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PALYUL TIMES

6th Issue

November, 2013

His Holiness Drubwang Padma Norbu Rinpoche

EDITORIAL MEMBERS
President:
Lopon Ngawang Thutob

Editors:
Tashi Dendrup
Tshulthrim Norbu
Gyurmed
Ngawang Namgyal
Tenzin Wangdi
Geduen Drukpa
Sithar Gyeltshen
Tshulthrim Dawa
Tenzin Lamzang
Sherab Younten
Tenzin Wangchuk
Special Thanks to:
Khenpo Sonam Tsewang, Zuri Griffiths, Judith
Amtzis and Zoi de la Pefia for editing the articles

Contact Address:
Rigzod Editorial Committee
P.O. Bylakuppe-571 104, Mysore District
Karnataka State, South India
Contact No: 0091-7259607022
Email: rigzod_editor@hotmail.com
Printed and published by:
Rigzod Editorial Committee
First Edition: 2013
Number of copies: 700
Ref: SN-E-M-0006
ISBN: 938306812-4

About the front cover (Cremation Stupa)


His Holiness, the third Drubwang Padma Norbu, Kyabje Jigmed Thubten Shedrub Chokyi Drayang
Palzangpo, the 11th Throne Holder of Gyalwa Palyul
lineage was born in Powo in the Dokham Province of
Tibet, in 1932, to father Sonam Gyurmed and mother
Dzomkyid with numerous auspicious signs. He was
recognized by Khenpo Ngagchung as the flawless reincarnation of the 2nd Drubwang Palchen Duepa. His
Root Guru was Chogtrul Thubten Chokyi Dawa.
In 1960, His Holiness came to India and
gradually established Namdroling Monastery in South
India, which is one of the most renowned Buddhist
institutions in the world. H.H. served as the Third
Supreme Head of Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition from
1993-2002. He also rendered selfless service as the president of the Nyingma Monlam Chenmo (the World
Peace Ceremony) for 14 years (1996-2009).
Having completed his enlightened activities
in this world, His Holiness attained Mahaparinirvana
on 27th March, 2009, at 8.00 p.m. at his residence in
Namdroling Monastery. The holy body of H.H. was
preserved in the Zangdog Palri Temple till 2013 as an
object of support for devotion. On 23rd May, 2013,
the holy remain of H.H. was cremated and the funeral
ritual was presided by His Holiness Taklung Tsetrul
Rinpoche.
This magazine may be considered sacred texts
and should be treated with respect. Should you wish to
dispose of it, please burn it or pass to others.

2013 By Rigzod Editorial Committee

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

An Introduction to Terma.......1
Festivals in Tibet..4

BIOGRAPHY

The Six Ornaments .....7

LINEAGES

Brief introduction to the Eight Great Schools that


flourished in Tibet...10

MONASTERY

4th Throne Holder of the Palyul Lineage..13

DHARMA TEACHINGS

Bodhicitta.14
Benefits of the Mandala Offerings...17
Benefits and merits of Sweeping and Cleaning....18

STORIES

Stories from Jataka Tales


(The Legend of King Tsugna Norbu)......19

SACRED SITES

Rajgir...22

BUDDHSIT ARTS AND SYMBOLS

Lungta (Wind-Horse) Prayer Flag.......24


Rosary.....26

SPIRITUAL ADVICE

Spiritual Message given during the 10th Monlam


Chenmo.29
The grave consequences of Tobacco..........31

BUDDHIST TEXTS

Entrance to the Middle Way....33

INTERVIEW

Interview with Khenchen Namdrol Tshering...35

PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

Buddha Dharma and Practitioners.....41


Religious Harmony Vital for Global Peace..43
An Inexhaustible Cycle of Cause and Effect....44
The Sound of My Vibrating Soul...46

EVENTS AT NAMDROLING

Events at Namdroling, 2013...47

EDITORIAL PAGE
Dear Readers,
We are very much delighted to
bring out the sixth issue of the annual
Palyul Times Magazine. Some of the
articles contained in the previous issue are continued in this publication.
We aspire to achieve admiration from the erudite readers for this
magazine as a source of knowledge
and inspiration. Our intention in publishing this magazine is to inform
about the yearly events and activities
at Namdroling Monastery. It includes
events and news from Ngagyur Nyingma Institute, Junior High School
and Nunnery. The Magazine also
provides you a glimpse of a life at
the Monastery with included articles
from the students within and visitors
alike.
This sixth issue in particular
includes a brief introduction to treasure teachings and important festivals
in Tibet. Similarly, it shares you with
the biography of Arya Asanga, Aryadeva and the fourth throne holder
of Palyul Tradition and many others
like, stories from the Jataka tales, brief
account on Rajgir, spiritual advices
from the Rinpoches and interview
with Venerable Khenchen Namdrol
Tshering.
We hope that you will enjoy
reading the magazine. We welcome
you any comment and contribution
to help us improve the contents so
that understanding and knowledge
of Buddhism may increase by going
through this magazine.
Editors
Rigzod Editorial Committee

No matter whether young or old, there is no one who doesnt have to die. And
besides Buddha-dharma, there is nothing else that can help us during our death. No
matter whether we posses a humans life or an animals life - by having commited
the non-virtuous actions and afflictive emotions since beginning less eons, we are all
continuous wanderers in the three samsaric existence. Therefore, we have to think
ideally and be able to seek out our own purposes once we have obtained a humans
life endowed with the eighteeen favorable conditions.
His Holiness Drubwang Padma Norbu Rinpoche

Dearest disciples,
This is a talk on dharma, always bear in mind. We have nothing else then the concern for this
and next life. The most crucial is to
be concerned of the next life lest we
will astray into the boundless realm
of samsara and undergo bottomless
sufferings. The Triple Gem is the only
protector which can save us from that.
So it is very imperative, first of all, to
generate enthusiastic devotion in the
Triple Gem and then to properly put
on practice what to take on and what
to give up. Do not essentially concert,
without any sense of contentment,
in achieving the hard-to-accomplish
wealth and pleasures for this life. Basically, supplicate the Triple Gem. To
depend on an authentic master is of
utmost consequences, and whatever
the spiritual master says has to put
into practice. The difficulty of obtaining the precious human life endowed with freedoms and riches, uncertainty of life, the
infallibility of cause and effect, the imperfection of cyclic existence and virtue of liberation - as explained in the outer preliminary practice by the master, train your mind with
these four senses of reversing mind from the cyclic existence. Unless we have generated
the sense of renunciation from the world of samsara, we will not become any perfect but
the apparition of the dharma practitioner. Until we attain enlightenment, we have to
contemplate on the four senses of reversing mind from the cyclic existence. If we practise
thus, we can be able to merge our mind with the dharma. The essential foundation of
Mahayana Buddhism is to generate the mind of attaining enlightenment, Bodhicitta. If
generated that alone will do, if not all is ruined. Bodhicitta has to be free from any bias
or sectarianism or else it will not become ideal. First, we have to generate Bodhicitta
towards our own beloved mother and subsequently, at all times, generate towards immeasurable sentient beings until unbearable sense of compassion is aroused in us. If, now,
we constantly practise the twofold Bodhicitta of aspiring and practical, diligently perfect
in the six transcendent paths and meditate on the emptiness that is an aspect of ultimate
Bodhicitta; eventually and progressively the twofold obscurations along with intrinsic
tendencies will be cleansed and the realization of ultimate Bodhicitta will dawn. At that
time, we can broadly benefit untold numbers of beings. The specific inner preliminaries

