Although Romanticism rejected the authoritarian conventions prescribed by Neoclassicism, poets
of the late eighteenth century, particularly in Germany, seem to have recognized the importance
of literary form in relation to content. Genre is how poetry specifically transforms the actual into
the possible. Friedrich Hlderlin (17701843), for example, developed an elaborate genre system
to underwrite his experiments on the long Pindaric ode. In his fragmentary essay, "ber die
verschiednen Arten, zu dichten" (c. 1800; On the different ways to compose poetry), he
combines genre theory and a kind of ontological decorum by detecting a "proper" and
"improper" tone in the constitution of the three major poetic modes: the natural, the heroic, and

the ideal, which correspond respectively to lyric, epic, and drama. Literary genres became
associated with the epistemological concerns opened up by the critical philosophy of Immanuel
Kant (17241804). Here, traditional approaches to genre-criticism contributed to new models for
explaining how we give form to the world around us.

Contemporary issues.
Although the idea of using prescriptive norms for poetic composition had been entirely
discredited by the close of the eighteenth century, this does not mean that theories of genre no
longer contributed to discussions of poetics. Although Benedetto Croce (18661952) in his
Aesthetics (1902) persuasively argued that all genre designations were mere abstractions
disrespectful of the artwork's uniqueness, there has been no lack of theoreticians who have
recognized the benefits of generic descriptions for the study of literature. Accordingly, genre
criticism has yielded to notions of intertextuality, where, as in the famous remark by T. S. Eliot
(18881965), a poet's individual voice is determined only in relation to the preceding tradition of
forms or conventions. Northrop Frye, who outlines an altogether elaborate system of literary
archetypes in his Anatomy of Criticism (1957), similarly approaches literary history with an eye
toward broad, organizational patterns. Structuralist accounts, which in many respects respond to
Frye's archetypal criticism, essentially replace the term genre with code. The work of Roland
Barthes, Tzvetan Todorov, and Grard Genette, for example, demonstrates the continued
usefulness of generic criticism, especially when the notion of genre assumes a more provisional
and aspectual quality. Even postmodern theorists of criture fminine (feminine writing), which
explicitly claim to transgress all interpretive laws, as in the work of Hlne Cixous, should be
regarded as perpetuating discussions of genre, however idiosyncratically. This is the case even
when generic boundaries serve as the target of critique, as in theories of gender and sexuality, for
example in the work of Judith Butler.
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1. Literature
2. Genre of Literature
3. Elements of Genre of Literature

Everything written

Belle letre

A performance in words (Robert Frost)

A work of imagination and creative writing

A work of imagination and creative writing with the development of

setting, plot, conflict, symbol, host/narrator


A. Fiction
B. Non Fiction
A. Fiction
B. Non Fiction
1. Prose: A. Fiction
B. Non Fiction
1. Non Prose: A. Fiction
B. Non Fiction
Fiction: imagination + facts + exaggeration
Non Fiction: Facts





Each genre has intrinsic and extrinsic elements

Intrinsic elements: structural development from within the genre

Extrinsic elements: structural development from outside the genre

Intrinsic Elements of Prose





Point of View



Intrinsic Elements of Poetry

Figurative Language



Rhythm and Meter

Poetic Diction

Point of View



Intrinsic Elements of Drama










Sound and Lighting Effect

Extrinsic Elements

Literature and Biography

Literature and Psychology

Literature and Society

Literature and Thought


The short story is a literary genre. It is usually fictional narrative

prose and tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works
of fiction, such as novels.

Elements of Short Stories

Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Usually, a short

story will focus on only one incident, has a single plot, a single setting,
a limited number of characters, and covers a short period of time.

Elements of short story:

1. Characters
2. Setting
3. Plot
4. Theme
5. Point of View
6. Style
7. Tone
Elements of Short Stories
1. Characters

Characterization is often listed as one of the fundamental elements

of fiction. A character is a participant in the story, and is usually a
person, but may be any persona, identity, or entity whose existence
originates from a fictional work or performance.

