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Blood Type Testing Lab

Luksika Wisitthipakdeekul 5761050


Napat Parapat 5761059
1105
Abstract
Blood type experiment is performed to determine which blood type of an unknown
sample blood is by using the lancet to puncture the finger and add different type of antibody
to the blood and observe that coagulation occurs or not. The result shows that there are no
coagulation in every circle, and we know that the sample blood group is blood type O which
contains both antibody A and B.
Introduction
Multiple alleic traits is when there are more than two alleles that control only one
triat. Human ABO blood type is one of the most important example of multiple allelic traits.
It was discovered in around 1900-1901 in University of Vienna by Karl Landsteiner through
the precesses that sometimes blood transfusion cause death of patients.
In human blood, it contains 2 main components that play a major role in indicating
ABO blood type which are antigen and antibody. Firstly, antigen is the substance on the red
blood cell acting as a foreign that stimulate the immune system to produce anitibody, while
antibody (immunoglobulins) is the production of defense immune system that will eliminate
the substances that do not normally exist in the body. The surface of membrane of red blood
cell contains large number of antigens, while the antibody which have to differ from the
antigen on red blood cell located in plasma.
There are 4 different possible types of blood group which are A, B, AB, and O. These
blood group are controlled by 3 different alleles which indicate what antigen and anitbody are

in the blood. Allele IA indicate that there is anitigen A on the red blood cell, while allele IB
indicate that there is antigen B on the red blood cell. These 2 alleles are codominant with
each other. To contrast, allele i which is a recessive allele indicates that there is no antigen on
the red blood cell. People who are blood type A have anitgen A on their red blood cell and
antibody B in their plasma. There are 2 possible genotypes that they can have which are IAIA
(homozygous) and IAi (heterozygous). People who are blood type B have antigen B on their
erythrocyte and antibody A in the plasma. Their possible genotypes are IBIB (homozygous)
and IBi(heterozygous). People who have both antigen A and B are considered as blood type
AB, therefore their immune system does not produce any antibody in the plasma. The 2
alleles; IA and IB; codominate to show up the traits. Finally, people who get 2 recessvie alleles
are considered as blood type O. Their genotype is ii. On their red blood cell, there are no
antigen, but they have both antibody A and antibody B in the plasma.
Blood typing is the processes to indicate what blood group of each individuals
becuase when blood transfusion occur, giving wrong blood type to the person can cause
mortality. The first step of blood typing is mix the samples blood with 3 different antibody
(anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB). Then, experimenter have to observe coagulation of the blood
samples. If the coagulation occur, it means that the antibody that we add attach to the antigen
on red blood cell of the blood sample. The objectives of this experiment is to test which blood
group of the experimenter and determine all possible genotypes of her parents and her.
Materials
1. 2 Microscope Slides

2. Lancets

3. Cotton Ball

4. Anti-A, -B, -AB

5. Lancet Device

6. 2 skewers

7. Markers

8. Ethanol

Methods
1. Draw 2 circles with diameter 1 cm for each side on the slides.
2. Label each circle with controlled, anti A, anti B, and anti AB
3. Wait for Ms.Sophie to use the Lancet to puncture my finger
4.Drop a single drop of blood on each circle
5. Do not put anti body on the controlled slide
6. For the circle
6.1) For anti A, drop a single drop of anti A.
6.2) For anti B, drop a single drop of anti B.
6.3) For anti AB, drop a single drop of anti AB.
7. Use the toothpick to mix the blood but dont use the same toothpick for each blood.
8. Wait for 10 second and observe
9. Put the result in the data table

Results
State : Coagulation / No coagulation
Control

No coagulation

Anti-A

No coagulation

Anti-B

No coagulation

Anti-AB

No coagulation

Discussion
Taking the result into account, all of the circles that we put antibody A, antibody B,
and antibody AB are all have no coagulation while we did nothing with the control one. The
result from all three circles can be illustrated that blood that we drop in every circle is O
blood group or having a genotype ii. The reason from this experiment is O blood type have
neither antigenA nor antigenB but have antibody for both A and B. In order for this reason,
when we drop antibodyA, antibodyB or antibodyAB into this blood, the coagulation does not
occur.
O blood group is considered to be the universal donor which mean people who have
O blood group can transfuse their blood to any other blood groups. On the other hand, O
blood people cannot receive any other types of blood EXCEPT O type.
In this experiment, our experimenter has group O blood type. The only possible
genotype of the experimenter is ii. For this experimenters parents, her mother has B blood
group while her father has O blood group. There are only 2 possible genotype for her mother
in order to have B blood type which are IBIB and IBi. Likewise, the only possible genotype of
her father is ii because he has O blood type.
In the next following table will show what is the exactly genotype of her mother by
using Punnett Square. We bring two possible genotypes of her mother to mate with only one
genotype O blood group.
Punnett Square

IB

IB

IBi

IBi

IBi

IBi

Table1. A Punnett Square for possible genotype of IBIB type


From data table1, it can be shown that it is impossible for her mother to have IBIB
genotype because the offspring of breeding between IBIB and ii should have only IBi
genotype.
Punnett Square

IB

IBi

ii

IBi

ii

Table2. A Punnett Square for possible genotype of IBi type


As shown in data table2, the breeding between IBi and ii. There are 50% chance of
having B blood type (IBi) and 50% of having O blood type (ii). The blood of experimenter
that we used is ii blood group. So, the experimenter which is blood type O, they must have
two copies of i allele from her both of her parents.

Conclusion

References
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Retrieved
from https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/blood-typing/tab/test/
Kenny, T. (2015, November 27). Antibody and Antigen Tests. Retreieved from
http://patient.info/health/antibody-and-antigen-tests
Mayer, G. (2016). Immunoglobulins- Antigen-Antibody Reactions and Selected Testes.
Retrieved from http://www.microbiologybook.org/mayer/ab-ag-rx.htm
Nobel Media AB. (2016). How do you determine the patients blood type?. Retrieved from
https://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/bloodtypinggame/2.html
O Neil, D. (2014). ABO Blood Type. Retrieved from
http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/ABO_system.htm
World Health Organization. (2009). Safe Blood and Blood Product. Retreived from
http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/transfusion_services/Module3.pdf