are as such: taking refuge in the Triple Gem with deep respect and longing, and
thinking that whatever happiness or suffering may overcome me, I rely upon you;
generation of Bodhicitta has to base on considering all the beings as mothers and appreciating their infinite kindness, the practice of Vajrasattva that cleanses all obscurations
of self and others, Mandala offerings, the method of accumulating merits for self and
others; and the Guru Yoga that bestows immediate blessings - to appreciably complete
these practices and to make sure that our three doors (body, speech and mind) blend
with the dharma, is of utmost significance. Of course, we are untainted and liberated
from the very beginning, the outer existence is the pure realm, all the males and females
are deities; however, we are bonded by attachment to I due to ignorance and perverted
point of view. Thus, we perceive everything as impure and wrongly indulge in them,
constantly falling victim to unending sufferings. Buddhas, due to their spontaneous and
intense compassion, manifest into male and female peaceful wisdom deities, male and
female wrathful wisdom deities, as the lord in union with consort and so forth. All these
are for the imperfect beings to realize and perk up. Visualization of outer existence as
the blissful sphere, all the beings inside as wisdom deities, all sounds as the resounding
of mantras, all conceptual thoughts as the enlightened mind or wisdom, also to visualize
the emergence and merging of the rays from the mantras and wisdom of concentration
at the heart, to see everything as the supreme excellence existing from the beginning less
of time, to merge into the expanse of emptiness in order the perfection be not sanitized
by attachment, to arise again as the wisdom deity with one face and two arms - all these
practices of generation completion phases have to be put into practice, by all, as the daily
routine in order to finally attain the level of the primordial Buddha, Samantabhadra.
In addition, for realization of the ultimate point of view generate devotion towards the
perfect master bearing him in your mind as equal to the unblemished Buddha. And
then receive instructions on mindfulness (Shamatha) and, in stages, the instructions on
directly revealing the special insight (Vipashyana). Be able to actualize realization on
the naked awareness, and diligently practise without being dissipated the point of view
until you accomplish the four visions (of Dzogchen). If you practise thus, without the
slightest qualm, you will attain the perfect Buddha-hood in one lifetime. Due to intense
distraction, if you are not able to accomplish this despites your ardent diligence, then it
is impossible, if truth be told, to realize the ultimate meaning. So, try to accomplish as I
told you and be of utmost advantage for your own sake.
Although, I, the lowly one, deprived of any quality or accomplishment of special
abandonment and realization, have written this being unable to turn away from my
disciples request for an easy-to-understand direction on practising the Dharma.

Paltrul Padma Norbu

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An INTRODUCTION TO TERMA
(treasure teachings)
lineage, as it is claimed to be a direct transmission from
Guru Padmasambhava or many highly realized masters like Vairocana, Vimalamitra, and so forth. The
treasures were concealed by Guru Padmasambhava to
be discovered at an appropriate time. They are considered to be the condensed quintessence of the Kama,
which contains the foremost teachings of all Buddhas.
Guru Padmasambhava, the lotus born tantric
master, in 9th century, bestowed the ripening empowerments and liberating instructions upon the king
Trisong Deutsen and his subjects, the twenty five main
disciples, in Tibet. At the same time, Guru Rinpoche
entrusted various teachings to each of them for later
propagation, and then he concealed these teachings in
the form of treasures in various places such as rocks,
lake, temples, statues, sky and in the mind-stream of
fortunate recipients. At that very moment, he prophesied that, in the future, these disciples would reincarnate, reveal these teachings, and spread them for the
welfare of Buddha-dharma and sentient beings. There
are Three Means by which Guru Padmasambhava set
forth a teaching as a treasure:
The Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition consists of
three transmissions: Kama, the long transmissions of
Canonical Tantras; Terma, direct transmissions of treasures; and Zabmo Dagnang, Profound transmissions
of pure visions. Amongst them, the brief account on
Hidden Treasures will be highlighted here.

(1) Through a prediction


Guru Padmasambhava predicted that the
benefit of these teachings for sentient beings will be accomplished by a certain disciple and that the treasure
will be revealed at a certain appropriate time, place, and
circumstance.

The Nature of the Treasures


The nature of Treasure is described by the following passage from the Sutra of the Dialogue with
the Naga King: These four are the great treasures, which
are inexhaustible: (1) The inexhaustible, great treasure
of the unbroken lines of the Three Precious Jewels; (2)
the inexhaustible, great treasure of immeasurable and supreme realization of the doctrine; (3) the inexhaustible,
great treasure of bringing delights to sentient beings; and
(4) the inexhaustible, great treasure which is like the vast
sky.This form of transmission is considered the close

(2) By means of an empowerment


through wishing prayers
While focusing his wisdom mind, Padmasambhava prayed that the teachings given at the time
of bestowing the empowerment may clearly arise in the
mind of his disciples in their future lives during which
he or she is meant to reveal the treasure. The disciples
also prayed in the same way.

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(3) By entrusting the dakinis to


look after the Terma

2013

Again in that same Sutra, the following passage indicated the presence of celestial doctrines, and
so forth: For one whose aspiration is perfect the doctrine
will emerge from the midst of the sky, from walls and trees,
even though no Buddha be present.
Generally, the first thing that is said to be
found by the terton is the Prophetic guide of the treasures that he is meant to reveal during his particular
life. In order for him to find the treasures listed in the
prohetic guide, a Terton needs many auspicious connections to be gathered. One of the conditions is that
the terton may need a predestined spiritual consort
through whom their spiritual channels will be untied,
allowing the free flowing of the teachings through the
tertons wisdom mind. But, on the other hand there are
a few major tertons, such as Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo
and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, who were ordained
monks and did not rely upon a spiritual consort to reveal their termas.
Termas are said to be revealed from their place
of concealment at the time when they are required and
beneficial to sentient beings. His Holiness Dilgo Kyentse Rinpoche once said: There are three versions of
terma: a long elaborate one, a medium one and a condensed one.
Having received the treasure prophetic guide,
the terton finds the exact location where he needs to
open the door of the treasure that often bears a distinctive mark. There, he usually finds a treasure box. He
then has to put back something in place of the treasure
and again seal the place of concealment. This is done to
appease the non-human being that guards the treasure.
It is a form of bartering to prevent the guardian from
feeling bereft. Sometimes, treasures are revealed before
an audience of devotees in an event called a public
treasure. The Bhutanese Terton Pema Lingpa was very
famous for revealing such terma.
The mode of revealing treasures and their benefits depend upon the circumstances, the quality of
the auspicious connections, the purity of sacred bonds
between teacher and disciple, and the merit of beings.
Likewise, a terton can put them into writing in a long
elaborate, or a medium, or a condensed form. It is
customary for a terton to present his terma to a great
master for confirming whether his treasure is genuine,
or whether it should be discarded.

Guru Padmasambhava put the dakinis in


charge of ensuring that: in due time, a terton or a treasure revealer will come and reveal the treasure. He will
be able to transmit it to the suitable disciples, and that
his lineage will carry great blessings while being kept
secret from unqualified disciples.
Subsequently a Terma teaching is said to have
been placed under the guardianship of a specific protector, referred to as Terma Protector, who will only allow the right person to take out the treasure. On some
occasions, however, a terton may bless another realized
master to extract the treasure in his place.
The aspirational prayers of Padmasambhava
are considered to be the most essential, as it is the
means by which the entire process unfolds. It is said
that in whatever form a terma is found, such as dakini
symbolic scripts written on a yellow parchment, it is
said to be a mere support for remembering the time
when the terton received the teachings from Guru Padmasambhava. The actual transmission is said to have
been given from mind to mind by Guru Padmasambhava himself.
On the basis of this symbolic support, the terton with good karma will thus be able to set up the
whole teachings, sometimes in an instant flash, it is
put in writing without any hesitations and discursive
thoughts. Nevertheless, some termas are required to be
clarified by the highly realized masters, for proving its
authenticity. Eventually, it is arranged in the form of
a means of accomplishment or a ritual text that can
conveniently be used by the fortunate practitioners.

Where and how Terma is found


It is said in the Sublime Sutra of Contemplation which Subsumes All Merits:
O Vimalamitejas! For those Bodhisattvas
who desire treasure doctrines; it has been hidden in the
mountains, ravines, and the woods. Dharanis and limitless approaches to the doctrine, which are set down in
volumes, will also come into their hands.

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Categories of Terma

5. Recollections

1. Earth Treasures

These are termas based on memoirs of occasions when the tertons were receiving teachings in their
former life from Guru Padmasambhava or other enlightened masters such as Vimalamitra.

Earth treasures are hidden in rocks, statues,


lakes, trees, and so on, usually in the form of a yellow
scroll on which a few syllables of symbolic dakini script
are written. These letters can only be deciphered by the
terton to whom the legacy of the spiritual treasure belongs, and are indecipherable to anyone else. The scroll
is often found within a treasure-box that can be made
of stone, jewel, etc. These scrolls were sometimes written down by Padmasambhava himself or by his foremost disciples. Earth treasures signify the main body of
the Terma tradition.

