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Socio-drama in FLT

Interactive technologies are aimed at activation of the learners activity in the process
of FLT. In fact all technologies are interactive: game like technologies (role-plays,
simulations), project technologies, master-classes, socio-drama and reflective
technologies (portfolio).
A strong advocate of socio-drama in FLT Moffett (1967) sees drama as a matrix of all
language activities. Nowadays when the development of communicative skills and
interaction are emphasized socio-drama can be used to attain the goal:
1) by participating in several enactments: students produce new sentences on the
basis of the comprehensible input;
2) as a real life situation socio-drama obliges students to restructure their language
use according to the context;
3) it promotes social interaction a prerequisite for communication.
Socio-drama is a type of role-play involving students into the solution of a social
problem which takes the form of an open-ended story containing one clear, easily
identifiable conflict. It differs from a situational role-play in the following ways:
1. Socio-drama involves several steps (10):
Warm-up (a T introduces the socio-drama topic and stimulates students interest.
During this time the teacher tries to create a relaxed context).
Presentation of new vocabulary.
Presentation of dilemma. The story should contain a problem and climax. The story
stops at a dilemma point.
Discussion of the situation and selection of roles.
Audience preparation. Members of the audience are given specific tasks: they may be
asked why the conflict was or wasnt resolved.
Enactment (by the students)
Discussion of the situation and selection of new role-players.
Enactment (students replay the situation by using new strategies)
Summary: T guides the students to summarize what was presented and asks if there
are any final comments about the problems and proposed solutions.
Follow-up may include written exercises, extended discussions or reading exercises. T
may give a mini-lesson on a communication breakdown occurring in the session.
2. Socio-drama is student-centered rather than teacher-centered, because st-s
frequently define their own roles and always determine their own course of action.

3. it involves several enactments and therefore lasts much longer than a situational
role-play.
Teaching practice shows that different students acquire a FL differently: some make
heavy use of learning (formal learning) while others rely on acquisition (Krashen,
1976). Socio-drama combines both formal (learning) and informal (acquisition)
learning, so that both rule-oriented students and less rule-oriented students can
benefit from it. Socio-drama cannot possibly be used to accomplish all the goals of FLT
and its effectiveness has to be experimentally studied.
Teaching practice shows that different students acquire a FL differently: some make
heavy use of learning (formal learning) while others rely on acquisition
(Krashen,1976). Socio-drama combines both formal (learning) and informal
(acquisition) learning, so that both rule- oriented students and less rule-oriented
students can benefit from it. Socio-drama cannot possibly be used to accomplish all
the goals of FLT and its effectiveness has to be experimentally studied.
1. One use of socio-drama is in the development of vocabulary. Socio-drama supplies
contextual clues from which the students can induce the meaning of words and try to
use vocabulary and expressions in enactments which are often very similar, the input
is frequently repeated.
Repetition of this kind leads to better comprehension.
A. We have a surprise for you.
B. Year. A surprise! What do you mean?
2. Grammar can also be developed through socio-drama.
A. Where ya gonna take me?
B. Lovely restaurant, lovely restaurant. I am going to take you to a lovely restaurant.
3. Discourse strategies: attention getting, initiating conversation, changing the topics.
4. Cultural awareness- by giving cultural patterns, values and etc. since language is a
part of culture.
5. Strategies for social interaction. These strategies are essential for communication
and language development. As fact social interaction is often considered the first stage
of L2 acquisition. Socio-drama helps to develop social strategies for making and
maintaining relationship, encouraging and supporting people as well as counting on
others for help.
The following is the example of a socio-drama that may be used to teach advanced
spoken English.
Mrs. Watson was very upset when Robert, her youngest son, decided to marry
Kathy. Mrs. Watson did not think that any girl was good enough to marry her son. Look

, Robert she said, you are not old enough to get married and support a wife. You are
only 28. Kathy will not make you happy. She cannot cook like I can. Please, do not get
married and leave me alone. I am widow. I will be so lonely without my only son.
Nevertheless Robert and Kathy got married. When they returned from their
honeymoon, Kathy received a phone call from Mrs. Watson. How I have missed you!
Mrs. Watson said. Why have not got you called me? This Friday is my birthday and I
have been wondering if you plan to invite me to visit you. I hate to feel lonely on my
birthday!
Kathy replied, Of course I want you to come here this Friday. We do not want you
to be alone on your birthday. I would love to have you for dessert.
That Friday Kathy was very busy. She wanted to make sure that everything was
perfect for her mother-in-law. Kathy spent the endure day cleaning the house. At first
everything went very well. Mrs. Watson arrived at 7 oclock. Kathy served Mrs. Watson
a drink and left her to talk with Robert while she returned to the kitchen. When she
went to take the cake she was baking out of the oven, she was shocked, the cake was
completely burnt. Kathy quickly shut the oven door so that the smoke would not
escape. The she brought Mrs. Watson another drink Here Mom, Kathy said. Would
you like another drink?
Mrs. Watson replied, No, thank you. I do not care for another drink right now. You
invited me for dessert. When are we going to eat it?
Kathy looked at Robert
Technologies in the formation of ICC and the personality of Intercultural
Communication.
1. Introduction
2. Critical Thinking
3.Principles of critical thinking
4.Critical thinking for teachers
There have been rapid changes in how knowledge are used and accessed the new
cognitive lingua-cultural methodology of competence approach FL Education the
development of new technologies. Consequently, how we learn, with whom and by
what means are learn is changing. For example, in both new graduates entering the
teaching profession and whole students are real expects in informational technologies.
They are of the generation who interact regularly with digital technology. This
generation has a good understanding of the value and potentials of luck technologies
and seeks out opportunities for using digital technology in all aspects of their life.
These new technologies provide powerful tools to help new teachers to make scientific
concepts more accentrate to learners. Consequently, it is important that teachers
think carefully about why and how they might use digital technology in their teaching.

I. Types of technologies.
Technologies in schools might include:
-

games and game like technologies

creative technologies

technologies of situational analyses

problem solving technologies

technologies of critical thinking

information communicative technologies (video, digital video, blogtechnologies, Vikki-technologies, forum, web-questions etc. broad-cast TV, digital TV,
Internet/www, mobile telephones, handhold devices, Pcs/laptop) which new
technologies approach to FLT greatly change and take certain advances:
1) Technologies helps students accentrate, select, evaluate, organize and stare
information (students write to disk a publish on the web)
2)

Students are better motivated in FLT

3)

____ become more active in FLT.

Critical thinking. What is it?


Critical thinking is usually desirable as thinking about thinking. It involves reasoning
and reflecting in teaching and learning experience.
We as FL teacher and FL learning have been using them constantly. This pedagogical
technologies concept is ____. Critical thinking is one of the leading pedagogical
technologies that should be developed in both pupils and teachers.
Critical thinking is an approach to conceptualizing information from observation,
experience reflection or reasoning. It can then be the basic for action, for activity in
teaching and learning.
So, critical thinking is the ability to question information, to analyze and synthesize
information from a number of sources in order to develop the ability to go beyond
given information to create new way of thinking about ideas.
There is an assumption that the make towards critical thinking in a particular society
in necessary order to start the ___ development of that society.
And the narrow sense critical thinking can be defined as thinking about thinking.
Psychologist Deane F. Halpern considers CT as cognitive approaches to strategies, to
luck increase the possibility of reaching a desired outcome.
Critical thinking is often associated with a _________ to imagine, to interpreter new
perspectives in teaching and to fostering critically to other.

Critical thinking involves:


1)

gathering relevant information (web, photos, pictures)

2)

evaluating experience

3)

making generalizations and conclusions

4)

drawing assumption, hypotheses

5)

Identifying problem and finding possible solutions.

IV.Critical thinking in FLT at school in term of cognitive Critical thinking is traditionally


associated with more advanced stages of FL education at secondary school and in
Higher education. However, elements of Critical thinking technology may be found in
teaching young children from a very early in age in their schooling (Starters, Makers,
Flyers, levels) and develop necessary skills and habits of Critical thinking and motivate
their curiosity.
Critical thinking develops such skills as:
1)

Acquiring knowledge through observations and listening, reading materials.

2)

Taking into account the context

3)

Applying relevant criteria for making fragments

4)

So, critical thinking skills involve: Observation


Analyses
Inference
Interpretation
Explanation
Evaluation
Critical thinking process and skills include:

- collecting and sorting evidence such as pictures and photos and reading memories,
videos, internet sources
- evaluating these primary sources and asking questions about them
- comparing and discussing sources, making generalization
- making hypothecs, making reports, essays
There are the following steps that children can be guided through in the formation of
critical thinking.

1)

Processing information from out sources (____ pictures, websites, encyclopedias)

2)

Understanding the key points and assumption hypothecs

3)

Analyses how these _____ relate to each other

4)

compare and explore the similarities and differences

5) Synthesis by bringing together sources of information to ______ an argument a set


of ideas - reports
- surveys
- projects creating, research
Make connections between different sources that help to shape and support your idea.
6) evaluate the validity
7) apply in creative work of your own
8) ____
If you look at the present day classroom communication __ can see that certain
patterns of critical thinking and intellectual development of students though we know
that traditional pattern of classroom organization can hardly be regarded as successful
in this respect.
The role has changed from that of controlling to facilitating and guarding to makes it
possible to use ___ and knowledge production.
Children need to develop the skills of critical thinking that well enable them to
participate effectively and safely in com. process. Tasks should be stimulating and
challenging.
Talk?
Alexander identified 5 categories of talk at the lesson. (200, 2008) rate (drills, constant
repetition ____)
Exposition/instruction = telling what to do .
Discussion = exchange of ideas, sharing info and solving problems
Dialogue = achieving common understanding.
Which guide and prompt, ____ choices minimize risk and error.
Critical thinking are active, open to new ideas and perspectives.
Principles of critical thinking.

Rationality: aiming to final the best explanation, asking questions rather than seeking
definitive ____ requiring evidence, relying or reason roller than an emotions.
Open mindedness: remaining open to alternative interpretations.
Judgment .
Self-awareness.

Reflect critically on your own teaching and the chs learning.


1. Process the evidence you have form observation of chs learning;
2. Learning objectives and the achievement understanding the learning objectives;
3. Analyze the relationship between;
4. Compare the different levels of understand and skills demonstrate by students;
5. Synthesise - reflect on the outcome;
6. Evaluate and draw conclusion.
7. Play the understand you have gained from the article evaluate in planning the rent
assignment and ____ ___-use critical thinking to develop ____ draw conclusion make.
Aims and content of FLT at basic school.
The main aim of FLT at basic school is ICC and its subcompetences: speech
competence and language competence (linguistic competence), lingua-cultural
competence, social-cultural competence, compensatorical and cognitive competence.
In the result of FLL at this stage: pupils must be able to understand

the meaning of words and how to use them in speech as well as the main means of
word-formation (suffixes, prefixes, word-combinations and conversion= 1200 words
(active) and 1300w (passive);

the peculiarities of simple and complex sentences;

intonation of different communicative types of sentences;

forms, meaning and usage of grammar phenomena that should be studied at this
stage;

the basic norms of speech etiquette (speech patterns and clichs);

Cultural backgrounds (history, traditions, customs of the people whose language is


studied);
pupils must be able to speak on the theme of the PROGRAMME:


to initiate and support a dialogues in standard communicative situations (types of
dialogues: a dialogue on exchange of information, an exchange of opinion);

ask and answer questions, express agreement or disagreement, your likings or


dislikings;

to speak about his/her family, friends, hobbies and plans, towns and cities of the
target language;

to make stories, to dislike events on the themes according to the programme;

to use paraphrases, synonyms when necessary;

To listen and understand short authentic pragmatic texts (weather forecast, radiobroadcast, information over TV, advertisements);
to read and understand different types of texts of average difficulty, to extract main
facts;
to read and understand not very complex texts of different genres to make prognosis,
to express opinion about the events described;
to fill in forms, to write CV, to write personal letters and congratulations using forms of
etiquette of the target language and culture;
Content of FLT in basic School
In the context of Cognitive lingua-cultural Methodology of FL Education these are 2
components in the Content of FLT at basic school;

Subject matter of the content (spheres, themes, situations)

Procedural matter (skills and competences; communicative skills in S, L, W, R,


language material, socio-cultural knowledge and skills);
The themes are updated: the world around, professions, hobbies and sports,
environment, nature and the problem of ecology.
The variety of means of FLT suggest some change of themes: a modern family in KZ
and the UK. Modern schools, museums and galleries, mass media.
The whole process of FLT in basic School is divided into 2 periods: 5-7 forms; 8-10
forms (propaedentic stage).
The pre-profile stage has certain characteristics:

It introduces pupils into the world of future profession;

It helps to diagnose pupils interests and abilities as well as their parents and their
teachers opinions on this problem.

So, the propaedeutic (pre-profile) stage helps to differentiate pupils according to their
needs in different variants of pre-profile training. Taking this into consideration we can
distinguish the following directions:
Identifying different (possible) individual routes educational activities;
Teaching pupils how to take decisions as to what way of pre-profile training to choose;
To prevent and overcome difficulties;
As to pre-profile (not only philological) training in FL it is reasonable to begin with
questionnaire to the pupils (method of form) to find out the sphere of their interest in
the field of philology.

What courses can be recommended


Intensive course in FL (intensive study of grammar and vocabulary) as well as
practicum in communication-speaking, reading, writing, listening.
Interdisciplinary course: a) FL and literature; b) FL and journalism; c) FL and tourism; d)
FL and education abroad;
Pre-profile stage of teaching FL in the 9th form is a necessary component of profile FLT
because pupils in the 9th form component certain difficulties in choosing a profession.
So, one of the main tasks in pre-profile FL teaching in pupils self.
Lerner P.S., Christyakova S.N. and Rodichev N.F. pay much attention to this problem.
Chistyakova S.N. distinguishes 3 stages in pre-profile training:
Propaedeutic Stage-on finishing the 8th form or at the beginning of the 9th which aims
at finding out pupils interests about further education.
The main stage-modelling different types of educational activities in profile school.
Conclusive (final) stage- on finishing the 9th form when the pupils take a decision.
The learning outcome may be in the form of project work Portfolio, reports and other
types of self-dependent work in a FL.
At Basic School the 2 FLT is introduced it may begin in the 3,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 forms
paralled FL1T+FL2T may begin in the 1 or 2 forms (2-4 hours a week)= A2 level
It has many advantages:
It forms metalinguistic consciousness. One of the main psych. Peculiarities is the
integral role of positive transfer from one language into another especially at the
senior stage where analitycal abilities are formed well.
It improves knowledge of the native language.

There are 2 types of bilingualism:


Coordinate (L1=L2)
Subordinate (Interference on Voc, phonological and grammar levels L1-L2 or L2-L1)
Principles: Communicative, cognitive, lingua-cultural reflexive, socio-cultural and
conceptual. Cognitive strategies are most important and helpful (comparison,
generalization, systematization, memorization, association) in linguistic discoveries
and researches. The principle Cognitive suggests that LL are supposed to make
linguistic discoveries and researches being cognitively involved. The T is only to
support and direct the learners by giving them tasks of the type: compare, guess,
analyze, systematize. This makes FL2T different from FL1T. The students can use
different strategies.

Conclusion
Pre-profile training is a system of pedagogical, organizational, psychological and
informational support of pupils of the basic school which stimulates their selfdevelopment and self-educational competence, the choice of their own trajectory in
self-educational (including FL education).
Organizational forms of FLT at basic school
A lesson is an organized and goal-oriented process, which is a set of learning
opportunities, a model of cognition and a framework for interaction of participants .
Milrud
A lesson is an integral part of learning process. It presents a complicated complex of
learning tasks, which teacher and pupils should solve, basing on concrete, individual
situation, condition of group work or each other.
There are a great amount of works devote to the methodological and theoretical bases
of the lesson starting with the works ... Typology of the lessons
represented in the works of .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., .., ..
, .., .. .
II.

Communicative orientation of the lesson.

The lesson shouldnt be oriented only on the development of language knowledge


without any practical aim but have to form Communicative Competence.
Communicative orientation of the lesson is impossible without situation, functionality
and novelty. Communicative situation is inseparable part of communication.
Communicative situation is a complex of circumstances, which arose the necessity to
communicate with the aim of influence of one person on the other in the process of
activity. ..

There are 3 groups of communicative situations:


Real situation e.g. during the lesson limited by the roles of teacher and pupils they can
be such as late comings of the pupils, their home task making, their requested,etc.
Problematic situations happen when there are different points of view on one problem
which cause the discussion.
Unreal situation. This situation should model the real communicative situation, it
should enclose different types of com-ve behavior, enrich social experience of the
pupils because of the extension of com-ve roles which pupils play. It is very difficult to
create conditional situations during the lesson.
In order to create conditional situation it is necessary:
Imagine this situation in real life
Define the place and time of the situation;
Define the partners of the situation and their characters;
Define the aim of the communication;
Make this information clear for students;
Create the information gap to arose motivation;
Unreal situation can be created with the help of communicative task, which includes all
mentioned above.
Functionality. We know that each communicative task has certain com-tive functions
e.g. to give information, request information. Apologize, invite somebody, suggest
somebody something, compare smth with smth, express opinion, praise sb, abuse sb.
Novelty. It means that every lesson should be like a discovery for pupils, when they
like group of researches invent smth new. Novelty of the lesson can be achieved with
the help of:
New situations-new situation suggests the change of places, time, partners, their
character, roles, etc.
New communicative task e.g. tell about the events in the text from the different
participants of the event (e.g. reporter, journalist).
New partner. Teacher shouldnt fix the work pairs in class, they should be mobile and
flexible. Teacher should often change communicative partners.
New forms of communication: Question-answer work, Different types of translation,
Conversation, Lectures, Discussions, Interview, Games, Round tables
New technologies of FLT and in FLT:

Conferences
Project work
Critical analysis of the literature
Roleplays, dramatization
Internet, e-mail
III.

Functions of a lesson:

Educational
Controlling
Teaching (communicative)
Organizing
Stimulating
IV. Typology of the lesson:

We distinguish between traditional and nontraditional lessons.


I.

Traditional lessons:

Integral lesson It has a complicated structure which includes:


Organizational moment
Checking previous knowledge and home task
Introduction of the new material
Primary consolidation of new material and home task
The lesson of representation and acquisition of new knowledge:
Organization moment
Introduction of new material
Acquisition of new material
Instruction on making home task
The lesson of revision and generalization of acquired knowledge:
Placing the problem and giving tasks

Solving tasks and problems


Analysis of the answers and assessment of the results
Correction of the mistakes and making conclusion
Home task instruction
II.

Non traditional lessons:

A lesson excursion
Video lesson
Round table
Discussion
Debate
Role play
Project

In American and British literature some most popular lesson shapes are:
PPP (presentation-practice-production) in which a pre-selected grammar item is first
presented, then practiced in a controlled way, and then practiced by means of a freer,
productive activity such as a roleplay.
TTT (task-teach-task) in which learners first perform a task, eg improvising a
dialogue around a theme; the teacher uses this in order to identify the learners
specific language needs; they are then taught whatever it is they need in order to redo the task more effectively.
Text-based lesson: learners listen to, or read, a text; the teacher asks comprehension
questions; selected features of the text then become the focus of some kind of
language analysis; these features are practiced in isolation; learners then write their
own texts, incorporating the targeted features.
CLIL lessons are lessons in which non-language subjects are taught through a foreign
language. As a matter of fact CLIL lessons are used usually in profile schools. Students
grasp target language more holistically. (Content and Language Integrated Learning)
CLIL is a educational approach in which non-language subjects are taught through a
foreign, second or other additional language.
In lesson design there is a tendency to avoid prescriptivism. Some useful design
principles as macro strategies for language teaching to facilitate negotiated
interaction and contextualize linguistic input include the following:

Start with some kind of warm-up activity (or ice-breaker)


Find out what the learners already know (eg by brainstorming vocabulary related to
a topic)
Maximize on the learners attention when they are at their peak-usually in the first
ten to twenty minutes of a lesson, or just after any break:
These are good times to introduce new material.
Sequence the activities in a way that is logical, and ensure that this logic is obvious to
the learners.
Ensure maximum learner participation in the progress of the lesson, and include
activities that require learners to interact.
Vary the focus, eg from open class work to pairwork, and back again; or from their
books to the blackboard; or from reading to listening, etc.
Vary the pace and intensity of the lesson, without losing the flow.
Allow time near the end for a recap of the lesson, to field questions, or to set
homework,etc.
Psycho pedagogical peculiarities of FLT at basic school
Psycho physiological characteristics of adolescents
Organization of FLT at basic school
Modern approaches in FLT at basic schools
I Psycho physiological characteristics of adolescents
In order to provide succession and clear cut transition from primary stage of school
education to basic stage of school education in accordance with the principle of
succession we should bare in mind the age peculiarities of the children (10 11
years). The leading characteristics of the adolescents to their interaction with peers in
the process of their learning activity at school; socio organizational activity, activities
in the field of sports and arts, and labour. At this age they strive to participate in all
these activities, trying to be independent. This is a very difficult transition period as it
is characterized by the appearance of such psychic phenomena as puberty and sense
of maturation. They become very sensitive and touchy to values, to norms of social
behavior. They are striving to be approved by the society in the society, to be noticed
and distinguished, to have friends to trust to and to be trusted. They ignore any
authorities among the adults, overestimate their abilities, have strong tendency to
dream, to be in sports, arts, idealize something, motivation, position, self esteem, a
tendency, to distinguish herself/himself among his classmates. Try to approve
themselves to other people. Thats why in the process of FLT the Teacher should pay
attention to problemacity, activate forms of cognitive involvement individual approach,

socialization, social contacts with interesting people, musicians, artists, actors,


dancers.
It is a well known fact that adolescents like cooperation and group work. Group
work in language teaching/ learning has been studied and discussed by many
specialists. This is a pre profile stage of FLT. Different aspects of personality are
formed here. Like all learning activities group work is more likely to go well if it is
planned. Planning and organization of group work requires understanding of the
peculiarities and principles that lie behind the successful group work. Success breads
success.
1) First of all, I would like you to recollect the theory of Vygotsky L.S. the zone of
proximal development which suggests that pupils learn better in cooperation with
other peers Teachers including. By the zone of proximal development we understand
the distance between the potential ability of a student under the Teachers guidance to
learn and to solve problems and the actual ability (competence) to do something
individually without the Teachers assistance. In the course of maturation this
assistance becomes less and less necessary.
2) Now, what is cooperative work? The Chinese proverb gives the essence of
cooperative work:
Tell me and I will forget,
Show me and I will remember,
Involve me and I will learn!
Cooperative learning can be defined as a strategy for the classroom that is used to
increase motivation and retention, to help students to develop a positive image of self
and others, to provide the vehicle for creating thinking and problem solving and
encourage collaborative social skills. Cooperative skills must be learned and taught.
Humans are not born instinctively knowing how to cooperate with others. Steps in
teaching cooperative skills are four:
1)

Students must see the value in group work

2)

Students must practice the skills

3)

Students must know how we do

4) Students need to process the skills (learning and processing) they have practical
under the Teachers guidance.
The ability to cooperate in language learning has been discussed by many scientists
(Paul Nation from New Zealand. He speaks of the main 5 main factors that make group
work more successful because everyone involved is interested, active and thoughtful).
These 5 factors are: the learning years of group work, the tasks, the way information is

distributed, the dealing arrangement of the members of the group and the social
relationships between the members of the group. These factors agree with each other
then the group work is likely to be successful, if not unsuccessful.
Learning activity like any other activity should be motivated. There are 2 types of
motivation:
Intrinsic motivation (communicative, lingua cognitive, individual)
Extrinsic motivation
Group work can help a lot in learning FLT because it provides:
1)

Communication with their peers

2)

Development of different language

3)

Development of fluency of speech

4) Communicative Conformation, comprehension, repetition, keeping up , strategies


of long term in speaking
5)

Content based FLT

III Modern approaches in FLT at basic schools


1. learner-centred approach
2. Cognitive lingua-cultural approach
1. Communicative competence approach is closely related to such approaches as
individual, communicative-cognitive, lingual-cultural and personality or learner
centred approach.
Personality-oriented approach appeared in the 1980s. It is active by its character
because the learner (not only the teacher) is an active and creative subject of the FLL
process in which s/he is actively involved taking into account his/her age,
psychological, national peculiarities, his/her abilities, interests and needs. This helps to
develop communicative competence and personality.
Communication is an exchange of information, ideas and thoughts.
The functions of Communication are as follows, according to Lomov B. F are:
1) communicative- informational
2) communicative-regulatory
3) communicative-affective.
2. Cognitive Lingua-cultural approach in FLE and RLT suggests

The final goal is the formation of Intercultural Communicative Competence and the
personality of intercultural communication;
Co-teaching of language and culture;
The content of FLT:
a) Subject aspect includes: Spheres of communication; Themes, Situations; Problems;
Tasks; Texts; Linguistic and lingua-cultural materials
b) processional aspect includes: Skills; Exercise; Technologies
FLL lesson is the main organizational unit of FLT process
Result competence
Name of the programme: The State programme for the development of
education of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 years
Foundation for the development: Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
of 1 February 2010. # 922 "on the strategic development plan of the Republic of
Kazakhstan till 2020; Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of March
19, 2010 # 957 "on the establishment of a list of government programs of strategic
development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020
Programme developer: The Ministry of education and science of the Republic of
Kazakhstan
Programme objectives: improving the system of funding, aimed at ensuring equal
access to educational services;
increase the prestige of the profession of teacher;
formation of the State of public education management system;
ensuring equal access for all participants in the educational process to the best
educational resources and technology;
ensuring full coverage of children in pre-school education and training quality, equal
access of children to a variety of early childhood care and education programmes to
prepare them for school;
According to the State document State Program of education development in
Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 is oriented on the introduction of 12-year school education,
structural and content modernization of education, transition to 12-year school. It was
published in 2010.
There are two stages of this program.
1 stage: 2011-2015y.y.
2 stage: 2016-2020y.y.

This involves too many changes in term of finance, creation of new schools and new
conditions for teachers and learners, the universe of the status of a teacher, the quality
of teacher and learner, the equipments, new technologies and methods.
SWOT analyses shows strong points, weak points, opportunities and treats of Modern
System of FLT.
(the increases of the number of schools, new equipments, new types of intellectual
schools; poor finance, poor management of education, shortage of teachers,
partnership, inclusive education, small schools; social guarantees for education-longlife education, new methods, a wide chance of schools to choose; treats-poor
motivation, poor salary, disabled child). In 2015 transition to 12-year school will begin
from 1. pre school and primary school; 2.Main school; 3.Profile school.
Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
At the previous lectures we underlined the fact that the Basic School provides a bridge
from the Primary School on the one hand and the profile school on the other hand
This stage of schooling has very many characteristics in the psycho-pedagogical
aspect of pupils development. All this is closely revealed in FLT Methodology at this
stage in the following:

The increasing role of communicative-cognitive orientation of FLT;

The growth of motivation to FL1 and FL2, FL3;

The increasing role of competence approach;

Individualization and differentiations in FLT ;

Integration of all form of speech activities: reading, writing, listening, speaking:

Reflective self- regulation and self-control; (Portfolio)

All types of pedagogical technologies, internet;

Interconnection of FL subject with other school-subjects;

LL-Strategies (Direct/Indirect) become an integral part of FLL/L aimed at ICC


(language competence, strategic competence, lingua-cultural, social-cultural,
cognitive);
LL Strategies in FLT and L:

Background of LLS

Definition of LLS, approaches

Rebecca Oxfords classification of LLS

The importance of LLS in FLT

I. Research into language learning strategies began is the 1960s. Particularly,


developments in cognitive psychology influenced much of the research done on
language learning strategies.
Rubin started doing research focusing on the strategies of successful learners and
stated that, once identified; such strategies could be made available to less successful
learners.
II. The term language learning strategy has been defined by many researchers.
Wenden and Rubin (1987:19) define learning strategies asany sets of operations,
steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage,
retrieval, and use of information. Some other scholars defined it as
Intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better
help them understand, learn, or remember new information.
All language learners use learning strategies either consciously or unconsciously
when processing new information and performing tasks in the language. So, using
language learning strategies is inescapable
According to Rubin, there are 3 types of strategies used by learners that contribute
directly or indirectly to language learning. These are:
Learning Strategies
Communication Strategies
Social Strategies
Communication strategies are used by speakers when faced with some difficulty due
confronted with misunderstanding by a co-speaker.
Rebecca Oxford regards learning strategies as being oriented towards the
development of communicative competence. Oxford divides language learning
strategies into two main classes, direct and indirect, which are further subdivided into
6 groups. Rebecca Oxfords classification of LLS:
1. direct: Memory-related : a) creating mental linkages;
b) applying images and sounds;
c) reviewing, employing music (one step-one word);

Cognitive: a) practicing; b) receiving and sending messages; c) analyzing and


reasoning; d) creating for input and output
2. indirect: metacognitive strategy: arranging, planning, evaluating;
III. Learners use different language learning strategies. Language learning strategies
are good indicators of how learners approach tasks or problems encountered during
the process of language learning. According to Fedderholdt the language learner

capable of using a wide variety of language learning strategies appropriately can


improve his language skills in a better way. Metacognitive strategies improve
organization of learning time, self-monitoring and self-evaluation. Cognitive strategies
include using previous knowledge to help solve new problems. Socioaffective
strategies include asking native speakers to correct their pronunciation, or asking a
classmate to work together on a particular language problem.
As Oxford states, language learning strategies are especially important for language
learning because they are tools for active, self-directed movement, which is essential
for developing communicative competence.
The language teacher aiming at training his students in using language learning
strategies should learn about the students, their interests, motivations, and learning
styles.
Computer programmes in FLT.
The role of computer programmes in FLT.
The notion of the computer programme.
The psychological and methodological aspects of using computer programmes in FLT.
The types of computer programmes in teaching foreign languages
The types of exercises of computer programmes in teaching foreign languages.
I.
Computer started to be used in teaching foreign languages from 1954. The first
research concerning usage of computer in teaching foreign languages appeared since
this time (CALL- Computer-Assisted Language Learning). Theoretical problems of
implementing computer in teaching process became the subject of a new area in
science such as Computer Linguadidactics. It is an independent trend of Didactics and
Methodology. The development of computer technologies in teaching foreign
languages made the usage of computer programs widely spread. Computer programs
fastened the teaching process and initially had a drilling character. The rising
requirements to the computer programs increased their qualities and made possible to
improve not only language habits but speech skills.
II.
According to the definition of the computer programme it is a means of teaching,
which has the features of communicative model of teaching, corresponds the aims of
teaching and forms types of speech activities, oriented to the definite level of
knowledge and skills of students, satisfies students intellectual and emotional needs,
stimulates different types of cognitive activities. Computer programme can help every
pupil to find the most comfortable way of learning foreign language.
III. The psychological aspects of using computer programs in teaching foreign
languages are as follows:

Interactive means of teaching help to keep interest for learning foreign


languages (game like character of learning foreign languages, comfortable way of work
with the computer, etc.).
Usage of computer helps to overcome fear of public speaking to shy and not
confident pupils.
Computer programmes give an additional material to those pupils who are
coping with the learning material faster than other pupils. And on the contrary they
help weak pupils to revise the material if it is not clear.
The methodological aspects of using computer programs in teaching foreign languages
are as follows:
Usage of computer programmes allows pupils to plan and organize learning
process individually;
To have immediate correction of mistakes, which is sometimes impossible due to
the lack of time;
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Correction of spelling;

Opportunity to revise exercise and get explanations to it the necessary quantity


of times;
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Assessment of your language work.

IV. There are following types of computer programmes in teaching foreign languages:
1) Multimedia computer programs for integrated learning of foreign languages and
development of the main speech skills (E.g. .
- English Language. Way to Success.). The main objectives of the program are to teach
learner to speak foreign language, to understand living speech, to read and write in a
correct way. All this things are taught in the frame of different situations (traveling,
shopping, etc.) The course includes the dynamic dialogues, system of digital
recognition of speech, sound dictionary of 2300 words, grammar help, teaching games.
All units provided by practical tasks, language games, tests and crosswords, which
helps to consolidate the learning material.
The presence of interactive dialogues with different variants of situation development
on the screen gives an opportunity to communicate freely in reality. The direction of
your dialogue development changes depending on your answers to microphone. You
can improve your pronunciation due to Dragon Speech system. Besides programme
has a standard function of microphone: speech recording and its comparison with the
announcer speech. The programme has electronic dictionary -
with 60000 words on a separate disk.
2) Multimedia computer programs, which are an additional resource for the definite
text-book. For example , such text-book as Opportunities, English File have CD-ROM
with computer programmes, which include hundreds of enjoyable exercises, audio

recordings or extra listening practice, a create-your-own test function, a progress


check, a built-in dictionary with f personal notes section.
3) Multimedia computer programs for development of the language habits.
-- (English in one-two-three). - - is a new computer program for the development of the lexical aspect of the
language. This program will help to widen your vocabulary in order to have more
colorful speech for a short period of time.
4) Multimedia reference materials ( dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.)
V.
There are following types of exercises of computer programs in teaching foreign
languages:
imitative exercises, which are very important at the initial stage of teaching
foreign languages;
transformation exercises, which are built on the base of creation of the phrases
according to the definite models, transformed from other basic structures;
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substitution exercises, which are widely spread in all computer programs.

different types of computer games with the words, crosswords;

multiple-choice exercises;

close tests.

Control in computer programs is based on the comparison of the students answer with
the key of correct answer. The majority of computer programs use verbal ways of
assessment or the result of the students progress is accounted in scores or points.
Here we would like to give some examples of computer exercises for teaching learners
vocabulary.
Receptive aspect.
1) Computer pronounce word, pupils should find it in the list of the words.
2) Computer pronounce word, pupils should find its picture.
3) Computer pronounce word, pupils should find its translation.
4) Computer shows the picture, pupils should find the word.
5) Choose from the given list of the words, words with affix -man: worker, postman,
letter-box, seaman, and snowman.
Receptive-reproductive aspect.
1) Computer pronounces word, pupils should write it.