Characters may be of several types:

Point-of-view character: the character from whom the story is


Protagonist: the main character of a story

Antagonist: the character that stands in opposition to the protagonist

Supporting character: A character that plays a part in the plot but is

not major

Minor character: a character in a bit/cameo part

Elements of Short Stories

4. Theme

Theme, a conceptual distillation of the story, is often listed as one of

the fundamental elements of fiction. It is the central idea or insight

serving as a unifying element, creating cohesion and is an answer to

the question, 'What did you learn from the piece of fiction?' In some
cases a story's theme is a prominent element and somewhat

Four ways in which an author can express themes are as follows:

1. Themes are expressed and emphasized by the way the author makes us
feel.. By sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas
that go through his mind.
2. Themes are presented in thoughts and conversations. Authors put
words in their characters mouths only for good reasons. One of these is to
develop a storys themes. The things a person says are much on their mind.
Look for thoughts that are repeated throughout the story.
3. Themes are suggested through the characters. The main character usually
illustrates the most important theme of the story. A good way to get at this
theme is to ask yourself the question, what does the main character
learn in the course of the story?
4. The actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. People
naturally express ideas and feelings through their actions. One thing authors
think about is what an action will "say". In other words, how will the action
express an idea or theme?
Elements of Short Stories
5. Point of View

Point of view signifies the way a story gets told the mode established
by an author by means of which the reader is presented with the
characters, dialogue, actions, setting, and events.

First Person
The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal
thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other
characters. He cant tell us thoughts of other characters.

Third-Person Objective
The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees
and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he cant tell
us the thoughts of the characters.

Third-Person Limited
The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the

The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of
more than one of the characters.

Elements of Short Stories

6. Style

Style is not so much what is written, but how it is written. Style in

fiction refers to language conventions used to construct the story. A
fiction writer may manipulate diction, sentence structure, phrasing,
dialogue, and other aspects of language to create style. The
communicative effect created by the author's style is sometimes
referred to as the story's voice. Every writer has his or her own unique
style, or voice. Style is sometimes listed as one of the fundamental
elements of fiction.

Elements of Short Stories

7. Tone/Mod

The authors attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some
possible attitudes are pessimism, optimism, earnestness, seriousness,
bitterness, humorous, and joyful. An authors tone can be revealed
through choice of words and details.

The climate of feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting, objects,
details, images, and words all contribute towards creating a specific
mood. For example, an author may create a mood of mystery around a
character or setting but may treat that character or setting in an ironic,
serious, or humorous tone

A selection of famous short stories

"Yours Truly, Jack the Ripper" by Robert Bloch

"A Sound of Thunder" by Ray Bradbury (online text)

"Cathedral" by Raymond Carver

"The Swimmer" by John Cheever

"Halo" By Bill Gates

"The Bet" by Anton Chekhov (online text)

"The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin (online text)

"The Fortune-Teller" by Machado de Assis

"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell (online text)

"A Rose for Emily" by William Faulkner

"The Overcoat" by Nikolai Gogol (online text translated from


"Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne (online text)

"The Killers" by Ernest Hemingway

"The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry (online text)

"The Oblong Room" Edward D. Hoch

"The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst

"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving

"The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson (online text)

"The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs

"The Dead" by James Joyce (online text)

"In the Penal Colony" by Franz Kafka (online text)

"The Call of Cthulhu" by H.P. Lovecraft

"The Fly" by Katherine Mansfield

"Bartleby, the Scrivener" by Herman Melville (online text)

"A Good Man Is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor (online text)

"The Doctor's Son" by John O'Hara

"The Tell-Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe (online text)

"The Vampyre" by John Polidori (online text)

"The Mortal Immortal" by Mary Shelley (online text)

"The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner" by Alan Sillitoe

"Harrison Bergeron" (1961) by Kurt Vonnegut (online text)

"The Mark on the Wall" (1921) by Virginia Woolf (online text)

A novel (from, Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for
"new", "news", or "short story of something new") is today a long prose
narrative set out in writing. The seventeenth-century genre conflict
between long romances and short novels, novellas, has brought
definitions of both traditions into the modern usage of the term.
Genres of the novel
Science fiction
Crime fiction
Romance novels
Spy novels and thrillers
Gothic fiction
Campus novel
Elements of Novels
1. Characters

2. Setting
3. Plot
4. Theme
5. Point of View
6. Style
7. Tone
8. Symbols
Elements of Novels
8. Symbols
A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests
other meanings as well. Things, characters and actions can be
symbols. Anything that suggests a meaning beyond the obvious.
Some symbols are conventional, generally meaning the same thing to
all readers.
For example: bright sunshine symbolizes goodness and water is a
symbolic cleanser.

8. PROSE is the ordinary form of written language. Prose imitates the spoken language. .

Some Common Types of Prose

1. Nonfictional Prose: A literary work that is mainly based on fact although it may contain
fictional elements in certain cases. Examples are biographies and essays.
2. Fictional Prose: A literary work that is wholly or partly imagined or theoretical. Examples are
3. Heroic Prose: A literary work that may be written down or recited and employs many of the
formulaic expressions found in oral tradition. Examples are legends and tales.
4. Prose Poetry: A literary work which exhibits poetic quality using emotional effects and
heightened imagery but are written in prose instead of verse.