Groupings of Treasure Revealers


In the Life story of Padmasambhava, revealed
by Terten Ogyen Lingpa; the advent of 108 great tertons, a thousand medium ones, and countless minor
ones were predicted. The Five Kingly Tertons are:
Nyangral Nyima Wodzer, Guru Chokyi Wangchuk,
Dorje Lingpa, Pema Lingpa and Jamyang Khyentse
Wangpo.

2. Mind Treasures
Mind treasures are concealed by Padmasambhava in the mind-stream of the treasure revealer.
These treasures surge clearly in the tertons mind at
the appropriate time by the blessings of Guru Padmasambhavas prayers, without physically manifested
scroll or treasure.

Eleven Stainless Lingpas and Twelve


Great Lingpas
The various texts enumerate Eleven Stainless
Lingpas and Twelve Great Lingpas among whom Rinchen Lingpa, Karma Lingpa, Ogyen Lingpa, Sangye
Lingpa, Samten Lingpa, Dorje Lingpa, Ratna Lingpa,
Kunchong Lingpa, Pema Lingpa, Lethro Lingpa, Tennyi Lingpa and Shikpo Lingpa. Another category lists
Eight Major Lingpas that includes Sangye Lingpa,
Dorje Lingpa, Rinchen Lingpa, Pema Lingpa, Ratna
Lingpa, Kunchong Lingpa, Dongak Lingpa and Tennyi Lingpa.

3. Material Treasures
They are objects such as statues of Padmasambhava or various deities, ritual implements, artefacts used and blessed by Guru Padmasambhava or one
of his twenty-five disciples, or sacred substances such as
amrita, red and white bodhicitta, relics from Padmasambhava or others masters, and so on.

The Purpose of Concealing Terma

4. Re-extracted Treasures

The purpose of concealing Terma is stated in


the following lines from the Sutra of the Rivers Play:

These treasures are said to have revealed once


and due to various reasons, considered that the time
and circumstances were not yet suitable for propagating them and were concealed again. Later, another
terton, often a reincarnation of the first one, reveals
them a second time to transmit them.

Conceal the doctrinal texts of my teaching,


As treasure of Mind arising from Mind,
Or make them cores of the earth:
Though extremists with wild thoughts
Will certainly confound the definitive meaning,
The flow of the river will not be cut off!
Again, the Terma revealed by Ratna Lingpa
stated the following words:

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FESTIVALS IN TIBET

Because, generally, I harbour great compassion


For the Tibetans, who love what is new,
And for the creatures of this degenerate age,
I have filled the frontiers and the centre with the treasures,
Focal points which are the culmination of utter profundity;
And I have prayed that these be found by my worthy sons.
In the future, sophists, verbally skilled,
Anchorites and others who are biased, inflated with
prejudice
Will promote themselves and disputes my treasures.
But, the most religious person in the defiled age will be
guided by treasures.
They are profound and complete, unobscured, comprehensive:
Each instruction will certainly liberate someone. Therefore, O worthy and well-trained ones, whose propensities
have awakened,
If you remember death, then experience these treasure
doctrines!
You will obtain liberations path in one lifetime,
O my followers!
In the defiled age all worthy devotees of treasure will be
those who now have beheld the gurus visage and made
an aspiration. Since you all have such propensities,
cultivate joy!
These words of mine are rarer than gold, or jewels!

Tibet is a country known for its beautiful landscape, pristine natural environment, peaceful Buddhist
culture and its unique traditions. In Tibet, people are
considered to be more spiritual than materialist. Since
the country is bound by age old customs and traditions, people hold different views and beliefs according
to their unique traditions. In this context, we bring you
a glimpse of Tibetan festivals and their social significance.

The First day of the First Tibetan month


In Tibet, the native inhabitants of Kham
and Utsang celebrate the first day of the first Tibetan
month as a New Year according to the Tibetan calendar. The day is marked with great significance, and
family members and relatives from far and wide gather
on this particular day. The day begins with the offering
of butter lamps and ritual cakes in the shrine. People
dress up in new clothes and put on their jewels and ornaments to grace the occasion. The best items of foods
and drinks are served and they celebrate the day by
playing, singing and dancing. Similarly, the inhabitants
of the Northern Province of Amdo and the southern
region of Kham also celebrate this day as a New Year
according to the Chinese calendar.
Every possible effort is made to prepare varieties of food items. Guests are invited and served with
the finest liquor and other drinks. On this day, families
and communities usually host archery tournaments
and many other competitions as the part of celebration. The celebration goes on for fifteen days and many
bridal processions take place during these days as it is
believed to be auspicious and fortunate for the newly
wedded couple.

As described in those precious


words of Guru Padmasambhava, the Terma transmission plays a vital role in the Tibetan Buddhism, especially in the Nyingma Lineages. It also plays a helpful
role in other lineages. The Treasury of Precious Terma
(Rinchen Terzod) by Jamgoen Kongtul Rinpoche was
a fine collection of treasures, which contains all the essential empowerments of Terma.
Thus, the Terma teachings are considered precious and powerful as they are not stained by
the impurities that inevitably occur in the history of
lineages and are particularly appropriate for the time of
their prophesized discovery. That is, as direct transmissions from Guru Padmasambhava or other highly realized saints, they have not accumulated scribble errors,
or innovations introduced by lineage holders over the
centuries. May precious Terma continue to liberate beings
from the six realms!

The First day to 15th day of the First


Tibetan month
The first Tibetan month is considered to be
very holy and auspicious in Tibet. It is said that Buddha Sakyamuni displayed various miracles to tame the
heretics and the six extremist teachers during this particular month. Later, Lord Buddhas disciples have built

Geduen Drukpa
8th Yr. NNI

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2013

of dualistic appearance and thus attaining full enlightenment on this day.


The third extraordinary deed displayed by Buddha on this day is the great enlightened deed of showing impermanence. Buddha was eighty years old when
he finally passed away into parinirvana at Kushinagar.
In Tibet people usually mark the day by visiting temples, offering butter lamps to the shrines and avoid
unwholesome activities. In some communities, people
gather in one place and practice fasting while in other
parts of Tibet, people get together and jointly recite the
six-syllable mantra.

stupas during this month as memorials to the great


deeds displayed. In the year 1409 AD Je-Tsongkhapa
Lobzang Drakpa, the founder of the Gelugpa sect, introduced the first Monlam Chenmo or great prayer
ceremony corresponding to the first Tibetan month to
commemorate the marvelous deeds of Buddha.
Today, in Tibet we can see the Monlam Chenmo tradition being upheld by different Gelug schools
during this very auspicious month.

The 15th day of the Third Tibetan month


This day has the great significance in Tibet as
according to the source and the record, it is said that
on this day Buddha Sakyamuni initiated Kalachakra
teachings to the dharma king Dawa Zangpo of Shambala and his retinue. On every 15th day of the third
Tibetan month, respective Buddhist schools in Tibet
conduct fire rituals for the benefit of all sentient beings,
offer mandalas and initiate the Kalchakra sadhana for
several days to mark the auspiciousness of the day.

The 15th day of the Fifth Tibetan month


This day is commonly celebrated as the Universal Smoke Ritual Day. It is one of the four great
offerings made in Tibet. Here, people usually go up in
the mountains and light huge fires from herbal plants
and good fragrant wood they collect. This offering is
made to all the deities and guardian of the universe
and it is believed that the smoke coming from this fire
cleanses or purifies the entire world.

The 8th day of the Fourth Tibetan month

The 4th day of the Sixth Tibetan month

The eight day of the fourth Tibetan month is


considered to be very auspicious because on this day
Lord Buddha took birth as a prince to king Sudhodhana and queen Maya Devi at Lumbini grove. In Tibet
the day is marked with monasteries performing sacred
rituals and presenting sacred masked dances to the
people. On this day important relics and treasures are
also displayed to the devotees to receive blessings and to
mark the significance of the day.