Productive aspect
1) Computer shows the picture, pupils should write it.
An example of the multiple-choice exercises on computer is:
Would you like some cabbage?
a) You are welcome.
b) Yes, please.
c) Help yourself.
Computer counts the score immediately and gives instant result on each pupils
progress.
What is role play?
When students assume a role they play a part (either their own or somebody else's)
in a specific situation. 'Play ' means that the role is taken on in a safe environment in
which students are as inventive and playful as possible. A group of students carrying
out a successful role play in a classroom has much in common with a group of children
playing school, doctors and nurses, or Star Wars. Both are unselfconsciously creating
their own reality and, by doing so, are experimenting with their knowledge of the real
world and developing their ability to interact with other people. In this situation there
are no spectators and the occasional eavesdropper (a parent or a teacher) may not
even be noticed. None of the risks of communication and behavior in the real world are
present. The activity is enjoyable and does not threaten the students'(or the children's)
personality. This 'playing' in role will build up self-confidence rather than damage it.
It is probably neither possible, nor very profitable, to make fine distinctions between
role play and simulations. Clearly however, simulations are complex, lengthy, and
relatively inflexible events. They will always include an element of role play, though
other types of activity, such as analysis of data, discussion of options, etc. are also
involved. Role play, on the other hand, can be a quiet simple and brief technique to
organize. It is also highly flexible, leaving much more scope for the exercise of
individual variation, initiative, and imagination.
Whereas role play is included in simulations, it is not by any means confined to them.
The overall aim of both these types of activity is very similar to train students to deal
with the unpredictable nature of language. Whether they are playing themselves in a
highly constraining situation (as in simulations), or playing imaginary characters in
more open-ended situations (as in role plays),they need to think on their feet and
handle the skein of language as it unravels. For this it will matter less whether the
activity is a dress rehearsal for 'real life', than whether it is close enough to the
students' experience for them to participate meaningfully in it. The degree of
imagination involved will of course differ from person to person. Paradoxically it often

requires less imaginative effort to role-play a well-known TV journalist than it does to


role-play their own professional activity.
Points to remember when setting up a role play
No teacher likes an unruly classroom, and role play, like any other pair or
group work activity, can lead to chaos if not properly organized. Here are
some hints for classroom management to avoid this: [2, 12]
Distinguish between noise and chaos. Noise is only a problem if the teacher next door
complains.
Begin with pair work rather than group work. There is a practical reason for doing this
(it is very easy to talk to one person on either side of you, and to the person in front or
behind without disturbing the layout of the whole class) .There is also a psychological
reason (if people are in direct one-to-one communication with no one looking on they
get on with the task better and are less self-conscious).
Keep the activity short until students get used to it.
Make sure your role play can be used with different numbers of students. It is no good
going into a classroom with an excellent role play for nine students, which will not work
with seven, only to find that two students are off sick.
Make sure the students have understood the situation and what is on the role cards
before you start.
If your class contains a captive audience, such as school-children, and
you have done everything you can to motivate them, do not worry too much about the
one or two pairs or groups which are not participating in the activity, unless they are
disturbing the other pupils. During the teacher-centred activities of your lesson, the
same pupils were probably sitting at the back reading comic strips, or doing the
crossword! They did not bother you then, so do not let them do so now.
Do not use a role play that is too difficult or too emotionally loaded until your students
are used to this activity. If you do, students will probably break inter their nativelanguage. This is obviously more of a problem in monolingual classes. Do be tolerant of
a minor intrusion of the native language if it is helping the role play along.
If your students break into their native language anyway, set up the task more
progressively. Start with pair work and easy information-gap role plays. If this does not
work, you probably have a captive audience and will have to develop, motivation to
learn the language whatever you do with them.
Always have a follow-up activity up your sleeve for the groups that finish the role play
before the others. Ideas for following up the role plays are described after nearly every
activity in this book.

10. Set a strict time limit and make every attempt to stick to it.
Project technology. Internet-based project work
I. Project work is one of the essential methods for any teacher, experienced or not, who
is looking for a method that develops students' confidence in using English in the real
world, the world outside the classroom. Consciously or unconsciously, students bring
the outside world into the classroom, but they may not always have an opportunity to
activate what they know and use it in the outside world. The potential benefit for
students is clear:
1) they are working on a topic of interest to them;
2) they use language for a specific purpose, with a particular aim in mind.
Also through project work in English class, the students will be encouraged to develop
their intellectual, motor (physical), and social skills. Project work offered learners an
opportunity to take a certain responsibility for their own learning, encouraging them to
set their own objectives in terms of what they wanted and needed to learn.
Defining a project. Project work is a student-centered and driven by the need to create
an end-product. However, it is the route to achieving this end-product that makes
project work so worthwhile. The route to the end-product brings opportunities for
students to develop their confidence and independence and to work together in a realworld environment by collaborating on a task which they have defined for themselves
and which has not been externally imposed.
Project work lends itself to many different approaches in a variety of teaching
situations. It draws together students of mixed ability and creates opportunities for
individuals to contribute in ways which reflect their different talents and creativity. The
less linguistically-gifted student may be a talented artist, able to create brilliant
artwork, thus gaining self-esteem, which would be unlikely in a more conventional
language lesson. The collaborative process, relying as it does on the involvement and
commitment of the individual students, is the strength of a project. There is no
concrete evidence to suggest why and how project work is more or less successful with
some learners.
The project is an ideal vehicle for teaching for a number of reasons:
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It is an integrated unit of work.

A project is a recognizable unit of work with a beginning, middle, and end.


Through a series of worthwhile activities, which are linked to form a tangible endproduct, the students can gain a real sense of achievement. At the successful
completion of the project, both teacher and students have something they can be
proud of, to show an indication of the progress they have made.
-

It educates the whole learner personality.

A project involves the development of the whole learner personality, rather than
focusing narrowly on teaching language. Within the framework of a project can be
included the full range of skills that students are developing:
the intellectual skills of describing, drawing conclusions, using the imagination,
hypothesizing, reading, and planning;
the physical/motor skills of painting, cutting, folding, writing and etc.;
the social skills of sharing, co-operating, making decisions, individual contributions;
learner independence skills such as making responsible choices, deciding how to
complete tasks, getting information, trying things out and evaluating results;
the ability of self-reflex ion.
This approach encourages emotional and personal development. Wherever
possible, students are given an opportunity to produce work which is personal and
individual, which reflects their ideas, tastes, and interests.
Project work gives the students an opportunity to bring their knowledge of the world
into the classroom, and to extend their general knowledge of the topic under focus.
Projects can encompass a wide range of topics and often draw on knowledge gained
from other subjects in the curriculum.
-

It integrates language knowledge and skills.

The project is a prime example of experiential learning. Language introduced and


practiced within a project is directly related to the task in hand; they see language as a
means to the students use the language that is needed for the successful completion
of the activity. A project practices language and integrates language skills, in a natural
way.
-

It encourages learner independence.

Successful experiential learning depends on the students also learning skills that
will eventually enable them to continue their learning independently of the teacher.
Project work helps students make choices, and take responsibility for their own work. It
is also through project work that students can start developing the research.
II.

Types of project work in FLT to learners.

1. Short-term projects.
2. Long-term projects.
Stages of project work in FLT to learners.
Each project has three main stages:

1) The planning stage: in connection with you, students discuss the scope and
content of their project in English or their mother tongue. This is the stage where you
and they discuss and predict their specific language needs as well as the end- product.
It is usually the stage where a lot of ambitious ideas get whittled down to realistic
objectives! But it is also the stage where you should be able to judge whether the idea
will take off or whether it is likely to present problems, either logistically or because
only a minority of students seem to be really interested.
2) The implementation stage: at this stage students carry out the tasks in order to
achieve their objective. It may involve working outside the classroom or not,
depending on the nature of the project. For example, interviewing someone may rely
on an individual visiting the class, but the real-world element remains in the form of
the visitor and their contribution. Your role during this stage is one of support and
monitoring.
3) The third stage is the creation of the end-product, which will be something
tangible. End-products can take many different formsposter, wall display, magazine,
news sheet, three-dimensional model, website, video film, audio recording, etc.
Colleagues and other students may be invited to share in the end-product. There may
also be some kind of formal or informal evaluation and feedback on what students
have produced. You may wish to devise a follow-up programme to address the
language needs that have come to light during the second stage.
III.

Managing the project:

introduce the project carefully

establish the 'rules

to introduce project work effectively

plan your lessons very carefully

have all your materials prepared and laid out

arrange the furniture and prepare the board

give very clear instructions

monitor to make sure they are all working satisfactorily

don't be concerned if they chatter when doing creative tasks

plan time at the end of the lesson

E-learning in FLT
I.
E-learning refers to learning that takes place using technology such as Internet.
There are several terms associated with e-learning: Distance learning, Open learning
(the more open a distance course is, the more autonomy the learner has), Online

learning (online learning is a facet () of e-learning), Blended learning (is a


mixture of online and face-to-face course delivery).
II.Although the label "distance learning" could be applied to any situation where
students are learning at remote sites, the term is normally restricted to teaching via
satellite or long-distance telecommunication technology. One author defines distance
learning as "an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is
conducted by someone removed in space and/or time from the learner" (Perraton,
1980, p.10).
Two-way communication between teacher and student can take place through writing,
television phone-in programs, two-way video, or telephone (Davis, 1988). The label
"distance learning" is catchy, but, unfortunately, easily over interpreted. Most systems
to which this label is applied are simply one-way broadcasting stations that transmit
audio and video signals to students at one or more remote sites. However, other
systems are available that provide two-way audio, and, in some cases, even two-way
video between the teacher and the students.
III. Distance learning technologies present many new options for teaching foreign
languages that will further expand the range of instructional techniques in the same
way that language labs, television, and computers have augmented the standard
classroom. It is important in reviewing these distance learning options to distinguish
among their various levels of capability as these systems place different constraints on
the instructional process. For instance, one-way, presentation-only systems have been
criticized as providing nothing more than a video distribution system that could be
replicated by mailing video tapes to students. The lack of immediate two-way
interaction that characterizes many distance education programs seems contrary to
the aims of foreign language teaching. However, with this interaction appropriately
used, distance technologies can support the goals of foreign language pedagogy.
Instructional strategies that encourage student-teacher and student-student dialogue
and learner autonomy in distance learning situations must be incorporated into
instruction (Davis, 1988).
IV.
The strongest argument for distance education is its potential to provide
instruction to students who, because of distance, time, or financial constraints, do not
have access to traditional learning opportunities or specialized courses (Davis, 1988).
Distance learning courses have been developed to provide equal access to an
educational opportunity for schools, especially rural ones that have to operate with a
limited curriculum and staff (Wohlert, 1989). The objective is to provide courses in
foreign languages to schools where it would not otherwise be possible for students to
study them. The potential for providing instruction in the less commonly taught
languages is particularly enhanced by distance technology.
In many cases, the guiding principle is for distance learning courses not to become
permanent, but to serve as a stepping stone to hiring a regular classroom instructor by
laying the basis for a viable language program, especially in the less commonly taught
languages (Kataoka, 1987).

V. The success of distance learning in developing students' foreign language skills


depends on the ability of the instructional program to provide language learning in
face-to-face settings. This capability can now be provided through two-way satellite
communications that allow teachers to communicate with students at each site and to
provide the interaction needed for development of second language skills.
1) Interactivity. Successful distance education system involves interactivity between
teacher and students, between students and the learning environment, and among
students themselves, as well as active learning in the classroom. Interactivity takes
many forms; it is not just limited to audio and video, or solely to teacher-student
interactions. It represents the connectivity the students feel with the distance teacher,
the local teachers, aids, and facilitators, and their peers.
2) Active learning. As active participants in the learning process, students affect the
manner in which they deal with the material to be learned. Learners must have a sense
of ownership of the learning goals. They must be both willing and able to receive
instructional messages
3) Visual imagery. Researchers have consistently found that instructional television
can motivate and captivate students, and stimulate an interest in the learning process.
Reliance on exciting visuals may distort the curriculum by focusing students attention
on the entertaining and provocative features of the presentation rather than
encouraging thoughtful analysis of their meaning.
VI.

Strategies for teaching at a distance include:

differences about distant teaching

purpose of teaching at a distance

improving plans and organization

meeting student needs

effective usage of teaching skills

improving interaction and feedback

VII.The challenges in distance education today are: to move away from paper to digital
delivery; appropriately encompass learner-centered education; overcome the problems
posed by the intrinsic separation of teaching from learning; bridge physical, social and
cultural distance; meet the demands of the post-industrial society. Nowadays whole
institutions of higher learning is expanding its own distance and learning activities and
helping member countries build their capacities to conduct distance education.
CLIL Methodology.
1. The Notion of CLIL

We live in a time of innovation, and new ways of living and working. This often involves
changing the way we do things. Across our societies we can see integration replacing
fragmentation. This process is creating fusion between sectors that may have been
quite separate in the past.
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) is one example of this process. It
invites convergence between the learning of content and language. It enables
educators to move away from fragmentation, whereby we handle subjects as separate
areas.
We have known for a long time that teaching languages and other subjects separate
from one another, in a vacuum, does not produce optimal outcomes. Both language
and content teachers have already made important strides in revitalizing their teaching
for this modern age within and even across their subjects. CLIL provides the
opportunity to go a step further. It creates fusion between content and language across
subjects and encourages independent and co-operative learning, while building
common purpose and forums for lifelong development. This provides significant added
value for language learning.
CLIL (content and language integrated learning ) is a dual-focused educational
approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both
content and language. For example, CLIL has involved Malaysian children learning
maths and science in English. CLIL has been used for Norwegian students to do drama
in German, Italian students to learn science in French, Japanese students to learn
geography in English and Australians to learn maths in Chinese. The combinations of
languages and subjects are almost limitless.
The term CLIL (content and language integrated learning) was coined in 1994 in
Europe. However, CLIL practice has a much longer history.
The example from history of the use of a second language to teach content is the
widespread use of Latin. For centuries, Latin was used as a language of instruction in
European universities and became the primary language of law, medicine, theology,
science and philosophy. Yet, despite having strong similarities with CLIL, the use of
Latin cannot be considered, in the purest sense, an example of CLIL. Latin in academia
left little room for the development of local languages. CLIL, by contrast, seeks to
support second-language learning while also favoring first-language development.
In Europe, in more recent centuries, many people have understood the value of
multilingualism. However, bilingual or multilingual education seemed, above all, a
privilege belonging to the wealthy. The well-to-do hired governesses or tutors who
spoke to their children in a foreign tongue with the express purpose of having them
become fluent in another language. Some people sent their children abroad to study in
private schools.
2. The Rise of CLIL

In an integrated world, integrated learning is increasingly viewed as a modern form of


educational delivery designed to even better equip the learner with knowledge and
skills suitable for the global age. Moreover, the mindset of Generation Y (generally
recognized as born anywhere between 1982 and 2001) is particularly focused on
immediacy as in 'learn as you use, use as you learn' - not 'learn now, use later'. Those
born into the Cyber Generation (born after 2001) will be even more influenced by their
own early, personal, hands-on experience with integrated technologies. These are the
generations now in classrooms across the world, and CLIL is one innovative
methodology that has emerged to cater to this new age.
3. CLIL foundation pieces
The CLIL strategy, above all, involves using a language that is not a student's native
language as a medium of instruction and learning for primary, secondary and/or
vocational-level subjects such as maths, science, art or business. However, CLIL also
calls on content teachers to teach some language. In particular, content teachers need
to support the learning of those parts of language knowledge that students are missing
and that may be preventing them mastering the content.
Language teachers in CLIL programmes play a unique role. In addition to teaching the
standard curriculum, they work to support content teachers by helping students to gain
the language needed to manipulate content from other subjects. In so doing they also
help to reinforce the acquisition of content.
Thus, CLIL is a tool for the teaching and learning of content and language. The essence
of CLIL is integration. This integration has a dual focus:
1)Language learning is included in content classes (e.g., maths, history, geography,
computer programming, science, civics, etc). This means repackaging information in a
manner that facilitates understanding. Charts, diagrams, drawings, hands-on
experiments and the drawing out of key concepts and terminology are all common CLIL
strategies.
2)Content from subjects is used in language-learning classes. The language teacher,
working together with teachers of other subjects, incorporates the vocabulary,
terminology and texts from those other subjects into his or her classes. Students learn
the language and discourse patterns they need to understand and use the content.
It is a student's desire to understand and use the content that motivates him or her to
learn the language. Even in language classes, students are likely to learn more
if they are not simply learning language for language's sake, but using language
to accomplish concrete tasks and learn new content. The language teacher takes more
time to help students improve the quality of their language than the content teacher.
However, finding ways in the CLIL context to inject content into language classes will
also help improve language learning. Thus, in CLIL, content goals are supported by
language goals.

In addition to a focus on content and language, there is a third element that comes
into play. The development of learning skills supports the achievement of content
language goals. Learning skills goals constitute the third driver in the CLIL triad.
The three goals of content, language and learning skills need to fit into a larger
context. Parents are most interested in having their children learn the CLIL language,
continue to develop their first language and learn as much of the content as children
who are not in CLIL programmes. Therefore, the ultimate goal of CLIL initiatives is to
create conditions that support the achievement of the following:
grade-appropriate levels of academic achievement in subjects taught through the
CLIL language;
grade-appropriate functional proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and
writing in the CLIL language;
age-appropriate levels of first-language competence in listening, speaking,
reading and writing;
an understanding and appreciation of the cultures associated with the CLIL
language and the student's first language;
the cognitive and social skills and habits required for success in an ever-changing
world.
The CLIL method can give young people the skills required to continue to study or work
in the CLIL language. However, language maintenance and learning is a lifelong
process requiring continued use and ongoing investment.
4. Problems and their solutions in CLIL.
For the reader interested in starting up CLIL, it is wise to have some sense of the
problems others have faced with CLIL programmes, and to learn how those problems
were addressed.
Some common potential barriers on the road to successful CLIL practice, coupled with
strategies for addressing and possibly avoiding them, are listed below.
1) Grasping the concept and grappling with misconceptions
2) The shortage of CLIL teachers
3) Greater workload for teachers; shortage of materials
4) School administrators understanding the implications of CLIL programming.
5.

Orientating towards CLIL

It is widely acknowledged that young children usually acquire their first (or second, or
third) language effortlessly and rapidly. One overwhelming feature of CLIL is to partially
replicate the conditions to which infants are exposed when learning their first

language. CLIL sets out to expand the student's learning capacity by tuning into the
natural way the child learnt his or her first language. A young childs environment is
full of resources that the child learns to use as tools. Children learn to use language,
and use language to learn.
Although CLIL does involve a new approach and a certain degree of change, it can
easily fit into the parameters established by the national or regional curriculum.
Moreover, CLIL cannot be separated from standard good practice in education. CLIL is a
valued-added, as opposed to a subtractive, approach that seeks to enrich the learning
environment.
The CLIL approach encourages teachers to keep using their favorite strategies and to
apply standard best practice in education. However, it does require an understanding
of those strategies that are essential for CLIL, such as having a three-way focus on
content, language and learning skills. Thus, CLIL is more likely to require a
modification, as opposed to a major change, in daily classroom practice. Most
strategies that are essential for CLIL can also be considered good practice in education.
It is the need to take simultaneously into account standard good practice in education
and teaching/learning strategies unique to CLIL that can be difficult for teachers.
When changing the language of instruction, some content (e.g., maths, physics,
science, art) teachers find it difficult to support language learning. Some language
teachers find it equally difficult to imagine content teachers, not trained in languages,
being able to support good practice in language learning. Language teachers
sometimes find it difficult to support the learning of maths, science or other content
subjects in their language classes. Co-operation and skills exchange among language
and content teachers thus becomes an important strategy for implementing CLIL. This
requires the time and the will to agree collectively on common teaching strategies and
student learning activities.
Essential elements of good practice in CLIL and in education in general are the
following. Fused together, these strategies support the successful delivery of CLIL
lessons.
6.

Core features of CLIL methodology

Multiple focus
supporting language learning in content classes
supporting content learning in language classes
integrating several subjects
organizing learning through cross-curricular themes and projects
supporting reflection on the learning process
Safe and enriching learning environment

using routine activities and discourse


displaying language and content throughout the classroom
building student confidence to experiment with language and content
using classroom learning centres
guiding access to authentic learning materials and environments
increasing student language awareness
Authenticity
letting the students ask for the language help they need
maximizing the accommodation of student interests
making a regular connection between learning and the students' lives
connecting with other speakers of the CLIL language
using current materials from the media and other sources
Active learning
students communicating more than the teacher
students help set content, language and learning skills outcomes
students evaluate progress in achieving learning outcomes
favouring peer co-operative work
negotiating the meaning of language and content with students
teachers acting as facilitators
Scaffolding
building on a student's existing knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests and experience
repackaging information in user-friendly ways
responding to different learning styles
fostering creative and critical thinking
challenging students to take another step forward and not just coast in comfort
Co-operation
planning courses/lessons/themes in co-operation with CLIL and non-CLIL teachers

involving parents in learning about CLIL and how to support students involving the
local community, authorities and employers
7.

Cognition in CLIL

Thinking drives the teaching/learning process. The more powerful the thinking, the
greater the learning. CLIL is no exception: good CLIL practice is driven by cognition.
Thinking (cognition) is the mental faculty of knowing, which includes:
-

perceiving;

recognizing;

judging;

reasoning;

conceiving;

imagining.

Analysing facts and figures as well as differing perspectives and understanding,


imagining where one wants to be, articulating and conceiving plans, assessing or
judging progress in meeting planned outcomes and thinking about the learning process
are all helpful techniques in supporting cognitive development and learning.
CLIL supports the holistic development of learners. Its ultimate goal is to guide
students towards becoming capable and motivated, bilingual or multilingual
independent learners who:
-

gain needed content and language knowledge and skills;

actively seek and successfully make use of opportunities for communication with
other speakers of the CLIL language.
In CLIL, the primary focus is on substance (content) as opposed to form. Parroting
language patterns and memorizing vocabulary or facts in any subject area are unlikely
to contribute to their long-term application. In order to acquire new knowledge and
skills, people usually need not only to access new information, but also connect that
information with their own existing knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Moreover, as meaning-making is both a personal and a social process (community),
new knowledge and skills develop through personal as well as co-operative
reflection/analysis (cognition) and through a communicative proc~ (communication).
Long-term retention also usually requires that we experience application of new
knowledge and the use of related skills in a meaningful context. Finally, discussion and
reflection, and the drawing of conclusions related to the experience associated with the
application of new knowledge and skills, helps to cement learning.
8.

Putting CLIL in motion

There are certain distinctive aspects to setting learning outcomes for CLIL:
Linking outcomes related to content, language and learning skills is challenging. In
meeting with CLIL teachers, we have understood that planning for and focusing on all
of these outcomes before and during a lesson has initially required considerable effort
from students and teachers, but that once mastered, it quickly leads to greater student
engagement and learning. In the long run, it saves time.
Taking into account that language is not the primary subject being taught. Content can
be learnt with minimal language. This is counterintuitive. Moreover, focusing primarily
on content helps to facilitate language learning. This is particularly the case when
language learning in content classes receives regular and systematic attention.
Not compromising the quality of content due to a lack of language knowledge.
Separating the essential from the non-essential is key. Content drives. CLIL
programming. It is the opportunity to use newly acquired content in a meaningful way
that captures student interest.
Language outcomes are difficult to arbitrarily sequence, as these outcomes are driven
by content, as well as student interests and needs. Providing students with the
vocabulary and discourse patterns that they need to manipulate the content, when
they need them, will help you exceed the demands of the stand arc language learning
curriculum. You will just follow a different sequence.
There is a need for coordination of outcomes and learning activities development
among teachers. If our students see teachers co-operating they will better assimilate
that groupwork is a normal part of life and not just something that is done in class.
Moreover, without coordination, CLIL is an uphill battle. By developing joint projects
that are marked by several content teachers and the language teacher, or by building
a unit around a common theme, learning becomes more relevant because it
transcends one classroom and has a wider application. Therefore, learning is increased
and, in the long run, a teacher's task is made easier.
Making links with native and non-native speakers of the CLIL language. Contact and
communication are the payoffs for language learning. They help learning to take root
and flourish.
Making links with the community so that content can be applied in community-based
activities. Meaning-making is a social process and it is all the more meaningful if a
project takes place in or is linked to the 'real' world outside school. These are the
moments and lessons we do not forget.
Maintaining a balance between creating a psychologically safe learning environment
and encouraging language growth. This is a tightrope act. You will know you are
starting to see-saw if your students stop speaking or if errors are becoming fossilized.
Maintaining a focus on learning skills. CLIL is a bit of juggling act. Its multiple focus is
better maintained if we keep a spotlight on learning skills. Moreover, we cannot accept
responsibility for our own learning unless we have some idea of how we learn. This

involves raising awareness of how we learn (e.g., our preferred learning strategies and
styles) and how we think (meta-cognition). This helps us to obtain the knowledge and
tools to plan, assess and improve our own learning. It also helps us to develop mental
habits that can contribute to success and happiness.
Assessment in Basic Education.
1.

Assessing English Language Learners in Equitable Ways

Assessing ELLs in an equitable manner poses interesting challenges for teachers of


natural mathematical profile. We want to assess in a way that enables ELLs to share
what they know and are able to do, rather than administer an assessment that simply
determines what they are not able to do. Too often, assessment seems to emphasize a
deficiency model that leads to erroneous conclusions that students not yet proficient in
English are not able to function in mathematics, physics and biology.
Yet, as we have discussed in previous chapters, focusing only on skills is not an option.
We want students to have a deep conceptual understanding of mathematics, physics
and biology. As a result, we have advocated a language-rich classroom in which
students are encouraged and expected to talk about mathematics, physics and biology
and represent their understanding in a variety of wayswith words, pictures, and
symbols. Consequently, our assessment needs to align with our instructional
expectations.
So, given these constraints, what are some strategies that we can use during our
regular classroom assessments?
2.
a)

Provide Access to Learning Tools during Assessments:


Allow Use of Personal Dictionaries and Word Walls

What tools and supports might we consider making available to ELLs as well as to
other students in our classes? We should permit students to use their personal
mathematics, physics or biology dictionaries as well as conventional Englishother
language dictionaries during assessments.
Obviously, the use of other dictionaries is possible only when students are literate in
their own language; for those who are not, their personal dictionaries, perhaps with
many pictures, are more realistic. When students are regularly permitted and
encouraged to use their personal mathematics dictionary, we send a message that this
is an essential tool in learning mathematics. We emphasize the importance of keeping
the dictionary up to date and that it is a useful tool to enable success in mathematics.
We should encourage students to use the word walls that we have compiled and put on
display for all students. Obviously, when students have access to such resources, we
need to move beyond simply asking students to provide a definition of a term as part
of the assessment
b)

Audiotape Assessments

We might consider audiotaping the assessment (Williams, 2007). An audiotape enables


students to listen to questions as they read them. Students can rewind and listen
multiple times. So many of our students have personal music players, and a recording
of an assessment can easily be downloaded for students to listen to throughout the
test. Williams, who taught in a school with many international students, found that
students scores increased and anxiety levels lessened when students were able to
listen to an assessment while completing it. For students who are still struggling with
reading English, listening to the test may reduce some of the cognitive demand in
English and let students focus on the mathematics, physics or biology.
c)

Create Personalized Test Notes

A beneficial assessment strategy for all students and one that might be particularly
helpful to ELLs is to have students create their own personalized notes for use during a
test. We do not usually allow students to use all of their notes; when students have
access to all of their notes they often fail to study and spend too much test time
flipping through their notes. Rather, we prefer to give students the option of having
one page of notes that they have created for use on the test.
Students must write the notes by hand in ink, so that they are personalized; we dont
want one student to create notes on a computer and share with everyone else. We
want students to review the mathematics being studied and determine what concepts
are thoroughly understood, what concepts might require a brief hint, and what
concepts might still need some major support.
When students create their notes based on their review of the content, they must selfmonitor their learning to determine where they need support. Often, by the time
students have completed such notes, they no longer need to use them on the test. For
ELLs, we would allow students to complete the entire set of notes in their first
language or to use a combination of first language and English, depending on their
own comfort level. ELL students could use these personalized test notes in addition to
appropriate language dictionaries (Thompson, Kersaint, Richards, Hunsader, &
Rubenstein, 2008).
d)

Provide Access to Concrete Materials When Appropriate

If students have regularly used concrete materials as part of instruction, those


materials should be available to students during assessment. For instance, if teachers
have used two-color chips when exploring integer operations, or pattern blocks when
exploring fractions, or algebra tiles when multiplying and factoring binomials, then
students should have the opportunity to use those materials during assessments if
they so desire. This strategy is good for all students, but may be particularly helpful for
ELL students who are still struggling with language. The concrete materials give
students a means to interact with the concepts, even when they lack the English
language fluency needed for discussing the concepts. In addition, the concrete
materials may help students draw representations of the concepts to demonstrate
understanding.

3.

Avoid Linguistic Complexities

In designing assessments, there are a number of issues to consider to ensure that the
assessment does not contain roadblocks that impede access by ELLs.
a)

Use Caution with the Use of Proper Names

One non-mathematical issue that needs to be considered is the names used in word
problems. Names, such as Pat or Mark or June, that have ordinary English meanings
can get in the way of students making sense of the problem (J. Hickman, personal
communication). Even though a name is generally a non-essential piece of information
in the problem, students may be applying the English meaning of the word and trying
to determine how that relates to other aspects of the problem. There is no reason for
students to face this difficulty when a simple change in the name would prevent
confusion.
b)

Avoid Using Synonyms in Problems

4.

Provide Test Accommodations

Depending on the English language proficiency of your ELL students, you may need to
provide various accommodations.
a)

Reduce the Number of Question

We need to realize that thinking in English takes more time for many of our ELL
students, who often translate from English into their first language and then back again
to English to respond.
So, it may be necessary to adjust the number of questions to which ELL students are
expected to respond in order to give them the same amount of time for thinking about
mathematics as our English speaking students. The extent to which the number of
questions should be adjusted will likely vary based on the course and the ELLs level of
language proficiency.
b)

Adjust the Amount of Time

ELL students may need more time to complete an assessment because they need time
to process English as well as think about mathematics, physics or biology. How can this
be accomplished in a class situation?
One might give ELL students a test in parts, with students taking different parts on
different days. Students might be permitted to complete a test during a study hall or
after school, although teachers would need to be sensitive to transportation issues for
any after school adjustments. If students have time with an ESL teacher, then it might
be possible to arrange for them to complete a mathematics, physics or biology test
during that time.
c)

Give Part of the Test Orally

Teachers might consider administering all or part of a test orally to their ELL students.
One advantage of such an accommodation is that the teacher can probe students
understanding of mathematics by asking questions to ensure that difficulties are the
result of a lack of mathematics knowledge rather than language difficulties. Such an
approach is feasible if there are only one or two ELL students in a class because the
teacher can administer some questions to ELL students in the back of the room while
the rest of the class is taking the test. If the number of ELL students is large, the
teacher might use an audiotape of the test or read the questions on the test aloud, one
at a time, giving students an opportunity to respond before reading the next question.
With these adjustments, the teacher loses the opportunity to probe for understanding
but still ensures that language proficiency is not a barrier to demonstrating
mathematics, physics or biology knowledge. One disadvantage of reading questions
aloud one at a time is that students must proceed at the same speed, instead of at
their individual pace. Nevertheless, these may be viable alternatives depending on the
makeup of a class.
d)

Consider Alternatives to Traditional Individual Tests

Depending on the composition of a class, it may be feasible to consider some


alternative arrangements to administering tests. For instance, students might take all
or part of a test with a partner. Teachers could administer some procedural questions
individually and enable students to work with partners on problem-solving questions
that require more language skills. However, teachers will need to ensure that both
students contribute equally to the exam.
Alternatively, teachers might give pairs time to discuss questions together, but with no
writing utensils on the desks. After the allotted time for discussion, students must then
complete the test on their own. An advantage to this arrangement is that students
must quickly skim the test and determine which items they might like to discuss; that
is, we are helping them learn to self-assess and monitor their own learning. However,
students must then complete the test on their own so that there is individual
accountability
e)

Modify Questions to Reduce Language Complexity

At times, teachers may need to reduce the complexity of the language in problems. For
example, for students at the very earliest stages of language proficiency (particularly
preproduction), problems might be rewritten in a visual form. Consider the lilies
problem from earlier in this chapter. We might express this problem in a third version
with minimal English (see Figure 1).
5.

Daily Assessments

Secondary mathematics teachers regularly assign homework or other types of daily


assessments to students, even if they do not collect the assessments and grade them.
But several of these daily assessments provide opportunities for teachers to monitor
the progress of ELL students

a)

Ensure Students Have the Background for Homework

If our daily classroom instruction is language-rich, then our assessments also need to
be language rich. If students have been engaged in problem solving as part of class
instruction, then students need to be engaged in problem solving as part of their out of
class practice. However, we need to be sensitive to challenges for our ELLs. When
students work on word problems during class, they have an opportunity to interact
with their peers and get needed language support. How can we provide comparable
support for homework problems? Here are two possible strategies.
Spend a few minutes in class ensuring that students understand the contexts
embedded within word problems that are in the homework. If the problem mentions an
archeologist, then discuss in class what an archeologist does so that the word and/or
context are not stumbling blocks.
Make a transparency of the word problems. Spend a few minutes in class reading
through the problems and helping students sort essential from non-essential
information. Cross out sentences and words that are included in the problem but are
not really needed to understand the problem. Think back to problem A earlier; by
striking through the non-essential parts of the problem, we lower the language
demands on our ELL students and make it easier for them to focus on the essential
mathematics:
The department store was having its annual Fall Clearance. Everything was marked
50% off. John wanted to buy a shirt that originally cost $25 and a pair of pants that
cost $30. How much would he pay on sale, without sales tax?
Take time to read through word problems with students. Help them create a mental
image of the action in the problem to ensure understanding. A mental image of the
problem can help ELLs, and all students for that matter, transfer action into a solution.
Obviously, this strategy requires that teachers plan their class time to permit time for
such reading and mental imagery to occur.
b)

Modify Homework Assignments for ELLs

Just as teachers often need to provide accommodations for ELL students during tests,
teachers may need to modify homework assignments. Modifications should not
eliminate all contextual or language-embedded problems. But if the typical assignment
has 10 word problems, for instance, modifications might reduce the number of word
problems to five to seven for ELL students, depending on their level of language
proficiency. Such modifications acknowledge that ELLs need more time on each
problem because of the language demands; modifying the number of problems helps
keep the time commitment for ELLs comparable to that for their English speaking
peers.
c)

Establish Routines for Making Homework Assignments Known

Many secondary teachers provide homework assignments to students in advance so


that students are able to plan ahead or keep abreast of class even when they are

absent. For instance, teachers might distribute the homework assignments and
schedule for an entire chapter when the class first begins the chapter. All students can
benefit from this advance notice. For ELLs, advance notice can provide an opportunity
to work with an ESL teacher to complete the homework, if they have time scheduled
during the day with that teacher. In addition, it allows them to avoid struggling at the
end of a class period to record an assignment mentioned hastily in class; they have a
structure that lets them know what to expect, which can lower anxiety. If the schedule
is provided in addition to the homework assignment, students can look ahead to the
lesson so that there is some foundation prior to class instruction, or students can look
ahead to determine if there are words or contexts in problems that they do not
understand. They then have a chance to ask for help before working alone at home.
d)

Use Journals for Students to Dialogue with Teachers

Journals, used once or twice a week, provide an opportunity for teachers to


communicate one-on- one with students. For ELLs who may be reluctant to speak up in
class or to ask questions face-to-face, a journal provides an opportunity for dialogue.
Even students who are struggling with English can communicate via pictures. Students
can receive credit for completing a journal entry rather than having a specific grade
attached. In addition, a journal provides a record of progress over the course of a year
so that teachers and students can measure the extent to which academic-content
language and mathematics learning improve throughout the school year. Here are a
few sample prompts, with possible language proficiency levels at which they might be
used.
6.

