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FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

History of computer
science
The microcomputer era

Intel 4004
 First

commercial microprocessor
 Properties of Intel 4004:
 Held

2300 transistors
 4-bit bus
 Maximum CPU clock rate: 740 KHz
 Could perform up to 60000 instructions per
second
 Could address 640 bytes
 Part of chip collection MCS-4

MCS-4
MCS-4 = Microcomputer System 4-bit
 Made in November 1971
 Consisted of microprocessor 4004, ROM
chip 4001, 40-byte RAM chip 4002 and
10-bit shift register chip 4003
 The most powerful system contained:


 16

ROM chips with capacity of 4KB


 16 RAM chips with capacity of 640 KB

MCS-4

Retrieved from http://webpages.charter.net/bkotaska/mcs4_micro.htm

The Art of Computer Programming


The Art of Computer Programming: A
collection of basic algorithms and
programming techniques
 Author: Donald Knuth (1938 - )
 Basis for key disciplines:


 Data

structures
 Software engineering

The development of PC hardware




1972:
 Intel

chip 8008 on 200 KHz, first 8-bit


processor
 First 5 inch floppy disk


1973:
 Winchester

hard disk, IBM 3340, with capacity

of 70 MB
 Designed by Alan Shugart, one of the
inventors of first floppy disk

Standard for computer networking


Ethernet: family of computer networking
technologies for local area networks
 Inspired by ALOHAnet by Robert Metcalfe
(1946 - )
 Authors: Bob Metcalfe and Dave Boggs
from Xerox PARC


CP/M
CP/M (Control Program/Monitor)
 Author: Gary Kildall
 First portable OS, used by many different
brands of machines independently on their
platform
 By 1981 it was installed on 3000 different
computer brands
 OS of Iskra Deltas Partner, the first PC in
the Macedonian secondary schools


The development of
microprocessors



Intel, 8-bit microprocessor 8080, frequency 2


MHz, access to 64 KB memory, 0.64 MIPS
1976
 Motorola,

chip 6800
 Texas Instruments, first 16-bit microprocessor
TMS9900
 Zilog, first microprocessor on chip Z80



They all belong to similar processor family


Designed by opposing manufacturers

1975, MITS Altair 8800









Personal computer without a keyboard, monitor and


external memory
Designed by Dr. Henry (or Ed) Roberts
Sold by mail order and used by many youngsters
One of them was William H. Gates (1955 - )
Gates and Paul Allen (1953 - ) made the compiler
for Altair BASIC
They started a partnership with MITS
 Price

of Altair BASIC was 500 US$


 Altair Basic together with MITS Altair 8800, 75 US$

1976, Apple-1
Steve Wozniak (1950 - ), Steve Jobs
(1955 - 2011) and Ron Wayne (1934 - )
 Contained I/O parts MITS Altair 8800 was
missing
 The first PC manufactured in Macedonia,
called Marta was Apple-1 clone


The presentation of Apple-1

Retrieved from
http://www.cedmagic.com/history/apple-1-2-steves.html

Two computer giants


1975: Micro-soft, later Microsoft
Corporation
 1976: Apple Computer, Inc., nowadays
Apple, Inc.
 Constant impatience ...
 and constant collaboration, particularly in
the field of software development


History of printers
1953, Remington-Rand, a printer for
UNIVAC
 1971, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center,
first laser printer EARS
 1976, first industrial laser printer IBM 3800
capable to print 20000 rows per minute
 1976, invented the first ink-jet printer
 1979, Texas Instruments, thermal printer
for TI 99/4 computer


IBM 5150
IBM: first personal computer IBM 5150
 Intel: 16-bit chip 8088
 Microsoft: operating system PC-DOS
 Revolutionary: first CGA (Color Graphic
Adaptor) colour card with screen
resolution 640*240 pixels and 16 colours
 The beginning of IBM, Intel & Microsoft
monopoly


First laptop computers


1981, Epson America: Laptop Epson HX20 or HC-20
 Properties:


 Weight:

1.5kg
 16 KB RAM
 32 KB ROM
 Built-in printer
 LCD (Liquid Cristal Display) screen


1982, Hewlett-Packard: Portable computer


HP75C

European personal computers





1981, Sinclair ZX Spectrum


Processor Z80A at 3,5 MHz with 16 MB RAM and
16KB ROM, keys with 5 functions









Next generation with 48 MB RAM

1980, Commodore
Commodore CBM (Commodore Bussiness
Machines) 8-32
32 KB RAM, monochromatic screen and double
floppy drive for 5 inch floppies
1982: Commodore 64
1982, Atari 1200 XL
Home PC with 64 KB RAM and 256 colours

The iconic European computers


http://www.old-computers.com/museum/
computer.asp?c=223&st=1

http://oldcomputers.net/c64.html

http://www.atarimagazines.com/v1n6/insideatari.html

First Mac
January 1984, Apple Computers:
Macintosh
 First PC that used a mouse and a
graphical user interface
 Software support:


 MacWrite
 MacPaint
 Basic

compiler MacBasic
 Pascal interpreter MacPascal

IIs first Mac from 1986

IBM


1983: IBM PC XT
 128KB

RAM
 10 MB hard disk
 5 inch floppy disk drive for floppies with 360KB


1984: IBM PC AT
 processor

at 6MHz
 256KB or 512KB RAM
 20 MB hard disk
 EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adaptor)