After Buddha attained full enlightenment, he


restrained himself from teaching the truth for seven
weeks, to indicate that the profound nectar he had
realized was beyond the grasp of sophistry. Thus after realization Buddha remained deeply in meditative
equipoise. It was on this particular day, the fourth
day of the sixth Tibetan month that the king of gods
Brahma and lord Indra recollected their past aspirational prayers and earnestly requested Buddha to turn
the wheel of Dharma by offering a thousand-spoked
golden wheel and right-coiled conch. Due to their ardent appeal Buddha finally accepted and turned the
first dharma wheel at Varanasi, to the first five disciples
and countless fortunate devotees.
During the reign of dharma King Trisong
Deutsen, he invited many scholars from India. Guru
Rinpoche was the first one to bring Buddhism to Tibet. He blessed the land, converting it into a sacred
holy place and subdued many demons, turning them
into dharma protectors. Having spread Buddha dharma in Tibet, Guru Padmasambhava left for Sinyul or

The 15th day of the Fourth Tibetan month


This day is significant because of three extraordinary deeds displayed by Lord Buddha. The 15th day
of the fourth Tibetan month is considered to be the
actual day that Buddha Sakyamuni entered into the
womb of the queen Maha Maya in the form of the
six- tusked grey elephant.
The second extraordinary deed is the attainment of enlightenment. As the awakening day arrived,
Buddha contemplated on diamond-like meditative absorptions, thereby destroying the most subtle latencies

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the land of Rakshas to subdue the Rakshas or the ogres.


Since it was on the 10th day of the sixth Tibetan month
that Guru Rinpoche left for Sinyul, this day is considered to be very auspicious among the Nyingma and
Kagyud practitioners in Tibet.

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day of the ninth Tibetan month is the day Lord Buddha descended from the heaven. Since the day is considered to be auspicious people in Tibet visit temples,
offer butter lamps, and so on to accumulate merit.

The 29th day of the Twelfth Tibetan month

The 22 day of the Ninth Tibetan month


nd

In Tibet, most monasteries conduct the Gutor


Ritual just a day before Tibetan New Year, on the 29th
day of the twelfth month. The ritual is conducted to
dispel all the obstacles and misfortunes that might occur in the coming year.

After attaining full enlightenment, it is said


that Buddha went to the thirty-third heavenly abode of
gods to meet his mother who was reborn there. To repay her kindness, he preached the doctrine to her and
other gods. After having liberated all the gods with profound nectar like teachings, Buddha descended back to
this world. According to the Tibetan calendar, the 22nd

Sonam Dolma
8th Yr. NNNI

However industrious you may be,


There is no end to worldly activities;
But if you practise the Dharma
You will swiftly conclude everything.
Guru Padmasambhava

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SIX ORNAMENTS OF THE WORLD

Starting with this issue, we are featuring brief biographies of the six great Indian Authors, who are popularly known
as the six ornaments of the world. They are: Lord Nagarjuna and Acharya Aryadeva, the composers of the root texts and
commentary of Madhaymika philosophy or the tradition of the profound view respectively; Asanga and Vasubandhu, the
composers of the root texts and commentary of the Chittamatrin tradition or the tradition of extensive conduct respectively;
and Acharya Dignaga and Dharmakirti, the composers of the root texts and commentary of Valid Cognition respectively.
As the biography of the Lord Nagarjuna has already been already included in a previous issue as part of the eight Indian
Vidyadharas, we will hence introduce the remaining ones.
In his commentary of Aryadevas Four Hundred Verse Treatise, Chandrakirti also affirms that
Aryadeva was the son of Sri Lankan king. As it accords
with the popular Indian histories, here it will be elaborated according to these accounts.
The king of Sri Lanka, Patsa Shreegum had
a son endowed with special qualities. When he grew
up, he was entrusted with the royal responsibilities
of the king but he was inclined towards becoming
an ordained monk. So he was ordained by an abbot
called Hama Dewa and had mastered the entire three
baskets of teachings. Then he travelled to India for a
pilgrimage, where he met with Lord Nagarjuna, who
was on the way to Palgiri (Sri parvata). He relied on
Nagarjuna and accomplished many attainments, like
essence-extraction, and finally he was entrusted with
teachings of essential meanings.
After the Lord Nagarjuna passed away into
nirvana, Aryadeva benefited sentient beings by giving
teachings in south India near Palgiri and establishing
twenty four monasteries. With the supply of sustenance by female Yaksha called Kelwa Zangmo and
other mountain gods, all these monasteries became
the support for the religious institution of Mahayana
Buddhism.
During that time, a non-buddhist Brahmin
named Thubka Nagpo, from the East Indian city
of Khorta was traveling around the country debating and defeating Buddhists scholars. Eventually his
travels took him to the renowned Nalanda University.
As the Buddhist scholars at Nalanda could not debate

Acharya Aryadeva
According to the commonly known history
in Tibet, Acharya Aryadeva was said to be born miraculously from lotus in the garden of a king in Sri
Lanka. The king adopted him as his son and brought
him up. He became one of the chief disciples of Nagarjuna and it is said that he tamed the non-buddhist
scholar, Thubka Nagpo, who lived during that time.
Other account says that he was none other than the
accomplished master Karnariwa, who attained nirvana transforming his body into a rainbow during the
time of Nargarjuna.

Palyul Times

biography

with the Brahmin they decided to invite Aryadeva


and wrote a letter of invitation, and made supplicating
prayers to Mahakala by offering sacrificial cakes and
so forth. By the power of the prayers, a crow appeared
miraculously from the heart of a self-arisen stone image of Mahakala. So they tied the letter to its neck and
it flew toward the south and showed it to Aryadeva.
He knew that the time had come for him to tame the
Brahmin, and set out for Nalanda, travelling quickly
with the tantric accomplishment of swift-footedness.
On the way, a non-buddhist woman begged him for
one of his eyes, as an eye of a scholar was required as a
substance for accomplishing her yogic attainment, so
he gave one of his eyes to that woman and arrived in
Nalanda within a short time.
Firstly, he tamed all the defenders of Brahmins like the vampire in the form of a scholar, parrot, shameless Upasaka (lay practitioner), etc. Then he
made a boundary with pieces of cloth blessed with the
power of mantras. So even the Brahmins god Shiva,
who usually used to enter his body to help him in debate, could not enter him. After that they debated for
a long period of time and Aryadeva defeated the Brahmin three successive times. When the Brahmin tried
to escape through the sky with miraculous power, he
caught him with the power of mantra and imprisoned
him in a temple. The Brahmin started to read Buddhist texts in the temple and finally came across the
sutra where Buddha prophesied about him without
any mistake. So the faith in Buddha grew stronger and
stronger within his mind-stream and he regretted his
past misdeeds towards the Buddha-dharma. Finally,
he became a Buddhist monk and within a short time
he became a master of the three baskets of Buddhas
teachings.
After taming the Brahmin , Aryadeva lived in
Nalanda for a long period. Later he came back to the
south and accomplished the great purpose for sentient beings. Eventually he entered nirvana at a place
called Raganatha near Katsi after entrusting the teachings of essential meanings to his disciple Dachenzin
Zangpo.

2013

Arya Asanga
Long ago, during the reign of King Goda
Pheljed, there lived a monk who was well-versed in
sutra, abhidharma and vinaya texts. He had an utmost
devotion towards Arya Avalokiteshvara and followed
him as his personal diety.
One day, he had a debate with another monk
when out of his pride he accused that monk of having an intellect of a woman. At that moment, from
the vast radiance of the sun, Arya Avalokiteshvara appeared in the real form and said:
Having uttered unpleasant words out of pride,
you shall take many lives as a woman, yet I shall never
leave you alone, but guide you as a teacher- until you attain enlightenment.
During the reign of King Sangye Chog, he
was reborn as a girl in a Brahmin family known as
Prakasa Shila. From the very early age she was able to
remember her past lives and could easily remember
and recite all the sutras and abhidharma texts simply
by looking at them or hearing them. She always engaged in virtuous actions and she regularly made offerings to Avalokiteshwara. She had a strong faith in
bodhi mind. [Its a wrong record considering Prakasa
Shila as a Bikhuni or a Nun]
Later, she married a man from a royal clan and
soon she gave birth to an extraordinary son. When her
son grew a little older, she taught him to read and