Projects as Assessments

Alternative assessments provide opportunities for students to demonstrate what they


know without the pressure of a timed, on-demand test. In addition, alternative
assessments provide a venue for teachers to include students culture into the
classroom in a natural way.
Projects provide outlets for students to demonstrate their mathematical understanding
of a concept in a manner that often is less language intense. Students can be expected
to build a model or design a poster that illustrates a mathematical concept; students
could research information on the internet, such as finding pictures with particular
types of symmetry. When students are engaged in such projects, we want to make
them as open as possible, so that students can draw on their own experiences.
Depending on the nature of the project, students can be encouraged to use their own
cultural background as the basis for the project. Consider the following two project
ideas.
As part of a geometry unit that included study of transformations, the teacher built a
summative assessment in which students were to create a geometric design that
included at least two types of symmetry. In addition, students were to find at least one
example of a piece of art or a building or a sculpture that incorporated symmetry (e.g.
lines of symmetry or rotational symmetry). Students were to write a few sentences to
indicate the nature of the symmetry. Cultural examples were provided to illustrate the

types of designs that might be possible, such as a Navajo rug, an Aztec warrior shield,
and African kente cloth. Students were encouraged to create a design representative of
their culture if they so desired. Although the teacher encouraged students to use
cultural examples, she did not force students to bring their culture into the classroom if
they were reluctant to do so. The concrete example of building a design is helpful to
ELLs who benefit from visual perspectives tied to life experiences; expecting students
to write a few sentences to describe the symmetry in their designs helps build a bridge
from the concrete to the use of academic content language.
Throughout a marking period, students studied numerous concepts: ratios,
proportions, scale factors, surface area, volume, and patterns of change in area and
volume when scaling dimensions up or down. Rather than give a traditional marking
period exam, the teacher decided to assign a cooperative group project that integrated
all of these concepts. Students were to work in small groups to build a scale model of a
portion of a village or town with the following restrictions: a picture of the real village
or town must be provided (and students were encouraged to choose a village based on
their cultural background); there must be at least 10 buildings; the scale factor
between the original and the model had to be determined and reasonable; and the
surface area and volume of the buildings in the models had to be provided. The
teacher provided materials (e.g. small pieces of cardboard, tape, string, and glue) and
assigned a cost amount to each; groups had a budget of $30 to build their model.
Throughout the time that groups worked on the project in class, the teacher circulated
among them to assess students contributions and to ask questions about their
understanding of the concepts. She was able to adjust questions to students level of
language proficiency (e.g. preproduction: Which is the smallest building in the village?
Which areas are common?; early production: Which scale factor would you choose?
Why? You want to build the buildings in their real-life size. What scale factor do you
need to use for the model?; speech emergence: To create a village of your choice, what
materials would you need?; intermediate fluency: What do the original model and all
models that you build have in common? What do you think is different in each model?).
All students were able to participate in the project; her ELLs were actively engaged
because of the use of hands-on materials and she was able to probe with questions to
ascertain their levels of understanding.
The use of projects is helpful for all students because projects help make abstract
concepts more concrete. For ELLs, projects involve hands-on materials that help them
build on prior experiences while learning new vocabulary and concepts. Students can
potentially work with others who provide language support. The teacher is able to
modify questions in a one-on-one setting while students are working and to probe for
understanding. This type of interaction is often difficult to orchestrate during an
independent timed assessment.
Self-dependent work in FLT.
I.
In contemporary educational process there is no most important and at the
same time most complicated problem than the problem of self-dependent work of
learners. Especially nowadays when FL education has become learner-centered

according to the new paradigm of education. All over the world there is a general
tendency of increasing the role of self-dependent work of the learners and
consequently the increase of the time allotted to it. However, 50% of the time for selfdependent work is not effective due to the following reasons:
1) the forms and types of self-dependent work were not directly connected with the
formation of competences;
2) being not sufficiently controlled it could not provide qualitative results in the
achieving the aims set;
3) self-dependent work reveals the importance of motivation, organization,
independence, control and self control but their psychological aspects have not yet
been analyzed.
II.
Self-dependent work has much potential especially when it is planned and well
organized. It contributes to the extension and deepening of knowledge, formation of
interest to cognitive activity, formation of skills to use different technologies of FLL.
Self-dependent work may take place in class and out of class:
1) Class self-dependent work includes drill, practical and productive, semi-productive,
creative types of work.
2) Out of class self-dependent work includes traditional homework which may be
reproductive, productive, and semi-productive, projects and reports.
From psychological point of view self-dependent work is a purposeful motivated activity
structured and self-controlled by the individuals in the course of work and depending
on the result.
Independence is one of the main features of self-dependent work.
However there are 5 levels of self-dependent work:
1)

imitative and reproductive level;

2) self-dependent work is done according to the patterns given by the teacher or


teachers book;
3)

reconstructive self-dependent work;

4)

evristic type-essay;

5)

creative research (project).

III.
It goes without saying that for the effectiveness of self-dependent work we
should have a number of strategies by which we understand steps taken by the
learners to enhance the acquisition of the material involving their own learning styles.

With the help of learning strategies learners get the most out of available resources
such as dictionaries and grammar books, they come to know how to work with a text,
or a programme, or a project, a picture, a poem, etc.
Learning strategies are techniques or behaviors that learners consciously apply in
order to enhance their learning. For example, while reading, learners may look up and
record new words for later review. They may even do this in a way that helps
memorization, e.g.: by writing a translation or a synonym alongside. But simply looking
up a word without recording it is less a learning strategy than a reading strategy. It
becomes learning when the intention is long-term learning rather than solely
immediate understanding.
Learning are often grouped according to whether they are cognitive strategies, meta
cognitive strategies or social/affective strategies.
1) Cognitive strategies are those that are linked to the way learners process data and
perform specific tasks in the target language. For example, when learners repeat,
under their breath, what they have just heard, they are using an effective cognitive
strategy called sub-vocalization.
2) Meta cognitive strategies are those that are used to regulate and manage learning
in general, such as this example, reported by one learner: I sit in front of the class, so
I can see the teachers face clearly. Reflecting on the learning process is also a met
cognitive strategy-this may take the form of keeping a language-learning journal.
3) Social strategies those that learners use in order to interact with other learners or
native speakers, such as asking for repetition or clarification.
4) Affective strategies are those that they use to give themselves encouragements
and to deal with anxiety.
IV. Autonomous learning assumes that the learner has well developed learning
strategies and the development of such strategies is the aim learner training;
Cognitive strategies which are directed to work and study the information (revision,
memorization, copying, underlining, identifying, clarifying, taking notes, paraphrasing,
making up glossaries etc.)
Metacognitive strategies: planning, organizing materials, grouping up, classification,
tables, schemes, rsum, observation, work with resources, self analysis, self control
and assessment.
V.

The main requirements to self-dependent work:

1)

to increase number of hours;

2)

a task must be controlled and well planed;

3)

the forms should be various depending on the learning and cognitive styles;

4)

oriented on the formation of competences;

5)

must be of problem character;

6)

based on modern technologies, including

7)

Interdisciplinary relations with other school subjects.

What is a principle?
According to C.C. ...
,
, , , ,
(.
: , , 2005, 47).
I. A principle (* lat. Principum) is a guide line to follow, a comprehensive and
fundamental rule, doctrine or assumption / basis arid foundation of smth.
It is very important to define the basic principles of FLT. In order to definitely know
strategy and tactics of implementing the new conception of FLT. As a Pedagogical
science FLT Methodology is based on the principles of didactics, on the one hand, and
on the other hand it has its own principles :as well. It is natural that we cannot deny
these principles traditionally used in our Methodology but at the same time we should
take into consideration the new ones. So, let as analyze the use of the principles
traditionally used in FLT:
Principles of didactics
Principles of FLT Methodology
General principles
principles (in teaching

Special principles

1. Communicativeness

1. Pattern Practice

2. Domineering role of exercises


Auding

2. Oral approach

3. Integration and differentiation

3. Intensive study at

4. Native language basis


Reading
4. Approximation

Specific

Speaking

the Primary stage


Writing).

Every subject of instruction is based on the universal principles of educative


instruction, principles of didactics - consciousness, activity, visuality, accessibility,
durability, consecutiveness, systematicness.

The 7 didactic principles are independent and at the same time they are mutually
connected. None of them must be overvalued to the detriment of any of the above
mentioned. In each school subject these principles are applied specifically. For
example, the principle of visuality is differently realized in diffident subjects:
mathematics, history, foreign languages.
We shall now stop for a moment on the Specific application of there basic principles in
FLT.
The Universal Principles of Educative instruction are chiefly realized through the
contents of the texts and illustrations given in the text-books.
The Principle of Consciousness
implies such process of teaching when the linguistic phenomena of the language are
taught consciously by means of comparing, explanations, demonstrations, historical
comments to make the process of acquision easier, to prevent interference:
native
Comparisons contribute to the thorough understanding'of the material, since it causes
the learners to observe and analyze linguistic phenomena.
For example, information of the origin of the article helps to understand their meaning;
other examples: hand-arm.
The use of visual aids and graphic presentation contributes greatly to the conscious
and intelligent assimilation.
The principle of consciousness must pervade the whole process of FLT, but it mostly
refers to giving knowledge rather than to developing habits and skills because habits
are performed automatically in the result of numerous repetitions and
semiautamatically demanding certain knowledge and habits.
Consciously assimilated material is of no use if the learner cannot apply it in practice1.
Consciousness does not; necessarily mean translation or imitation (which is always
subconscious) FL
Teaching conducted according to the principle of conscious teaching widens the pupils'
philological outlook .
In this case conscious teaching serves educational purpose.
If you don't know where you are going, there is no way to get there.
In order to ensure the assimilation of the language by the pupils the teacher must
resort to explanation, demonstration and never allow mechanical cramming (or rote
learning). Rules can assist and help.

The Principle of Activity (Activeness)


There is a Chinese Proverb saying:
I can remember 20% - of what I hear,
I can remember 40% - of what I hear and see;
I can remember 80% - of what I participate in.
People learn a language most effectively through activity when solving problems,
creating things themselves or when talking about personal experiences. Participation
and flexible exploratory (creative) thinking should be encouraged. In accordance with
the communicative -cognitive approach to FLT pupils must be actively involved with all
their cognitive mechanisms such as memory (long - term memory and short - term
memory), thinking and operations of thinking (analysis, synthesis, induction,
deduction, comparison, etc) perception and others.
The principle of Activity (Activeness) requires activity of both, on the pant of the T and
the learners: choral, individual work, work in small groups (problem - solving, project
work, etc). But the T should bear in mind that students are different: extraverts and
introverts display their activity differently.
In FLT - the principle of activeness is realized in the following ways:
1.
From the very beginning pupils are taught living speech, not just sounds and
words. Using living Speech, answering questions in a foreign language is actively using
the language while pronouncing sounds and words is just passively following directions
to reproduce things, not to create them.
2. Pupils are taught to think in a foreign language. Thinking is an active process.
3. In the early Stages of FLT the new material is introduced and activated orally. For
this different types of oral exercises are used.
4. Throughout the FLT course! practice precedes theory.
5. A wide use of choral, individual work, work in pairs, work in small groups of three
and four etc... that provide interaction.
6. Correction of mistakes should be sparing and not interfering. It is not necessary to
correct every mistake.
7. Activeness is largely dependent upon interest.
Activeness is not self-sufficient. We must not neglect less active forms of work but
rather effective (for example, imitative reproductions).
A hinese legend says: "Give a man a fish and he will eat it all day long; show him how
to fish and he will eat all the year round".

As far as possible learners should be exposed to communication. From the 1st lesson
teachers should teach their pupils how to communicate in English, not just how to
pronounce this or that sound, how to do grammatical exercises or choose a, b, d, the
correct answer. To do this the T should give plenty of time to production activities
which may have the following characteristics:
1)

gaps of different kinds

information

opinion

reasoning

communication
2)

variety of means of classroom organization, learner roles etc.

3)
enjoyment; it is most likely that learners will be motivated if they find the activity
stimulating and interesting.
4)

integrated skills.

5)

involvement in the actual process of the lesson.

6)
creativity - giving the learners an opportunity to use the knowledge and skills in
an individual and personal way.
7)
atmosphere - creating a positive learning climate so that learners feel that they
can participate and lake risks.
Linguistic games and role-plays should be widely used in the process of FLT especially
with little children: Games is their second world.
It is recommended to practice linguistic games and role-plays for the development of
habits and skills.
Games excite pupils' interest and they help the Teachers to enrich pupils' vocabulary
by memorizing words and expressions in the process of playing.
Methodologists recommend to introduce linguistic games, rhymes, twin - twisters at
the end of the lesson, otherwise the pupils will not desire to return to the ordinary
lesson again:
1)
Inky, pinky, ponky. My daddy bought a donkey. The donkey died, daddy cried;
Inky, pinky, ponky.
2)
There was a young lady of Niger who smiled as she rode on a tiger. They
returned from the ride with the lady inside and the smile on the face of the tiger.
3)
Row, row, row your boat Gently down the stream Merrily, merrily, merrily, life
is but a dream.
An activity or process involving a particular skill or quality and designed to achieve a
result is called an exercise.

It is characterized by the following:


1.

an exercise always has an objective;

2. it is always aimed at smth;


3. it presupposes numerous repetitions.
4. Any ex. is based on the formation of stereotypes; they must
5. provide the formation of habits;
6. the character of ex is different depending on what habits they form.
7. the minimum of ex necessary for the formation of habits and skills depends on
certain conditions of teaching (learning). : . The importance of a system of ex-s consists in the fact
that it provides organization of the process of teaching and organization of the process
of learning.
8.

ex-s fulfill different functions depending on the objectives of FLT.

The idea of system of ex-s in FLT in our country was first advocated in the early 40-s by () Gruzinskaya.
The Principle of Visuality
We know that attaching great importance to visuality or to the use of visual
impressions in FLT is consistent with the psychological principle of associative
memorization and with Pavlov's theory of the 2 signaling systems.
A wide use of visuality in teaching all the subjects is also a main requirements of
Modern didactics.
object visuality
Visuality is of 3 kinds
language visuality
Role Play - is realization of language Visuality. Object visually consists in demonstration
of object, actions, materials. Graphic visually consists in the of pictures, tables and
diagrams, filmstrips, films, static and dynamic pictures, substitution tables (first
recommended by , 1592-1670).
The Principle of Systematicness.
Every work requires being done systematically, not mechanically. The didactic principle
of systematicness demands not Only planned and systematic work by the teacher but
also the acquisition of systematic knowledge by the pupils.

In itself systematic or systematized knowledge is the same as theory. It implies relative


completeness, generalization and classification.
The language systematized knowledge in Ph, Gr, Voc. promotes good results. The use
of tables, cards, wall charts, etc. can greatly facilitate the attainment by the pupils; of
Gr, Voc, Ph knowledge.
The Principle of Accessibility
According to this principle:
1)
The material should correspond to the and mental powers of the learners; it
should be neither too difficult, nor too easy or too childish for them; gradation of
difficulties is also; an indispensable condition of accessibility.
2)

it should be rightly dozed;

3)

it should be properly graded.

The Principle of Durability


The Pr. of Durability stands apart from other didactic principles, in so for as it
determines the nature not of the teaching but of the assimilation of the material by the
pupils.
Durable assimilation or lasting retention by the learners is ensured by the observances
the part of the T of all the didactic principles considered, especially that of
systematicness.
Associations can be:
1) dormant, that is not is the field of consciousness, when not stimulated can be;
2) active or awakened - in the field of consciousness when the system of nerve paths
to which they correspond has become excited in response to some stimulus.
Thus associations can be lasting or transient well memorized or soon forgotten.
Lasting knowledge and established habits are conditioned by repetitions of 2 kinds:
revision

drills

Durable associations and established habits correspond to systems of well established


nerve paths - in Pavlov's terminology of dynamic stereotypes.
There are 5 conditions to be observed in repetition work:
1) the ex-s should be performed with entire attention and interest;
2) they should be done with complete accuracy in every detail. Practice brings speed.
Accuracy first, fluency - next.

3) Lasting knowledge can be ensured by regular revision and ex-s persistently


performed at regular intervals throughout fairly long periods.
4) Since established connections weaken with disuse, practice should not be
discontinued j as soon as retention or ability is attained but a certain amount of surplus
work should be done to secure the permanent fixation and acquisition of the material.
5) Revision is effective if the material is presented in new ex-s and contents again and
again.
The Principle of Consecutiveness
The sequence from known to unknown, from simple to more complex, from proximate
to more distinct.
In accordance with the Conception of FL Education development in the Republic of
Kazakhstan the following principles are to be realized:
1)
The principle of continuity and succession in FLT education. In this respect the
importance of the initial stage of FLT can hardly be overvalued.
2)

The principle of communicative-cultural interaction;

3)
The principle of problem and interactiveness in the organization of FLT, which
makes pupils actively cognitively involved in the process of learning a language.
4)
The principle of individual orientation in FLT which implies the use of various
approaches.
5)
The principle of fundamentality of FLT Education which implies profound
language knowledge.
6)

The principle of ensuring international standards of language learning level.

7)
The principle of creativity and cognitive activity in FLL and FLT which implies the
use of projects, role plays and other activities stimulating creativity and cognitive work
of the learners.
8)

The principle of reflexive regularity;

9)

The principle of professionalism in FLT.

1.

The importance of teaching Foreign language .

2.

Aims and Content of FLT .

3.

Means of FLT.

Qualitatively new requirements to the education lead inevitably to the changes in the
system of FLT. According to Kunanbaeva S.S. our Methodology of FL education in called
Cognitive Lingiiacultural Methodology (2006). According to the state documents and
the programs, the FLT is introduced into the new types of schools-gymnasia, lyceums,

profile schools and specialized schools as well as international types of schools at


different stages.
The new philosophy of Education proclaims pupil-centered approach, that is the main
focus, the main figure is the pupil with all his cognitive mechanisms (memory,
perception, thinking and its operations).
The final goal in FLT is Intercultural Communicative Competence and its components
(Language Competence, Speech Competence, Socio-Cultural Competence, strategic
Competence and Discourse Competence) and the development of "language g"
( .), ( ..
, 2006). Intercultural Communicative Competence implies the ability to
communicate , to use the target language as a mean of communication on the
intercultural level.
The importance of FLT can hardly be overvalued; its practical, educational and cultural
value is great. Students extend their knowledge of the world, their philological outlook,
their notion of cultures by comparing things in FL1, and FL2. It is important to
understand what we mean by culture. Culture is a way of life. Culture is everything. It's
the context within which we exist, think, feel and relate to others. It is the glue that
binds a group of people together. Culture is an ingrained component of FLT.
A language is a part of culture and a culture is a part of a language. The acquisition of
a FL is also the acquisition of a second culture. It is co-teaching of culture and
language (- ). Co-teaching of language and culture is
implemented through content based and context-based language instruction. Contentbased teaching of culture focuses on culture-related information, while Context-based
instruction emphasizes real-world where people behave in a culturally appropriate way.
Content-based teaching is knowledge-oriented instruction and context-based teaching
is skill-oriented.
There are different approaches to organization of the process of teaching FL . The
most known models are as follows:
M1-FL1+FL2 are taught concurrently (parallelly) in the 1-11 forms (3 hours a week).
M2-FL2 is introduced in the 5(7) forms (3 hours a week).
M3-FL2 is taught in the senior forms (10-11) (3 hours a week). It is considered to be
most rational.
Aims and objectives are the first and important consideration of FLT. ,
. . . 1 , 1 . Every
teacher should know exactly what his pupils are expected to do, to achieve in learning
FL, what changes he as a teacher can bring about in his pupils at the term, school year.
Aim is the result planned beforehand. Aim is the philosophical category. The aims in
the FLT are planned by prgramme.

Traditionally we distinguish the following aims in FLT: practical (or communicative


pupils get some skills in R-g, W-g, S-g, L-g), educational and cultural. Nowadays we
emphasize the integrative character of the aim in FLT. So, the aim of FLT is a complex,
integral one and it implies 3 aspects:
Pragmatic that consists in the formation of intercultural Communicative
Competence;
Cognitive that consists in the development of cognitive mechanisms of the
learners;
Pedagogical that consists in the development of "language ego", that is
" " according to S.S. Kunanbaeva
(2006).
Cognitive and linguistic development go hand in hand with the development of
"language ego" in the process of FLT/L.
Aims are determined by the social requirements, by the requirements of people and
society. According to the conception of Kazakhstan in every pupil we should develop a
personality, capable of communicative competence , so as to integrate in the system
of worlds and national culture. We should develop language personality( Language
Ego) What makes pupil Language Ego? It is ability to fulfill different types of speech
activity and communication. Language Ego is a universal category of creating relations
between people. The category of Aim is a developing category. The aims in FLT were
not always the same. In the period when the dead languages were taught , when
Grammar-translation method was domineering the teaching of FL included reading and
translation, development of logical thinking. Pupils were given a list of vocabulary,
classical texts to translate from native to foreign or on the contrary, grammar rules to
learn. They could never speak. With the development of capitalism, when it was
necessary to know language practically, the direct methods appeared, which aimed at
teaching Speaking as a mean of communication. Nowadays the communicative aim in
FLT at school is determined by the following factors: 1) the economic factors; 2) the
political condition of society; 3) the requirements of the society; 4) general goals of
education; 5) nature of the subject; 6) conditions( books, equipment,etc )
Aims determine the Content of FLT (What to teach?). This cannot be denied. In different
epochs there were different aims of FLT. Nowadays the Communicative-cognitive
approach to FLT determines the following components of the content of FLT in general:
There are 2 aspects in the Content of FLT:
-

subject matter ( ):

processional matter ( )

Means of FLT.

The problem of means of FLT is one of the main considerations in modern


Methodology. Because the success or failure of FL largely depends not only on the
teachers qualifications, but on the materials we use. 2 groups of FLT means: 1) Main
( - - which includes Textbook, Teacher's Book,
Workbook); 2) Supplementary means : 1 technical means( tape- recorder, video,
computer, TV , radio and Distance Learning); 2 non- technical (traditional) e.g.
blackboard , pictures( static and dynamic) 99 ways of work with pictures, different
types of albums, postcards, books of illustrations, maps, dictionaries, books for
reading, flannel graphs, cards.
Main means: Textbook, Teacher's Book, Workbook, Reader, a set of video and audio
cassettes , a set of pictures and tables. E.g. English File , Opportunity, Cutting the
Edge, etc.
The main requirements to the textbook:

1)

The book should be communicatively oriented

2)

Pupil-centered

3)

Correspond to the aims at different stages, to the program requirements

4)

All didactic and methodological principles should be realized in the text book.

5)

Develop all the skills such as L,R,W,S

6)

Give an opportunity to use the language in different regimes

7)

Be well illustrated with the help of pictures, tables, schemes

8)

Be of educative value

9)

Be informative

10) Be updated

Functions of T.B.

1)

communicative

2)

educative

3)

organizing

4)

informative

5)

motivating

6)

controlling

There is a tendency not only to use foreign T.B. for our teaching needs, but to create a
new T.B. taking into account the advanced experience in this field. All T.B. are leveled.
According to a new conception all levels of teaching FL should stick to the program
(state document)
Subject of Methodology. General and special Methodology.
The main methodological categories.
Links of Methodology with other Sciences.
Science- it is a sphere of human activity , which function is the production and
theoretical systematization of objective knowledge about reality.
Methodology of FLT is a science which studies aims of teaching, content of teaching,
methods, means and principles of teaching.
The word method primarily means a way of doing something. The word method has
two meanings: 1) a branch of science 2) a way of teaching. FLT Methodology has
undergone many changes in the course of its development. There were different
methods, trends, aims of teaching, content of teaching, different techniques, devices
and approaches of teaching. A method is a generalized model of realization of the main

components of teaching process, oriented on fulfillment of the main methodological


task.
System of teaching- is a common model of teaching process , which corresponds to a
definite methodological conception. This conception determines the selection of the
material, aim, forms, content and means of teaching. E.g. system of teaching of H.
Palmer (Speaking priority), M.West (Reading priority).
Approach- is a strategy of teaching FL. There are 4 approaches in Methodology:
1)

behaviorism (based on intuition)

2)

inductive- conscious (based on consciousness)

3)

cognitive( usage of all cognitive mechanisms)

4)

integrative (integration of previous 3 approaches ).

Technology- is a complex of approaches, having a special purpose for getting effective


result. E.g. project work, role plays, case technologies, pragma- professional tasks.
FLTM is a young developing science and it is challenging too. Some specialists say that
it is rather an art than a science ( scientific art).
There were opinions according with which FLTM is an Applied science. According to
Belyaev B.V., M. West FLTM is a rather an Applied Psychology. According to Charles
Frees and L.V. Sherba FLTM is a rather an Applied Linguistics.
FLTM is a pedagogical science. It has its subject of investigation, object of
investigation, methods of research. The object of investigation is a process of teaching.
Its subject of investigation are aims and objectives of Teaching, the content of
Teaching, means, methods and devices of Teaching.
Methods of research: 1) methods of theoretical level 2) methods of practical level
1.1 critical study of literature;
1.2 method of analysis
1.3 method of synthesis
1.4 modeling
1.5 method of induction (from particular to general)
1.6 method of deduction
1.7 method of analogy
2.1 observation (2.1-2.4 main methods)
2.2 generalization of teachers experience

2.3 experimental work


2.4 experiment
2.5 method of form ( 2.5- 2.9 supplementary methods)
2.6 testing
2.7 interview
2.8 use of chronometer
2.9 statistical and mathematical processing
Aim- a long term goal, objectives- a short term goal.
Methodology deals with 3 problems, which constitute WHY? ( aims) WHAT? (content)
HOW? ( method). They are closely connected.
FLTM can be general and special. General concerns with all languages. Special deals
with particular language.
The thing is that FLTM doesnt deal with a study of language itself , it only deals with
methods of teaching language phenomena.
FLTM closely connected with many sciences such as Linguistics, Psychology,
Pedagogy, Psycholinguistics, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Linguistics,
Linguodidactics, Statistics, Philosophy, Phisiology, Didactics, Cybernetics.
Pedagogy is a science which is concerned with testing and education of the young
generation. As FLTM also deals with a process of teaching , it is most related to
Pedagogy and mainly to the branch which is called Didactics. FLTM may be regarded as
a Special Didactics as a branch of Linguodidactics. The link of Pedagogy and
Methodology are revealed in the use of the didactic principles: 1) P-l of activity 2) p-l of
visuality 3) p-l of durability 4) p-l of consecutiveness 5) p-l of accessability 6) of
consciences 7) of systematicness
FLTM closely connected with Linguistics. Linguistics deals with language and speech.
Language is a system, it exists. Speech is a process, it happens. Language is a social
phenomena, speech is an individual phenomena. It is of paramount importance for
FLTM to use the results of linguistic investigations.
The first vocabulary for teaching needs was selected by a linguist Herald Palmer.
Structural linguists Charles Frees, Robert Lado selected language structures for
teaching needs. Linguistics is one of the basic sciences FLTM deals with. Language
fulfills different functions: 1) communicative (language is a mean of communication) ;
2) cognitive (we cognize the world with the help of language); 3)cumulative ( Language
is a storehouse of information. Culture is reflected in the language and history as well.
They are embodied in the language. Language is one of the means by which culture is
transmitted ) ; 4) regulatory (it helps to establish relations between people); 5)

discourse ( we produce and reproduce texts in which thought and speech are
inseparable. Text is the main unit if communication. In order to understand how the
language functions we must take into consideration context(concrete situations). The
result of communication between people depend on their communicative competence.
Communicative competence ( ability to communicate ) consists of the following
subcompetences: 1) Language competence which implies the knowledge of
vocabulary, grammar, phonetics)
2) Speech competence (Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking) ; 3) Socio- cultural
competence (you should be aware of culture of these people where you
communicate); 4) Strategic competence ( different strategies: e.g, guess the words or
look them up); 5) Discourse competence ( the ability to communicate with the help of
verbal and non-verbal means)
Psychology is also closely connected with FLTM. It helps to understand the process of
learning and teaching , which implies the cognitive mechanism of memory, perception,
thinking and its process ( analyses, synthesis, anticipation, comparison, induction,
deduction, etc) .
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon. The word motivation is a widely used term,
which express success or failure of smth. Motivation is usually understood as an inner
drive , impulse or desire that moves person to a particular action. Motivation is a
determination which is realized through psychology. A.A. Leontiev Motivation is a motor
of activity. As a matter of fact any human activity is motivated. Motivation is a
structural component of activity. Any aspect of FLT can be related to Motivation.
Motivation is considered to be the main factor which determines the process of
teaching any subject at school but its the most urgent and necessary in FLT.
According to M. West FL should not only be taught it must be learnt. At the initial
stage of FLT learners are usually highly motivated. But some factors can affect M-n and
pupils become demotivated: 1) physical conditions (overcrowded, bad light, dirty
blackboard, the lack of books, of technical equipment ,etc); 2) the personality of the
teacher (the mood, appearance, activity,etc.); 3) the methods which are used; 4)
success or lack of it. According to Soviet psychologists there are 2 types of M-n:
extrinsic (stems from outside) and intrinsic ( stems from inside, within yourself).
Intrinsic m-n can be of 3 types : 1) communicative m-n (integrative) is the desire to
communicate in FL, to be valued between members of the target language community;
2) instrumental m-n is interpreted differently by our and foreign scholars . In American
and British literature, this term is used to describe situation when the target language
is regarded as an instrument for getting a better position (job, career, status). The
language is an instrument to attain smth. According to our specialists the term
instrumental m-n suggests pupils positive attitude to certain types of work (work with
dictionary, work with grammar references, homereading,etc.) The teachers primary
concern is to show rational ways of work with dictionary, work with grammar
references, homereading,etc. The teacher should show the learnersstrategies. Intrinsic
m-n should be developed by the teacher because the Intrinsic m-n is the necessary
prerequisite for achieving success. There are different resources teacher can use for it
when planning the lesson. Some practical ideas for sustaining M-n: 1) experiment, take

risk. Try to do different kinds of work in the classroom. See what different students
respond to best. For ex: short stories, filling the gaps, dictations, reports, etc. 2) involve
students in the classroom decision making ( when hometask is set , what they will do
at the next lesson, how much time they devote to home reading, etc) ;3) find out what
your students think . You may use suggestion box ; 4) communicate with the sense of
optimism for learning, encourage students to learn, offer your help if they ask for it.
3) linguacognitive m-n suggests that pupils have positive attitude to the language
material itself . There are 2 ways to develop FL: 1) indirectly ( through communicative
motivation); 2) directly (through pupils research work with the language). Pupils
should feel the necessity to learn FL to deepen their knowledge, to practice it. For this
teacher can use different situations, linguistic games, crosswords, chainwords,
searchwords and limerix.
Conclusion: M-n is the key to all learning. Lack of M-n is the biggest obstacle faced by
the teachers. The problems with the discipline occur and seem to be related with the
lack of m-n. If pupil is motivated he can accomplish learning of any skill.
Peculiarities of Teaching FL Pronunciation.
The communicative approach holds that teaching pronunciation and intonation is
important for the purposes of communication.
Mastering pronunciation and Intonation of a FL presents too many difficulties though
the goal of teaching pronunciation is not to make the learners sound like the native
speakers. A more realistic approach is to enable the learners to pronounce the
language without detracting from the ability to comprehend the message. The
approach to teaching pronunciation is approximating. However mistakes in
pronunciation and intonation may cause many comprehension problems, because the
language learners find it difficult to distinguish FL sounds and patterns of intonation
different from those in the native language .
According to the Audio-lingual method teaching pronunciation as a necessary
prerequisite was a very important for teaching Speaking. Nowadays when we teach FL
for communication teaching correct pronunciation and intonation is very important
because this well enable our students to use the language as a mean of
communication. It is not an easy thing to teach correct English pronunciation but it is
40 times difficult to get rid of pronunciation mistakes. It presents too many difficulties
both for the teacher and for the pupils. Because in this case we face the problem of
articulation, palatalization , aspiration, the problem of interference (inter and intra).
Teaching FL Pronunciation was always one of the problems in FLT. But this problem was
solved differently by different specialists, by different trends in Methodology. There was
time when teaching pronunciation was overvalued. H. Palmer, Henry Sweet insisted on
pure phonetic introductory course for beginners. The results were altogether
unsatisfactory because of the lack of the interest, interference of two systems ( graphic
and sound).

Proceeding from aims and objectives of FLT nowadays for communication in FL the
school program sets the following requirements for TP and intonation: 1) to teach
pupils correct literary pronunciation which is based on the received standard English
pronunciation (pronunciation of TV, radio); 2) to enable students to understand the
spoken English and to speak correct English. And this implies the following tasks: 1) to
teach them to correctly pronounce not only the isolated sounds, but in combination
with the other sounds, in the flow of speech (phonetic context) ; 2) to teach word and
sentence stress and melody; 3) to teach pupils to divide the sentences into sense
groups(rhythm).
Teaching FL Pronunciation at school meets a principle of approximation. According to
the school program our pupils are to master pronunciation and intonation during the
first years of study and constantly develop and support pronunciation habits. That is
why TP at school should be developed at all stages from start to finish.
Each language has its own trouble spots so does the English. We should distinguish
between errors and mistakes. Error is a slip of the tongue. Mistake is more serious and
should be corrected. Constant correction is necessary because false habits are formed
and difficult to break. English presents many difficulties because it has its own specific
phonic system. The sounds of English are not the same as in other languages but
sometimes occur in both languages. The points of difference are : 1) word stress, the
difference in the power of stress. In English it is very strong, usually it is first syllable
and in Kazakh- last syllable. The stressed syllable is pronounced more distinctly. In this
connection the vowels are pronounced with a tension. This is the reason why the
English vowels preserve all the qualities in stress position. In unstressed potion they
lose their qualities. In English we distinguish long and short vowels, in Russian and
Kazakh we dont have such vowels. Acc. to phonemes may be divided into
3 groups: 1) the phonemes which are very close to those into native language; 2) the
phonemes which are absolutely different in both languages; 3) the phonemes which
have much in common with those in native language but at the same time differ from
them.
Due to these points of difference in the phonic system of the target language and the
native language there may occur some mistakes caused by interference of languages.
Rule for teachers: prevent mistakes before they occur. E.g. Kazakh sound is not
very often used by Kazakh people, they often substitute it by . The combination of
2 consonants is not usual for Kazakh language.
Wrong pronunciation and intonation often leads to misunderstanding, e.g. wide-white,
it- eat, etc. .. differentiates 2 types of mistakes: 1) phonetic m-s, they do not
change the meaning of the word (palatalization and the lack of assimilation and
aspiration); 2) phonematic mistakes - do change the meaning of the word. Phonematic
mistakes include the following: the substitution of long sounds by the short one and
vice-verca e.g. sheep- ship; the substitution of a voiced consonants by the voiceless
e.g. his-hiss; the substitution of one consonant phoneme by another one e.g. pangpan; the incorrect placing of stress e.g. present- present; the incorrect division of
sentence into sense groups.

