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Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

Basic components of electronic transmission

Electronic transmission involves the sending of electromagnetic waves by electronic transmitters


over long distances as well as short distances. The components of electronic transmission vary
from the various types of telecommunication used such as television, radio and telephone. These
types of telecommunications are connected by large arrays of networks including public
telephone networks, computer networks, radio networks and television networks. For example
in computer networks the transmission of data is done by means of electronic mail,
videoconferencing, facsimile, voice mail and the internet.

There are two types of communication:

1. Wired communication
2. Wireless communication

All types of network for transmission are found under these two categories.

Wired Communication Wireless Communication


Computer networks Computer networks
Telephone network Radio networks
Television network
Telephone network
Oral communication

The basic elements needed for any transmission (wired or wireless) in the telecommunication
field are:

(a) A transmitter - broadcast the information through a signal


(b) A transmission medium - the channel over which the signal is transmitted
(c) A receiver – converts back the signal into the readable information

Medium

Wired or Wireless
Transmitter Receiver

Therefore the basic component needed for an electronic transmission may be listed under each
element listed above. Hence in order to have transmission of data or information from one place
to another we need to have communication components for each telecommunication elements.
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

Table showing the various types of transmission and the components used.

Television Radio Public Telephone Computer


Network Network Network Network(internet)
Type of Wireless Wireless Wired Wireless Wired Wireless
transmission
Television Radio Fixed Wireless The Electronic
Broadcast Broadcast telephone Mobile internet or devices, such
Tower and Tower and or public Phone a desktop as video game
Component Satellites Satellites telephone pc systems,
used for the boot. equipped mobile phones
sending with a and computers
information Network equipped with
(Transmitter) Adaptor or WiFi
a Modem technology or
a hot spot, a
public access
point
By By Using Using Using The devices
Component modulation modulation telephone narrow Ethernet itself send the
used for the of the signal of the signal lines band Cables, information
transmission the the frequencies Telephone over specific
of information information (copper it is lines or radio
information is conveyed is conveyed cables) transmitted optic frequencies in
through air through air through air fibers, air. For
(Free Space) (Free Space) using Routers WiMAX a
Modulator Modulator ground- and Switch base station is
and and based used
Demodulator Demodulator antennas or
satellites

Component Receiving Receiving Fixed Wireless A desktop Electronic


used for Antenna and Antenna and telephone Mobile Pc devices, such
receiving Television Radio Set or Phone equipped as video game
information Set wireless with a systems,
(Receiver) mobile Network mobile phones
telephone Adaptor or and computers
a Modem which is
equipped with
WiFi
technology
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

2. Principles of Voices

What are voices?

Voices are sounds formed by the vocal cords of human beings in order to speak, laugh, shout or
cry. Voices may be of different types of languages but in the end serves as a mean of
communication for human beings. The easiest way for communication to take place is by voices
as it uses less time to occur and less effort.

How is voice transmitted?

Voices are transmitted in air by a series of compression and rarefactions of air molecules
creating sound waves of various frequencies that travel from the speaker to the listener. Hearing
sound frequencies for human beings is normally between 12Hz and 20 KHz but this range is not
definite as it changes with age and vary from people to people. The range of frequencies for
voiced speech varies from 85 Hz to 255 Hz.

There are various ways voice can be transmitted:

(a) from a person to another person


(b) by telephone lines (wired)
(c) by VoIP (Voice over IP)

Below is a simple schematic diagram of a person to person voice communication.

The thought in the brain


moves to the mouth and is
The voice is carried through air to the listener’s ear
spoken

[Channel]

SENDER RECEIVER
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

Voice transmission through telephone lines

The voice of the person creates sound energy that travels through the air into the microphone and
converts the energy into electricity. This electrical energy flows down the telephone line to the
PSTN (Public Switching Telephone Network) and then goes to the desired called person. The
electrical pulses are then transmitted into sound waves and therefore the person at the end of the
telephone line may hear the caller’s voice.

Voice over IP

Voice which is analogue information is sent in digital form in discrete packets from one
computer to another in the internet using Internet Protocol (IP). This system allows us to make
phone calls over the internet. We usually use IP phone which is connected directly to
the router and have all the hardware and software necessary right onboard to handle an IP call or
simply using a computer to contact another computer found in another part of the world no
matter the distance using VoIP.

Sound Intensity Measurements (DECIBELS)

Decibels provide a relative measure of sound intensity. The unit is based on powers of 10 to
give a convenient range of numbers to envelop the wide range of the human hearing response,
from the standard threshold of hearing at 1000Hz to the threshold of pain at some trillion times
that intensity. The sound intensity I may be expressed in decibels over the standard threshold
hearing Io. The expression is given by:

I (db) = 10log10 [I/Io]

The logarithm involved is just the power of ten of the sound intensity expressed as a multiple of
the threshold of hearing intensity. Sound level measurements in decibels are generally
referenced to a standard threshold (Io) of hearing at 1000 Hz for the human ear.

Example

If I = 1000 times the threshold, then the ratio of the intensity to the threshold intensity is 103, the
power of ten is 3, and the intensity is 30 dB.

I (db) = 10log10 [1000Io/Io]

= 10 x 3 = 30 dB
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

3. Principles of signal conversion, impairments and media

Signals in the real world are analogue like light and sound. So, real-world signals must be
converted into digital, using a circuit called ADC (Analogue-to-Digital Converter), before they
can be manipulated by digital equipment. The digital signal can also be converted back to the
analogue signal using another circuit called DAC (Digital-to-Analogue Converter).

The information carrying signals are divided into two broad classes;

1. Analogue
2. Digital

Analogue Signals

Analogue signals are continuous electrical signals that vary in time as shown in the figure below.
Most of the time, the variations in the analogue signals follow that of the non-electric original
signal. Therefore, the two are analogous hence the name analogue.

Amplitude

Time

Analog signals represent some physical quantity and they are a ‘MODEL’ of the real quantity.
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication

Digital Signals

Digital signals are non-continuous varying signals that consist of pulses or digits with discrete
levels or values. The value of each pulse is constant, but there is an abrupt change from one digit
to the next. Digital signals have two amplitude levels called nodes which are specified as one of
two possibilities such as 1 or 0.

Amplitude

1 0 1 0 1 Time

Signal Conversion

Signals are converted from analogue to digital or vice versa in relationship with the apparatus
used in the transmission. Signal conversion occurs in our everyday life for example when we
use a VoIP solution or record our voice in a computer; we are using an analogue-to-digital
converter to convert our voice (analogue) to a digital form so that the computer understands it.
The reverse conversion can also occur by using a digital-to-analogue converter. An example is
when we play an audio CD in a CD player, the player is reading digital information stored on the
disc and converting it back to analog so that we can hear the music.

Impairments

The signal quality for a sent signal is poorer than that of the received signal quality. This is due
to noise effect and attenuation signals are subject to losses along transmission lines.

Attenuation is the reduction in strength of a signal and can occur with any type of signal whether
digital or analogue. Attenuation occurs in long distance transmission of signal and is reduces the
signal quality.

Analogue signals crops noise easily as analog signals can take any value hence noise is
interpreted as being part of the original signal. The original signal is distorted and therefore poor
signal transmission is achieved.
Roshan Tishraj Patroo & Benita Konglar B(Eng)Hons Telecommunication