Konchok Palmo
5th Yr. NNNI

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biography

2013

tion and the will-power of the old man, Asanga once


again went back to the cave and meditated for three
more years.Still however, there wasnt any sign of accomplishment. This time he completely left the cave
and reached the nearby town. By the roadside he
saw a wounded dog lying. The wound was so severe
that most of it was rotten and covered with maggots.
The helpless dog was crying out with immense pain.
Asanga felt deep pity looking at the dog and thought
that if the maggots arent removed, the dog would die
painfully but if they are removed, the maggots would
die. So he came out with the best way - to cut off his
own thigh flesh in order to keep the worms on it and
knelt down onto the ground to take out the worms
from the rotten flesh with his own tongue. He closed
his eyes and reached his hand to grab the dog. When
he didnt find it, he opened his eyes and to his amazement, instead of the wounded dog he saw Maitreya
Buddha himself amidst radiance of light. He was very
pleased and asked, In spite of many efforts and attempts
I had made, why didnt you appear before me? Having
said this he wept bitterly. In his reply Buddha Maitreya said,
Even if the rain falls on time, if the seed is burnt
then there is no hope for the seed growing into a plant.
Similarly, even when the Buddhas appear, if one is not
fortunate enough, he or she shall not experience the bliss
of Dharma. It was due to your own ignorant mind that
you didnt see me; otherwise I was always there with you.
All those hardships you went through and the compassion
you showed to this poor dog today have cleansed all your
defilements so you could see me. If you do not believe me
then put me on your shoulder and walk around the town
and see if anybody sees me.

write. She taught him all kinds of eighteen excellent


arts along with mathematics, science and crafts.
One day son asked his mother about their
clan. She told him that she gave birth to a son not for
the royal cause or for continuity of the clan, but to
spread Mahayana teachings. She told her son to become a monk and urged him to acquire true meditative absorption. As told by his mother, he went to be
a monk and after serving the abbot and Sangha community for a year, he then formally got ordained as
a Bikkhu (fully ordained Monk). For five successive
years he recited and memorized all common classes of
teachings: sutra, abhidharma and vinaya sect. He felt it
was somewhat easier for him to understand the three
common teachings and some of the mahayana teachings as well, but the vast and deep meaning of the Praja Paramita was beyond the reach of ordinary beings.
So, for better understanding and perfect realization,
he thought he had to have a true vision of a personal
deity. He went to meditate upon Maitreya Buddha, in
the cave popularly known as foot of a bird or Gurwa
Prabhat in Sanskrit. With the great anticipation and
hope that he would be blessed, he meditated for three
years but to his dismay he didnt experience even a single sign of achievement. He was so disappointed that
he decided to leave the cave. As he came out from the
cave he noticed a birds nest on a rock. As the bird flew
from the nest, its wings would touch the edge of a rock
causing the rock to slowly wear away. Having noticed
this, he knew that, gradually, the rock would become
completely worn out. This sparked a little hope in his
endeavour, thinking that his perseverance was nothing
compared to that of the rock being worn out so he
went back to the cave and meditated for three more
years. Still then there was no sign of accomplishment.
He was again saddened by the result and decided to
give up. Upon coming out of his cave, he saw droplets
of water dripping off from a leave, making a hole on
the rock underneath. Having seen the sight, he was
once again determined, and thought that meditating
was much easier. He went back to his cave and another three years passed by, still without any improvement. Feeling miserable and in despair, he left the cave
for the third time. This time on his way he met an old
man polishing an iron bar with a soft cloth.
The old man said to Asanga, Im making
a needle out of this iron bar and showed him a box
of needles, saying that those needles were all made
in the same way. Deeply moved by the determina-

To be continued........
Sonam Dorji
8th Yr. NNI

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Brief Introduction to the eight great


schools that flourished in Tibet

Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition

Kadampa Tradition

Ngagyur Nyingma, the pinnacle of all the


dharma traditions, is considered to be the foremost
tradition that prevailed in Tibet. An enormous effort
was made to bring the teachings from India to Tibet
by the dharma king Trisong Deutsen. He invited many
scholars from India including Guru Padmasambhava
and Abbot Shantarakshita. Since then, Nyingma
teachings have been studied and practiced extensively
throughout the country. With its complete scriptures
and testaments, the doctrine survived through ages.
All the collected works such as the translation
of sutras, tantras and secret mantra teachings that were
carried out between 790 AD-958 AD, from the time
of Khen-lop-Choesum till Rongzom Maha Pandita
is known as Ngagyur Nyingma. That period is also
known to be the era of ancient Nyingma.
The extraordinary secret teachings that have
been translated include kama teachings, the root tantra of Anu yoga teachings (Duepa-do), the magical
net, the eighteen great tantrapitaka, the eight transmitted precepts (Kagyed), the eighteen mother and
child texts of themind class (Sem-de Mabu Chopgyed), the space-class (Long-de) and the category of
pith instructions (Men Ngyag-de).
The masters who expounded these sacred
teachings were Guru Padmasambhava, pundit Vimalamitra, Vairocana, Nubchen Sangye Yeshe, Ngyag
Janakumara, Zur Shakya Jungne, the great omniscient
Longchen Rabjam, Mipham Rinpoche and many
other Nyingma masters up to our present root guru.
These teachings have been transmitted through an unbroken lineage passed down from teacher to disciple
in an uninterrupted way for generations.

In the Water-Horse year 1042, corresponding


to the first Rabjung of the Tibetan calendar, Shri Atisha
Dipamkara was first invited to Tibet by Nagtso Lotsawa. Shri Atisha composed a commentary on an Illuminating Lamp to the Path to Buddhahood (Jangchub
Lam Dron). The successors to the Kadampa tradition
are: Lochen Rinchen Zangpo, Ngok Lekpei Sherab,
Nagtso Tsultrim Gyelwa, Mra Gyelwai Lodroe, KhuNgog- Dromsum, Three Heart-Sons, Lang and Shar.
In particular, Dromtoen Gyelwai Jungne classified
these teachings into seven categories - teaching of
the four exalted devas and three baskets of teachings.
These masters or the practitioners of the Jangchub
Lam Droen are known as the Kadam Nyingma or
the Ancient Kadampas.
The Kadampa Tradition once flourished
widely in Tibet, yet with the passage of time it slowly
approached extinction. In the seventh century when
Je Tsongkhapa Lobzang Drakpa, having kept the true
principle of the kadampa tradition composed a commentary entitled Jangchub Lamrim Chenmo, (The
great treatise of the stages to enlightenment) that the
Kadampa Tradition flourished once again.
This reformed tradition and its followers are
known as the new Kadampas or the Kadam Sarma.
Gyeltsab Dharma Rinchen, Khedrub Gyelek Palzang
and Gyelwang Gedun Dukpa are the successive
holders of the Kadam Sarma.

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The Lamdrey Tradition


(Path and Fruition)

major and minor schools where they equally enjoy the


sublime teachings of glorious Marpa Kagyud.

Lamdrey Tradition is the main teaching of


the Sakya school, where one practices the advanced
meditation and the esoteric instructions of the great
Virupa. Based upon the principles of Hevajra tantra
teachings, Virupa composed the Lamdrey teachings
and a short text explaining the brief meaning of the
Hevajra tantra. Lamdrey teaching was brought to
Tibet by Drog Mi Lotsa (993-1074). He traveled
to India and received these teachings from the great
mahasiddha Gaya Dhara and Paow Dorje. He then
transmitted these teachings to Khoen Kenchok Gyalpo and successively to Sachen Kunga Nyingpo and
so on. Another lineage of the Lamdrey Tradition was
transmitted from the great Lama Sachapa Chenpo
who received these teachings from the great Virupa. It
is said that Virupa himself came in his pure vision and
gave the direct transmission. The lineage was passed
on to Sonam Tsemo, Drakpa Gyeltsen, Sakya Pendita
Kuenga Gyeltsen, Drogoen Choegyel Phakpa and so
on to the descendants of the great Sakya Clan.

Shangpa Kagyud Tradition


Shangpa Kagyud Tradition was first introduced to Tibet by the highly learned and accomplished
master Chungpo Neljorpa (978-1126). He traveled
many times to India and Nepal during the early and
later years of his life. He relied upon many realized
masters and received teachings. Two wisdom dakinis,
Mani Guma and Sukha Siddhi, thirteen magnificent
lamas and four root teachers were among those realized masters from whom he received these teachings.
He learned and practised the teachings of
Hevajra tantra, Chakra Samvara,Guhya Samja tantra,
Maha Maya mantra teachings and five other Maha
Yoga tantras. He then went to Shang Zhong Zhong
Dorje-den and built a monastery.The name Shangpa
Kagyud was derived from the name of that place and
gradually it became the permanent seat of the Shangpa Kagyud. The successor to the lineage who received
these sacred teachings were the early five heart sons,
one later heart son, the great yogi Thangtong Gyelpo,
Jetsun Kuenga Drolchog and many more eminent
and realized masters.