Methods of TP.
Now it is necessary to decide how correct pronunciation can be achieved and
cultivated. There are different approaches to this problem: 1) articulation approach
( Acc. to and to teach pupils to correctly articulate). 2) Acoustic
approach. We should train students ears by systematic training; 3) imitation approach
mechanic training . The teachers pronunciation should be standard for the class,
because they unconsciously try to imitate teachers pronunciation, that is why it should
be clear and moderately paced. More than that a rich pleasing voice will make the
language more attractive. O Conner says : There is only way to master pronunciation
of FL to repeat the sound features over and over again, correctly and systematically
until they can be said without any consciousness, until the learner is incapable to say
them another way. They call them drill. ; 4) the most rational approach is the
analithical-synthetical which implies all three mentioned above. Because in fact none
of them can be universal. Taking into account the analithical-synthetical approach the
procedure work on a certain sound should be as follows:
Procedure of teaching sound
Teacher

Pupil

A sentence
A word
Sound
Pronunciation habits are formed with the help of exercises. Acc. to there are
3 stages of the formation of the habit :1st orientation and research (understanding);
2nd the formation of the stereotypes (drill, constant repeatition); 3rd various situations
( different examples).
The peculiarity of the pronunciation habits is as follows. It doesnt exist separately from
Vocabulary and Grammar habits. Pronunciation habits are formed must be constantly
supported or otherwise they may be lost. For this we need a special system of ex-s.
Specialists divide all phonetic ex-s into 2 types: 1) receptive for training ear 2)
reproductive ex-s. Receptive ex-s = reproductive x-s are subdivided into subtypes a)
recognition ex-s which develop pupils ability to recognize and distinguish sound and
sound sequences. These ex-s are very important, because the mastery of pupils
depends on the degree to listen with care and discrimination. Different types of sound
producing aid must be used there (tape-recorder, TV,etc) ; b) imitation ex-s. 2)
Reproductive ex-s may be of dif. types a) from only auditory perception of the text; b)
through auditory and visual perception.
Phonetic drills needed for overcoming mistakes. As phonetic drills we can use proverbs,
sayings, poems, tongue twisters e.g. The black cat sit on a mat and ate a fat rat. Betty
Botter bought some butter but she said the butter is bitter but a bit of better butter will
make my butter better. A sailor went to the sea to see what he could see and all he
could see was sea. She sells sea shells on the sea shore.

Techniques for teaching Pronunciation and Intonation are as follows:


1.

Intonation exercises.

2.

pronunciation drills.

3.

listen and imitate exercises.

4.

tongue twisters: This thin feather is thinner than that thick leather.

5.

learning by heart.

The procedure of work with the poem.


Listening to the poem, produced by the teacher or tape. It is a receptive stage . Tasks
for it : 1) Listen to the poem and try to understand what it is about.2) Listen and read (
2 analyses are at work at the same time: visual and audial).
Checking up the pupils comprehension
Words (introduce new words)
Reproductive stage. Learning of the poem is done concentrically through repetition.
Recitation in chain one by one or individually.
Dramatization- role play.
Pronunciation should be developed through the all course of studies. Phonetic drills
should be used at the lessons irrespective of the stage of the teaching. Pronunciation is
an integral part of FLT, it is closely connected with teaching Vocabulary,Grammar, L-g,
R-g, W-g, S-g.
Peculiarities of Teaching FL Vocabulary.
The problem of TV is one of the main in FLT. It cannot be neglected, the status of V. was
different in dif. times of FLT. During Grammar-Translation method the main focus was
paid to grammar and translation, so V. was tuned up to Gr. Besides V. was taught in the
form of lists of isolated words to be memorized. During the period of the Direct method
V. was taught on the bases of direct association between the words and notions. Things
became dif. when Audio-lingual method appeared. Words were used and taught in Gr.
structures. Specialists considered that V. was the easiest aspect, so required less
attention. V. was strictly limited and learnt in structures. Voc. suffered such neglect till
1950-60-s. Nowadays with lines of Communicative Cognitive approach the main aim of
TV to develop lexical habits for S, R, W, L as a form of communication.
.. defined a habit as an automotive component of conscious activity. From
psychophisiological point of view habits are automotive , dynamic stereotypeswhich
appear as a result of repetition. Lexical hahit includes 2 components : Word Formation
and Word Usage. Acc. to W. Rivers there are 3 edges of a pie in learning a word.
Form (sound, spelling, morphological)

Word
Meaning
Usage
Considerable attention has always been paid to the problem of Voc. selection, Voc.
minimum. The number of words that pupil should acquire at school depends on the
program requirements which are determined by the state documents. It is admitted
that V. must be carefully selected acc. to the principles of selecting linguistic materials,
the conditions of teaching and learning.
The first selection of V.was made by in the 17th c. He chose 8000
words for his Latin Text Book Orbis Pictus. He thought that this stock of words is
enough for getting acquinted with the world.His V. was too numerous and it consisted
of special words which are not frequently used in life. The problem of Voc. selection
became exceedingly important at the end of 19th c. H. Palmer and M. West made a
great contribution. Their leading principle was the ability of words to agree with other
words. The linguistic material for their V. was taken from Bible, which was not quite
suitable for teaching purposes. M. West in 1960 published his general service list of
English words (1200w) which he divided into 2 groups: 1 form or structural w-s ( words
that we talk with); 2 content w-s ( words that we talk about).
The first attempt to select V. on scientific principles was made by .. . The
lexical minimum was meant for receptive and reproductive knowledge. It was too
specious and numerous, it didnt include phraseology. Another attempt was made by
and his colleagues. They distinguish 3 types of V: 1) Active V. (1000)for
reproductive usage ;2) Passive V.(3000) for receptive usage ; 3) Potential V. (free and
individual). By Potential V. we understand the knowledge of Word Formation ( suffixes,
prefixes, conversion, power of guessing). Potential V. is open and dynamic, it suggests
how well you know WF and intonation. We can definitely say what is our Active and
Passive V, but we dont know our Potential V.
The leading principle for selection of lexical minimum is 1) the pr-l of combinability- the
ability to agree with other words; 2) the ability to be semantically valuable; 3) the
ability to be of polysemantic value; 4) the pr-l of frequency of use.
Methodological typology.
Dif. words require dif. treatment. There were some attempts to create some
methodological typology of words e.g. Charles Frees in his book The Structure of
English distinguished 4 types of words acc. to their functions in the sentence and
combinability: 1) Form words e.g. will, shall, do, did, does, etc. 2) Words-substitutes
e.g. he, she, one, etc. 3) Content words denoting things, constitute the bulk of the
Voc.;4) Gramatically distributive words e.g. some, any, etc.
The first 2 types of words are most difficult for its active acquisition acc. to Ch. Frees.

Meanings and notions are dialectical units but meanings in dif. languages do not
always coincide. From this point of view distinguish 4 types of words: 1)
words the meanings of which in both languages completely coincide. 2) words in which
the additional meaning has some connotations. 3) words in which only the main
meaning coincide; 4) words which differ in their meaning.
.. , suggest their own classification.
1)
Cognates- international words and borrowings similar in form and in meaning in
both languages e.g. demonstration, revolution, constitution, literature, hospital,
hotel,etc.
2)
Derivatives and compound words the elements of which are known to the pupils
e.g. flower-bed, forget-me-not, schoolboy,etc.
3)
Words which are similar in meaning but different in form e.g. a bed, a pen, a
door, etc.
4)
Words -realias which have no equivalent in native language e.g. lunch, brunch,
omnibus, sheriff, Big Ben, etc.
5)
Collocation and idioms, different in the construction e.g. Black and blue-,
black stocky- learned woman, once in a blue moon-, black list- , to
be in blackout- , grey matter-, yellowman-.
6)
Words which are called descriptive cognates( ) e.g.
wallpaper- , pocket-, artist- ,etc.
7)
Words with a wide scope of meanings in the foreign and in native languages e.g.
education,etc.
8)
Words with a less scope of meanings in the foreign language e.g. hand and
arm,etc.
The rational approach to the problem of TV is to take into consideration the character
of words, the difficulties they preserve in terms of their meaning, form and usage.
Acc. to school program for an ordinary school (beginning with 5th form) the Active V. is
distributed in this way: 5- 350w, 6-550, 7-700, 8-800, 9-850-900, 10- 1000.
Nowadays V. is arranged and selected acc. to a topical principle on the one hand and
concentric approach on the other. Special texts on certain topics help to enlarge the V.
The topical approach is often criticized as not quite adequate. Topical -( on the base of
topic, theme), situational approach - ( on the base of great number of situations).
Stages of work on V.
We distinguish 3 main stages of work, in dif. literature they are called differently. In
British lit-re PPP (presentation, practice, production).
Our specialists suggests:

1.

Introduction and primary consolidation

2.

Consolidation using ex-s

3.

Retention in speech activities.

Ways of Semantization.
Words can be introduced and explained before reading , while reading, independently
at homework. There are 2 dif. ways of conveying the meaning of words:1) direct (nontranslational) ;2) translational. Within the groups of direct ways we single out the
following: a) verbal (synonyms, antonyms, definition , context, etymology of word,
word-building elements) b) non-verbal(mimes, gestures). Within the groups of
translational ways we distinguish 2 groups: a) translation-proper the meanings are
coincide b) translation- interpretation.
American specialists Hunt and Beglar discuss 3 main approaches to V. Teaching and
Learning: 1st appr-ch - incidental or indirect learning; 2nd direct or explicit learning;
3rd independent strategy development.
V. strategies:
1. guessing from the context.
The procedure is as follows: 1 you determine what part of speech it is 2. you look at
the immediate context and try to simplify it if necessary 3. you guess the meaning of
the word and check it.
2.the use of dif. dictionaries: bilingual, electronic, monolingual, phraseological , picture
dic-ries, dic-ry of synonyms, antonyms,etc.
2. brainstorming
Tips for TV for teacher:
you will get better results if the words you teach have clear easily comprehensible
meaning
if the items of the words can be linked with each other ( through meaning or
association)
words are better learned if they learned briefly (in the beginning, in the middle and at
the end of the lesson)
pupils usually remember the words better if they have personal or emotive significance
for them.

A strategy for one may be useless for another. We must have individual approach. The
placing of words in a list is of a certain importance. At the beginning of the list and ay
the end there is a tendency to be remembered better.
Ex-s for TV
There are 2 types of ex-s: 1) Language ex-s or training which focus on the form and
the meaning of the word. They have 2 aims: a) retention of words ; b) to establish
memory bond. Some specialists consider that words should be repeated 5-7 times in
order to promote learning. Some psychologists say that mere repetition of isolated
words is no use but in combination with other words.
Lang-ge ex-s are subdivided into imitation ex-s, substitution ex-s, transformation ex-s,
ex-s on completion, extension ex-s.
1)

Speech ex-s . Not all speech ex-s of communicative character.

Communicative ex-s include problem-solving tasks, role play, projects, writing a story,
making a dialogue, summery, essay, compositions, poems.
TVoc. may be planned or no. Much of TV is unplanned.
Lexical errors and mistakes may be caused by interference . Inter interference L1-L2
e.g. artist, complexion, magazine, pocket graphic and sound identity. Intra
interference L1-L1 e.g. lie-lay, accept except, low-law, rise- raise , come-go semantic
and graphic identity.
Control of V.
The best way to control V. the correctness of the speech. Dif. ways of control: quiz,
dictations( picture, explanatory, visual, prevented and controlled dic-s), testing
techniques ( underline the odd word, A+B, translate, fill the gaps, finish the sentence,
etc).
Peculiarities of Teaching FL Grammar.
The role of Gr. was understood differently by dif. trends in FLTM. During GrammarTranslation method the role of Gr. was overvalued. During Direct method it has the 2nd
place, Communicative Cognitive approach the importance of Gr. is great. We teach Gr.
to communicate.
The main aim of TG at school as the program requires is the formation of Gr. habits as
the main components of speech skills (L,R,W,S) in order to enable students to
communicate. The school program emphasizes the importance of Gr. at all stages.
The Longman dictionary defines Grammar as the study and practice, all the rules by
which words change their forms and are combined into sentences. By Grammar one
can mean adequate comprehension and correct usage of the words in the act of
communication that is the infinite knowledge of the grammar of the language. By

Grammar we also mean the system of the language , the discovery and description of
the nature of the language itself.
We distinguish 3 types of Gr.: 1 Traditional (forms of words- Morphology, how they are
put together into sentences- Syntax); 2 Structural( structures of various levels of the
language morpheme and syntactic levels); 3 Transformational (basic structures and
transformation rules).
Content of TG: 1 Linguistic component ( Language and speech material) ; 2
Psycological ( Gr. Habits and Speech skills); 3 Methodological ( Gr. learning straregies);
4 Socio-cultural (Cultural background); 5 Emotive (positive attitude to Gr.)
Gr. habit is an automotive component of conscious activity. By Gr. habit we understand
the ability to correctly use Gr. means in dif. contexts, situations of speech activity. We
distinguish 2 types of Gr.habits: 1) receptive ; 2) reproductive. Gr. habit once acquired
must be constantly polished. The Gr. minimum- the amount of Gr. material which
should be acquired by pupils: Active and Passive Gr. The Gr. minimum is thoroughly
selected on the bases scientifically grounded principles.
Principles of selection of Active Gr.
1.

the p-l of frequency of use of Gr. phenomena in oral speech. E.g. Present Simple.

2.
the p-l of ability of Gr. phenomena to be stylistically neutral, it must serve as a
pattern.
3.

the p-l of exclusion of synonymous Gr. phenomena.

Principles of selection of Passive Gr.


1.
the p-l of frequency of use of Gr. phenomena in written speech. E.g. Present
Perfect Continuous.
2.

Polysemy.

2.

Rules for teacher how to teach Gr.:

1)

Instruct Gr. usage and not Gr. knowledge.

2)

The best way of teaching Gr. through practice and communication.

Litttlewood presents the procedure on Gr. item as a continuum which covers the
following stages: 1 primary concern on form; 2 focus on form+meaning; 3focus on
meaning+form; 4 focus on meaning+usage.
The 3-phraze framework for teaching grammar: P P P (presentation - practice production). It is very important to use the principle of cognitive intellectual
orientation that makes the pupils activate their prior knowledge. At all the stages of
work with grammar material we must be careful to prevent interference that can be
caused by the points of difference in FL and the Native language.

Gr. Presentation
Gr. Practice (graded exercises)
1)

pre-actively

2)

while actively

3)

post-actively

Grammar production

The ways of Presentation of new grammar: Inductive ( from examples to rules) Deductive (from rules to examples) and Lexical (no rules).
Choice of them depend on 3 main factors:
1.
psychological factor: students language ability e.g. strong students (Inductive),
weak (Deductive), young (Lexical).
2.

linguistic factor: the character of the Gr. Material e.g. Deductive- articles.

3.

pedagogical factor: Deductive if you have no time.

Grammar knowledge can be declarative and procedural. Declarative knowledge is what


can be demonstrated as the knowledge of rules and / or examples. Procedurel
knowledge is what can be applied in the process of communication. (Milrood).
According to some theories declarative knowledge does not become procedural
knowledge. Procedural grammar develops from Accuracy to fluency in communicating
a message.
Accuracy

fluency

At the accuracy stage the learner's attention is drawn to the correct language.
At the fluency stage the learner's attention in shifted to the communicative messages.
The main types of grammar exercises: training exercises (preparatory), speech and
communicative. These exercises should be adequate to the aim set. Teaching
procedural grammar starts with a formal drill, in practicing grammar structures with
the focus on language accuracy (imitation and drill exercises). According to the
principle of cognitive - intellectual orientation pupils should understand what they do.
Formal drill

meaningful drill

functional drill
The next step in the functional drill, in teaching how to express gr-meaning in separate
sentences (Speech exercises). The ability to express gr. meaning is necessary for the
learners to pass over to the meaningful drill, i.e. communicating a message in a
situational setting with a certain grammar focus e.g. commenting on what people are
doing in the photos from the family album and focusing on Present Continuous.

Assessment of Gr. can be done with the help of question-answer work, oral ex-s and Gr.
tests. In Gr. tests the object of control is form, meaning, function Testing techniques
may be different: multiple-choice technique, matching technique , close testing
technique (filling the gaps).
Lingua-cultural approach to teaching listening Proficiency
1. Listening is a significant and essential area of the development of Intercultural
communicative competence for listening is the process of receiving, attending to and
assigning meaning to aural stimuli, it is a complex problem-solving task which
sharpens thinking and creates interaction.
Listening interacts with speaking, it usually occurs in conjunction with speaking.
Listening takes =90% of class time at school and it is probably the most important skill
in overall communication. For many it is the most important medium through which
significant cultural information is conveyed.
Listening is a communicative skill to get the meaning from what we hear. Listening to
the spoken language involves
-

hearing the sound

recognizing words

understanding different accents

recognizing sentences

predicting the meaning

understanding the communicative message. Listening is a complex


psychophisiological process which implies the work of many cognitive mechanisms:
memory, perception, anticipation, inner speech and thinking with its operations of
deduction and induction, comparison, analysis and synthesis.
2. Listening interacts with very powerful non-verbal system (gestures, mimicry, facial
expression) For example, Lets get gather for lunch sometime The non-verbal clues
(indifferent facial expression, moving away and onto next activity) can give a very
different message that must be interpreted and weighed before the action is taken. As
much as 93% of information comes from non-verbal, visual clues. So, we must train our
students how to listen well and how to pick up non-verbal clues at the same time.
Listening is linked to all the four components of the Intercultural communicative
competence: language, strategic socio-cultural and discourse competences. The
scheme shows the relationship between listening proficiency and each of the elements
of Intercultural communicative competence
Linguistic competence

Strategic competence (using any

(grammar, vocabulary,
knowledge etc)

clues for guessing, background

pronunciation-pauses stress,
intonation)
Listening Proficiency
Socio-cultural Competence

Discourse competence

(knowing social and cultural


operates)

Integration

expectations related to the

with other

appropriate use of FL)

(Knowing how discourse

skills

Linguistic competence is a sort of umbrella concept that helps to catch the meaning
of what we hear.
Socio-cultural Competence involves knowing what is expected socially and culturally
by the FL users in this or that communicative situation. It is very important in FL
listening to understand what the speaker wants to convey (facts, feelings, emotions, a
sense of authority or meet hostility) Culturally aware listener must be able to listen
and understand between the lines in order to respond properly (verbally or nonverbally)
Discourse competence. Discourse as you know deals with communication above the
sentence level. It students have discourse competence they will be able to anticipate
what will be said next and understand more easily what they are hearing at any
moment. Discourse competence implies that the listener is cognitively involved, he is
active not passive and is always seeking to know how the parts of communication
relate to each other and what they mean. Moreover, it involves understanding how the
target language is used in different situations.
Strategic competence is perhaps the most important of all the communicative
competence elements for listening Proficiency, and because of this we shall discuss it
in detail. In reference to listening Strategic competence means the ability to use all
possible clues to get at the meaning of what is heard. First of all it involves using
guessing strategies to compensate the missing knowledge of grammar, vocabulary,
idioms trying to understand what is being heard. Guessing is most essential for
listening the listener makes hypotheses, then tests them: he tries to predict what is
coming next using both linguistic and non- linguistic clues. Linguistic clues include
suffixes, prefixes, phrases, word order cognates, international words, titles, proper
names and nicknames. For example sweetheart gives the learners a very different
clue to the meaning in comparison with the formal Dr Smith
Discourse markers first, second, third,.. we will now turn to.. give us a signal of what is
being presented. A rising intonation at the and of a sentence implies uncertainty or a
question. Differences in American and British accents can cause difficulties in
understanding if the students are not aware of them.

Non-linguistic clues include facial expressions, positive, background noise and general,
background knowledge of any kind related to what is being said.
3.Spoken language is usually recognized by a combination of bottom-up processing
and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing is driven by what the listener hears.
Top-down processing is driven by the ideas that are ready in the listener's head. The
experiments show that if the listeners have got a correct idea in their minds about the
text they hear, they do not even notice the incorrectly pronounced recorded words.
All communicative skills including listening skills in FLT should be taught on integrative
approach as all skills are integrated.
Listening comprehension can be controlled with the help of
-

flow diagrams

reasoning maps

free diagram

mind, map (It has one central concept in the middle and the surroundings

notions or details linked to the central concept);


visual image: to draw pictures (picture dictations; to label parts of the car from
the description you hear.
4 Difficulties of listening.
1.

Unknown language (words and grammar).

2.

Unintelligible manner of presentation (poor clarity of diction, etc).

3.

Unfamiliar topic (never heard of the problem)

4.

lack of own experience (have never been in the circumstance)

5.

No visual clues (images, gestures, mimicry)

6.

No personal opinion (have never thought about it).

7.

No expectations' about the text (the information came all of a sudden).

8.
Interference of the FL1 on the ph, gr, voc. level. (Examples are supplied by
students).
Listening is not a straightforward match of sounds to some exact meaning. Listening is
an inferential process, i.e. we make inferences (assumptions) during listening the
listener reconstructs and in many cases creates the meaning of the speakers'
message. Listening is a construction and reconstruction process. The process of
making inferences includes estimating the sense of the words, constructing
propositions (assumptions) about the text, assigning a general meaning to the text,

making logical links and assuming a plausible (possible) intention of the speaker. In
this sense the process of comprehension is a collaborative, process where the listener
collaborates with the speaker.
5 The process of leaching LC is guided by principles (specific principles).
Principle 1. Teaching to listen is a communicative skills. It means that the learners, are
taught the ability to listen in real or close-to-real situations.
Principle 2. Teaching to listen is based on authentic materials. It implies that the
materials are either authentic made or authentic like for teaching purposes.
Principle 3. Teaching to listen is an integrated skill. It should be taught in integration
with other skills. Usually people listen and speak, listen and write listen and read.
Listening is connected with speaking, writing and reading.
.. speaks of reading priority which helps in teaching listening. (Give
examples of the tasks that would meet the principles of teaching LC).
6 Listening can be taught as an active, extensive and intensive process. Active
listening - listening for details. Extensive listening - listening for the gist (not details).
Methodological classification of LC given by :
1.

Proper when teacher prepare text for students by the tape.

2.

Attendant- ( when all 4 types of speech activity are developed in integration)

3.

Instructive-corrective- when instruction and corrections are given

4.

Situational- when listening material is given in the form of situation.

Levels of LC:
1)

Fragmentary level A1 tick the correct answer

2)

Fragmentary incomplete level A2 say what the text is about

3)
Analythical-synthetical level B1- answer the questions, fill the gaps, make up a
plan, true or false
4)

Complete comprehension B2- make up questions

5)

Detailed comprehension C1- express your opinion

6)

Critical understanding C2- the main idea

7 Listening exercises include:


training exercises (to train the mechanisms that are involved)
-

on short-term memory 7 2

on anticipation

on logical thinking

speech exercises
-

listen and do (follow instruction, and connect)

listen and answer the questions

listen and transfer (tables, diagrams, graphs, notes)

communicative exercises
-

(listen-and-infer), express your opinion.

All the exercises should be adequate to the aims set.


Listen-and-do activities imply that the language learner listen to the language and
perform commands, follow instructions, draw, tick off items on the list, sequence the
text, match strip cartoons (picture stories), maps, plans, family trees, pictures etc. For
example: draw a house and a tree near it, etc,
Listen-and-transfer activities imply that while listening to the language material the
students transfer information to tables, diagrams, graphs, drawing, notes maps etc.
Listen-and infer activities are based on such tasks as interpreting situations, words,
attitudes in the discourse drawing conclusions, making assumptions and judgments,
"true or false". Work on the text for LC implies 3 stages [1]:
1. Pre-listening activities
2. While-listening activities
3. Post-listening activities
Jigsaw listening is a communicative activity which consists in making up the whole text
on the basis of the different pieces the individual listeners hear (See Jigsaw Reading)
[2].
Lingua-cultural approach to teaching speaking Proficiency
Speaking skills in dialogue and monologue in FL2 (FL3) present certain
difficulties. Students become frustrated when they just do not have enough words
and grammar they need to express themselves. There are recommendations for T-s:
1)

supply key language;

2)

choose interesting topic;

3)

activate the schemata;

4)

bring variety;

5)

interact (games and all);

6)
use different techniques (role play, simulations, debates etc.); don't neglect
cultural aspect.
Speaking is a complex psychophisiological process. The structure of S. consists of 3
phases: 1 Motivation; 2 Analytical-synthetical p-se; 3 Result.
Speaking Proficiency includes a number of abilities
Linguistic competence
communicative
(grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation)

Strategic competence (use of


strategies including gestures, circum locution,
etc.)

Speaking Proficiency
Socio-cultural Competence
(Appropriate use of language
speech)

Discourse competence
(Coherence and cohesion in

including intonation, speech acts)


Linguistic competence implies correct use of grammar structures, pronunciation,
intonation which contributes to the speakers fluency.
Strategic competence in Speaking implies the ability to use strategies of turn taking,
topic selection and other compensatory skills when you dont know words to say
Sociolinguistic Competence in Speaking includes abilities to express apologies,
compliments, agreement and disagreement and other communicative functions in
accordance with the communicative purpose in order to establish social relations, to
convey information or complete tasks, how to talk on the telephone or at the meetings
how to use hesitation markers (lets see, um..)
Discourse competence in Speaking enables speakers to manage turn-taking in
conversation, to begin a conversation and to close it. It also implies a large repatriate
of discourse markers, expressions:
To show emphasis - of course, you can see, you see
To show contrast- both, but, only, on the other hand
To indicate cause- so, then, because
To indicate time- at that time, after this
Speech can be prepared, half prepared and unprepared.

Forms of S. :1 Monologue( is more organized , purposeful form of speech, programmed


beforehand ,logical , emotionally colored, sometimes bookish); Types of M:
dramatical , lyrical, narration, description ,etc. Levels of M: 1) statement level 2)
utterance level 3) discourse level. Ways of teaching M: a) top-down ( work with the
text) ; b) bottom-up (includes all 3 levels mentioned above) 2 Dialogue. Types of D.:
exchange of information, exchange of opinions, on joint plan, enquiring etiquette. Ways
of TD: 1) top-down ( characterized by the presentation of the pattern) ; 2) bottom-up
( consists of dialogical units: statement-statement, statement-question, Q-S, etc. 3
stages of work with a pattern D. : 1) receptive (listen to the teacher); 2) reproductive
( reproduce the pattern D.); 3) Creative (produce their own D.)
D. and M. cannot be created without Speech situation. Speech situation- is a complex
of circumstances, events, a combination of relations between people.
,

. There are 3
main components of speech situation : 1) Exposition (Who? Where? When?); 2)
Characteristic of the partners; 3) Communicative task.
Teachers may introduce students to a variety of models through films, team teaching,
peer teaching, small group activities, cooperative activities.
Movement activities (TPR) for young learners
Story Telling For example, after hearing half a story, students can finish the story orally
or retell it in then own words
Problem Solving
Discussions
Socio-Dramas. Students act out solutions of social problems. For example:
Marie was a lazy student who attendedSan FranciscoStateUniversity. She never paid
attention to her classes and completely forgot the date when a tern paper was due in
her history class. Fortunately, she ran into Lose, a student in her history class who said:
you know. Our term paper is due tomorrow. Have you finished it?

Marie lied: Yes, of course. I bring it tomorrow!


That afternoon Marie went to the library, found a dissertation on the Civil war written
by someone named Jerry Bently and without hesitating Marie quickly copied a portion
of it After she handed the paper in, her professor told the class: I have a surprise for
you. Id like to submit these papers for a consideration to the academic journal of
history that publishes students papers once a year. The best paper wins $500
A few weeks later, Maries professor made an announcement to the class: class, I have
an announcement to make. Im very proud that one of my students has won the history

contest. Marie Hucklebee, you have just won $500 for that great term paper. Please,
come to the front of the class and receive the money and the congratulatory letter
Thank you, Professor Brown, Marie replied. She was thrilled. The grabbed the money
and that afternoon she spent all the money on clothes.
The next day, Professor Brown received a call from his friend Jerry Bently. They had
studied together at Columbus University Jerrys call fraught back old memories of their
graduate days, summer vocations and Jerrys dissertation on the civil war. Thinking
went to his bookcase and picked up his friends dissertation and found the familiar
part, the part Marie had coppied: Immediately Professor Brown called Marie: Marie,
he said I need to see you as soon as possible in my office at 2 oclock. That
afternoon, when Marie came to the professors office, he asked her: Do you have
something to tell me?
Marie said
Socio-drama has high student appeal. Its game-like structure allows students to try out
new situations, it creates a comfortable atmosphere which promotes cross-cultural
understanding it develops their conversational skills. Socio-drama is a type of Role-play
involving solution of social problem. However there are some points of difference
1.
The technique is unique because it involves some specific steps: warm-uppresentation of new vocabulary; presentation of dilemma, discussion of the situation
and selection of roles, audience preparation, enactment, discussion of the situation
and selection of new role players, summary and Follow up re-enactment.
2.

It is student-oriented rather than teacher- oriented.

3.

It lasts more longer than situation role play.

Lingua-cultural approach to teaching Reading Proficiency


TeachingReadingin FL is, of course, not an easy task for teachers and learners. There
are different "dilemmas" that FL contexts impose on teaching reading:
1.
importance of developing letter - sound correspondences, the technique of
reading'
2.

necessity of developing large receptive vocabulary;

3.

value of extensive reading;

4.

need for students to become strategic readers;

5.
importance of developing reading comprehension skills, etc. None of them should
be neglected nowadays.
Readingis a complex communicative and cognitive skill which implies the work of many
psychological mechanisms: memory, perception, anticipation, inner speech, thinking
and its operations (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction). It goes without saying

that due to its bilateral characteristics Reading should be taught to enable students to
develop sound - letter correspondence (technique of reading) and to develop the ability
to comprehend the reading message (comprehension of reading)
The peculiarity of teaching FL reading consists in the fact that due to insufficient
knowledge of FL students reading is mostly a linear process: they cannot concentrate
of the whole message, they focus their attention on discrete points (sounds, syllables,
words). In FL we can use different methods (word, method, sentence method or
syllable - syllabic method) in each case the reading unit ( ) is different
depending on the linguistic characteristics of the language. Reading fluency requires at
least 95% or more words for minimal comprehension. This sort of knowledge requires
knowledge of ~10.000 different words to be recognized. This ability can be developed
through extensive reading and systematic work.
Reading involves much more than just knowledge of language (vocabulary, grammar,
phonetics)'. It involves "pre-existent knowledge of the world (schemata - pl.from
"scheme"). When we are stimulated by particular words, discourse patterns, or context
such schemata knowledge is activated and we are able to recognize what we see or
hear because in our mind we rely on the previous knowledge of the world, including
culture, traditions and cultural background. Different readers read differently because
they use different reading strategies: summarizing, predicting, clarifying, asking
questions. We should encourage our students from the very beginning to read and
think aloud because reading and thinking aloud presents a very high cognitive and
intellectual load for readers.
I. Reading proficiency as an integral part of speech competence demands linguistic
competence, strategic competence, socio-cultural competence (cultural awareness)
and discourse competence and integration with other skills
Linguistic competence
Reading Proficiency
Socio-cultural Competence
(cultural awareness of realia,
backgrounds)
reading comprehension

Strategic competence
Integration with other skills (listening, speaking writing)
Discourse competence
(looking for markers of coherence cultural
& cohesion in the written text for the purpose of

Traditional segregated skills approach when writing is divorced from speaking or


listening in divorced from reading is not effective because it is non-communicative.
Practice has proved that isolation of skills leads to a communicative deadlock. A person
who can read adequately but cannot speak will have a serious problem in academic
education, in communication. The courses labeled Intermediate Reading are doomed
to failure for they do not use the potential of the subject, of the topics (themes) in
different spheres of communication. In interacted-skill instruction, learners are
exposed to authentic language and are involved in activities that are interesting and
meaningful. Integrating skill has many advantages:

1.
Learners have a chance to see the richness and complexity of the language used
for communication;
2.

The language becomes a real means of interaction between people;

3.
Teachers are given the power and opportunity to develop students progress in
different skills at the same time;
4.
In integrated skill approach the language material is acquired in real context not
as discrete language points;
5.

Integrated skill instruction is highly motivating at all stages;

6.
The significant role of back-ground knowledge is evident when skills are
integrated in communication
II. Linguistic competence in regard to Reading involves using grammar, vocabulary and
phonetic knowledge to help understand what is being read. In addition, linguistic
competence includes knowledge of the alphabet and the punctuation of the language.
Strategic competence. In reading strategic competence refers to possessing useful
strategies for compensating the missing knowledge (gaps in knowledge). These
strategies include the use of clues available, power of guessing, background
knowledge, context (content).
Guessing is a very useful strategy and it can be taught and practised in classroom:
Good readers
1.

Read extensively;

2.
Integrate information in the text with what they already know (see schemata
theory);
3.

Are motivated

4.