The beginning of applicative


software






1979: promotion of personal computers as office


tools
VisiCorp developed the first spreadsheet
VisiCalc
Released for Apple II
Micropro International developed the first text
(word) processor Wordstar
1983: Mitch Capor (1950 - ) introduced Lotus 12-3, the basis of all contemporary spreadsheets

Development of network
technologies
1983: Novel, first network operating
system for IBM PC, called NetWare
 1985: Token-Ring protocol for IBM LAN
(local area networks)


First game consoles


1983: Nintendo
 Nintendo Entertainment System
 The most popular: Super Mario Bros


The beginning of GNU project


September 27, 1983: GNU announced
 January 1984: GNU operating system
 Founder, Richard Stallman (1953 - )
 October 4, 1985: Free Software
Foundation
 Basic idea: Free doesnt does not refer to
price, it refers to freedom


 to

copy a program and redistribute it ...


 to change a program
GNU, retrieved from http://www.gnu.org/graphics/gnu-head-sm.jpg

New Mac generations








1986, Macintosh Plus


Processor Motorola 68000 at 8 MHz
Working memory: 1 MB RAM
3 inch floppy disks with capacity of up to 800
KB
SCSI Small Computer System Interface disk
support
SCSI is a set of standards for physically

connecting and transferring data between


computers and peripheral devices

New IBM generations









Mathematical co-processor Intel 80827


New chip Intel 80386 built in PS/2 (Personal
System/2)
Model 80, frequency 20MHz, new graphic card VGA
(Video Graphics Array), resolution 320*200 with
256, and 640*480 with 16 colours
Mathematical co-processor Intel 80827 is the
beginning of 486 PC generation
Two microprocessor types:
 80386DX

at 25 MHz, speed: 8.5 MIPS


 80386SX at 16 MHz, 16-bit bus, 2.5 MIPS

Software advancements







November 1985, Microsofts first graphical


operating system Windows 1.0
October 1987, Microsoft Excel
1989, Microsoft Word 1.0 for Windows
1989, first professional vector graphic editor
Corel Draw
1991, Visual Basic, first Windows
programming language
October 1991, release of the first free Linux
kernel

Hardware advancements
Intel 80486 at 50 MHz
 First recordable compact disk CD-R (CDRecordable)
 Creative Labs: first stereo sound card for
PC (sound blaster)


Another Apples key invention





1987, Apple Computers: HyperCard


HyperCard was a small programming
environment that included scripting language
Hyper Talk and enabled:
 Creating

of small cards with different data and


graphical elements that appeared at
Macintosh screen as visual pages
 pages were mutually connected through
hypertext links


The concept is used in WWW

Origin of hypertext





1945, Vannevar Bush (1890 - 1974) designed


the hypothetical system Memex
Adaptable system for watching microfilm
pages
1960, language GML and Xanadu project
GML introduced the tags
a

tag is an index term denoting a keyword or term


assigned to a piece of information

Xanadu introduced hyperlinks


a

hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can


directly follow, or that is followed automatically

The Memex concept

Retrieved from http://www.internaldrive.com/2009/03/19/


ancient-or-at-least-older-than-me-technology-the-memex/

A very successful Internet story


1982 - 30.06.2012: France Telecom,
Minitel
 25 million users connected through Minitel


 26000

services

 e-mail
 online

shopping
 train booking


Inspiration for Steve Jobs


http://www.cultofmac.com/tag/minitel/

The birth of World Wide Web / Web










1990, research center CERN


Developer: Tim Berners-Lee (1955 - )
Based on hyperlink concept
1993, NCSA (National Center for
Supercomputing Applications), browser NCSA
Mosaic
1993: promotion of WWW
End of 1994, more than 10000 servers and 10
million users

New browsers
1994, Netscape Navigator
 1994, Opera
 1995, Microsoft Internet Explorer
 1997, Netscape Communicator


Browser war

http://www.justice.gov/atr/cases/f219100/219129.htm,
Courtesy of ADKnowledge

Multimedia
1993, Intel Pentium
 1996, Pentium MMX - first processor
enabling multimedia applications
 AMD-K6 - winner of Technical Innovation
Product of the Year Award (PC Magazine)


Multi-platform computer
environment







1995, Sun Microsystems, software package Java


Multi-platform of cross-platform computer


environment
Internet based, Java is everywhere
Java is the foundation for virtually every type of
networked application and is the global standard for
developing and delivering mobile applications, games,
Web-based content, and enterprise software.

The successes in 1995


Netscape
 Java
 eBay
 Flat TV
 Universal serial bus USB
 First game console, the unbeatable Sony
Playstation


1997, IBM Deep Blue

http://www.soi.wide.ad.jp/class/20040000/slides/04/5.html

1998, Google




Founders: Larry Page (1973 - ) and Sergey Brin


(1973 - )
The fastest search engine
Google in the 21st century:
 Purchases

manu companies, like YouTube


 New services: Gmail, Google Maps, Google Earth,
Google Chrome, Google Translate, Google+
 Operating system Android


Since September 2000, the most visited site

3D object representation






Nvidia, first graphics processing unit GeForce256


Nvidia, parallel computer platform CUDA (Compute
Unified Device Architecture)
Founder and a key supporter of GPGPU (General
Purpose GPU)
Many multi-core graphic processors working in
parallel, simulating supercomputers
Powerful graphics hardware is used to solve
extremely complex tasks

Summary










The beginning of the era of microprocessors and


personal computers
Birth of operating systems
Rapid technological development
Birth of first applicative programs
First Macintosh
HyperCard
WWW
Development of computer science
3D graphics processing units