The Marpa Kagyud Tradition


(1012-1097)

Zhijed Tradition
(the tantra of pacifying)

The great scholar and translator Marpa Choekyi Lodroe travelled extensively to India three times
and met many accomplished masters. He received
Chag-chen or Maha Mudra teachings from Naropa,
the great Indian maha siddha. This sacred teaching
was directly passed down from Buddha Vajradhara to
Tilopa and then to Naropa and Marpa Choekyi Lodre respectively. Marpa was the first one to bring the
Maha Mudra teachings to Tibet. He taught it to the
fortunate disciples and later transmitted to Milarepa
and other disciples, popularly known as four heart
sons. Through an uninterrupted lineage, it passed
down through Rechung DorjeDrakpa, Drakpa Dayoed Zhoenu, the first Karmapa Duesum Khenpa,
Phagdu DorjeGyalpo, Barom Dharma Wangchuk,
Zhangtselpa Tsondrue Drakpa, Taklung Tashi Pelwa,
Gyeltsab Kunden Repa, Lingre Pedma Dorje, Marpa
Sherab Yeshe, Yelpa Yeshe Tsekpa, Zarwa Yeshe Singye
and many other Kagyud masters. Today, we can see
the glorious Kagyud tradition being divided into eight

The great Indian master Phadampa Sangye, a


Siddha who visited Tibet in 1092 A.D (corresponding to the Water Monkey year of the second Rabjung
according to the Tibetan calendar) initiated teachings
based on the essence of principles of Prajaparamita
and a tantric treatise (Ali Kali Chulung Rolpai Gyud).
This tradition is known as Zhijed or the tantra of
Pacifying. Gyana Guhya, Ma Choekyi Shae Ngyen,
Sochung Gedun Bar, Karma Yeshe Gyeltshen, Geshe
Drakpa, Chandra kriti, Jang Kadampa and Machi
Labkyi Dolma were some of the eminent disciples of
Phadampa Sangye and lineage holders of the Zhijed
Tradition.

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Tri Vajra Sadhana

The Six limbs practice of


Vajra Yoga

(Threefold Vajra approach to the accomplishment of the three indestructible realities)

According to the source and the record it is


said that Buddha Sakyamuni gave the kalachakra
initiation in Drepung (at present in Andra Pradesh)
to the dharma king Dawa Zangpo of Shambala (the
western land of paradise). The teaching flourished
widely in Shambala through seven successive dharma
kings.Rigden Jampel Drakpa composed a summarized
version of the Root tantra (i.e, Kalchakra tantra) and
later Rigden Pema Karpo composed a detailed commentary on it. In India, these sacred teachings were
widely spread by the great Duezhab and in Tibet these
teachings were brought by Shri Badra on an invitation from Jo Lotsawa Dawai Yoedzer in the year 1026.
The Kalachakra text had been translated into Tibetan
scriptures in the year 1028 just two years after Shri
Badra came to Tibet, so the teachings could be transmitted to the worthy disciples.
Later one of the most prominent master, the
proficient scholar Jonangpa Thuje Tsondrue received
the entire teaching -- both old and new tradition -from various masters and then passed it on to Kuenkhen Toenpa Zhiden Sherab Gyeltsen and Jetsun
Dolma Goen. Since then the teaching has again flourished through an unbroken lineage until the present
day.

The basis of purification derive from the inseparable attributes of the ground, the path and the
fruition or the pure intrinsic aspects of the primordial
dimension of the body, speech and mind. The aspects
to be purified are the defilements of body, speech and
mind. The means to purify these defilements comprises three branches of practices or the threefold Vajra
methods - the branch of recitation or familiarization of
the deity, the branch of attainment through wind yoga
and the branch of great attainment through mindfulness and concentration. The result of purification is to
attain the state of three Kayas within a single lifetime.
These quintessential instructions to attain the
state of three Kayas within a single lifetime through
these three branches of practices have been directly
instructed to the great Mahasiddha Ogyen Rinchen
Pel (1230-1309) by Vajra Yogini (secret diety) herself.
Later, at the request of Kharchu Rinpoche, he wrote
a commentary on threefold vajra methods. Togden
Dawa Singye, Golungpa Zhonu Pel, Zurphugpa
Rinchen Pel, Khepa Shangton and Ngae Do Kuenga
Dondup were some of the masters who further elaborated the concept and composed more commentaries
on it.
The lineage which descended from Gyalwang
Rangjung Dorje who directly received this teaching
from the great Maha Siddha Ogyen Rinpoche continues to flourish till now.
Sherab Younten
5th Yr. NNI

Hoping for accomplishments without accumulating


merit is like trying to make butter by churning water.
Seeking accomplishments after accumulating merit is
like making butter by churning milk.
Tantra

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the

twelve

monastery

throne holders
monastery

2013

of

palyul

Karma Tashi, The First Karma Kuchen Rinpoche


(The Fourth Throneholder)

Ahchog. From the first Drubwang Padma Norbu,


he received the Vows of Refuge and the entire ocean
like empowerments and teachings of the golden
dharma lineage of the Palyul Tradition. In particular,
as Drubwang Padma Norbus closest heart disciple, he
received the experienced-based teachings on the Nondual Great Seal Mahamudra and Great Perfection Ati
Yoga, Nam Cho teachings of Buddha in the Palm of
the Hand, including secret oral instructions on practising the clear light awareness as the path. Karma
Tashi was enthroned as the fourth throne holder of
the Palyul tradition by Drubwang Pedma Norbu,
thirteenth Karmapa Dudul Dorje and the tenth Zharmapa Chodrup Gyatso. He then took the vows of full
ordination from Situ Chokyi Jungney and received
the name Karma Chopal Zangpo.
Realizing that this doctrine of realization must
be upheld through the experience of actual practice,
he built a new traditional retreat centre in the monastic complex, below the existing retreat centre. These
new facilities were complete with private water passageways and doors plastered with mud. With immense compassion Kuchen Rinpoche bestowed major empowerments, transmissions and teachings to his
disciples. Karma Tashi strictly enforced the rules at the
monastery and made many new improvements. His
miraculous ability to uphold, protect and increase the
doctrine of the great secret vehicle was phenomenal.
It is prophesied in the termas that China and
Gyarong will be at war for thirteen years. In the end, a
powerful adept of tantra will put the war to the end.
During the war between the China and the king of
Gyarong - Tsenlha Rabten, Karma Tashi was invited
to China. King Tsenlha Rabtens Guru was a powerful
Bonpo lama and by the power of black magic, this
Bonpo lama caused a storm of stones to descend upon
the Chinese troops. Karma Tashi gazed at the storm of
stones and suddenly the storm was reversed. For the
sake of protecting the Chinese soldiers, Karma Tashi
produced many special protection cords which were

Continuation.......
The first Karma Kuchen Rinpoche, Karma
Tashi, recalled that he was a manifestation of Terton
Migyur Dorje. In some prophecies, Karma Tashi was
predicted as the incarnation of the condensed essence
of Sangdag Dorje Cho, Kungawo, Lotsawa Vairotsana, Shudpu Palkyi Senge, the Yogi of Riwo Palbar,
Minling Terchen, Gaden Tripa, the Throne Holder of
Gaden, Ngawang Chogden, the tutor to the seventh
Dalia Lama, and the Vidyadhara Migyur Dorje. Specifically, he is said to be the mind emanation of Terton
Dudul Dorje with Gyarong Wontrul Pedma Kundrol
Namgyal as the body emanation and Kathog Drimed
Shing Kyong as the speech emanation. A prophecy in
the Vidyadhara Terton Jatson Nyingpos revelations
says: In the Drichu River valley, a child with the name
Karma will be born.
In accordance with these prophecies, in the
year 1728, the Earth Monkey year corresponding to
the twelfth Rabjung of the Tibetan calendar, the first
Kuchen Rinpoche, Karma Tashi, was born into the
ancestral heritage of Kunzang Sherab, in the town of