Have a purpose for reading

5.
Read in different situations where written language serves real functions
(entertainment, information, direction)
Reading serves various purposes in different countries and cultures place different
emphases on reading texts. For example, in the USA and in Europe there is a great
emphases on bedtime stories and children are brought up hearing stories and fairytales when they go to bed.
This tradition however is absent in many Asian countries. According to DEAR
programme in one of American Universities students were to Drop Everything and
Read.
III. Rebecca L. Oxford (1990) suggests a number of practical ideas for helping students
to create self-esteem and self-confidence by using effective strategies: skimming,

scanning, writing key words and sentences from the text, summarizing paragraphs,
writing glossary, guessing the meaning of new words from the context, using the
illustrations to guess the forthcoming text, analyzing the text.
Among the strategies used in reading the following ones are often mentioned: keeping
meaning is mind, skipping unknown words and guessing from the context; using the
title and the illustration; using context clues, etc.
IV.Socio-cultural competence inReading refers to cultural awareness that helps to
understand what is being read. For this it is important not only to choose culturally
appropriate techniques but it is also important to choose culturally appropriate reading
material. First of all it must be authentic. Even beginning students need exposure to
authentic language, that is used in every day communication, in conversations,
magazines and books, slogans and traffic signs, posters and menus, etc. Authentic
texts are always contextualized even when they are simplified, for example, American
children frequently ask their parents for money when they are away from home in
college. Here is the telegram that a son sent his father.
Dear Dad
No mon, no fun, your son
Here is the telegram that the father sent back to his son:
Dear Son
So sad, too bad, your dad.
The background helps to understand the humorous effect of the telegrams.
Culturally appropriate reading materials should be chosen in accordance with the
principle of accessibility: neither too easy, nor too difficult.
Another concern in choosing reading materials for students is cultural relevance
appropriateness. Cultural relevance is directly related to schemata (or frame) theory.
Students may find the text uninteresting and difficult because it is based on unfamiliar
cultural material students dont understand. Such cultural gaps will interfere with the
students comprehension. For example, Cartoni-Hawey (1987) tells of a teacher who
was reading a story to her class in theUnited States. In the story, two children brought
their sick grandmother some beautiful chrysanthemums. When the teacher interrupted
the reading to ask what would happen next, she was surprised that her French student
answered that the grandmother was going to die. When the teacher suggested that the
chrysanthemums might help the grandmother to feel better, the student looked
confused. They had been taught inFrancethat chrysanthemums, a symbol of death
used to decorate graves, should never be given as presents especially to the elderly.
Had the teacher been acquainted with the traditional French culture, she would have
explained that in theUnited Stateschrysanthemums are not considered an omen of
death. The story illustrates that students from different cultural backgrounds attach
somewhat different meanings to words, and these differences can result in

misunderstandings. These misunderstandings arise because students often lack


cultural awareness. The more they know about culture the better they understand the
materials or the more familiar the content the easier the recall. Thus, teachers need to
become as informed as possible about the various cultures represented by their
students and acknowledge and incorporate their students cultures whenever possible.
V. In teaching students Reading proficiency discourse competence is needed in
addition to linguistic and socio-cultural competences. They must recognize markers of
discourse indicating coherence in the development, balance, continuity and
completeness of the text (then, moreover, therefore), rhetorical organization and other
textual features.
Types of R:
R. aloud, silent R., class and home R., control R., analytical, synthetical R., prepared
and unprepared R., intensive (short texts) and extensive ( long texts) R., narrow R.
(one and the same author), Jigsow R. Acc. to 4 functional types of R.:
Searching (scanning)- , skimming- , critical, R. with thorough
comprehension.
Types of ex-s for TR acc. to : 1) graphemic- phonemic which help pupils to
assimilate graphemic-phonemic correspondence in the English language (which letter
makes word different, name the letter and find the word with it, which letter is mute,
read the list of words and group them acc. to the rules of reading of letter in different
positions); 2) structural-informational which help pupils to carry out lexical and
grammar analyses to find the logical subject and predicate in the sentences following
the structural elements (make up sentences in the Present Simple into the Past ); 3)
semantic-communicative which help pupils to get information from text (read the text
and give it a title, answer the questions)
Technologies in teaching FL .
The main technologies in FLT are games, round table, discussions, debates, project
work, case study, video, computer, interactive activities, audio-activities, DVD etc. We
consider some of them in this lecture.
Round Table is a form of organization of study through exchange of opinions. In the
course of Round Table discussion its participants have a reports , which they
thoroughly discuss together. As a rule Round Table has the following procedure:
participants reports and then discuss it. Except participants of the Round Table there is
also moderator . Moderator pace the time of the reporters and announce the order of
presentation of their reports. This method suggests the organization of teaching
seminars, discussions, meetings with specialists of different organizations on the
principles of cooperative discussion of the problems in the form of the dialogue. Round
Table allows each participant to express his or her opinion on the given problem. This
method improves students abilities in argumentation. Role of the teacher in this
process is to coordinate the discussion of the problem without conflicts and provide
the positive results in the problem solution.

Discussion
Aim of the discussion:
n The rise of the interest of participants to the definite topics and problems.
n Teaching material leading to controversial opinions can be thoroughly discussed
from many sides.
n Serve for expression of different points of view.
Procedure of the discussion:
The introduction of the discussion by the teacher or student:
Explanation of the aim of the lesson and discussed topic. Invitation to the
performance;
Discussion can be started from presentation of reports;
There is a necessity at least for one alternative question;
There are 3-5 arguments for the protection of positive ,so the negative answers;
Participants ask the questions, express their opinions and suggest some business
proposals;
Then all the solutions are discussed and the conclusion is held.
Positive sides of the discussion:
Problems can be looked through the different sides;
Leader teacher or student coordinate the discussion , he/she can participate in it but
isnt obliged;
Leader teacher or student draw a conclusion.
Debates
Debates should be held if group is divided into two parts in the course of discussion. It
gives opportunity to argue with each other, express different points of views and
approaches , attempts to persuade the opponents.
Necessary conditions for debates:

Each participant is supported, who would like to express his/her point of view .

All participants should listen to their opponents before they express their point of
view .

Every 15 minutes students should stop their debates in order the most
convincing arguments are written down.

Respect different points of views and dont correct them .

Support of the atmosphere of cooperation but not competition.

In conclusion the teacher sum up the arguments suggested in the argues, paying
attention to the important issues and logical deductions
Business games and roleplays.
Their participants have a deal with the model which is close to real professional
activity. The whole complex of industrial relationships is modeled. The participants
have an opportunity to become the leader of some company or its department. This
gives opportunity to find out more about relationships within the company, the
functions of the staff of the company and also the whole result , which can be acquired
in the course of the suggested actions.
Practical value of business games are as follows:

The conditions of study are close to reality in practice;

In the process of modeling of real to life situations there happen the


development of habits and skills in the sphere of professional activity;

Roleplays allows to integrate the acquired knowledge according to chosen


speciality ;

The participants of business games have an opportunity to practice their


knowledge , habits and skills in the course of game without risk;

In the conditions of credit technologies of teaching , when the role of


independent study is increasing , business games is an ideal mean of arising interest
to the professional activity and increasing their professional competence.
First what should be done before the beginning of business game is to prepare the
scenario of the game, to define the rules of the game , accurately to define the
functions of the participants and their actions.
Business games have several stages:
1-st stage. Preparation to the game. Study of the situation or the problem and
collection of necessary information.
2-nd stage. The process of game organization.
3-rd stage. The analysis the situation , its discussion, making conclusions and
assessment of the results.
In the process of the game the students acquire the following skills and habits:

Logical understanding of the game situation;


The determination of the content of the necessary information, which is
needed for problem solution , its collection and analysis.

The establishment of links between different spheres of future professional


activity.

The work in groups , collective solution making

Usage of elements of scientific research, processes and phenomena on the base


of systematic approach.
The important factor of the successful organization of games and roleplays is
informational support, the constituent parts of which are:

- the official description of information for the modeling of game situation

- the criteria of game results assessment

- the filling forms and tables for completion, instructive materials, documents of
planning and organization of game
Case Study is one of the main technologies of business education. It appeared in the
beginning of the 20th c.in theSchool ofBusiness inHarvardUniversity. American cases
are a little bit different from European .They are more in volume (20 - 25 pages of
text). In Europe Cases is shorter in 1,5-2 times and doesnt have the only one
solution. While using this method it is necessary to escape extra arguments, to
dominate in the discussion The work out of the Case is evaluated very highly . There
are two types of Cases : Field ( based on real factual material) and artificial. The
following method is based on the analysis of real and hypothetical situations , concrete
events , containing one or the range of problems from business practice. Students are
suggested to find the effective algorithm of business-structure organization in the
given situation, leading to the problem solution. The more Cases are discussed the
more experiences students gain to cope with similar situations.
Students task analyze the situation , formulate the problem, suggest the solutions
and choose the best one.
The aim of Case Study to learn student to analyze the information, formulate the
problems, choose the alternative ways of solution, evaluate them, find the suitable
variant and make programme of actions. Case Study has two stages
Stage 1. Participants are given Case and time for reading and acquisition of the
material. Teacher can give some questions to the participants for stimulation of the
discussion
Stage2. Teacher suggests to the participants s to discuss the case .Students should
answer the questions of the teacher or express their opinions about the best solution.
Answers and conclusions should be thoroughly grounded by the participants. At the
end of the discussion the teacher suggests to draw conclusions from facts and
arguments of the Case.

Advantages of Case Study:


1) Demonstrate the existence of alternative solutions
2) Demonstrate how the same facts can be differently interpreted by the range of
people with the similar aims
3) Teach students to evaluate the consequences of the taken solutions
Case Study is an instrument with the help of which the theoretical knowledge are
applied to the solution of the concrete practical tasks. It assists to the development of
the critical thinking , links the theory with practice. Analysis of the Case allows
students to formulate the model of problem solution, which can arise during their
professional activity. Nowadays Case Study is one of the popular methods for better
qualification of leading staff. The Case is often used as a mean of selecting the best
business qualities in the course of job interview. This method is widely known for the
education not only Marketing, Management but Foreign Language as well.
Project work
Project work offering the student an opportunity to put into practice what has been
learnt through formal teaching. For a project to succeed, a good working relationship
needs to be established. The students must be able to co-operate not only with each
other but also with a teacher. Groups who are accustomed to student-centred activities
will find project work an extension of a familiar approach, rather than an innovation.
Project work has been described by a number of language educators, including Carter
and Thomas (1986), Ferragatti and Carminati (1984), Fried-Booth (1982, 1986), Haines
(1989), Legutke (1984, 1985), Legutke and Theiel (1983), Papandreou (1994),
Sheppard and Stoller (1995), and Ward (1988). Although each of these educators has
approached project work from a different perspective, project work, in its various
configurations, shares the following features:
1.
Project work focuses on content learning rather than on specific language
targets. Real world subject matter and topics of interest to students can become
central to projects.
2.
Project work is student centered, though the teacher plays a major role in
offering support and guidance throughout the process.
3.
Project work is cooperative rather than competitive. Students can work on their
own, in small groups, or as class to complete a project, sharing resources, ideas, and
expertise along the way.
4.
Project work leads to the authentic integration of skills and processing of
information from varied sources, mirroring real-life tasks.
5.
Project work culminates in an end product (e.g., an oral presentation, a poster
session, a bulletin-board display, a report, or a stage performance) that can be shared
with others giving the project a real purpose. The value of the project, however, lies

not just in the final product but in the process of working toward the end point. Thus,
project work has both a process and product orientation, and provides students with
opportunities to focus on fluency and accuracy at different project-work stages.
6.
Project work is potentially motivating, stimulating, empowering, and
challenging. It usually results in building student confidence, self-esteem, and
autonomy as well as improving students language skills, content learning, and
cognitive abilities.
The length of time spent on a project work will, clearly, depend on the amount of time
available and on the nature of the project work. But, however, long or short the project
may be, it will pass through certain stages of development these are:
Stimulus. Initial discussion of the idea comment and suggestion. The main language
skills involved: speaking and listening, with possible reference to prior reading.
Definition of the project objective. Discussion, negotiation, suggestion, and argument.
The longer the total time available for the project, the more detailed this phase will be.
Main language skills: speaking and listening, probably with some more note-taking.
Practice of language skills. This includes the language the students fell is needed for
the initial of the project, e. g. for a data collection. It is also introduces a variety of
language functions, e. g. introductions, suggestions asking for information, etc., and
may involve many or all of the four skills (particularly writing, in the form of notetaking).
Design of the written materials. Questionnaires, maps, grids, etc., required for data
collection. Reading and writing skills will be prominent here.
Croup activities. Designed to gather information. Students may work individually, in
pairs or in small groups, inside or outside the classroom. Their tasks will include
conducting interviewers or surveys, and gathering facts. All four skills are likely to be
needed.
Collecting information. Probably in groups, in the classroom. Reading of notes,
explanation of visual material, e. g. graphs. Emphasis on discussion.
Organization of materials. Developing the end-product pf the project. Discussion,
negotiation, reading for cross-reference and verification. The main skill practiced,
however, will be writing.
Final presentation. The manner of presentation will depend largely on the form of the
end product chart, booklet, video display or oral presentation and on the manner of
demonstration. The main skill required is likely to be speaking, but could be backed up
by other skills.
Projects can also differ in data collection techniques and sources of information as
demonstrated by these project types: Research projects necessitate the gathering of
information through library research. Similarly, text projects involve encounters with

texts (e.g. , literature, reports, news media, video and audio material, or computerbased information) rather than people. Correspondence projects require
communication with individuals (or, business, governmental agencies, schools, or
chambers of commerce) to solicit information by means of letters, faxes, phone calls,
or electronic mail. Survey projects entail creating a survey instrument and then
collecting and analyzing data from informants. Encounter projects result in face-toface contact with guest speakers or individuals outside the classroom. Projects may
also differ in the ways that information is reported as part of a culminating
activity.Production products involve the creation of bulletin-board displays, videos,
radio programs, poster sessions, written reports, photo essays, letters, handbooks,
brochures and so forth.
Performance projects can take shape as staged debates, oral presentations, theatrical
performances, food fairs or fashion shows. Organizational projects entail the planning
and formation of a club, conversation table, or conversation-partner program.
Whatever the configuration, Projects can be carried out intensively over a short period
of time or extended over a few weeks, or a full semester; they can be completed by
students individually, in small groups, or as a class; and they can take place entirely
within the confines of the classroom or can extend beyond the walls of the classroom
into the community or with other via different forms of correspondence.
Requirements for Project work
Active attendance to all lecture and seminar sessions (compulsory)
Write their names to the participant list, ask questions, give comments
Choose a new topic
Carry out project successfully in a team of 2-4 persons
Project plan
Project plan presentation
Project results
Final report
Computer started to be used in teaching foreign languages from 1954. The first
research concerning usage of computer in teaching foreign languages appeared since
this time. CALL- Computer -Assisted Language Learning. Theoretical problems of
implementing computer in teaching process became the subject of a new area in
science such as Computer Linguadidactics. It is an independent trend of Didactics and
Methodology.
The development of computer technologies in teaching foreign languages made the
usage of computer programs widely spread. Computer programs fastened the teaching
process and initially had a drilling character. The rising requirements to the computer

programs increased their qualities and made possible to improve not only language
habits but speech skills.
According to the definition of the notion of the computer program given by Sadikova
A.K. computer program is a mean of teaching , which has the features of
communicative model of teaching, corresponds the aims of teaching and formed types
of speech activities, oriented to the definite level of knowledge and skills of students,
satisfies students intellectual and emotional needs, stimulates different types of
cognitive activities. Computer program can help every pupil to find the most
comfortable way of learning foreign language.
The psychological aspects of using computer programs in teaching foreign languages
are as follows:
- Interactive means of teaching helps to keep interest for learning foreign languages
(game like character of learning foreign languages, comfortable way of work with the
computer, etc.)
- Usage of computer helps to overcome fear of public speaking to shy and not
confident pupils
- Computer programs give an additional material to those pupils who are coping with
the learning material faster than other pupils. And on the contrary they help weak
pupils to revise the material if it is not clear.
The methodological aspects of using computer programs in teaching foreign languages
are as follows:
Usage of computer programs allows pupils to plan and organize learning
process individually
To have immediate correction of mistakes, which is sometimes impossible due
to the lack of time
-

Correction of spelling

Opportunityto revise exercise and get explanations to it the necessary quantity


of times
-

Assessment of your language work.

There are following types of computer programs in teaching foreign languages:


1) Multimedia computer programs for integrated learning of foreign languages and
development of the main speech skills; E.g. .
(English Language. Way to Success.)
2) Multimedia computer programs, which are an additional resource for the definite
text-book;

For example , such text-book as English Vocabulary in Use by Michael McCarthy and
Felicity ODell has CD-ROM with computer program, which includes hundreds of
enjoyable ex-s, audio recordings or extra listening practice, a create-your-own test
function, a progress check, a built-in dictionary with f personal notes section.
3) Multimedia computer programs for development of the language habits;
-- ( English in one-two-three)
( English without dictionary)
There are following types of exercises of computer programs in teaching foreign
languages:
- imitative ex-s, which are very important at the initial stage of teaching foreign
languages for the development of the writing skills;
transformation ex-s, which are built on the base of creation of the phrases
according to the definite models, transformed from other basic structures;
-

substitution ex-s, which are widely spread in all computer programs.

different types of computer games with the words, crosswords;

multiple-choice ex-s

close tests.

Control in computer programs is based on the comparison of the students answer with
the key of correct answer. The majority of computer programs use verbal ways of
assessment or the result of the students progress is accounted in scores or points.
Lesson of FL.
A lesson is an organized and goal oriented process, which is a set of learning
opportunities, a model of cognition and a framework for interaction of participants.

A lesson is an integral part of learning process. It presents a complicated complex of


learning tasks, which teacher and pupils should solve, basing on concrete, individual
situation, condition of group work or each pupil.
There are a great amount of works devoted to the methodological and theoretical
bases of the lesson starting with the works . . . Typology of the lessons
represented in the works of .., .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , ..,.. , ..
, .. , .. ..
Methodological content of the lesson:

1)
Individualization - it means that the teacher should take into account and use
reserves of learners personality i.e. their life experience, world outlook, interests,
emotions, feelings, status in the social group.
There are several variants how to provide Individualization of the lesson:
a)
while planning the theme of the lesson the teacher should choose those topics
which are mostly interesting and actual for this definite class.
b)
teacher should use the tasks of problematic character in order pupils could
debate.
c)
take into account interests, life experience and hobbies of the pupils while
organizing discussion.
d)
To use individual home tasks for each pupil, which can fully reveal the personality
of the pupil.
e)
take into account the social position of the pupils for correction their behavior
models.
f)
take into account the true level of subject knowledge of pupils in order to make
certain corrections in their knowledge gaps.
g)

Use additional means of teaching , which suits the needs of pupils.

h)

Use different regimes and forms of work during the lesson.

2)

Communicative orientation of the lesson.

The lesson shouldnt be oriented only on the development of language knowledge


without any practical aim but have to form Communicative Competence.
Communicative orientation of the lesson is impossible without situation and
functionality. Communicative situation is inseparable part of communication.
Communicative situation is a complex of circumstances, which arose the necessity to
communicate with the aim of influence of one person on the other in the process of
activity ..
There are three groups of com.sit.:
1)
real sit-n e.g. during the lesson limited by the roles of teacher and pupils they
can be such as late comings of the pupils, their home task making, their requests,etc.
2)
problematic situations- happens when there are different points of view on one
problem which cause the discussion.
3)
Conditional sit-n. This sit-n should model the real com.sit., it should enclose
dif.types of com-ve behavior, enrich social experience of the pupils because of the
extension of com-ve roles which pupils play.It is very difficult to create conditional
situations during the lesson.

In order to create conditional sit-n it is necessary:


a)

imagine this sit. in real life.

b)

Define the place and time of the sit.

c)

Define the partners of the sit. and their characters

d)

Define the aim of the communication.

e)

Make this information clear for students

f)

Create the information gap to arose motivation.

Conditional sit-n can be created with the help of communicative task, which includes
all mentioned above.
Functionality. We know that each communicative task has certain com-ve functions e.g.
to give information, request information, apologize, invite somebody, suggest
somebody something, compare smth with smth, express opinion, praise sb, abuse sb.
Novelty. It means that every lesson should be like a discovery for pupils, when they like
group of researches invent smth new.
Novelty of the lesson can be achieved with the help of :
1)new sit-ns new sit-s suggests the change of places, time, partners,their characters ,
roles,etc.:
a) new com-ve task e.g. tell about the events in the text from the different
participants of the event (e.g. repoter, journalist).
b) new partner. Teacher shouldnt fix the work pairs in class, they should be mobile
and flexible. Teacher should often change communicative partners.
c) new forms of communication:
Question-answer work
Dif.types of translation
Conversations
Lectures
Discussions
Interview
Games
Round tables

Conferences
Project work
Critical analysis of the literature
Roleplays, dramatization
Internet,e-mail
The main functions of the lesson:
1)
teacher should put an aim of the lesson, which is to be achieved at the end of the
lesson. The aim should be clear cut and concrete. Because the aim of the lesson
defines the content of the lesson, the means, methods which would be used during the
lesson.
2)
Ex-s should suit the aims of the lesson. Every speech skill requires a definite
group of ex-s for its development.
3)

Consequence of ex-s. Ex-s should be thoroughly graded from easy to complex.

4)
Atmosphere of the lesson. From the very beginning learners should be plunged in
the English speaking atmosphere. The relations between teacher and pupils should
create a good language atmosphere.
5)
Educational potential of the lesson. FL lesson should develop not only language
competence of the learners but as well their general outlook.
6)
Integrity of the lesson. FL lesson should be as one part in the chain of the
lessons. Each lesson should be logically connected with the others and has its definite
position in the chain of the lessons.
7)
Position of the individual pupil on the lesson. Teacher should take into account
the following:
a)

all the pupils should be involved in the teaching process

b)

teacher should take into consideration the individualities of each pupil.

c)

teacher should support the creativity and independence in work

d)
teacher should delegate part of his obligations to the pupils in order to involve
them deeper in FL learning.
e)
teacher should take into if there are leaders in the class (positive or negative),
their influence on class.
f)

teacher should take into if pupils are highly motivated to learn FL or not.

g)
teacher should take into if there are different forms of cooperative learning and
mutual help between pupils.

Typology of the lessons:


1)
Integral lesson () It has a complicated structure which
includes:
Organization moment
Checking previous knowledge and H/t
Introduction of new material
Primary consolidation of new material and H/t
2)

The lesson of representation and acquisition of new knowledge:

Organization moment
Introduction of new material
acquisition of new material
instruction on making H/t
3)

The lesson of revision and generalization of acquired knowledge:

Placing the problem and giving tasks


Solving tasks and problems
Analysis of the answers and assessment of the results
Correction of the mistakes and making conclusion
H/t instruction
4)The lesson of knowledge acquisition and development of habits and skills:
Organization moment
Putting the aim and its explanation
Reproduction of previous knowledge
Presentation of the content of the task and its instruction
Independent work under teachers supervision
Generalization and assessment
H/t instruction
4)

The lesson of getting into practice the acquired knowledge, habits and skills:

Organization moment

Putting the aim and its explanation


Establishing of connection with previously acquired material
Work instruction
Independent work and its assessment
H/t instruction
Types of lesson plans by Dr. Billye Foster:
3 kinds of lesson plans:
1) Informational- designed to teach important, specific, up-to-date facts, knowledge
and information.
2) Managerial / Problem Solving- designed to help students make intelligent decisions
and to provide them with experience in decision making.
3) Operatinal- designed to teach the many important agricultural practices and skills
which are essentially manipulative or manual in nature. Students learn by doing.
Lingua-cultural approach to teaching Writing Proficiency
I. In Traditional approaches to teaching writing teachers emphasize grammatical
correctness, correct sentence structures, phonetic and grammar rules to follow in order
to avoid mistakes. Nowadays according to the cognitive lingua-cultural and in
integrated skill approach Writing proficiency is regarded both as a means and as the
aim of FLT.
Writing is a graphic and orphographic system of FL which is used for focusing languge
material for its better acquisition.
Written speech is a productive and reproductive form of speech activity for expressing
ones thoughts in graphic form, the product of which is a text supposed to read.
II. Writing Proficiency involves language competence, (i.e. grammar and vocabulary),
socio-cultural competence and discourse competence which enables them to organize
their texts cohesively and coherently with respect to purpose, genre, topic. In
reference to Writing Strategic competence enables language learners to use strategies
to write effectively. The scheme shows the interaction of Competences in Writing:
Linguistic competence

Strategic competence (getting ideas

grammar, vocabulary

getting started writing drafts revising)

Linguistic competence in regard to Writing Proficiency involves correct grammr,


vocabulary and phonetic knowledge in order to express ideas adequately to the
context.

Added to linguistic competence Writing proficiency needs developed socio-cultural


competence which enables language learners to vary their use of the language taking
into account the topic, the genre, the purpose and the addressee.
Discourse competence in Writing makes the text well organized cohesively and
coherently which shows semantic relation between elements in the text and which is
crucial for the interpretation of it. For this some devices are used: reference,
substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical cohesion
For example:
Slowly, James moved the tables away from the door. He moved only the large ones
that were blocking the doorway. (substitution)
He was a good Worker. Therefore, he was given a prize. (conjunction)
Appropriate use of devices contributes to the coherence of the whole text.
Strategic competence enables students to write logically and effectively. For example
before writing an essay we may brainstorm to get ideas together, draft, make up a
plan, make notes, etc.
Students from different countries have different preferences in choosing devices,
topics, the ways they develop their topics-all this is related to their own cultural
experiences, cultural background especially at level 1-2 of cultural awareness in a FL.
Integration of 4 language skills reading, writing, speaking and listening leads to
improved FL writing ability. But the improvement is not automatic. Being a good reader
does not make one a good writer. Reading serves to give ideas, data, model sentence
pattern and structures but a student will be able to become good in writing only by
writing (Jacobs, 1983)
The more experience students have in writing the more fluent and correct their writing
becomes. In Traditional approaches to teaching writing and Written speech languagefocused activities rather than learner-centered activities are used: teachers emphasize
grammatical correctness, correct sentence structure; feedback is given when the
writing is finished; students are discouraged from making mistakes.
II. Nowadays writing and Written speech are regarded in the frame work of Intercultural
communicative competence: students are taught writing and written speech for
communication on intercultural level. Students are taught to discover effective Writing
techniques and strategies under the guidance of the teachers. Writing is not only
individual, it is collaborative. For example, in creating projects
Writing implies penmanship, spelling and composition ( components of W). Writing can
be viewed as a process and a product. Good handwriting is precious in any culture
(Chinese,
Japanese, Italian etc.), though the requirements are different. Penmanship, spelling

and Composition should be specially taught through a system of exercises:


Penmanship - copying (simple and "tasked": copy and underline, copy and group
up, etc.)
Spelling - copying, (simple and "tasked", for example group up, etc.) Composition essays, report, project work, letter - writing, etc.
4 basic skills necessary for W.: 1) Planning- is a pre-writing activity, which encourages
students to write, to gather information, to generate ideas; 2) Drafting- students write
statements of purpose, some quotations, provoking questions and general questions.
Then at responding stage your peers and teacher give you feedback; 3) Revising- you
revise what you have done; 4) Editing- polishing of the text to the excellence.
Types of dictations for improving W.: 1) visual d. a teacher read a sentence , write it
on the blackboard, underline difficult words, then the teacher rubs it off, they write it
by memory.2) preventive d.- provides preliminary discussion and analysis of the most
difficult words, aimed at preventing mistakes 3) explanatory d.- difficult words
analyzed after writing, teacher dictates 2-3 sentences and then discuss pupils
mistakes , students involved and correction is without any delay.4) Auto d.- conducted
when a poem, a piece of prose learned by heart. 5) Control d.- read 3 times. 1st whole
for general idea , 2nd sentence by sent-ce with pauses, 3rd whole to check up.
Students assist one another in composing texts, they shape and refine their thoughts:
A writers normal task is a thinking task (Flower and Hayes, 1977), because Writing is
a cognitive-communicative process. The 3 stages of Writing prove it:
Pre- Writing activities
Idea-gathering
gathering
Journals

InformationInterviews

Brainstorming (sharing ideas Clustering

Dialogues

or in small groups Cubing (6 sides of the cube)

Peer Reviews

1 describe (color, size, shape)


2 compare (what is like or unlike)
3 associate (similar or dissimilar
4 analyze
5 apply
6 Argue (for it or against it Why)

The Pre-Writing Stage in very important: it involves finding a topic, gathering ideas,
generating ideas, shaping, refining, organizing (taking into account the audience, the
genre, the tasks, etc.)
While- Writing activities
-Writing a plan
- Drafting
- Writing paragraphs
- One sitting writing (from beginning to end)

Letter writing

- Leisurely Writing (begun in class, finished at home)

Essay

- Jigsaw writing

Resumes

Summary
Post- Writing activities
-

Revision (some formal changes, substitutions, reorganizing)

Peer Reviews (in pairs)

Editing

Error Corrections

Rewriting

The process of Writing is not linear, It is creative! It means that there is constant
integration of idea gathering, grammatical and lexical shaping and changing the
structure, revision, editing, etc.
The basic ideas of the Conception of the Development of Foreign Language
Education in The Republic of Kazakhstan.
1. Aims and objectives of the Conception.
The aim of conception determines the fundamental directions of development of
foreign education creating national level model of continuous education which
promotes the entrance of Kazakhstan into the World- Wide Education area.
Objectives of Conception:
to reveal real status of foreign education in RK on up-to-date phase.
to aim theoretical and methodical bases of continuous foreign education in RK.
to define the system of continuous education covering all steps of educational
systems.

to define phases of realization of given Conception.


to forecast the exception of result.
2. The current English Language situation in Kazakhstan.
The role of FL is important nowadays. Today the learning Foreign Language itself is not
a privilege but the first step through the language to learning new subjects. So, the
system of Foreign Language Education is setting profile education, which has 3
directions:
Humanitarian in specialized schools (such subjects as geography, history, etc.).
Economic profile in lyceums and colleges (such subjects as management, finance, etc).
Natural- mathematic profile in lyceums and colleges (such subjects as math, physics,
biology).
This situation brought new types of schools in Kazakhstan: gymnasiums, lyceums,
professional-oriented schools, etc).
But the organization of Foreign Language Education wasnt prepared for it fully. It is
characterized by:
the absence of unique methodological base (there is a lack of working
programs, lack of special books, absence of unique requirements for the courses, etc),
the deficit of teaching staff (there is a lack of Foreign Language teachers of
math, physics, biology, geography, history, etc).
According to the Conception, to solve these problems there should be renovation of
methodological basis, preparation of teachers for each model of education, creation of
Teaching Methodological Complexes, setting the unique system of educational levels
3. The main direction of the development of Foreign Language
a) Main Principles of National Educational System
Principles of teaching are initial positions which is in the whole set define requirements
of educational process as an integral part and its component (to the purpose,
problems, methods, means organizational forms, process of teaching (Kunanbayeva
S.S.)
1.
Principle of continuous foreign education corresponds the contemporary needs of
person and society, which suppose general conceptual approach to the realization of
actual content and technology at all levels of foreign education.
Principle of intercultural - communicative interaction provides the development of
learners ability to intercultural foreign communication.

Principle of problematicy and interaction of organization of teaching process through


the solving through solving the appearing problems on the basis of full range of
knowledge, habits and skills, received in different subject spheres and estimated as the
ability to participate in the integrated decision-making process.
Personal orientation of teaching process is expressed through the content of education,
forms of its organization and providing the growth of variation.
Principle of fundamental Foreign Language Education supposes learner acquisition of
durable and comprehensive knowledge that comprises the necessity basis for high
professionalism and provides the persons mobility in the dynamically changing life
conditions.
Principle of providing of international standard level in teaching is realized through the
content and technology which are appropriate to the aim of teaching process and also
objective international standard means of assessment.
Principle of creative, cognitive-activity usage of FL finds its expression in the
organization of intercultural exchange, joint international projects, correspondence,
etc.
Principle of self - regulation is interpreted as the ability to understand yourself and
surroundings. New experience gained by learners organically joins in the teaching
process and is followed up; the realization of reflection and self-reflection is carried out
not only by teacher, but by pupil as well.
Principle of flexibility and adaptability to the changes in socio-economic life, in
professional sphere, capacity to live in polycultural world
Principle of professionalization supposes the usage of Foreign Language in processional
purposes. In our case, it means to use language in teaching math, physics, biology in
natural- mathematical profile.
b) System of Continuous Education
The leveled model of Foreign Language Learning has the following components, which
directed for achievement of certain level of FL:
For beginning secondary school start programs of teaching is recommended;
For the basic secondary school (5-10 grades) Level A1, A2;
For profile education in 12-year school (11-12 grades) Level B1;
For specialized schools programs and standards of B2;
For technical and professional educational institutions - Level B1 and the basis of LSP;
For postmiddle () professional education - Level B2 and LSP;
For non-language institutions - Level B2 and full course of LSP (professional program);

For language institutions acquiring of levels B2, C1, C2, LAP program and specialprofessional program of LSP;
For masters degree - levels C1, C2 for the second foreign language in language
institutions, level C1 for the first foreign language in non-language institutions; LSP for
profile masters degree; LAP, LSP for science-research masters degree.
The main feature of new system in its direction to the target result.
c) The characteristics of level B1.
The specification of the 3rd level (B1) lies in profilization. Profile Education supposes
deep pre-professional preparation in 3 directions. Here FL is a means of realization of
profile education.
Certain profile direction is achieved by reconstruction of the content: minimization of
general English themes and introduction of specialized material for future profession.
So, for the entrance into the World- Wide Education area we should develop profile
education which would be one of the steps for creation of national leveled model of
continuous education.
Technologies in FLT
I.
Technology is becoming increasingly important in both our personal lives and our
professional lives. However, teacher-training programmes often ignore the use of
Information and Communication technologies and our school teachers are not very
much skilled and knowledgeable about technologies.
Technologies in FLT have been used for decades or for centuries if we classify the
blackboard as a form of technology. Tape recorders, language laboratories and video
have been used since 1960s and 1970s and are all still used in our classroom around
the world.
Computer based materials for FLT often referred to as CALL (Computer assisted
language learning), appeared in the early 1980s and nowadays the CALL approach is
one that is still found on CD-ROMS for language teaching.
Young learners are growing up with technology and it is natural that it has become
integrated in their lives.
Technology, especially the Internet presents us new opportunities for authentic
materials, for collaboration and communication between learners who are
geographically far from each other.
II. In FLT Methodology Pedagogical technologies are widely used for effective and
resultative teaching/learning. However, there is no unique approach to the definition
of technology and its classification. It is often defined as:
-

the algorithm of a persons activity in the educational process;

modeling and assessment of the achievements of the aims with the help of this or
that form of work
Nowadays we should distinguish between the two terms Technology of teaching and
Technology in teaching. The first term denotes methods and devices of scientifically
organized teachers work with the help of which we achieve the aims of FLT. The
second term denotes the use of technical aids in FLT process and corresponds to the
Russian term .
The main characteristics of technologies of FLT are:
Resultativeness
Economy of time and teachers/pupils efforts
High level of motivation
Cooperation and partnership.
The main requirements to technologies of FLT are:
-

it is based on a scientific conception;

It is systematic by its character (it is a part of a system with its logics, relations of
parts and integrity);
-

it can be modeled and reproduced;

its effectiveness and appropriateness can be measured.

The most widely used technologies of FLT are: cooperative technologies, project
technologies, distance learning, Portfolio, Intensive methods, audio-visual and
computer technologies, video technologies, interactive technologies (Chukin A. N.
Teaching Foreign Languages: Theory and Practice M., 2006 pp. 262-273 ).
Most schools regard technologies as a means of realizing Personally-oriented approach
because pupils are actively involved into learning activity (Zimnaya I. A., Polat E.C.,
Bim I. L. and others).
One and the same method may have different technologies for its realization. Methods
of training specialists may include technologies of cooperative activity, technologies of
role plays, technology of psychological training courses etc.
To achieve one and the same aim the teacher can use different technologies.
III.
There is no unique approach to classification of technologies of FLT. We can
distinguish traditional and innovational technologies, informational and innovative
technologies, interactive (game-like technologies, computer, Internet, audio, video
technologies, project) and communicative technologies such as case studies, role
plays, project work, socio-drama.

