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# Kaluza-Klein Theory

Jonas Reuter
Physikalisches Institut der Universit
at Bonn

(J. Reuter)

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Overview

Kaluza Theory

## Solutions for dimension

Compactification: Kaluza-Klein theory
Projective geometry
Noncompactified theories

Predictions

Conclusion

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References

## mainly J.M. Overduin and P.S.Wesson Kaluza-Klein Gravity,

arXiv:gr-qc/9805018v1 .
T. Kaluza, Zum Unit
atsproblem der Physik, Sitz. Preuss. Akad.

## Wiss. Phys. Math. K1 (1921) 966.

O. Klein, Quantentheorie und f
unfdimensionale Relativitatstheorie,

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Kaluza Theory

Kaluzas idea

## 3d-space and time to 4d-spacetime

general relativity could be
constructed
Generel Relativity explains gravity

## with pure geometry

Kaluzas idea in 1921: use another

## dimension to construct a more

general theory
Figure: Theodor Kaluza
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Kaluza Theory

Kaluzas idea

## Physics only depends on the first four coordinates (called cylindricity).

No mechanism is specified why it does not depend on the extra
dimensions.

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Kaluza Theory

Notation

## Notation in this presentation:

capital latin indices A,B, . . . run over 0,1,2,3,4
small greek indices , , . . . run over 0,1,2,3

)
hats denote 5d quantities (G

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Kaluza Theory

Basic ansatz

## Ansatz: Einstein-equation in 5d:

AB = 0
G
with
AB
G
AB
R
C

AB

(J. Reuter)

AB R gAB
= R
2
C B
C +
C
D
C D
= C
AB
AC
1 CD
=
g (A gDB + B gDA D gAB )
2

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Kaluza Theory


(
gAB ) =

g + 2 2 A A 2 A
2 A
2

## all derivatives w.r.t. 5th dimension are 0

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Kaluza Theory

Resulting equations

One obtains:
G =

2 2 EM 1
T [ ( ) g ]
2

F = 3

 =

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2 2
F F
4

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Kaluza Theory

## if we assume = const. and with = 4 G :

EM
G = 8G 2 T

F = 0
originally Kaluza and Klein set = 1

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Kaluza Theory

## Problem: extra dimensions

have seen: can unify general relativity and electrodynamics through

extra dimensions
Problem: Why dont we see extra dimensions?
solutions:
1
2
3

## compactification ( Kaluza-Klein Theory)

projective geometry
non-compactification

Theory

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Kaluza Theory

## Solutions for dimension

Compactification: Kaluza-Klein theory
Projective geometry
Noncompactified theories

Predictions

Conclusion

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## in 1926 Klein proposed

compactification
circular topology of 5th dimension

## physical fields only depend

periodically on 5th dimension
small enough compactification scale

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Action

r

action:

S =

16 G

g d 4 xdy

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Metric

(0)
gAB (x)

1/3

g + 2 A A A
A

= 4 G
Z

G = G / dy

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Resulting action



Z
1
1
R
4

S = d x g
+ F F + 2
16 4
6
2

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## introduce scalar field in theory:

Z
S =

d x dy

g A A

expand in Fourier-modes:

(x,y ) =

n=
X

(n) (x)e in r

n=

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

inA

=
dy
d x g
(n)
+
r
n



inA
n2 (n)2
(n)
+
2
r
r
Z

XZ

## first term: covariant derivative

second term: mass term

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n
qn =
r

 Z
1/2
n 16G

=
dy
r

|n|
mn =
r

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## Achievements and problems

Special achievements:
prediction of quantization of charge

Special problems:
quantized mass
predicted mass of lowest Fouriermode mpl

higher dimensions

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

Projective geometry

Projective geometry

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

## replaces classical tensors in general relativity with projective tensors

extra dimensions are artifacts of underlying theory
extra dimensions are regarded as visual aids

## extra dimensions are not physically real and thus cannot be

observed
sacrifices geometric interpretation of general relativity and is more

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

## Kaluza theory gives rise to Brans-Dicke scalar field

Brans-Dicke action:

Z
S =

d x g

R
+
16G


+ Sm

matter fields

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

## Kaluza action without electromagnetic potential:

1
S =
16G

d 4 x g R

=0
is constrained by experiment to be greater than 500

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

Solution attempt 1

## Lessner suggested that Brans-Dicke scalar is microscopic

mathematically the same equations as in Kaluza theory

## except G is replaced by essentially free parameter B

solution of field equations is called particle if it satisfies certain

conditions

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

Solution attempt 2

## projective unified field theory by Schmutzer

explicitly introduce matter substrate
5d Einstein equation:

AB = 8 G
AB
G
with energy projector AB
0 = e g
use conformally rescaled metric g

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

## resulting field equations

EM
G = 8G (T
+ + )

H = J
2
1
 = 8G ( + F H )
3
2
EM , substrate energy tensor
with electric energy-momentum tensor T
= and . . .

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

Some tensors

3
=
16G



1

g
2

## and electric four-current J , electromagnetic field-strength tensor F ,

induction tensor H = e 3 F and the scalaric substrate density
3
= e AA
2

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

Implications

## violations of weak equivalence principle for time dependent scalar

fields
scalaric polarization of vacuum
dependent on scalarism parameter = (main free parameter)
experimental constraints are upper limits on

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## Solutions for dimension

Projective geometry

## Achievements and problems

Special achievements:
in principle testable predicitions

Special problems:
modifies geometric foundation
either needs substrate or can only describe microscopic phenomenons

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

Noncompactified theories

Noncompactified theories

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

## take extra dimension to be physical

relax cylindricity condition

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

Metric

## possible because we are not imposing cylindricity

include factor  to allow time- and spacelike signature


(
gAB ) =

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g 0
0 2

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

AB = 0 one gets:
using R
R =

( )

2

4 4 g
4 (4 g )


g 4 g 4 g

+g 4 g 4 g
2

## can build Einstein-equation from equation for R

contracting with g gives R

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

## First resulting field equation

insert R and R in

1
R g R = 8GT
2
results in energy-momentum tensor of induced matter:

8GT

(J. Reuter)


( )
 4 4 g
=
2
4 (4 g )

g 4 g 4 g
+g 4 g 4 g
2
i
g 

+
4 g 4 g + (g 4 g )2
4

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

one gets:

P = 0
with


1 
P =
g 4 g g  4 g
2 g44

## interpretation not clear

could be related to known conserved quantity
another possible identification allows to relate this equation with 4d

geodesic equation
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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

## Third resulting field equation

one gets:

 =

4 g 4 g
g 4 (4 g ) 4 g 4 g

+
4
2
2

## interpretation not clear

can identify this equation with Klein-Gordon equation with

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

## 5th coordinate might be related to rest mass

hints for that:
basic mechanics depends on basis units of length, time and mass

## length and time are already merged

calculations with explicit 5d metrics show that metrics with dependency

## on 5th coordinate can be related to massive physical situations

realistic 4d metrics emerge from constant 5th coordinate hypersurfaces

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## Solutions for dimension

Noncompactified theories

## Achievements and problems

Special Achievements:
gives Energy-momentum tensor from geometry
testable predictions

Special problems:
physical quantities dependent on 5d coordinate-system
interpretation not clear

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Predictions

Overview

Kaluza Theory

Predictions

Conclusion

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Predictions

Predictions

## 3 theories similar predictions

not distinguishable
for matter interpretation: slow variation of rest mass ( 1012 yr1 )
soliton solutions show deviations in classical tests, for example:
gravitational redshift
light deflection
geodetic precession Gravity Probe-B is close

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Conclusion

Conclusion
have seen that general relativity and electrodynamics can be unified

## possibly unify other forces

three different ways for extra dimensions:
1
2
3

## compactification (used e.g. in string theory)

projective geometry
non-compactification

## 5th dimension might be related to restmass

none of the three approaches can be excluded on observational

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