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Bodhicitta

so potent that they shook with energy. Not even a single soldier was harmed after receiving the cords, which
protected both body and mind from the fear of weapons. King Tsenlha Rabten of Gyarong and his Bonpo
priest lost the war and, by the force of karmic results,
the flag of China flew victorious in all directions.
The Chinese emperor, Chan Lung was overwhelmed with faith and gratitude, and to honour
Karma Tashi, an official palanquin and a certificate
written in gold, proclaiming his great achievements
were offered to him. The palanquin was exceptionally beautiful, engraved with golden letters in his honour and adorned with silken banners. The emperor
also offered eight precious seals made of gold, silver,
ivory, jade, and other gems to Karma Tashi, which
were placed inside a sandalwood and ivory box with
eight partitions; each seal having hand carved snow
lion handles that were to be worn on the body, and an
additional gold lettered document of praise. He authorized Karma Tashi as the Royal Guru of China and
bestowed the title Tai Shree upon him. Other offerings that the emperor made to Karma Tashi included
the yearly harvest of an entire field of rice, priceless
riches such as gold, silver, precious royal treasures and
hand-woven gold brocade.
When Karma Tashi returned from China, he
offered a great amount of the hand-woven gold silk
brocade and other precious riches to the Kathog monastery. By this time, all the great lamas of Kham were
disciples of Karma Tashi, of whom the two foremost
disciples were Karma Lhawang and Karma Dondam.
At the age of sixty three, having completed his
enlightened activities for the sake of sentient beings,
he dissolved his mind in the great sphere of truth. The
stupa containing his precious bone relics was exquisitely crafted out of Chinese bronze and placed inside the Chag-dra-Khag temple of Palyul monastery.
This completes the biography of the Fourth Throne
Holder of the Payul Tradition, the first Karma Kuchen
Rinpoche, Karma Tashi, also known as Chopal Zangpo.
Enhancing the pleasure garden of
accomplishment
Is the glorious supreme dharma sun,
Whose radiance unfolds the excellent petals
In the lotus garden doctrine of statement and realization.

(Sem-kyed)

Motivation is considered to be the key factor


in any endeavor. It is based on the type of motivation that an action can be distinguished as virtuous
or non-virtuous. Therefore, Lord Buddha proclaimed
the cultivation of an enlightened attitude as the essence of his sublime teachings. For this reason, it is
very important for beginners, particularly Mahayana
practitioners to have a clear-cut idea about this great
motivation. So, with an altruistic hope of introducing this sublime motivation in a precise way to some
aspirant novices, this brief exegesis is included in this
issue of our magazine.
The teachings on Bodhicitta, the cultivation
of enlightened attitude can be condensed into six subtopics:
1. Etymological description
2. Definition
3. Classification
4. Taking the vow
5. Precepts
6. Benefits

1. Etymological description of
Bodhicitta
The mind generation or Bodhicitta is called
sem-kyed in Tibetan - Sem means mind and kyed
means generation. Bodhicitta as the mind of benefitting others is generated in the mindstream.

2. Definition of Bodhicitta
Aspiring to attain Buddhahood for the sake
of other sentient beings is called bodhicitta. As the
Lord Maitreya states in the Ornament of Clear Realization:
Aspiring to attain the perfect Buddha-hood
For the sake of others, is the mind generation.
The first aspect or point is to focus on sentient
beings with love, thinking how all beings may be parted from both suffering and the causes of suffering.

To be continued........
Rigzod Editors

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dharma teachings

The second aspect is to focus on complete enlightenment with wisdom, thinking of how to attain
the precious level of perfect Buddha-hood, which is
free from both suffering and the causes of suffering.
Neither of these two should be absent. If we
think of freeing sentient beings from sufferings without focusing on the wish to attain Buddha-hood, this
is merely love; if we think of attaining Buddha-hood
without having focused on suffering, this is merely
wisdom. Thus, we must have both the aspects.

2013

4. Taking the Vow of Bodhicitta


True absolute bodhicitta is attained by the
power of meditation and does not depend on rituals. However, to generate relative bodhicitta, we need
some procedure to follow as a beginner and undergo a
ritual through which we take the vow in the presence
of a spiritual teacher. We then need to renew that vow
constantly in the same way, over and again. So that
the bodhicitta generated within does not decline but
becomes more and more powerful.
Visualize all the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and
other deities in the sky before you. Take them as witness of your generating bodhicitta and think like this:
Of all the countless living creatures throughout the vast reaches of the universe, there isnt a single
being who has not been my parent in the course of
my succession of lives from the beginningless time. I
can be certain that, as my parents, they have all looked
after me with their every possible tenderness, with all
their love, just as my present parents have done. Now
all these kind parents are foundering in the waves of
samsaras great ocean of suffering. They have been
plunged into the deepest darkness of confusion. They
have no idea of the true path to be practiced and the
wrong path to be avoided. They have no authentic
spiritual friend to guide them. They have no refuge
or protection, no leader or companion, no hope and
nobody to turn to, as lost as a blind man wandering
helplessly in the middle of a deserted plain. My old
mothers, how could I ever liberate myself alone and
leave you all behind here in samsara? For the sake of all
beings, I shall awaken the sublime bodhicitta. Learning to emulate the mighty deeds of the Bodhisattvas
of the past, I shall make whatever efforts necessary till
there is not one being left in samsara!
With this attitude, recite the following verses
as many times as possible:
Ho! Led astray by myriad appearances like reflection of
the moon in water,
Beings wander in the endless chain of samsara;
To bring them rest in the radiant space of awareness,
With four boundless qualities I arouse bodhicitta.

3. Classification
Based on the nature of bodhicitta, it can be
classified into Bodhicitta of Intention and Bodhicitta
of Application. As Shanti-deva says in the Way of the
Bodhisattava;
Bodhicitta, the awakening mind,
In brief is said to have two aspects:
Aspiring, bodhicitta in intention;
The active bodhicitta, practical engagement
Bodhicitta of Intention is to pledge ourselves
to the result, while Bodhicitta of Application is to
pledge ourselves to the cause, that is the wish to accomplish the six transcendental perfections which are
the means for attaining the result, the perfect enlightenment.
Take an example of a journey to Bodh Gaya.
The initial thought of aspiring to visit Bodh Gaya is
similar to making aspirations to attain Buddha-hood
for the sake of all the sentient beings, which is the
intentional aspect of arousing bodhicitta. The actual
preparation with necessary things, traveling by bus
and so forth towards Gaya is similar to embarking on
the actual practice of six transcendental perfections,
which is the application aspect of bodhicitta.
Both the intention and application aspects are
relative bodhicitta. Through training for a long time in
relative bodhicitta on the paths of accumulating and
joining, you come at last to the path of seeing, where
you have the real experience of the natural state of all
phenomena. This is the wisdom beyond all elaboration, the truth of emptiness. At that state you generate
absolute Bodhicitta.

At the end of the session, visualize thus - by


the power of your yearning devotion towards the deities of the field of merit, the whole assembly melts into
light, starting from the outside, and finally dissolves
into the teacher, union of all three refuges, in the cen-

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granting gem, Bodhicitta, that the Buddha expounded all the methods of practices. As Santideva proclaims
in the way to the Bodhisattava;

tre. The teacher in turn melts into light and dissolves


into you, causing the absolute bodhicitta present in
the mind of refuge deities to arise clearly in your own
mind. Then make this prayer of aspiration;

The cause of joy for all sentient beings


The pain-dispelling draft;
The precious enlightened mind
How can we ever gauge its virtue.

May the sublime and precious Bodhicitta,


Arise where it has not yet been generated;
And where it has arisen may it never decline,
But develop more and boom ever further.

And also Buddha said in the sutra requested by


Paljin;
If the merits of bodhicitta
Were to have the bodily form
It would fill the entire space
And even exceed further.

Then dedicate the merit with these lines:


Emulating the hero Manjushri, Samantabhadra and all
those with knowledge, I too make a perfect dedication of
all actions that are positive.

5. Precepts.

Dedication

The precepts of Bodhicitta of Intention are to


train our mind with the four immeasurables;

If it exists, it would be enough by itself for the enlightenment,


If not, anything else would render futile for the enlightenment
The infallible seed for accomplishing Buddha-hood,
May this pure and sublime bodhicitta take birth.

1) Immeasurable compassion - The wish that all beings possess both happiness and its cause.
2) Immeasurable love - The wish that all beings be free
from suffering and its cause.
3) Immeasurable joy - The wish that all beings never
part from the great happiness.

Tenzin Wangdi
8th Yr. NNI

4) Immeasurable equanimity - The wish that all beings be free from attachment and aversion.
The precepts of bodhicitta in application are to practice the six perfections;

All the joy the world contains


Has come through wishing
happiness for others.
All the misery the world contains
Has come through wanting
pleasure for oneself.