Each type of technology develop special skills and habits. For example, Information
technologies develop:
The ability to self-dependent search of information for solving professional tasks;
The ability of cooperative work;
Self-education.
The use of new information technologies also develop FL professional competence,
stimulates creativity, makes it possible to increase quality of education.
The use of technology in the classroom does not replace using traditional materials
such as blackboard or whiteboard.
I.
As you know according to the conception of FL education in the Republic
of Kazakhstan profile FL learning is introduced at the senior stage of secondary school,
i. e. in the 11th -12th form (B1) with this aim in view we teach students Mathematics,
History, etc.
Professionally- oriented FL learning (B2, C1, C2) is at the higher school level, which
means that students must be taught professionally based skills of professional
communication, that is a FL is taught in the context of future specialty.
The theory of context-based learning was worked out by Verbitsky A. A., Smolkin
A. M., Tarnopolsky O. B., Kunanbayeva S. S. Stamgalieva H.K. , Kulibayeva D. N. and
others.
According to Kunanbayeva S. S.:
, ,

,
(Matrix of Future
Profession).
We should distinguish and separate the notions of Content-based instruction and
Context-based teaching.
Content-based instruction is teaching a subject as geography, natural science history,
literature, physics, mathematics through English to learners whose first language is not
English. It is also known as content and language integrated learning (CLIL). It belongs
firmly to the tradition of the strong form of the communicative approach.
Instruction is organized around the content of the subject. In some countries such as
Canada it is closely related to immersion teaching when learners take all their school
subjects (or some of them) in a second language.
II.
Context-based teaching by its effectiveness can be regarded as an active
method because

It Intensifies the process of FLT and the communicative activity of the learners;
It makes the process creative and stimulates pupils interest;
It Forms students cognitive and professional motives;
It Introduces pupils to their future specialty;
It Teaches pupils to do cooperative, interactive activities.
III.
So, according to the context-based teaching the FLT process is organized as
the Model of pupils future professional activity with its non-standard problem
situations which occur in professional communication.
Thus we see, that context-based (professional) situation is the basic teaching unit.
Context-based technology is at the very heart of professional-oriented teaching which
is based on the interpretation of learning science and profession. The learners are
involved into the context of their future profession with the help of case studies and
pragma-professional tasks. The founder of context-based technology is Verbitsky A. A.
He distinguishes 3 basic forms of students activities of academic type:
learning activity with lectures and seminars as domineering forms of activities;
quazi professional activity (role plays and other game like activities);
learning professional (teaching practice, project works, problem solving tasks).
In the framework of this technology we can use case studies.
IV.

Case study.

The main function of case study is to teach how to solve practical-professional oriented
tasks including non-standard problems. The main thing about case studies is that they
have a problem situation from real life or from professional sphere. This is the main
feature that makes them different from traditional exercises or study tasks. They allow
many alternative ways of solving them and many ways of research. We call them
pragma-professional tasks.
The main principles in case study are clarity of expression, accessibility and simplicity.
Requirements of case studies:
-topicality;
-correspondence to the aims of teaching;
-correspondence to the levels of language learners;
-creative character.

Case studies may be presented on 2-3 pages or in 2-3 sentences. They can be in the
form of diagram, photo, picture or a tape. Of course, we should begin with short case
studies. Nowadays we can use case studies not only at the lessons but at the
examinations as well.
Creating case studies (Stages):
Choosing the aim of case study;
preliminary work on the search of the sources of information for the case study;
collection of information from different sources;
Thinking about the form and the way of presentation of case study;
Analyzing the case study and if necessary to correct it before presentation;
Preparing recommendations how to use it. Thinking of all possible questions that may
arise in the course of discussion.
Video technologies in FLT
I.
The use of video has been a common feature in FLT for many years. It is
rare these days to have a textbook without component added to it. The use of video
technologies in FLT makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of FLT.
With the help of video technologies in FLT we can create real communicative situation
and realize the Personality-oriented approach as well as communicative-oriented
approach.
There are many reasons why we use video:
seeing language in use, student does not only hear the language, he sees gestures,
mimicry and other paralinguistic features, gives valuable meaning, clues and provides
better understanding;
students become culturally aware.
The notion of video-information includes 2 components: video-text and audio-text
which add to each other in the framework of the textual activity and in the formation of
intercultural communicative competence and its components: language, speech
competence, strategic and lingua-cultural competences. The use of video technologies
makes it possible to develop students cognitive mechanisms of perception (auditive
and visual perception) and visual, auditory, logical memory which contribute largely to
the development of auditive-visual comprehension skills. Organization of work with
video technologies suggests the four types of skills in terms of textual activity (Dridze
T. M.):
prognostic skills;
interpretation skills;

compensatory skills;
productive skills;
Prognostic skills-to make prognosis about the events on the basis of the theme, title,
key words and initial sentences.
Interpretation skills-to understand the message on the whole to connect words into
sentences, to create cognitive images and comprehend with the existing frames of
knowledge, to create operative images.
Compensatory skills-to compensate the lack of knowledge of grammar/vocabulary.
Productive skills- to solve the problems to produce (create) utterances, to choose
necessary information.
II.

Functions of video technologies:

emotive;
cognitive;
educational;
teaching;
developing;
stimulating;
communicative;
Requirements to video materials and technologies:
authentic;
interesting;
accessible (should correspond to the progress);
not too time-consuming;
There are many factors to be taken into account when choosing and evaluating video
materials and video technologies with FL learners:
the materials and technologies should be learner-centered;
they should be interactive and provide interactive learning;
the material should be socio-culturally appropriate;
up to date;

vocabulary and comprehensible input, levels well-graded;


age appropriate;
interesting and visually attractive;
relevant to real life;
Easy to use; be sure that you obtain a good copy of video film. Avoid the video
materials that are damaged and do not work properly on the screen.
III. Stages of work.
Traditionally we distinguish
1) Pre-viewing (pre-watching) at which we prepare the students for the video film by
stimulating their interest, describing the background, anticipating grammar and
vocabulary difficulties, giving preliminary questions prior to the showing.
2) While-watching promotes discussion after each filmstrip frame through questions
and answers, descriptions and summaries.
3)

Post-watching:

a) general discussions of the questions given before;


b) students form small groups to discuss what they have seen;
c) show the film again after the discussion period for further discussion (oral, written);
Each video has:
Sound track;
Visual track (pictures that move, the pictures give clues to what we hear: facial
expressions, eye contact, background etc.).
IV.
In the framework of video technologies we can use different video
technologies. All the following viewing techniques are designed to awaken the
students curiosity through prediction activities so that when they finally watch the
video sequence in its entirety they will have expectation about it.
a.
Fast forward techniques. The students watch the sequence past fast (at a great
speed) and silently for them to guess what it was about or what the characters were
saying. In this way we develop students prognostic skills.
b. Silent viewing (for language). The teacher plays the tape at a normal speed but
without the sound first and then with the sound so that the students could say what
the characters were saying and then check their guess.

c.
Freeze frame at any stage during the video sequence we can freeze the picture. It
is useful for asking the students what they think will happen and what he/she will do
say/do next.
d. Partial viewing. Some part of the screen is covered so that students can see what
is happening only partially or by using a large divider so that half the rest of the class
sees the other half.
e.
Jigsaw viewing (picture or speed): to group A you present the video film with the
soundtrack turned off to allow students to concentrate on the visual image only; to
group B you present the video-film only with the soundtrack for the students to give an
appropriate dialogue or narration.
f.
Video-making activity. In this activity the camera becomes a central learning aid.
The students work cooperatively. The students use their creativity and imagination to
bring a fresh dimension to their learning. The students can film any episode they like
getting everyone involved.
Geromy Harmer suggests a model of a lesson with 3 main components:
Involvement;
Study;
Activization;
The 1st component supplies students with comprehensible unit. Its function is to
cognitively and emotively involve students, to create an atmosphere of expectation.
The second component Study suggests the work on new material, grammar and
vocabulary, their meaning, form and usage.
The third component Activization gives the students possibility to recognize and use
the material in the real life situation suggested at the lesson.
According to Kudritskaya M. I. we can use 3 different models of video lessons in which
the 3 main components mentioned above are sequenced in different ways:
1.

the straight arrow;

2.
boomerang-a curved stick that comes back to you when you throw it. It was
traditionally used by Australian aboriginals for hunting.
3.

patch work model.

Means of Profile teaching and educational technologies


Years ago, the only language teaching materials that language teachers used were
a grammar book and a dictionary, but today, there is a great variety of language
teaching materials on the market. These materials range from coursebooks,
workbooks, and readers to simplified versions of literary works, from cue cards, cut-

outs, charts to newspapers, magazines, posters, picture cards, and many other
materials. These materials are supplemented by another group of materials, such as
teacher's book and workbook, and supported by records, audio tapes, slides,
transparencies, filmstrips, films, video tapes, and computers. In modern language
teaching and learning, materials design and implementation is a major enterprise--the
area where principles of applied linguistic theory, the demands of classroom practice,
and the realities of commercial production lie uneasily together.
Generally speaking, the basic and most frequently used language teaching
materials can be categorized as (1) the coursebook, (2) the supplementary materials
(teacher's book and the workbook or exercise book), and (3) the supporting materials
(pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tapes, videos, etc.). A good language teacher
should know these materials very well as s/he uses at least one of them (the
coursebook) in language classes; therefore, some knowledge about these materials
can help a teacher a lot in her/his profession. It is rare to find teachers of English who
do not use any coursebooks in their classes; most teachers prefer using coursebooks.
Some may prefer using one coursebook, some others prefer using more than one
coursebook, and some teachers prefer adapting and supplementing/supporting the
coursebooks that are available
Why do teachers prefer using coursebooks? Some of the main reasons are as
follows:
1. Coursebooks are written by experienced and well-qualified people, and the material
contained in them is usually carefully tested in pilot studies in actual teaching
situations before publication. Teachers therefore can be assured that coursebooks from
reputable publishers can serve them well
2. Using a coursebook, to some extent, guarantees a degree of consistency in the
courses that are taught by a number of different teachers who bring into classrooms
different professional skills and personality traits; it ensures some continuity between
grade levels when materials come in a series; and it helps the teachers in the process
of materials selection.
3. Teachers need a coursebook to help them bring the real world into the essentially
artificial classroom situation so that they can relate the language items they are
teaching to actual usage. It also relieves teachers from the pressure of having to think
of original material and preparing handouts for learners for every class since a good
coursebook often contains lively and interesting material for motivation, fun, and
reduction of barriers to learning.
4. Furthermore, teachers need a coursebook to make the best use of time in the
classroom and to avoid unintended repetition or neglect of essential language
patterns.
5. Psychologically, a coursebook is also important also to a student. It provides for the
learner something concrete that gives a measure of progress and achievement as

lessons are completed. A good coursebook also provides a sensible progression of


language items, clearly showing what has to be learned and in some cases
summarizing what has been studied so that learners can revise functional points on
which they have been concentrating. As Billows (1976) suggests, learners need a
coursebook so that they can measure the rate of their progress and practice what has
been learned (cited in Ersoz, 1990).
Qualities of a good coursebook
Every teacher tries to use a coursebook that will help her/him in reaching the goals of
the language teaching/learning process. It is not easy to list all the qualities of a good
coursebook, but five basic qualities can be summarized as follows:
1. A good coursebook should have practicality. It should be easily obtained and
affordable. Additionally, it should be durable enough to withstand wear, and its size
should be convenient for the students to handle.
2. It should be appropriate for the learners' language level, level of education, age,
social attitudes, intellectual ability, and level of emotional maturity, and the general
goals of ELT in the country it is used. It should also be relevant to the needs of the
learners.
3. It should be motivating. The major aim of a coursebook is to encourage the learner
to learn. Without providing interesting and lively texts, enjoyable activities which
employ the learner's thinking capacity, opportunities for the learner to use his existing
knowledge and skills, a content which is exciting and challenging but which also
has relevance to the real world, a coursebook is likely to be regarded as a dull,
artificial, and useless part of a language class.
4. It should be flexible. Although a clear and coherent unit structure has many
advantages, too tightly structured coursebooks may produce a monotonous pattern of
lessons. The structure of a good coursebook should be clear and systematic but
flexible enough to allow for creativity and variety to provide opportunities for learners
who have different learning strategies.
5. It should have both situational and linguistic realism. A good coursebook should
provide situations where language is used for real and genuine communication and
where messages are at least realistic and believable. The content and form of
messages should have naturalness of expression. If the expressions in the lessons
would not be used by people interacting in real life situations, trying to teach them is
nothing but wasting time and effort.
Supplementary materials
Supplementary materials are the materials that supplement the coursebook being
used. They also provide additional work and exposure to language for the learner.

These materials are the teacher's book, the work or exercise book, and any other
reader/s.
a)

The teacher's book

The teacher's book is a guide for the teacher in the use of the coursebook and the
workbook, and it provides additional ideas and activities in similar areas for the
teacher. It gives an outline of each unit/lesson in the coursebook and shows the steps
to be followed in each unit/lesson to the teacher. Most teachers prefer following the
steps and guidelines given in the teacher's book, but it is not always suitable since
they are generally prepared having a general learner in mind, but your learners may
have different needs and learning styles and strategies. Therefore, it is not always
logical to follow those guidelines step by step but to take them only as a guide. A
teacher should not be the slave of a teacher's book but should use her/his own
creativity.
b) The workbook or the exercise book
The workbook is another language teaching material that teachers frequently use in
their classes. It is prepared to provide a wide range of exercises and activities to
emphasize what has been learned recently. The workbook provides further optional
activities for learners to do.
c) Supporting materials
Most English language teachers think that the coursebook is the basic and the only
element that can be used in English lessons. Since this happens so often, most
learners get bored in the process of language learning. What can a language teacher
do in order not to have bored students in her/his class? There are several answers to
this question, but in terms of language teaching materials, the answer lies in the use of
supporting materials. Even the best coursebook sometimes needs to be supported by
some visual and/or audio and/or audio-visual materials.
Therefore, it is important to know what the supporting materials are and to
emphasize how a teacher can use these materials effectively to motivate her/his
learners.
As has been mentioned above, these materials can be grouped as visual materials,
audio materials, and audio-visual materials. They are the materials that help the
teacher in the teaching process to attain certain learning objectives. They are brought
to the classroom to support the coursebook. Most teachers and learners prefer using
these materials in their classes because they:
a. provide realistic contexts for the exemplification of language items in the classroom
b. provide actual examples of language in real use
c. provide a realistic stimulus for the production of language by the pupils

d. aid motivation by answering the pupils' desire for novelty and variety.
Doff mentions some points about using such materials. According to him, (1)
showing visuals focuses attention on meaning and helps to make the language used in
the class more real and alive and (2) having something to look at keeps the students'
attention and makes the class more interesting.
However, besides these advantages of using supporting materials, Ellis and
Tomlinson warn teachers about some points.
1. The aid should help the teacher--the teacher should not become the assistant of the
aid.
2. The aid must be used only when it can be useful and not merely to justify its
purchase.
3. The aid must be chosen because it can help a particular teaching situation instead
of a particular teaching situation being chosen because it can be helped by a particular
aid.
4. The aid should be able to achieve things which the teacher cannot do by himself.
2.

Evaluation of the coursebooks

The ability to evaluate a coursebook effectively is a very significant one. First, most
teachers use them during their teaching career and in contexts where they have a
choice; this choice should be on the basis of clear theoretical and applied (practical)
considerations. Second, such an evaluation not only facilitates the selection of new
materials, it can also be used to reconsider old ones on a regular basis
3.

The importance of technology in FLT.

Technology is becoming increasingly important in both our personal lives and our
professional lives. However, teacher-training programmes often ignore the use of
Information and Communication technologies and our school teachers are not very
much skilled and knowledgeable about technologies.
Technologies in FLT have been used for decades or for centuries if we classify the
blackboard as a form of technology. Tape recorders, language laboratories and video
have been used since 1960s and 1970s and are all still used in our classroom around
the world.
Computer based materials for FLT often referred to as CALL (Computer assisted
language learning), appeared in the early 1980s and nowadays the CALL approach is
one that is still found on CD-ROMS for language teaching.
Young learners are growing up with technology and it is natural that it has become
integrated in their lives.

Technology, especially the Internet presents us new opportunities for authentic


materials, for collaboration and communication between learners who are
geographically far from each other.
4.

The essence of term technology.

In FLT Methodology Pedagogical technologies are widely used for effective and
resultative teaching/learning. However, there is no unique approach to the definition
of technology and its classification. It is often defined as:
-

the algorithm of a persons activity in the educational process;

modeling and assessment of the achievements of the aims with the help of this or
that form of work
Nowadays we should distinguish between the two terms Technology of teaching and
Technology in teaching. The first term denotes methods and devices of scientifically
organized teachers work with the help of which we achieve the aims of FLT. The
second term denotes the use of technical aids in FLT process and corresponds to the
Russian term .
The main characteristics of technologies of FLT are:
Resultativeness
Economy of time and teachers/pupils efforts
High level of motivation
Cooperation and partnership.
The main requirements to technologies of FLT are:
-

it is based on a scientific conception;

It is systematic by its character (it is a part of a system with its logics, relations of
parts and integrity);
-

it can be modeled and reproduced;

its effectiveness and appropriateness can be measured.

The most widely used technologies of FLT are: cooperative technologies, project
technologies, distance learning, Portfolio, Intensive methods, audio-visual and
computer technologies, video technologies, interactive technologies (Chukin A. N.
Teaching Foreign Languages: Theory and Practice M., 2006 pp. 262-273 ).
Most schools regard technologies as a means of realizing Personally-oriented approach
because pupils are actively involved into learning activity (Zimnaya I. A., Polat E.C.,
Bim I. L. and others).

One and the same method may have different technologies for its realization. Methods
of training specialists may include technologies of cooperative activity, technologies of
role plays, technology of psychological training courses etc.
To achieve one and the same aim the teacher can use different technologies.
5.

Types of technologies.

There is no unique approach to classification of technologies of FLT. We can


distinguish traditional and innovational technologies, informational and innovative
technologies, interactive (game-like technologies, computer, Internet, audio, video
technologies, project) and communicative technologies such as case studies, role
plays, project work, socio-drama.
Each type of technology develop special skills and habits. For example, Information
technologies develop:
The ability to self-dependent search of information for solving professional tasks;
The ability of cooperative work;
Self-education.
The use of new information technologies also develop FL professional competence,
stimulates creativity, makes it possible to increase quality of education.
The use of technology in the classroom does not replace using traditional materials
such as blackboard or whiteboard.
6.

Appropriate Use of Technology

Calculators, computers, CD-ROMs, video players, overhead projectors, cameras,


and other tools of technology are, to varying degrees, available in U.S. schools and
classrooms, and to a large extent students have access to electronic technology at
home. Using these tools to enhance learning is an important responsibility of todays
teachers. Such tools can be used in classrooms with students, to help with records
management, or to communicate with families. Moreover, teachers can use the
Internet in their planning and in pursuing opportunities for professional learning. The
use of e-mail has greatly enhanced the reach of many teachers, in their participation in
a professional community and in their ongoing communication with families. And most
school districts and many schools maintain Web sites that describe the schools
program; in some cases, teachers use this resource to post homework assignments,
and they use e-mail to communicate with students after the school day.
Educators need to remember that technological tools are just thattools. They
should never be considered ends in themselves, and they should not be misused. For
example, if students learn to perform operations by using a calculator exclusively, they
may not know how to do the problem without it. That is, if students dont understand
the concept of multiplication or how multiplying by 10 affects a product, then using a
calculator to get the right answers leaves them vulnerable. They may discover that

their computational skill is dependent on access to a calculator. Similarly, it is essential


for students to know their multiplication facts so they can recall them quickly and
easily. But once students have acquired the necessary concepts, the calculator can
save them a great deal of time.
Teachers and schools must also be aware that the private resources available to
students in the area of technology are extremely uneven. Many families now have
computers at home, complete with games and all the latest enhancements. Many
others do not. Thus childrens familiarity with technology is diverse and is reflected in
how they can use technological tools in their academic work. Part of a schools
responsibility is to provide access to technology for all students.
For many teachers, the use of electronic technology represents a foray into
unfamiliar territory; they did not grow up with such tools, and some resist acquiring the
necessary skill. Being new to these tools is frightening; one is forever concerned about
making an error, or breaking the equipment, or losing important documents. These
hesitations are overcome through experience, by increasing familiarity with the
machines and what they will do. Of course, learning about technology is, for teachers,
a task that is never finished. Just when one has mastered a new tool, another becomes
available. Staying abreast of developments in technology is an important component
of professional development for many teachers.
Planning and Managing Classes in Profile Education.
Some teachers with experience seem to have an ability to think on their feet, and
this allows them to believe that lesson planning is unnecessary. However, most
teachers do not share this view and prepare their lessons. The resulting lesson plans
range from the very formal and elaborate to a few hurried notes. But even the notes
are still a plan of a kind.
For students, evidence of a plan shows that the teacher has devoted time to thinking
about the class. It strongly suggests a level of professionalism and a commitment to
the kind of research they might reasonably expect. Lack of a plan may suggest the
opposite of these teacher attributes, even if such a perception is unjustified.
For teachers, a plan gives the lesson a framework, an overall shape. It is true that they
may end up departing from it at some stage of the lesson, but at the very least it will
be something to fall back on. Of course, good teachers are flexible and respond
creatively to what happens in the classroom, but they also need to have thought
ahead, to have a destination which they want their students to reach, and some idea
of how they are going to get there. In the classroom, a plan helps to remind teachers
what they intended to do especially if they get distracted or momentarily forget what
they had proposed.
There is one particular situation in which planning is especially important, and that is
when a teacher is to be observed as part of an assessment or performance review.
Such plans are likely to be more elaborate than usual, not just for the sake of the

teacher being observed, but also so that the observer can have a clear idea of what
the teacher intends in order to judge how well that intention is carried through.
Whatever lesson plans look like, they should never be thought of as instructions to
be slavishly followed, but rather as proposals for action. We may have an idea of what
the learning outcomes for the lesson should be (that is, what the students will have
learnt by the end), but we will only really know what those outcomes are once the
lesson itself has finished. How closely lesson plans are followed depends, in other
words, on what happens when we try to put them to work.
Suppose, for example, that the teacher has planned that the students should prepare a
dialogue and then act it out, after which there is a reading text and some exercises for
them to get through. The teacher has allowed twenty minutes for dialogue preparation
and acting out. But when the students start working on this activity, it is obvious that
they need more time. Clearly the plan will have to be modified. A similar decision will
have to be made if the class suddenly encounters an unexpected language problem in
the middle of some planned sequence of activities. The teacher can bypass the
problem and keep going, or they can realise that now is an ideal time to deal with the
issue, and amend the plan accordingly.
Another scenario is also possible: all the students are working on preparing a dialogue
except for two pairs who have already finished. The teacher then has to decide
whether to tell them to wait for the others to catch up (which might make them bored
and resentful) or whether to stop the rest of the class to prevent this (which could
frustrate all those who didn't get a chance to finish).
There are other unforeseen problems too: the tape/CD player or computer program
,suddenly doesn't work; we forget to bring the material we were relying on; the
students look at the planned reading text and say 'We've done that before'.
Good teachers need to be flexible enough to cope with unforeseen events, and it is
because they know that they may have to adapt to changing circumstances that they
understand that a lesson plan is not fixed in stone.
So far we have suggested that teachers need to be flexible when confronted with
unforeseen problems. But a happier scenario is also possible. Imagine that during a
discussion phase a student suddenly says something really interesting, something
which could provoke fascinating conversation or suggest a completely unplanned (but
appropriate and enjoyable) activity. In such a situation - when this kind of magic
moment suddenly presents itself - we would be foolish to plough on with our plan
regardless. On the contrary, a good teacher will recognise the magic moment for what
it is and adapt what they had planned to do accordingly. Magic moments are precious,
in other words, and should not be wasted just because we didn't know they were going
to happen.
There will always be a tension between what we had planned to do and what we
actually do when magic moments or unforeseen problems present themselves. It is the

mark of a good teacher to know when and how to deal with unplanned events, and
how to balance a proposal for action with appropriate flexibility.
A good lesson needs to contain a judicious blend of coherence and variety.
Coherence means that students can see a logical pattern to the lesson. Even if there
are three separate activities, for example, there has to be some connection between
them - or at the very least a perceptible reason for changing direction. In this context,
it would not make sense to have students listen to an audio track, ask a few
comprehension questions and then change the activity completely to something totally
unrelated to the listening. And if the following activity only lasted for five minutes
before, again, something completely different was attempted, we might well want to
call the lesson incoherent.
Nevertheless, the effect of having a class do a 45-minute drill would be equally
damaging. The lack of variety, coupled with the relentlessness of such a procedure,
would militate against the possibility of real student engagement. However present it
might be at the beginning of the session, it would be unlikely to be sustained. There
has to be some variety in a lesson period.
The ideal compromise, then, is to plan a lesson that has an internal coherence but
which nevertheless allows students to do different things as it progresses.
2.

Planning classes

In this section, we look first at long-term planning of classes. This usually follows some
kind of syllabus divided into units. The syllabus is the basis of a course, though it may
need adapting, for example, to a specific teaching situation. Short-term organization is
then discussed, and we present one possible format for lesson planning. Effective class
management is essential for actual teaching, and we offer suggestions. Finally, we
consider approaches to two specific teaching situations-children's courses and large
groups.
Long-term planning
Courses are normally based on a syllabus. This may be a document prepared by your
school or educational authority, or it may be the contents section of your coursebook.
The syllabus constitutes your essential guide for the course. It sets your objectives and
tells you what to teach, in what order, in what period of time, and-to some extent-how.
The course syllabus
At first sight, a syllabus can seem distant from the daily task of preparing and
giving individual lessons. It usually contains a long list of items and activities for up to
a year's work. There may also be general methodological indications, and these may
not necessarily suit your teaching style or your specific teaching situation very well.
However, the syllabus is the starting point for all your more detailed planning of
lessons. Your lesson planning and what you actually do in the classroom must take into
account the major goals, the unit divisions, and the general methodological indications
of your syllabus. Table 1 shows the different levels of planning.

Before you can begin to make any detailed plan you need to be familiar with the
main goals, general objectives, and content of the syllabus. That includes
understanding:
what the learners are expected to know and be able to do in English at the beginning
of the course, and at the end of the course.
what the roles of grammar, functions, topics, and skills are. Some syllabuses may give
more emphasis to language knowledge and others to communication skills.
If your syllabus is not clear about levels of learner performance and major goals,
you need to take steps to clarify- these. For example, you may need to consult a coordinator or senior teacher, examine the coursebook in detail, and look at any course
tests that exist. You may sometimes even need to take your own decisions.
An important consideration is whether the syllabus and the course material allows
for constant reactivation and integration of previously introduced items and skills. To
achieve this, many modern syllabuses are not linear, but spiral. A linear syllabus may
mean, for example, a week of 'There is/are' and only 'There is/are', then a week of
Possessives and only Possessives, then a week of Likes/Dislikes and only Likes/Dislikes,
and then a Review of 'There is/are', Possessives, and Likes/Dislikes. The Review may
well reveal that the learners have half-forgotten 'There is/are' during the two weeks
they have not practised it, and are already beginning to forget Possessives. In contrast,
a spiral syllabus constantly tries to reactivate previously introduced language and
skills, and to integrate new items into a growing repertoire of English.
Learners quickly forget items they do not use. Also, isolated language items (such
as 'There is/are') are not much use in dynamic communication situations. To be able to
communicate, learners need to develop a growing repertoire of language which is
available whenever required. If your syllabus appears to be strongly linear, it is a good
idea to include some regular reactivation and integration sessions in your lessons. You
can give a little time to such work every lesson, and perhaps also spend longer on it
once a week, for example, every Friday.
Syllabus units
The unit divisions of a syllabus usually indicate how the content can be grouped
together, and how fast the course should move. A unit may have a single theme, for
example, 'Talking about the future' or 'Sp.ace travel'. A theme, or some other
association between the language elements, can help the learners remember what
they have been working on better. The move from unit to unit can also give both you
and the learners a sense of progress over the many weeks or months of the course.
Units are also usually related to periods of time. For example, you may have to
cover a unit every month, or every ten teaching hours. This should help you relate the
syllabus to your specific teaching conditions and learners. If you are lucky, you may
find you have plenty of time for the relaxed use of materials and activities that are
particularly interesting and useful for your group. If you are less fortunate, you may

find that you need to be extremely organized, disciplined, and creative to cover just
the most essential objectives and content of the syllabus without driving the learners
to despair.
To save time, some teachers omit the review units in their coursebook. This is not
advisable unless you have managed to incorporate reactivation and integration
sessions into your regular teaching. It is essential to keep alive the language and skills
from earlier in the course, and from previous courses. An adequate syllabus allows for
the fact that learners will be accumulating knowledge and skills, learning new things
without forgetting old ones. The saying 'More haste, less speed' is relevant here.
Teachers often think they are going faster and that learners are making more progress
when they constantly move on to new language items and skills. It may seem that
spending lessons on what the learners have 'already studied' is wasting time. But in
reality, the only way learners make genuine progress in learning language, and being
able to communicate with it, is by constantly using it.
Short-term planning
Short-term planning may involve work plans covering a week's teaching as well as
individual lesson plans.
Work plans
Work plans consist of the outlines of a sequence of lessons. They should provide
your teaching with continuity and coherence. This is hard to achieve when looking at
each lesson in isolation. Work plans can ensure that, over each week, there is variety in
your teaching, something for every type of learner. They can also ensure that you are
achieving the balance between old and new language items, accuracy and fluency
practice, and language and skills work, and that you do not lose sight of your main
goal, communication. If, out of three lessons per week, one consists largely of
presentation and practice of new language items, at least one other lesson each week
should consist largely of communicative work.
Lesson planning
For truly professional teachers, lesson planning is not optional, it is essential
preparation for teaching. It is a matter of deciding exactly what you are going to teach,
and how. Unless you establish your objectives and activities in this way, you may find
yourself just going mechanically through the coursebook, or trying to improvise whole
lessons. Such approaches usually produce poor results, although some improvisation
and flexibility is good, even essential, in teaching. Learners can easily notice the
difference between teachers who plan and those who do not. And if their teacher does
not make an effort, why should they?
To begin your lesson plan, decide where the lesson fits into your week's work plan
or teaching cycle. Then establish specific objectives for the lesson. These will largely
be determined by the phase in the teaching cycle. Here are some examples of lesson
objectives

To present and achieve controlled production of a new grammatical - functional


item.
-

To achieve guided communicative use of a new item.

To achieve the communicative use of a mixed range of language in writing.

To promote the learners' confidence in the conversational use of


develop comprehension of public announcements.

English. To

The activities and materials should be appropriate for your objectives, and also for
your specific group of learners. When deciding on appropriate activities and materials,
take into account the learners' age, interests, and abilities. Calculate the approximate
time for each activity so that you do not end up doing only half of what you planned, or
having no plan for the last quarter of the lesson. And remember that there needs to be
a variety of activity and interaction, for example, between lockstep, pairwork,
groupwork, and individual work.
Here is a typical lesson plan:
The main elements and considerations in the above plan are:
Clear stages: warm-up (1); lead-in (2); main activity (3); follow-up (4); and wind-down
(5)-and smooth transitions between them.
A unifying theme, running through the conversation, listening, and writing activities.
Appropriate relationships between objectives, activities, materials, and procedures.
Attention to both the communicative use of English and formal correctness in the
language, i.e. fluency and accuracy.
Consideration of the learners' interests and the learning conditions, as well as the
grammatical-functional items in the syllabus.
The stages and transitions give a comfortable flow to the lesson. Each stage requires
different behaviour from the teacher, a different level of effort from the learners, and
changes in pace. A spare activity-for example, a game or quiz-could have been
included at the end in case the lesson went faster than anticipated. The learners are
provided with enough input-photos, a model conversation on cassette, and a poster-to
get them going, but they are also given the opportunity to use their personal
experience in realistic tasks. The interest of the topic and tasks, the changes of activity
and interaction, and the relatively relaxed pace, should help the learners through this
late class8.00 to 9.00 in the evening.
Obviously, lesson plans need to vary according to the age and level of the learners, the
objectives, the time of day, and even the time of year. Young learners need more
changes of activity and more physical activity. They have much shorter attention spans
than older learners, and can get very restless.

Older learners at higher levels can sometimes work enthusiastically at the same task
for quite long periods of time. Lessons at the end of a long morning, the end of a long
day, or just before a holiday period, need to be lighter than other lessons.
During or after a lesson you can make a few notes on the plan, and it will then act as
the starting point for the following lesson plan. A book, folder, or file of such plans can
be a permanent record of the progress achieved with a particular group, and may
serve as the basis for even better plans next time you teach the course.
3.

Planning questions

Teachers will be answering seven fundamental questions when they decide what
activities to take to a lesson.
Who exactly are the students for this activity?
The make-up of the class will influence the way we plan. The students' age, level,
cultural background and individual characteristics have to be taken into account when
deciding what activities, texts or methodologies to use in the classroom).
What do we want to do and why?
We have to decide what we want to do in the lesson in terms of both activities, skills
and language. We also need to know why we want to do it. It might be because we
ourselves like the activity, or because we think it will be appropriate for a particular
day or a particular group. There is nothing wrong with deciding to do an activity simply
because we think it will make students feel good.
However, before deciding to use an activity just because we or the students might like
it, we need to try to predict what it will achieve. What will students know, be able to
do, understand or feel after the activity that they did not know, were not able to do, did
not understand or feel before? What, in other words, is the learning outcome of the
activity?
Examples of what an activity might achieve include giving students a greater
understanding of an area of vocabulary, providing them with better listening
strategies, teaching them how to solve the equations, improving their oral fluency or
raising the morale of the group through appropriate cooperative interaction.
How long will it take?
Some activities which, at first glance, look very imaginative end up lasting for only
a very short time. Others demand considerable setting-up time, discussion time,
student-planning time, etc. The students' confidence in the teacher can be undermined
if they never finish what they set out to do; students are frequently irritated when
teachers run on after the bell has gone because they haven't finished an activity.
Teachers, for their part, are made uncomfortable if they have overestimated the
amount of time something might take and are thus left with time on their hands and no
clear idea what to do. There is no absolute way of preventing such problems from

occurring, of course, but we should at least try to estimate how long each activity will
take (based on our experience and knowledge of the class) so that we can measure our
progress as the lesson continues against our proposed 'timetable'. We can also plan for
our material taking too little time by having some spare activities with us. If we have
built-in lesson stages in our plan, we can decide, as the lesson progresses, where we
might want to veer away from the plan if we see that we have taken too much time
over one particular element of it.
How does it work?
If we want to use the photograph-choosing activity, we need to know how we and
our students are going to do it. Who does what first? How and when should students be
put in pairs or groups? When do we give instructions? What should those instructions
be? What should we be doing while the students are working in groups?, etc.
Experienced teachers may have procedures firmly fixed in their minds, but even they,
when they try something new, need to think carefully about the mechanics of an
activity.
What will be needed?
Teachers have to decide whether they are going to use the board, a CD or tape
player, an overhead projector, a data projector, some role-cards or a computer (or
computers). It is important to think about the bestway of doing something, rather than
automatically choosing the most technologically exciting option. It is also important to
consider the physical environment of the classroom itself and how that might affect
whatever teaching equipment we wish to use.
What might go wrong?
If teachers try to identify problems that might arise in the lesson, they are in a much
better position to deal with them if and when they occur. This will also give the teacher
insight into the language and/or the activity which is to be used. This isn't to say that
we can predict everything that might happen. Nevertheless, thinking around our
activities - trying to put ourselves in the students' minds, and gauging how they might
react - will make us much more aware of potential pitfalls than we might otherwise be.
How will it fit in with what comes before and after it?
An activity on its own may be useful and engaging and may generate plenty of
good language. But what connection, if any, does it have with the activities which
come before and after it? How does it fit into our need for the three ESA lesson
elements? Is there a language tie-in to previous or future activities? Perhaps two or
three activities are linked by topic, one leading into the other. Perhaps an activity has
no connection with the one before it: it is there to break up the monotony of a lesson
or to act as a 'gear change'. Perhaps we may decide to start our lesson with a short
icebreaker (sometimes called a warmer) for no other reason than to get the students in
a good mood for the lesson that is to follow. The point of answering this question for

ourselves is to ensure that we have some reasonable vision of the overall shape of our
lesson and that it is not composed of unrelated scraps.
Introduction into the discipline. Curriculum design. Syllabus design.
I. Definitions of curriculum
Effective teaching depends on effective planning and design. In many cases, teachers
develop their own curricula, often refining and improving them over years, although it
is also common for teachers to adapt lessons and syllabi created by other teachers.
The term curriculum is used to refer to the overall plan or design for a course.
Curriculum comes from the Latin word which means a race or the course of a race
(which in turn derives from the verb "currere" meaning to run/to proceed).
The content for a course is transformed into a blueprint(detailed plan) for teaching and
learning which enables the desired learning outcomes to be achieved. All the learning
which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or
individually, inside or outside the school. (Kelly 1983: 10; Kelly 1999).
Curriculum is more than a list of topics and lists of key facts and skills (the input).
It is a map of how to achieve the outputs of desired student performance, in which
appropriate learning activities and assessments are suggested to make it more likely
that students achieve the desired results (Wiggins and McTighe, 2006: 6)
II.Curriculum development in language teaching can start from input, process or
output.
It seems logical to assume that before we can teach a language, we need to decide
what linguistic content(Input) to teach. Once content has been selected it then needs
to be organized into teachable and learnable units as well as arranged in a rational
sequence. The result is a syllabus.
Process refers to how teaching is carried out and constitutes the domain of
methodology in language teaching. Methodology encompasses the types of learning
activities, procedures and techniques that are employed by teachers when they teach
and the principles that underlie the design of the activities and exercises in their
textbooks and teaching resources.
Throughout the twentieth century there was a movement away from mastery-oriented
approaches focusing on the production of accurate samples of language use, to the
use of more activity-oriented approaches focusing on interactive and communicative
classroom processes. Once a set of teaching processes has been standardized and
fixed in terms of principles and associated practices it is generally referred to as a
method, as in Audiolingualism or Total Physical Response.
Output refers to learning outcomes, that is, what learners are able to do as the result
of a period of instruction. Language teaching since the late nineteenth century has

seen a change in the intended outputs of learning from knowledge-based to


performance-based outputs.
Input
Syllabus

Process
Methodology

Output
Learning

outcomes

Forward design is based on the assumption that input, process, and output are related
in a linear fashion. Forward design starts with syllabus planning, moves to
methodology, and is followed by assessment of learning outcomes. Resolving issues of
syllabus content and sequencing are essential starting points with forward design,
which has been the major tradition in language curriculum development. Backward
design starts from a specification of learning outcomes and decisions on methodology
and syllabus are developed from the learning outcomes. The Common European
Framework of Reference is a recent example of backward design.
Central design begins with classroom processes and methodology. Issues of syllabus
and learning outcomes are not specified in detail in advance and are addressed as the
curriculum is implemented. Many of the innovative methods of the 1980s and 90s
reflect central design. A variety of teaching strategies can be employed to achieve the
desired goals but teaching methods cannot be chosen until the desired outcomes have
been specified. From this perspective many of the central-design methods or activityoriented approaches discussed above fail to meet the criterion of good instructional
design.
Education as induction into knowledge is successful to the extent that it makes the
behavioural outcomes of the students unpredictable (Stenhouse, 1970 in Clark, 1987:
35). Central design can thus be understood as a learner-focused and learning-oriented
perspective (Leung, 2012). Graves alludes to this approach when she refers to
curriculum enactment as the essence of a curriculum.
Backward design starts from a specification of learning outcomes and decisions on
methodology and syllabus are developed from the learning outcomes. The Common
European Framework of Reference is a recent example of backward design. It describes
six levels of achievement divided into three broad divisions from lowest (A1) to highest
(C2) which describe what a learner should be able to do in reading, listening, speaking
and writing at each level.
Basic user A1, A2
Independent user B1, B2
Proficient user - C1, C2
III. Competency-Based Instruction is another widely used example of backward design.
With CpBI the starting point of curriculum design is a specification of the learning
outcomes in terms of competencies the knowledge, skills and behaviors learners

involved in performing everyday tasks and activities and which learners should master
at the end of a course of study.
Competency-based education has much in common with such approaches to learning
as performance-based instruction, mastery learning and individualized instruction.
It is outcome-based and is adaptive to the changing needs of students, teachers and
the community
Competencies differ from other student goals and objectives in that they describe the
students ability to apply basic and other skills in situations that are commonly
encountered in everyday life.
Thus CBE is based on a set of outcomes that are derived from an analysis of tasks
typically required of students in life role situations.
These procedures and principles relate to beliefs and theories concerning the nature of
language and of second language learning and the roles of teachers, learners and
instructional materials, and as ideas about language and language learning have
changed, so too have the instructional practices associated with them.
There is no best approach to curriculum design, and forward design, central design and
backward design might each work well but in different circumstances.
IV. The role and principles of curriculum
Curriculum should offer: 1. Principle for the selection of content what is to be learned
and taught
2. Principles for the development of a teaching strategy how it is to be learned and
taught.
3. Principles for the making of decisions about sequence.
4. Principles on which to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of individual students
and differentiate the general principles 1, 2 and 3 above, to meet individual cases.
Curriculum establishes a clear philosophy and set of goals that guide the entire
program and the decisions that affect each aspect of the program;
establishes sequences both within and between levels and assures a coherent
progression from grade to grade;
outlines a basic framework for what to do, how to do it, when to do it and how to know
if it has been achieved;
allows for flexibility and encourages experimentation and innovation within an overall
structure;
promotes interdisciplinary approaches and the integration of curricula when
appropriate;

suggests methods of assessing the achievement of the program's goals and objectives;
provides a means for its own ongoing revision and improvement.
Starting a new course.
I.

Starting points

Becoming bilingual is a way of life. Your whole person is affected as you struggle to
reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language, a new
culture, a new way of thinking, feeling, and acting. Second language learning is not a
set of easy steps that can be programmed in a quick do-it-yourself kit.
The teaching process is the facilitation of learning, in which you can "teach" a foriegn
language successfully if, among other things, you know something about learns or fails
to learn a second language. Where does a teacher begin the quest for an
understanding of the principles of foreign learning and teaching? By asking some
questions.
Who? Who does the learning and teaching?
What? No simpler question is one that probes the nature of the subject matter itself.
What is communication? What is language?
How How does learning take place? How can person can ensure success in language
learning?
When When does second language learning take place?
Where Are the learners attempting to acquire the second language within the cultural
and linguistic milieu of the second language - that is , in a "second" language situation
in the technical sese of the term?
Why Finally, the most encompassing of all questions: Why are learners attempting to
acquire the second language?
Lets remember the 1st lecture: Effective teaching depends on effective planning and
design. Many problems that can occur once a course is in motion can be prevented by
advance preparation and planning for your students learning. So, we should take into
consideration the following components of the teaching process:
Aim and objectives
Type of the programme (name, time, number of hours, etc.)
Students: age, level, abilities, learning experience, motivation, etc.
Methods and approaches
Content of the course (coursebook and other teaching materials)
Assessment

Given Syllabus/ Syllabus design (Look at the table)


Question
Meaning
Our components
Who?
Who does the learning and teaching?
Students: age, level, abilities, learning experience, motivation,
etc.
What?
No simpler question is one that probes the nature of the subject matter itself. What is
communication? What is language?
Content of the course
How?
How does learning take place? How can person can ensure success in language
learning?
Methods and approaches
When?
When does second language learning take place?
Type of the programme (name, time, number of hours, etc.)
Where?
Are the learners attempting to acquire the second language within the cultural and
linguistic milieu of the second language - that is , in a "second" language situation in
the technical sese of the term?
Type of the programme (name, time, number of hours, etc.)
Assessment
Why?
Finally, the most encompassing of all questions: Why are learners attempting to
acquire the second language?
Aim and objective

II.

Differences between aim and objective

Recently, a group of beginning teachers who would soon be assuming full responsibility
for a course were asked to specify the goals they had in mind for the students they
were about to teach. Answers to this seemingly straightforward question were entirely
limited to statements such as "help them understand Western civilization," "get them
interested in the subject of English," and "teach them to write an effective argument."
Although objectives such as these can help to get you started, they give little focus to
what you or your students will actually be doing in the course. How, for example, will
you know whether a student is interested, and what should you do to engender that
interest? Similarly, how will you judge the effectiveness of their arguments? More
importantly, if they are not effective, what will you do?
Even if the first objective you think of is similar to these examples, before completing
further preparations for the class, and certainly before entering the classroom, you will
generally find it helpful to restate your objectives in more precise terms. One way of
doing this is to think about what data you will use to determine whether those
objectives have been reached. For example, if you want your students to write an
effective argument, you should give some thought to what is involved in effective
argumentation, which pieces are most critical to that effectiveness, what kind of skill or
concepts are prerequisite to achieving it. It is often helpful to work backwards by first
imagining what form an effective argument of the sort you are looking for would take
and by then asking yourself what information is necessary along the way.
When you begin clarifying and refining your objectives, you should keep two things in
mind. First, a well-considered objective clearly specifies what the student should be
able to do as a result of being in your course. Second, and perhaps more importantly, it
should provide unambiguous information about what data will be used to determine
the degree of their success. Once you have decided on your objectives in these terms,
you can then begin thinking about which kinds of classroom activities will best foster
them. As the following section suggests, the methods of instruction and the kinds of
additional preparation you will need to do are also determined by the goals you have
set for your course.
The aim is to enable students to communicate in the target language just as a native
speaker learns his language. It eliminates the need of the linguistic forms, meanings,
and functions in its syntax . Communicative languages stresses on the semantics of a
language .They need to know the different forms in meaning that can be used to
perform a function as a medium of communication and also that a single form can
often serve a variety of functions. They must be able to choose from among these the
most appropriate forms, given the social context and the roles of the interlocutors.
They must also be able to manage the process of negotiating meaning with their
interlocutors. Communication is a process; knowledge of the forms of language
,structure in grammar is insufficient. To achieve these aims the teacher might need to
use some teaching aids for help,such as some teaching software. For example, by
using Language Lab, the teacher can talk to all the students or any of them in a big

class freely, this helps communication in lectures, thus the effect of the lesson would
be improved. So, in a word, the aim of Communicative Language Teaching is to make
students master the language better as a native speaker than learn it as a second
language.
Aim
An intention or aspiration; what you hope to achieve.
Aims are statements of intent, written in broad terms.
Aims set out what you hope to achieve at the end of the project.
Objective
A goal or a step on the way to meeting the aim; how you will achieve it.
Objectives use specific statements which define measurable outcomes. For example:
what steps will you take to achieve the desired outcome?
Objectives should be S.M.A.R.T.:
Specific be precise about what you are going to do
Measureable you will know when you have reached your goal
Achievable Dont attempt too much. A less ambitious but completed objective is
better than an over-ambitious one that you cannot possible achieve.
Realistic do you have the necessary resources to achieve the objective? For example:
time, money, skills, etc?
Time constrained determine when each stage needs to be completed. Is there time in
your schedule to allow for unexpected delays?
Aims are what you want to achieve, while, objectives are what you will do to achieve
them. An objective is more specific in character, while an aim is more abstract. Also, an
objective is time-bound whereas an aim need not be.
There is a lot of confusion over the difference between these words. Many consider
aims and objective to be synonyms, however, that is not the case.
Aim: Aim is setting a determined course in order to achieve a set target. Aims are
usually long term
Ex: The person aims to acquire the required doctorate to become a doctor.
Objective: An objective is a more specific target set in order to achieve the goal. It
must usually be completed in a particular time limit.
Ex: The person should begin his doctorate studies by next year.

The main difference between aims and objectives is that an objective is generally more
specific as compared to an aim. An aim can be slightly vague. It can be a general
statement. However, an objective must be as specific as it can be. For example, an aim
for a company would be to increase sales. However, an objective would be to increase
sales by 10% within the next financial year. Thus is can be said that an objective is
SMART in character. SMART stands for specification, measurement, accuracy, reason
and time. However, an aim need not fit all these categories.
So in summary: Aims are what you want to achieve, while, objectives are what you will
do to achieve them. An objective is more specific in character, while an aim is more
abstract. Also, an objective is time-bound whereas an aim need not be.
Aim
Objective
Aims are what you want to achieve
objectives are what you will do to achieve them
an aim is more abstract
An objective is more specific in character
Is not time-bound
an objective is time-bound
Aim: Aim is setting a determined course in order to achieve a set target. Aims are
usually long term.
Ex: The person aims to acquire the required doctorate to become a doctor.
Objective: An objective is a more specific target set in order to achieve the goal. It
must usually be completed in a particular time limit.
Ex: The person should begin his doctorate studies by next year.
Objectives should be S.M.A.R.T.:
Specific be precise about what you are going to do
Measureable you will know when you have reached your goal
Achievable Dont attempt too much. A less ambitious but completed objective is
better than an over-ambitious one that you cannot possible achieve.
Realistic do you have the necessary resources to achieve the objective? For example:
time, money, skills, etc?
Time constrained determine when each stage needs to be completed. Is there time in
your schedule to allow for unexpected delays?

III.

The main aim of FLT

Goal at school: Intercultural Communicative Competence


Language teaching in the United States is based on the idea that the goal of language
acquisition is communicative competence: the ability to use the language correctly and
appropriately to accomplish communication goals.
The desired outcome of the language learning process is the ability to communicate
competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does.
The aim of FLT is Intercultural Communicative Competence - the ability to use the
language appropriately on the international level
IV.

Types of programmes (+ case study)

According to the purposes and requirements we offer different programmes (not in


school conditions):
1)

At school or at language courses

2)

Individual, pair and group

3)

Extensive and Intensive

4)

General, English for Academic Purposes and English for Specific Purposes:

English for Lawyers

English for Political Scientists

English for Economists

English for Social Workers

English for Mass Communications

English for Sociologist and Anthropologists

English for Business Purposes

English for Airline Business

English for Job Applications

English for Health Sciences

English for Engineering 1

English for Science and Technology

English for Mathematicians

English for Computer Scientists

Etc.
Number of hours:
-

60 minutes 3 times a week

45 minutes once a week

180 minutes 5 times a week (3-month course)

V.

Students: age, level, abilities, learning experience, motivation, etc.

Long-term and short-term planning.


Unit planning
1.

Syllabus

As you defined all the components of the teaching process on the previous lecture you
can write a syllabus (the sample is given in the Appendix 1)
2.

Unit planning = a scheme of work

A unit plan (a scheme of work) continues the mapping process that you began with
your Syllabus. Just as your syllabus sets out the goals and pacing for the whole year,
your unit plan sets out your goals and pacing for the discrete slices of the year to
which you have assigned your learning goals.
Creating a plan to reach short-term goals has the following benefits:
A unit plan forces you to make difficult decisions about what to teach and how to
teach it.
-

A unit plan keeps you on pace to reach your unit (and ultimately long-term) goals.

A unit plan provides an opportunity to stimulate student interest through


overarching content that is relevant to students.
Creating Unit Plans
To create a unit plan that meets the above purposes and provides you with daily
instructional guidance, many effective teachers use the following series of eight
interdependent steps:
I. Develop your unit vision
II. Create your summative unit assessment
III. Translate your learning goals into lesson objectives
IV. Sequence your content and scaffold your lesson objectives

V. Schedule your objectives on the school calendar


VI. Create your beginning-of-unit diagnostic tool
VII. Create a tracking system for your objectives
VIII. Continually adjust your plan
Avoid rigid adherence to each step. Such an approach may lead you to lose sight of
your underlying purpose clearly understanding your destination and developing a
plan to reach this goal. Always reflect on the rationale for completing each stage in the
process and think of the ways in which one action connects to and influences the other
steps in the process.
I.

Develop Your Unit Vision

You have probably heard teachers talk about teaching units. This generic term refers
to what results when you transform various buckets of learning goals (created in
your long-term plan) into a coherent set of lessons. For example, a high school English
as a Second Language teacher might allocate six weeks to a poetry unit, in which a
whole range of learning goals from vocabulary to research skills would be covered
in the context of studying poetry. A middle school teacher might study a particular
grouping of learning goals and realize that designing a museum in the classroom might
be a great way to engage students in all of those learning goals. An elementary school
teacher might notice that her class is just fascinated by firefighters and police, and she
might decide to teach each of the learning goals she has grouped for the next six
weeks through a unit on careers in the community.
It is necessary to develop a strong unit vision - a clear understanding of your ultimate
goal for student learning. At this stage in your planning process you need to answer
the question, What would it look like for my students to master the unit learning
goals?
Determine what exactly your students should know or be able to do by the end of the
unit if they have achieved the learning goals.
Before you proceed, however, make sure that you can concretely describe in detail the
most important things for your students to learn, and what it will look like for students
to demonstrate that they have achieved the unit goals.
After developing your vision of the unit goal, you can begin to decide what type of unit
you will use to present the learning goals to students. As the beginning of this section
illustrates, there is a range of ways to think about creating units of learning. Units
are often categorized as goals-based, thematic, or project-based.
A goals-based unit, in a way, is a misnomer because all units are rooted in goals.
When we refer to goals-based units, we refer to a group of standards focused in the
same content or skill area. For example, a middle school math teacher might plan a
measurement unit to teach students the skills of measuring temperature, speed,

volume, mass, and the dimensions of an object. An elementary teacher might create a
unit on writing letters, focusing on the skills necessary to write friendly, informative, or
persuasive letters. A secondary chemistry teacher might design a unit on the periodic
table, teaching students the underlying concepts that govern the arrangement of the
periodic table. With goals-based units, the teacher creates a unit directly from the
content of the learning goals at issue.
Thematic units (probably most familiar to you from elementary school) also seek to
reach goals, but integrate standards from multiple subject areas to do so, focusing on a
common theme or topic. For example, elementary teachers might develop a thematic
unit about dinosaurs to teach science, math, and writing skills. A teacher could have
students measure model dinosaurs using centimeters and inches. They could address
sentence structure learning goals by having students write sentences about dinosaurs,
or science learning goals by having students identify which dinosaurs were carnivores,
herbivores, or omnivores. Thematic units are particularly popular during events such as
the Olympics and national elections.
Project-based units focus on producing an end product, such as a book, a play, a trip,
or a presentation that serves as a rallying point for the students and motivates them to
learn. Students must learn skills in order to complete the project, and therefore they
see the utility of skills as they apply their knowledge. An elementary ESL teacher might
design a project-based unit in which each student writes a page for a class book that
they will have in the school library. A middle school English teacher might have
students write and present a play of their own after reading various works by famous
playwrights. A secondary Spanish teacher might plan a trip to a restaurant where
students would be required to order and speak in Spanish for the whole meal. Perhaps
in your unit on poetry, you are all working toward a Poetry Slam where students read
and perform their work for an audience. Perhaps in your unit on the
ConstitutionalConvention, you are working toward your own Classroom Constitutional
Convention during which students will present their persuasive papers on various civic
issues.
Deciding the type of unit you will use to deliver your learning goals is the most central
and often wonderfully creative step of unit planning.
Example One: Goals-Based Unit
A nine-week unit for social studies (in which the standards indicate students should
master key concepts surrounding the histories and cultures of Africa) for seventh grade
students in Mississippi
Description of Unit (Goals-Based)
The student will be able to:
-

Analyze various African cultures (religion, language, customs, contributions, etc.)

Name and describe major events in the history of Africa

Describe the essential characteristics of democracy, theocracy, and socialism

Measure distances on a variety of maps

Analyze the physical characteristics of the continent

Assess the interactions of nations over time (e.g., political conflicts, commerce,
transportation, immigration, etc.)
Example Two: Thematic Unit
A six-week unit for high school physics in North Carolina
Description of Unit (Thematic)
The student will be able to:
Analyze energy of position, including gravitational potential energy and elastic
potential energy
-

Analyze energy of motion (kinetic energy)

Analyze, evaluate, and apply the principle of conservation of mechanical energy

Analyze and measure the transfer of mechanical energy

The teacher is planning a six-week unit on cars. By studying the evolution and
mechanics of cars, students will conduct a series of experiments to analyze various
principles of potential and kinetic energy. They will calculate the potential and kinetic
energy of model cars rolling down ramps, and the elastic potential energy of various
springs in cars. As part of this unit, students will visit a tow truck company and
calculate mechanical energy and transfer of energy through the tow trucks pulley
system. Students will also visit a NASCAR track to discuss the implementation of all
these principles on the race track.
Example Three: Project-Based Unit
A three-week unit on writing skills for third grade students in Maryland
Description of Unit (Project-Based)
The student will be able to:
-

Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus

Develop a topic sentence and supporting sentences

Use relevant descriptions, including sensory details, personal experiences,


observations, and researchbased information to make a topic or message clear to the
reader
-

Write a friendly letter that addresses interests of reader

Through a pen-pal project with a corps members class in Los Angeles, students will
learn the skills of developing topic and supporting sentences, including sensory details
and personal experiences in their writing, and revising their work on their own and with
peers.
Of course, these teachers could have picked any type of unit to present their learning
goals. The unit on writing friendly letters could have been part of a thematic unit about
a particular region of the country that incorporated science, math, and geography
learning goals. The thematic physics unit could have been a project-based unit in
which the students built a small course of ramps and inclines over which a ball could
travel if energy is conserved appropriately.
II. Create Your Summative Unit Assessment
Once you have determined your unit vision, providing you with a clear sense of what
students must know and be able to do over the course of the unit, you need to
consider how students will demonstrate mastery of these component skills and
knowledge. What will count as acceptable evidence that your students have
understood the units learning goals? How will you measure student mastery? Will
there be a culminating project, writing assignment, or test?
Successful teachers create their summative assessments before they begin teaching
their lessons. Doing so will greatly enhance your teaching and raise your students
achievement levels.
Note that you havent yet broken down your learning goals into objectives (this will
occur in the next step of the unit planning process), so you arent yet ready to create a
complete assessment with detailed objective-level questions. At this stage you should
identify and draft the types of general questions or prompts that are aligned to the
overall learning goals of the unit. Once you create your objectives, you will be able to
add the finer details to your unit assessment to align different components of the unit
learning goals.
When creating your assessment, it is essential to select or design a tool that is best
suited to solicit the evidence you need from students. For instance, both pencilandpaper tests and authentic assessments can serve as reliable means of measuring
achievement, depending on the learning goal. When appropriate, you may have
students perform demonstrations, prepare dramatizations, create audio or video
recordings, respond to journal prompts, build models, or solve novel problems, while
maintaining a rubric outlining your expectations. The most important consideration is
to choose an assessment type that will accurately and efficiently measure the learning
goals they are intended to assess.
It bears repeating that many decisions rest on the results of summative assessments,
so it is vital that they are designed well. Be sure to follow the guiding questions for
creating a summative assessment to ensure that your assessments are valid, reliable,
and efficient.

III.

Translate Your Learning Goals Into Lesson Objectives

Once you have established your unit vision and assessment, you must look at your
group of learning goals and translate each one into student-achievement based,
measurable, rigorous lesson objectives. The need for this step may not be obvious to a
new teacher, but it is critically important. The broad standards (and even the slightly
more detailed learning goals that some districts may provide) simply do not provide
you or your students enough concrete guidance and focus from which to design
specific lessons. Thus, each learning goal must be translated into discrete, specific
lesson objectives that can be taught in one lesson.
Each learning goal is too broad to reach in one lesson; objectives are the basic unit of
teaching. Knowing this, how do you translate a general learning goal into a set of
concrete lesson objectives that will actually help you design a days lesson? You can
start by asking these general guiding questions:
-

What are the key nouns, adjectives, and verbs that describe your learning goals?

What tasks and understandings are associated with the learning goals?

What knowledge and skills will students need in order to master these goals?

The following are examples of learning goals translated into lesson objectives (each
learning goal is just one of several from the example units above:
Goals-Based Africa History Unit
Learning Goal #4:
The student will measure distances on a variety of maps.
(translates into)
Lesson Objectives:
- The student will be able to use the maps index and grid to locate two geographical
points.
- The student will be able to accurately measure the distance between two points in
inches and centimeters.
- The student will be able to convert the distance on a map to the actual distance
between two places using the map scale.
- The student will be able to calculate distances between two points on 1) a map of
Africa and 2) a map of one African nation.
Thematic Car Unit
Learning Goal #1:

The student will analyze energy of position, including gravitational potential energy
and elastic potential energy.
(translates into)
Lesson Objectives:
The student will be able to explain the difference between gravitational potential
energy and elastic potential energy.
The student will be able to solve word problems involving gravitational and elastic
potential energy.
The student will be able to analyze the gravitational potential energy of real
objects at different heights.
The student will be able to analyze the elastic potential energy of real springs with
different spring constants.
Project-Based Pen-Pal Unit
Learning Goal #2:
The student will develop a topic sentence and supporting sentences.
(translates into)
Lesson Objectives:
The student will be able to identify the topic sentence and supporting sentences in
a paragraph.
The student will be able to describe the purpose of a topic sentence and
supporting sentence.
The student will be able to evaluate a topic sentence to ensure that it represents
its paragraphs main idea.
The student will be able to evaluate supporting sentences to ensure that they
reinforce the paragraphs main idea.
The student will be able to write a paragraph with a topic sentence and supporting
sentences.
To successfully translate general learning goals into more specific and useful lesson
objectives you must ensure your lesson objectives meet three all-important criteria:
(1) Lesson objectives must be STUDENT-ACHIEVEMENT BASED.
(2) Lesson objectives must be MEASURABLE.
(3) Lesson objectives must be RIGOROUS.

1)When you write a lesson objective, ask yourself, What are my students going to
learn and achieve by the end of the lesson? Some teachers fall into the trap of
designing activities, creating worksheets, and giving lectures that merely cover
material and do not focus on what students learn, achieve, and accomplish. When you
translate a learning goal into a lesson objective, it should be student-achievement
based.
The best way to draft objectives is to start with the phrase The student will be able
to (represented by the acronym SWBAT), and ensure that the objectives are
derived from your course learning goals. If you look at your standards and learning
goals, you will most likely see that they are already student-achievement based.
This approach to drafting objectives helps avoid some of the most common mistakes
teachers make as they approach unit and lesson planning. Unfortunately, there are
many classroom examples of nonstudent- achievement focused objectives. Continuing
to cover poetry, or Completing the worksheet, or Group work on African history,
are not useful objectives because they offer no indication of what learning you want
the students to achieve. They offer no guidance or focus in the lesson planning process
and do not help you to determine when you have succeeded with your lesson. In
contrast, the objective The student will be able to identify, describe the rhythm and
rhyme structure for, and write a limerick provides you with a specific, studentoriented focus for your lesson. By beginning every lesson objective with the phrase
The student will be able to you discipline yourself to ensure that youre driving
toward student achievement.
2) What makes an objective measurable? In a word, the verb. By carefully choosing a
verb for your objective that lends itself to assessment, you will greatly enhance your
lessons efficacy.
No revisions necessary. (This objective encompasses several lesson objectives, and
might come at the end of a unit, perhaps as the end-of-unit assessment.
3) For objectives to be rigorous they must connect to the big goal and be written at the
appropriate cognitive level.
Connected to the Big Goal
As you plan your objectives, you should always be thinking, Why is this knowledge or
skill important to the larger goal? This step requires you to clearly articulate a lesson
objectives purpose in terms of how it connects to the overall big goal. Rigorous
objectives should clearly relate to your unit and course goals and serve as necessary
steps towards achieving those ends. Objectives that dont have necessary, logical
connections to your big goals are ineffective because they will not ultimately move
your students forward in their path toward academic achievement. Tying objectives to
the big goal not only provides clarity of purpose, but can also help focus and motivate
students. If you ensure that students understand this connection, it will remind them of
the bigger instructional picture and provide them with a concrete rationale for why

they are learning this particular objective. This will help in continually reinforcing the
meaning and significance behind classroom activities.
At the appropriate cognitive level
As seen above, measurable, student-achievement based objectives contain a carefully
chosen verb (such as write, list, measure, evaluate, calculate, and categorize) that
helps drive the objectives focus. A teacher should be aware that the choice of verb
also affects the cognitive level of the objective. That is, particular verbs address a
lower level of thinking, and others address a higher level of thinking.
Blooms Taxonomy, developed by Dr. Benjamin Bloom of the University of Chicago, is
the most commonly used hierarchy of cognitive levels.
Blooms Taxonomy
Cognitive Level
Action Verbs
Concrete Tasks
Lower Level
Knowledge
List, match, tell, label, name, locate, memorize, repeat
Recall or recognize information, usually in the same way it was learned
Comprehension
Describe, explain, summarize, restate, identify, translate
Translate or interpret prior learning
Higher Level
Application
Solve, classify, demonstrate, dramatize, manipulate
Independently apply the knowledge or skills learned
Analysis
Debate, compare, differentiate, separate, group, research
Separate, examine, and draw conclusions from information
Synthesis
Create, produce, reconstruct, arrange, pretend, assemble, organize, blend, generate

Combine information and apply it to a new situation in order to solve a problem


Evaluation
Assess, justify, rate, revise, defend, support, prioritize
Make qualitative and quantitative assessments using specific criteria
When choosing a verb at the appropriate cognitive level to include in your objective,
remember to consider the following three factors:
The age/developmental level of your students. younger students often are still
building their lower-level thinking skills and are more successful when considering
concrete concepts. Of course, teachers should push young students to higher cognitive
levels when they have the appropriate foundation and should always depend on a
varied blend of different cognitive levels. Older students usually are able to operate at
a higher level of thinking and can reason abstractly, so you can push them to
application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Remember, to help determine the level
you should expect your students to reach, you can also revisit your big goal and
consult the expectations at high performing schools for students in your subject and
grade level.
The cognitive level of the learning goals. As you break down your learning goals into
lesson objectives, be sure that the highest cognitive level of those objectives is at least
as high on Blooms as the original learning goal. If the learning goal expects students
to reach the level of synthesis, for instance, and you only ask students to describe or
explain the topic (the comprehension level on Blooms), then your objectives would
be insufficiently rigorous to lead students to master that learning goal. At least one
objective should reach the cognitive level of your learning goal in order for your
objectives to be at the appropriate level of rigor.
The academic starting point of your students: Where are your students in relation to
the cognitive level of the objective? Before you can reach high levels of Blooms
Taxonomy, you must help your students with the lower rungs. If you want your class to
be able to compare and contrast different types of rocks (analysis), be sure they can
first name the three types (knowledge), describe the characteristics of each in their
own words (comprehension) and classify unlabeled rocks as members of one of the
three groups (application). Along the same lines, students obviously cant analyze the
use of adjectives in a passage if they do not know what an adjective is. And
conversely, you shouldnt teach students how to find the Fahrenheit and Celsius sides
of the thermometer if they already know how to read and write both types of
temperatures. It is therefore important to consider your students current achievement
levels and all of the pre-requisite skills and knowledge that your goals assume when
fashioning your list of lesson objectives. Your objectives will be inappropriately rigorous
if they are too ambitious (i.e. students are not prepared to perform up to the
objectives level) or are not ambitious enough (i.e. students have already mastered the
objective). Finding the right balance is the key for providing students the appropriate

level of challenge, rather than frustrating or boring them with objectives that are not of
the appropriate rigor.
IV.

Sequence Your Content and Scaffold Your Lesson Objectives

An effective sequence is comprised of a series of scaffolded objectives that leads to


the achievement of the big goal and builds on and extends student understanding,
beginning with simpler, more concrete, lower level concepts and progressing to more
complex, abstract, higher-level ideas.
You should determine how to present your unit so that topics build on one another
logically and conceptually, all the while leading students to achieve their academic
goals.
In order to ensure that your objectives are scaffolded starting with lower-level and
moving to higherlevel thinking skills and concepts it is helpful to review each
objective through the hierarchy of Blooms Taxonomy. Consider the following sequence
for a unit on cells in a seventh grade life science class.
Unit Goal:
Understand the functions of different parts of a cell and how they contribute to cell
operation
Objective:
Cognitive Level:
The student will be able to label 10 major organelles in plant and animal cells.
Knowledge (lowest level)
The student will be able to explain the function of ten major organelles in plant and
animal cells.
Comprehension
The student will be able to create a model of the cell.
Application
The student will be able to compare the cell to a factory, and specify which organelle
parallels each component of the factory.
Analysis
The student will be able to demonstrate how multiple cells combine in form and
function to create tissues.
Synthesis

The student will be able to predict how a cells operation would change if certain parts
were removed.
Evaluation (highest level)
Notice how the objectives build on each other logically and will lead students to
achieve the overarching goal. If students cant explain the function of
variousorganelles, they are certainly not going to be able to compare those organelles
to the parts of a factory. The above sequence also builds on concrete, lower level
thinking skills (such as labeling the organelles in a cell) and then moves to more
abstract ideas (such as predicting how a cells operation would change if certain parts
of it were removed). Ordering the objectives in this way also gives the students a sense
of momentum and builds students confidence, as previous learning experiences serve
as a foundation for the extension of student knowledge and the achievement of the big
goal.
The objectives involving measurement (application) should be taught before objectives
that require estimation (analysis) in order to build from concrete concepts to more
abstract ideas.
V.

Schedule Your Objectives on the School Calendar

As with your long-term plan calendar, plot your lesson objectives recognizing the
events that wont allow for regular instruction, such as school breaks, field trips, days
devoted to standardized testing, and district professional development. If possible,
collaborate with other teachers at your school when creating your calendar. Knowing
when other teachers plan on administering major assessments may impact the
schedule of your unit assessments (students wont be too happy, or effective, if they
are taking several major test in the same week). Further, collaborating will allow you to
understand the trajectory and demands of other teachers classes. This may illuminate
potential areas for crosscurricular connections, overlapping instruction, and other
intriguing possibilities for leveraging instruction to the benefit of students in all
disciplines. Consider these possibilities as you calendar your units as well. After all is
said and done, you need to ensure that your lesson objective schedule fits into the
time you originally allocated to the unit in the long-term planning process.
VI.

Create Your Beginning-of-Unit Diagnostic Tool

Just as important as knowing when your students will have reached your unit goals is
identifying where your students are starting. You need to know whether your students
have the prerequisite knowledge they need to be ready to learn grade-level content
and what knowledge of unit objectives students already have.
Reliable data here will greatly influence where you begin your instruction toward your
unit goals. Without this starting point, even the strongest unit plans will not effectively
lead students to reach their destination.

You will need to design a beginning-of-unit diagnostic after creating the main unit plan
with objectives sequenced onto a calendar. This will provide you with a sense of where
your class in general and your students individually are currently performing.
Remember, developing such diagnostics:
-

Allows you to know where to begin your instruction.

As described in Chapter Two, different types of diagnostic questions provide you


information on where the class is in relation to your units learning goals. Including
diagnostic questions that assess readiness, for instance, will reveal which students
lack the prerequisite skills to begin the unit, and including pretest questions will
reveal which students have already mastered some of the skills you plan to teach.
Discovering that your students are in different places a common classroom reality
will prompt you to make modifications to your unit and long-term plans. Generally
speaking, it is important to tailor instruction to reach students where they are currently
performing; if you do not, students will become disengaged, discouraged, or frustrated.
Further, you will have to spend more time re-teaching content than if you had
identified which objectives needed reviewing at this stage in the planning process.
-

Provides a starting point or benchmark against which you can measure growth.

Marking the starting point of each student is an essential step of measuring student
achievement. Without knowing where each student began, you will not be able to
measure his or her academic growth. While the end-of-unit assessment will reveal
whether or not students have met the end goals, you will also want to determine the
growth that your students are making from their various starting places so that youre
sure youre pushing everyone both higher and lower performers forward
dramatically. Once you administer the diagnostic, dont forget to grade and record
these initial results on the progress-tracking charts you will make in the next step of
the unit planning process.
Remember to think strategically about what information you want your diagnostic to
provide and why, and how this information will be important to your instructional
decision making. Specifically, determine what you need to know about students
readiness, prior knowledge, and interests regarding the content of your unit. You will
then be ready to design (or select) a tool that fits your needs. Note that your diagnostic
can be relatively quick and informal, if necessary. Simply recording what students
already believe they know and want to learn about a topic, for instance, can provide
you with valuable insights about your class prior knowledge and current level of
understanding. At times, however, it may be more appropriate to administer a formal
assessment that measures prerequisite skills and/or student proficiency on upcoming
unit learning goals. Regardless of what type of diagnostic you use, it is vital to ensure
that it is best suited to elicit the information you need to begin instruction.
As noted previously, there will be give and take between your unit plan and your
diagnostic. In order to plan a unit, you need to know where your students currently
perform. But to determine where your students currently perform, you need to know

what skills you plan to teach them so that you can determine their mastery of those
skills. Many successful teachers deal with this conundrum by basing diagnostics on
initial estimates of where their students might be, and adjusting plans after the results
come in.
VII. Create a Tracking System for Your Objectives
At this point, you have created your unit plan and your diagnostic and summative
assessments. You are now ready to take a giant step forward in your long-term ability
to make academic gains with your students; you can now create the beginnings of your
progress tracking system.
What is a tracking system? At its core, a tracking system is a chart that records
students and class progress on the objectives you are teaching. As a student
improves his or her skills in a particular area, the classroom tracking system records
that growth, e.g. if Javier can now read second-grade books at 100 words per minute
whereas his fluency was 90 wpm a month ago, the tracking system would chart that
progress.
Your tracking system can be a simple chart with students names on one axis and the
objectives youre teaching on the other (see above). In some classrooms, students also
have their own progress-tracking forms.
VIII. Continually Adjust Your Plan
After you finish administering and tracking the data, it will be important to reflect on
your overall plan and make appropriate adjustments in light of this new information.
Interpreting Data
Once you have collected your diagnostic data in your tracking sheet, determine what
this data reveals about the relative strengths and weaknesses of your class, as well as
students readiness to learn the grade-level objectives of the course. If your students
demonstrate mastery of a series of prerequisite skills, for instance, this probably
means that you will not need to spend much time covering these topics later on. On
the other hand, the more your students struggle with certain learning goals, the more
time you will need to spend reviewing or re-teaching this material during the year.
Knowing this data will allow you to make informed instructional decisions about how to
adjust your plans to move students forward.
Responding to Data
Once you have interpreted your data, you are ready to take action and adjust your
plans accordingly. If you used a diagnostic that assessed student readiness, you will
have to decide how to address the prerequisite skills students need while keeping pace
to reach your larger goals. Find logical places to incorporate remediation or review into
your unit plan, and adjust your instructional sequence to include these prerequisite
objectives. If your students have a lot of remedial needs, you may feel tempted to only
focus on prerequisite content without moving students forward on grade-level material.

Doing so, however, will not effectively lead your students to make the academic
progress they need to catch up to their peers. You can avoid this trap through a
number of strategies. Finding additional instructional time during the day or before and
after school, for instance, is a great way to fit in review while maintaining your unit
plan pacing.
Remember that you should perform this cycle of adjusting your plan based on
interpreting and responding to data consistently throughout the year, not just at the
beginning of the unit. Your diagnostic data will be supplemented by further
assessments, student work, and your own observations about students strengths and
weaknesses. You need to be prepared to rethink initial conclusions, and corresponding
adjustments, based on incoming data during the year. This will ensure that your
instructional tools remain fine-tuned and calibrated to effectively serve the needs of
your students.
Conclusion
The unit planning process involves eight steps:
I. Develop your unit vision
Unpack your standards to clearly understand what evidence you will need to see from
students in order to know whether they have achieved the unit goal. Then decide
among the types of units you might design: goals-based units (which revolve around
the learning goals themselves for one content area), thematic units (which use a
common theme to draw in various learning goals from different areas), and projectbased units (which focus on an end-product, some creation or event that will serve as
the vehicle for students mastery of the learning goals).
II. Create your summative unit assessment
Successful teachers create their end-of-unit assessment tool before they begin
teaching the unit.
Begin to purposefully choose tasks that will allow students to demonstrate their
mastery of the unit goal. This will serve as an initial framework for your assessment
that will later feature questions that test each individual objective. After creating your
assessment begin to anticipate potential student misunderstandings of your unit
content.
III. Translate your learning goals into lesson objectives
You must translate your general learning goals into more specific lesson objectives.
These objectives should be student-achievement based, measurable, and rigorous.
Consider all of the prerequisite knowledge and skills that a child may need to perform
the goals you outline.
IV. Sequence your content and scaffold your lesson objectives

The fourth step is to think critically about how you will order your content and scaffold
those objectives over the course of your unit. You need to consider what order will
result in the most effective sequencing of the objectives, based on Blooms Taxonomy
and level of rigor.
V. Schedule your objectives on the school calendar
Use a school calendar to plot the lesson objectives, ensuring that you have allotted
enough time for the knowledge and skills you wish to teach and recognizing various
days or weeks that wont allow for regular instruction. Make sure to plan for
remediation, enrichment, and contingencies, and check your unit plan for alignment
with other instructional tools.
VI. Create your beginning-of-unit diagnostic tool
Successful teachers also know where their students are when they begin each unit. To
avoid covering material that they already know, develop a diagnostic that assesses
prerequisite skills and knowledge of unit objectives at the beginning of each unit. This
will also provide you with a benchmark by which to measure future growth.
VII. Create a tracking system for your objectives
Once youve determined what youre teaching, you can now begin to create your
classroom tracking system, a chart listing your objectives and your students names
that will allow you to record and measure the progress of your class and students on
the knowledge and skills you are teaching.
VII.

Continually adjust your plan

Adjust your plans based on assessment data, including your diagnostic. Interpret your
data to determine class strengths and weaknesses and tailor your instructional plans in
response to this information. Determine ways to include remediation and review of
prerequisite skills into your unit calendar. Also, make sure to recheck your tools for
alignment after making appropriate adjustments.
Unit planning is something that you may do several times during the year. And, it can
involve a considerable time investment. However, the sense of direction and
organization such a plan provides you and your students can be phenomenal.
Lesson Plan
The unit plan completed the teacher may move into planning a class-period or a daily
plan which, in addition to what has been determined by the unit plan, indicates the
ways the teacher will follow to organize his class to work during the lesson. Therefore,
the daily plan includes what should be achieved during this particular lesson, what
material is used for achieving the objectives, and how the objectives should be
achieved.
The teacher should write his daily plans if he strives for effective and reasonable use of
time allotted to his pupils learning a foreign language.

A lesson is an organized and goal oriented process, which is a set of learning


opportunities, a model of cognition and a framework for interaction of participants
(Milrood)
II.

Types of the lesson plans

2) According to the activities (by R.Milrood)


A lesson can consist either of a long single activity or a number of shorter activities.
These activities can be either united by an overall objective or each can have a
different aim.
On the whole there are four basic types of the lesson planning: logical line, topic
umbrella, jungle path and rag-bag.
In a logical line lesson there is a clear attempt to follow a logical path from one activity
to the next. "Logical line of activities means that there is a succession of tasks that
gradually take the learners to the planned result. The relationship of tasks in the
logical line is that of cause and consequences. E.g. the learners first achieve a
general understanding of the text and then move on to work on specific details. In the
logical line lesson there is in most cases one clear and overall objective.
A topic umbrella lesson is devoted to one general topic (e.g. healthy food) that is
used as the main focal point for all the activities. The teacher might use a variety of
activities such as vocabulary, grammar, speaking, listening, reading linked to
one and the same umbrella topic. In a topic umbrella lesson there can be a number of
related objectives, e.g. to study the vocabulary related to healthy food, to study the
expression of future in the if clauses (If you eat you will), to listen to a lecture
episode on healthy diets, etc.
Jungle path lesson is not planned or predicted in any way but is created moment by
moment in class. The starting point can be an open-ended activity such as
brainstorming but the outcome will remain a mystery until it happens in class. During
this lesson a teacher focuses predominantly on the learners and the classroom
situation rather than on the materials and plans. E.g. the learners can ask about the
language problems they have come across in the reading activity and the whole work
will shift in this direction. Thus, the planning is done to the great degree on the spur of
the moment by the learners themselves.
Rag-bag is a sequence of unconnected activities. These lessons are designed to keep
the learners entertained and involved. This type of the lessons can be appropriate for
young learners with a short attention span. There is no overall objective in such
lessons.
Models of a lesson plan
One of the major challenges that a teacher can face in preparing a lesson is designing
the sequence of activities. One of the most frequent models to sequence the activities
in the lesson is the stepping way. it is a lesson consisting of several logically organized

activities as steps towards a goal. Another model is convergent way with a variety of
different activities (e.g. developing grammar and vocabulary) all converging towards
achieving a lesson objective. The third possible model is the divergent way, in which
many objectives are pursued during one lesson.
Stages of a lesson plan
1)

Three Ps by J.Harmer (majority lessons)

The presentation stage.


You have to introduce needed new vocabulary and grammar structure. Scene setting
and task assignments are carried out for reading or listening lessons.
The practice stage.
You move from controlled practice to guided practice and exploitation of the text.
The production stage.
This stage is also called performance stage. It is the stage where we encourage
students to immediate production, at which students are encouraged to use all or any
of the language they know.
2)

3-Phase framework by R.Milrood (hand-outs):

Lead-in
Main activity
Follow-up
3)

TBL (Task-Based Learning)

Teacher gives the task


Students do the task
Students present the task
Teacher and students discuss the theme, analyzing the mistakes, sharing opinions, etc
E.g. case-study lesson, project-work lesson, etc
V.

Effective planning of a lesson

In the organization and conduct of a foreign language lesson there is always a wide
range of possibilities. No two teachers will treat the same topic in the way. There are,
however, certain basic principles of teaching and learning, which should be observed:
Every lesson should begin with a greeting in the foreign language and a brief talk
between the teacher and the pupils.

There should be a variety of activities at every lesson, including pronunciation drill, oral
activities, reading and writing.
The lesson should be conducted at a high speed when oral drill exercises are
performed.
The lesson should provide a certain sequence in pupils assimilating language, to the
usage of the material received in new situations that require thinking on the part of the
learner.
The lesson should provide time for the activity of every pupil in the class.
The lesson should provide conditions for pupils to learn.
The work done during the lesson should prepare pupils for their independent work at
home.
The lesson should be well equipped with teaching aids and teaching materials that
allow the teacher to create natural situations for developing pupils hearing and
speaking skills in a foreign language.
Advantages:
You will be more relaxed and confident if you follow a clear plan
A glance reminds of the next phase
Enables you to improve your timing (by comparing the estimated time with the actual
time taken for different types of activities)
An aid to continuing improvement.
Effective planning depends on many factors:
how the teacher knows the program requirements for the lesson
how well the teacher knows the text book and other materials
how well the teacher knows the conditions of the work
There are 3 things which influence the success of the lesson:
motivation
organization
students capacity (ability)
Armed now with our knowledge of the students and of we can go on to consider
the main planning elements (look at the table 1):
Aim and Objectives

Theme, Content, Stages


Habits and Skills, Activities
Equipment, Home-task
Types of control, Time allotted
Getting started writing lesson plans:

Evaluate any school or assignment requirements for the unit and work them into
the lesson (e.g. you may need to devote a lesson to standardized exam practice).

Brainstorm any immediate ideas you have for activities, assignments, or


evaluations. Write them down and put them to the side.

Consider the series of events in your unit and try to think about student needs
(e.g. planning three days of silent essay writing might not be best).

Look back to your brainstorming of themes or concepts that are important to


the unit. Ask yourself: How can I teach these to students? What lessons will appeal to
students while educating them?

Try to create a central question for each lesson plan.

Try writing titles for lesson plans in your schedule (e.g. "Dream On"). Creative
titles can be inspirational for writing lesson plans themselves.

Start to apply activities, requirements, assessments, etc. to your schedule. Vary


your lesson plan elements for students of all learning types!
VII.

Using lesson plans

There are number of reasons why we need to modify our proposal for action.
1.

magic moments

some of the most affecting moments in language lessons happen when a conversation
develops unexpectedly, or when a topic produces a level of interest in our students
which we had not predicted. The occurrence of such magic moments helps to provide
and sustain a groups motivation. We have to recognize them when they come along
and then take a judgement about whether to allow them to develop, rather than
denying them life because they do not fit into our plan.
2.

Sensible diversion.

Another reason for diversion from our original plan is when something happens which
we simply cannot ignore, whether this is a surprising student reaction to a reading text,
or the sudden announcement that someone is getting married. In the case of
opportunistic teaching, we take the opportunity to teach language that has suddenly

come up. Similarly, something might occur to us in terms of topic or in terms of a


language connection which we suddenly want to develop on the spot.
3.

unforeseen problems

However well we plan, unforeseen problems often crop up. Some students may find an
activity that we thought interesting incredibly boring; an activity may take more or less
time than we anticipated. It is possible that something we thought would be fairly
simple for our students turns out to be very difficult. We may have planned an activity
based on the number of students we expected to turn up, only to find that some of
them are absent. Occasionally we find that students have already come across
material or topics we take into class, and our common sense tells us that it would be
unwise to carry on.
In any of the above scenarios it would be almost impossible to carry on with our plan
as if nothing had happened; if an activity finishes quickly we have to find something
else to fill the time. If students cannot do what we are asking of them, we will have to
modify what we are asking of them. If some students have already finished an activity
we cannot just leave those students to get bored.
It is possible to anticipate potential problems in the class and to plan strategies to deal
with them. But however well we do this, things will still happen that surprise us, and
which, therefore, cause us to move away from our plan, whether this is a temporary or
permanent state of affairs.
The program on FL (further Program) is the instructive-methodological document
made on the basis of the state educational standard considering concrete conditions of
learning. Program defines purposes of learning, amount of knowledge, skills and
abilities that should be acquired in the given time. The considerable place is given to
teaching material on vocabulary, grammar, phonetics, a topic and dialogue situations
and reading. Final requirements to mastering language are formed in the program.
Program is supposed to consist of six sections: cultural-speech adaptation, kinds of
speech activity, problem-thematic and lingua-cultural material, grammar and forms of
control, list of recommended literature. Communicative, sociocultural and profound
studying of FL orientation is underlined in Program. The main attention is
recommended to give to listening and speaking as the most actual and naturally
stimulated in the conditions of a country of a studied language.
Program can realize following functions:
Control-estimating. Student should be aware of subject maintenance and minimal
requirements to master a language (criterion);
organizing the order of studying language units;
referational the function which contains the information on context, on genres and
their future that should be acquired by a student, on quantity and character of
exercises for studying this or that aspect of language;

methodological the function that can be realized through methodical


recommendations;
planning the unction that represents a primary basis for lesson planning;
information-directed means that the program contains the information addressed not
only to Teacher, but also to Student, it is the kind of agreement between Student and
Teacher.
Types of Programs
There are three types programs on FL courses:
The programs focused on an end-product (on result of learning)
The programs focused on development of skills and habits;
The programs based on a method or process.
TB as the main means of teaching. TB is the basic means of FLL for students. It
contains a language material, samples of oral and written speech, acquaintance with
which promotes acquisition of knowledge and formation of speaking skills and abilities
providing possibility to use the language for communication. While working out such
TBs authors follow number of principles, such as:
necessity and sufficiency of TB content for achieving planned purposes of FLL;
availability of learning material presented in TB.
TB includes following components:
Phonetic material. Sounds, rhymes, intonation considering difficulties of EL;
Lexical material. It is presented in TB as a basic word stock. The lexical units are
intended for productive and receptive mastering a language (dialogues are considered
as communicative units);
Grammatical material in modern TB is presented in the form of models of offers,
speech samples and rules of the grammar usage. Majority of TBs use communicative
approach to mastering grammar;
Sociocultural material. Includes information about the country of a studied language in
comparison with national features of language and culture. The material is presented
by sociocultural units of language, texts of cross-cultural orientation.
Different types of text material;
Comments on the texts. Have lexical and grammatical character and is important
when the comment is possibly brief and has practical significance for mastering a
language;

Different types of exercises. Are intended for fastening, activation of teaching material
and organization of control over quality of mastering a language.
Language exercises are intended mastering value of language forms. Result of
performance of such exercises is formation of phonetic, lexical, grammatical). More
often following exercises are used; imitative, multiple choice, exercises with the keys,
exercises on analogy, e.tc.
Speech exercises are intended development and perfection of speaking abilities on the
basis of the gained knowledge and skills. Such exercises are situational and contextual.
They assume following types of activities: question-answer, conventional conversation,
text retelling, dramatization of text or dialogue situation, the description, discussion
exercises. Performance of such exercises demand from students the ability of logical
expression of their thoughts on the given topic.
Classroom Management
I. Classroom management is a term used by teachers to describe the process of
ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students.
The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior. It is possibly the most
difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers; indeed experiencing problems in this
area causes some to leave teaching altogether. In 1981 the US National Educational
Association reported that 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into
teaching if they had to decide again. A major reason was "negative student attitudes
and discipline".
According to Moskowitz & Hayman (1976), once a teacher loses control of their
classroom, it becomes increasingly more difficult for them to regain that control. Also,
research from Berliner (1988) and Brophy & Good (1986) shows that the time a teacher
has to take to correct misbehavior caused by poor classroom management skills
results in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom From the students
perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of
behavioral and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning
environment.Douglas Brooks (1985) reports seminal research on the first day of school
activity selection and sequence of novice middle school teachers compared with
experienced, successful classroom managers. Brooks reports that effective classroom
managers organized their activities on the first day of school consistent with the
emerging needs of the students. These middle school student needs were the
following: 1. Am I welcome? 2. What are we going to do today? 3. Am I in the right
room? 4. Is the teacher interested in me? 5. What are the rules for this classroom? 6.
What are the goals, instructional methods and assessment systems for the class? 7. Is
the teacher interested in how I learn best? 8. What interests does the teacher have
that I can relate to? 9. What are we expected to do for tomorrow? and finally 10. Will
the teacher answer a question I have after class? In response to these emerging and
sequential student needs effective middle school teachers organize the first day
activities in the following sequence: 1. Personally greet students 2. Advance organizer
for the session at the bell, 3. Roll and Seating 4. Student Information cards 5. Introduce

5 core rules ( entry, listening, raising hands, leaving other's stuff alone and finally
exiting the class) 6. Describe class goals, instructional methods and grading system, 7.
Assess preferred learning styles, 8. self-disclosure 9. Preview of next session and finally
10 Access after class. Middle school teachers that meet these 10 student needs with
specific activities tend to communicate competence and effectively communicate
behavioral and academic expectations. <Educational Leadership "The First Days of
School" May, 1985 Vol. 42 N8 pp. 76-78>
Classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, discipline and respect.
Methodologies remain a matter of passionate debate amongst teachers; approaches
vary depending on the beliefs a teacher holds regarding educational psychology. A
large part of traditional classroom management involves behavior modification,
although many teachers see using behavioral approaches alone as overly simplistic.
Many teachers establish rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year.
According to Gootman (2008), rules give students concrete direction to ensure that our
expectation becomes a reality.
They also try to be consistent in enforcing these rules and procedures. Many would
also argue for positive consequences when rules are followed, and negative
consequences when rules are broken. There are newer perspectives on classroom
management that attempt to be holistic. One example is affirmation teaching, which
attempts to guide students toward success by helping them see how their effort pays
off in the classroom. It relies upon creating an environment where students are
successful as a result of their own efforts. By creating this type of environment,
students are much more likely to want to do well. Ideally, this transforms a classroom
into a community of well-behaved and self-directed learners.
II.

Corporal punishment

Until recently, corporal punishment was widely used as a means of controlling


disruptive behavior but it is now no longer fashionable, though it is still advocated in
some contexts by people such as James Dobson.
Rote discipline
Also known as "lines," rote discipline is a negative sanction used for behavior
management. It involves assigning a disorderly student sentences or the classroom
rules to write repeatedly. Among the many types of classroom management
approaches, it is very commonly used.
Preventative techniques
Preventative approaches to classroom management involve creating a positive
classroom community with mutual respect between teacher and student. Teachers
using the preventative approach offer warmth, acceptance, and support
unconditionally - not based on a students behavior. Fair rules and consequences are
established and students are given frequent and consistent feedback regarding their
behavior. One way to establish this kind of classroom environment is through the

development and use of a classroom contract. The contract should be created by both
students and the teacher. In the contract, students and teachers decide and agree on
how to treat one another in the classroom. The group also decides on and agrees to
what the group will do should there be a violation of the contract. Rather than a
consequence, the group should decide on a way to fix the problem through either class
discussion, peer mediation, counseling, or by one on one conversations leading to a
solution to the situation.
Preventative techniques also involve the strategic use of praise and rewards to inform
students about their behavior rather than as a means of controlling student behavior.
In order to use rewards to inform students about their behavior, teachers must
emphasize the value of the behavior that is rewarded and also explain to students the
specific skills they demonstrated to earn the reward. Teachers should also encourage
student collaboration in selecting rewards and defining appropriate behaviors that will
earn rewards
III.

Classroom management as a process

In the Handbook of Classroom Management: Research Practice and Contemporary


Issues (2006), Evertson and Weinstein characterize classroom management as the
actions taken to create an environment that supports and facilitates academic and
socialemotional learning. Toward this goal, teachers must (1) develop caring,
supportive relationships with and among students; (2) organize and implement
instruction in ways that optimize students access to learning; (3) use group
management methods that encourage students engagement in academic tasks; (4)
promote the development of students social skills and selfregulation; and (5) use
appropriate interventions to assist students with behavior problems.
Dr. Tracey Garrett also describes classroom management as a process consisting of key
tasks that teachers must attend to in order to develop an environment conducive to
learning. These tasks include: (1) organizing the physical environment, (2) establishing
rules and routines, (3) developing caring relationships, (4) implementing engaging
instruction and (5) preventing and responding to discipline problems. Classroom
Management Essentials, created by Dr. Tracey Garrett, is the first classroom
management app for the iPad, iPhone and iPod touch that guides teachers through the
tasks involved in the process of classroom management.
IV.

Classroom management as time management

In their introductory text on teaching, Kauchak and Eggen (2008)Kauchak, D., and
Eggen, P. (2008). Introduction to teaching: Becoming a professional (3rd ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. explain classroom management in terms of
time management. The goal of classroom management, to Kauchak and Eggen, is to
not only maintain order but to optimize student learning. They divide class time into
four overlapping categories, namely allocated time, instructional time, engaged time,
and academic learning time.
Allocated time

Allocated time is the total time allotted for teaching, learning, and routine classroom
procedures like attendance and announcements. Allocated time is also what appears
on a student's schedule, for example "Introductory Algebra: 9:50-10:30 a.m." or "Fine
Arts 1:15-2:00 p.m."
Instructional time
Instructional time is what remains after routine classroom procedures are completed.
That is to say, instructional time is the time wherein teaching and learning actually
takes place. Teachers may spend two or three minutes taking attendance, for example,
before their instruction begins.
Engaged time
Engaged time is also called time on task. During engaged time, students are
participating actively in learning activitiesasking and responding to questions,
completing worksheets and exercises, preparing skits and presentations, etc.
Academic learning time
Academic learning time occurs when students 1) participate actively and 2) are
successful in learning activities. Effective classroom management maximizes academic
learning time.
V.

Common mistakes in classroom behavior management

In an effort to maintain order in the classroom, sometimes teachers can actually make
the problems worse. Therefore, it is important to consider some of the basic mistakes
commonly made when implementing classroom behavior management strategies. For
example, a common mistake made by teachers is to define the problem behavior by
how it looks without considering its function.
Interventions are more likely to be effective when they are individualized to address
the specific function of the problem behavior. Two students with similar looking
misbehavior may require entirely different intervention strategies if the behaviors are
serving different functions. Teachers need to understand that they need to be able to
change the ways they do things from year to year, as the children change. Not every
approach works for every child. Teachers need to learn to be flexible. Another common
mistake is for the teacher to become increasingly frustrated and negative when an
approach is not working.
The teacher may raise his or her voice or increase adverse consequences in an effort
to make the approach work. This type of interaction may impair the teacher-student
relationship. Instead of allowing this to happen, it is often better to simply try a new
approach.
Inconsistency in expectations and consequences is an additional mistake that can lead
to dysfunction in the classroom. Teachers must be consistent in their expectations and
consequences to help ensure that students understand that rules will be enforced. To

avoid this, teachers should communicate expectations to students clearly and be


sufficiently committed to the classroom management procedures to enforce them
consistently.
Monitoring and assessment
Urgency of the problem of control is associated with the achievement of the recent
progress in the implementation of the practical role of foreign language teaching in
schools, thereby expanded the scope of monitoring applications, increased its ability
positive impact on teaching and educational process, created the conditions for the
rationalization of the control as part of this process .
The main disadvantages in the control of knowledge: a misunderstanding of its
functions, unreasonably overestimated his role in the learning process, the control
turns into an end in itself in the classroom, the use of monotonous methods of control;
subjectivity in grading, the absence of clear, reasonable criteria.
Teacher in preparation for the lesson must be remembered that the search of
necessary forms of control and its organization - is the most important task of the
educator . Whom, when , how many students , on any matter by what means you need
to ask and appreciate - all this has to be thought as a teacher in preparation for the
lesson. Along with this, you should consider , students are supposed to do during the
interview of their comrade . Every teacher should have its own control system , it
should include a variety of tools and techniques enable students to understand that
the teacher constantly monitors their progress , the level and quality of the acquisition
of knowledge .
Control - the definition of the level of language proficiency achieved by students for a
certain period of training. Control - this is part of the lesson, during which the teacher
evaluates the students have learned the material covered and can use it for practical
purposes. Control allows you to:
a teacher get information: a) the results of the group of students as a whole and each
student individually, and b) the results of its work (see how effective teaching
techniques, to identify failures in the work that allows modification of the training
program);
students: a) increase the motivation in learning, as control indicates success or failure
in the work, and b) a study hard, to make adjustments to its training activities.
II.

Functions of control

Control, as well as all other components of the educational process, performs certain
functions.:
proper controls (check), estimating, training, management (control) and, in particular,
corrective, diagnostic (diagnoses)helpful, stimulating and motivating,
generalizing,develops, cultivates and disciplining.

Let us consider some of the features in more detail: Stimulating and motivating
function. Control is not indifferent students. For most of them it is able to get
satisfaction from the results of their work and a desire to always be achievers in
school. In poor pupils testing results cause dissatisfaction, but at the same time hope
to address this situation. Until the results monitoring students disciplined, mobilized.
Thus to maintain an interest in teaching.
Diagnose function of control is to timely detect the success or failure teachings and
depending on the detected results build further training activities . This function is
implemented in the whole process of mastering the language material and
development of speech communication skills , that provides information about their
qualitative changes during the entire learning process . Content diagnostic function is
not only to measure achievement in learning activities , but also analysis of the
reasons for its lack of success .
Forms of control
Control can be individual, front, group, guys. The choice of a form depends on the test
object (aspect of language - kind of speech activity), and type of control (Final,
current). T ak, to check the level of dialogic speech steam used form of control:
checking cued and test it reacts. Control takes the form of two-way communication, in
which set the pace and accuracy of responses to stimuli requirements, compliance,
purity of speech.
To establish the level of ownership of monologue speech is more suitable individual
control: the student gets acquainted with the text and performs the test tasks in the
time allotted. The success of the assignment is evaluated using the following criteria:
correspondence transmitted information content of the text and setting; coherence and
consistency of presentation, completeness of the content of the transmission of the
source text; adherence to standards in the communication language (lexical and
grammatical correctness of speech and its phonetic intonation clearance).
Types of control
Distinguish preliminary, current , intermediate and final checks .
The purpose of the preliminary control is to establish a baseline level of proficiency and
students inherent individual psychological qualities that contribute to the success of
training ( memory, attention , interests, common development, addiction ) . This
control provides a differentiated approach to learning and allows, first , to identify
strategies for learning language and , secondly , to form study groups , taking into
account the level of training and psychological development of students. To this end ,
tests are used , including psychodiagnostic . So popular test Eysenck , referring to a
group of intelligence tests used to assess various aspects of human mental activity ,
including the ability to learn languages .

Current control allows to judge the success of language acquisition , the process of
formation and development of speech skills. This control should be regular and is
aimed at testing students mastering a certain part of the study material.
Interim check conducted upon completion of the study subjects. It allows the
effectiveness of mastering section of the program material .
Final control (control of learning outcomes ) aims to establish a level of proficiency
achieved as a result of absorption of large amount of material ( at the end of the
semester , academic year) . Feature of this control lies in its focus on the definition of
primarily level of communicative competence. For this purpose special tests to a
sufficient degree of objectivity to evaluate each student's learning outcomes .
The main objects of assessment
The main objects of control in the classroom for language are: a) language skills (level
of linguistic competence ), b) speaking skills ( level of communicative competence ) ,
and c) knowledge of the target language country and way of life of its speakers
(sociocultural competence) .
Let us Consider:
Linguistic competence . the ability to properly use the grammatical forms the context
and situation , the ability to use the structure of simple and complex sentences in a
given context . Minimum content of education high school graduate includes
verification of pronunciation , graphic , lexical and grammatical aspects of speech .
Communicative competence . The testing verified the ability to use language as a
means of communication in the program given situations.
Listening . The inspections is the level of development of skills in the perception of
foreign language text comprehension. The tests check :
ability to understand the ear monologues (theme statements , its main idea , the main
information contained in every sense of the utterance) . For this purpose include the
text up to 800 words of social amenities and socio- cultural spheres with the number of
unfamiliar words to 3%. Tests are given in the form of a sound by selecting one of the
options of the three possible ;
ability to understand the ear dialogic speech ( the main content of the dialogue ,
communicative intention of the participants ) . Participants are given three test text dialogue and test tasks to them with three options in response sounding form. The
volume of each text sostavlyaet10 -12 replicas.
possession of language and speech material providing adequate perception of oral
-sounding text.
Speaking. Testing facility - the level of development of verbal skills and abilities needed
for oral dialogues and monologues. The tests check:

necessary to SOCIALIZE in the form of dialogic speech ability to understand the


interlocutor and to determine the nature of its communicative intent, to respond
adequately to respond interlocutor (answer to express agreement / disagreement) to
use the language and rules of speech etiquette characteristic of dialogic speech;
required for communication in the form of monologues ability to build a coherent text
different communicative orientation (narration, description, message). To control the
text is given in writing, the content of which should be referred to your own words
orally, and then engage in a conversation on the text;
possession of language and speech material, necessary for communication (lexical
and grammatical correctness of speech and its phonetic intonation clearance).
Reading. Testing facility - the level of development of speech skills in reading texts with
a total coverage of content ( introductory reading) and detailed coverage of content
( learn reading ) . The tests check : ability to understand the general content and the
basic facts of the text ( reading with a total coverage of content) ;
ability to find the necessary information in the text ( the viewing / reading searcher );
the ability to accurately understand the information communicated in the text
The rating of "5" in determining the level of reading is put in trial cases , if the student:
understand the main content of the authentic text , ie compiled by a native speaker;
can identify the main idea of the text;
can guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context.
Letter. Testing facility - the level of development of verbal skills and abilities necessary
to fix the information received, to transmit their own information. The tests check: in
reproduction - the ability to communicate the contents of the read / listened text;
in production - the ability to build a monologue written text on the proposed topic.
For productive statements are evaluated : a) the adequacy of the text assignment ,
and b) the amount of semantic matching text units specified volume content c)
completeness of disclosure topics , and d) the consistency and coherence of
presentation , and e) the possession of language and speech material. Satisfactory
evaluation for the performance test if the subject is gaining at least 75 % of the
maximum possible points.
Sociocultural competence . Provides verification of acquired knowledge about the
target language country and its behavior in a variety of media communication
situations . The structure of social competence include Country- linguistic and cultural
information .