1. Perfection of generosity; 2. Perfection of morality;


3. Perfection of patience 4. Perfection of diligence;
5. Perfection of concentration; and 6. Perfection of
wisdom.

6. Benefits of bodhicitta.

Shantideva

The benefits of generating bodhicitta are


boundless, because it is the quintessence of the eightyfour thousand methods taught by Lord Buddha. In
fact, it is for the sole purpose of generating this wish-

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Benefits of the
MandAla offerings

2013

courage to do so. Thus, those practitioners offering


Mandala will be endowed with riches and will be free
from the tortures of misery in the present life. And
they will also generate unwavering faith to the sublime
teachers and the teachings of Mahayana. They will be
admired and revered by all beings.
It also says that the meritorious wealth of the
merit acquired by making a Mandala offering merely
once, in front of the supreme objects like the Guru,
the Triple Gem and sacred relics etc, on auspicious occasions with strong devotion will surpass the merits
obtained from making outer and inner prayers and offerings to the assembly of Buddhas and their retinues
for countless eons. Those making the offering will
also fulfil all their wishes, and all the sins and delusions committed with the lapse of vows for many eons
will be cleansed and purified as well. And moreover if
one offers a Mandala once and makes any aspirations
with devotion it will be fulfilled spontaneously. Furthermore, the merit of offering a Mandala is greater
than the collective merits accumulated from all other
dharma activities, such as sublime concentration, realization, and insights will develop within ones mindstream, vividly. In the future generations one will accomplish wealth and glory as one wish and ultimately
one will be reborn in the pure land of Buddha. One
will be blessed and cared for by all the Buddhas. So,
the accumulation of merit by Mandala offering is beyond any estimation.
The verbal testimony of earlier translations
of secret tantras cited in the preliminary instructional
text of the sky treasure also states:

The benefits of Mandala offerings, the specific


means for the accumulation of merit, are explained in
the following lines:
Patrul Rinpoche states in his book called The
words of my perfect teacher: Though the omniscient
Buddha taught us infinite methods for accumulating merit, Mandala offering is considered as the most
supreme means. Similarly, a Tantra text also states: If
the three thousand world system of each and every
universe bejewelled with all the pleasing objects were
made as offerings to the Buddhas of blissful realms,
then the merit accumulated will be great enough to
attain enlightenment.
In addition to the above excerpt, the Embodiment of the Masters Realization (Lama Gungpa
Dupa) elaborates:
The outcome of any individual who offers the
Mandala with great effort are as follows: If the quantity of merit accrued from the Mandala offering which
has an outstanding power to generate a vast and immense positive qualities, has to be expressed in words,
even the highly realized beings do not posses enough

The merit of Mandala offering,


Which generates vast positive qualities,
Cannot be gauged even by the realized beings.
And Guru Padmasambhava also said:
Through the outer Mandala offering the accumulation of merits is generated. If one offers a Mandala with the following visualization, ones attachment
towards material wealth will be minimized, and one
will be endowed with wealth in the present life and
ultimately one will be born in the pure realms of Buddhas.
OM AH HUNG!
In the celestial palace of the outer world of billon fold
universe,

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And also the great Maha Siddha, Tilopa said thus:


Oh! My son, until you realize the unborn reality of
interdependent origination of phenomena
Never ever depart from the wheels of the two fold accumulations.

Filled with clouds of offering of Mt. Meru and the four


continents equal to the numbers of dust particles
And every kind of offering items that exist in the human
and god realms,
I offer to Guru, Triple Gem and the pure reams of
Nirmakaya.

Thus, as proclaimed by authentic masters


and texts, all the well-being - both relative and absolute - does not occur without depending on causes
and conditions. For this reason it is very important to
practice all the means of accumulations in general and
the Mandala offering as the supreme means at all the
times with faith and perseverance.

The merit accumulation will act as the cause to generate the accumulation of wisdom as the result.
Zhabkar Tsogdruk Rangdol also writes in his collection of 100,000 spiritual songs (Gurbum):
Homage to all the Gurus!
Bless me with the potential to accumulate merit.
It is the source of peace and happiness
Of all the time until we attain Buddha-hood.
Even during the complete enlightenment,
The enlightened bodies endowed with great marks and
signs
Are the outcomes of the merit accumulations.
Though there are infinite means of merit accumulation,
There is no means profounder than Mandala offerings.
Keeping large amounts for offerings and serving tea for
the sangha,
Giving alms for the poor and erecting holy objects and
so on -These offerings which require material wealth
Are always blended with the three-fold defilements.
In the beginning, while obtaining them, they are mixed
with evil thoughts;
In the middle they are stained with sins due to hardships
Finally they meshed with the defilement of stinginess.
Offering the Mandala is devoid of these three stains.
Thus, Lingchen Repa proclaimed offering the Mandala
As the unsurpassable means to accumulate merit,
And this accords with all the sutras and tantras of the
new and old translations.
If one practices Mandala offerings many times,
The spiritual accomplishments and wisdom will arise
implicitly,
And ones understanding will improve spontaneously.
All your noble aspirations will be fulfilled, and
Ultimately one will attain the enlightenment.
Therefore endeavour in the practice of Mandala offerings,
The supreme of all the means of accumulations.
May everyone who hears this short song expressing the
modes of accumulation of merit,
Strive in the accumulation of merit.

Benefits and merits


of sweeping and
cleaning
The benefits of sweeping and cleaning temples, the surroundings of monasteries and so on, the
great means of accomplishing great purpose with little
effort are as follow:
A Sutra states:
Ananda asked Lord Buddha- My lord! What
will be the basic outcome or the merits of cleaning and
sweeping? The Buddha replied - Ananda! The advantage and merits of cleaning Temples and so forth can
be grouped into five points:
o
o
o
o

It will make ones mind pure.


Others will become calm and pleasant.
The gods will become pleased with one.
Such an admirable job will accumulate merit to have good fortune.
o After ones death one will be reborn in the
upper realms of the gods.
Thus, the compassionate teacher, Gautama
Buddha acclaimed this great job of cleaning. On top
of this, there are accounts in the Vinaya scriptures that
Buddha himself sweeping the temples and surroundings where the Sangha community dwelled.
Likewise, there is the story of even Lamc-

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hungpa, who was in his last samsaric birth, doing the


sweepers job to cleanse his delusion.
Similarly, Bodhisattva Tagtu Ngu swept and
cleaned the surrounding area of 1.6km, applying his
blood to the ground, while he was receiving Prajna
Paramita teaching from the realized master, Choephag.
Therefore, by remembering the enlightened
activities of past great beings we the followers of
Lord Buddha, both ordained and lay practitioners,
must keep monasteries in our vicinity and our own

2013

surroundings clean by cleaning and sweeping them


regularly. If you do so it not only accords with sublime
dharma but also protects our environment, which
helps keep our bodies healthy. It is an open fact that all
the people will praise about the cleanliness and will be
inspired too. Therefore, as it is of great value for both
present and the life after, I appeal to everyone to bear
this in mind.
Sonam Rinchen
8th Yr. NNI

The Stories from Jataka Tales


The Legend of King Tsugna Norbu

Long long ago in a beautiful kingdom called


Shaketa, there lived a mighty king called Sergi Tsugphed who was brave and powerful, yet kind and humble to his people. He was a man who would always live
up to others expectations and never take advantage
of his superiority. He was the king who was known
for his benevolence and not for the number of battles
he fought. His people enjoyed peace, and tranquility
prevailed in the kingdom.
One day his queen Lhamo Zeden known
for her exquisite beauty and generosity gave birth to
an extraordinary child. It is said that, from the very
time she got pregnant, she was more inclined towards
giving charity and alms to the poor. She could even
preach the doctrine so well. The child was miraculously born with jewel on his head and the beam of light
that radiated from his jewel could overcome the darkness of the silent night, turning it into a hopeful daylight arena. Overwhelmed by the birth of the child,
the gods sprinkled flowers in the form of light rain and
lifted victory banners in order to pay homage.
Soon the child grew into a young talented
handsome prince. He gained every quality needed in
a king, all from his father. Just as it is said that everything in this world is subject to death and decay, so did

a time come when the mighty king Sergi Tsugphed


passed away leaving all the worldly materials behind.
The young prince came to the throne to rule the kingdom. Like his father, he was very kind and humble to
his people and fulfilled their every wish. Thus, he was
known to his people as king Tsugna Norbu, the jeweled crown king.
One day an old sage came to the royal court
and presented a beautiful young girl called Pema Den
to the king. The sage introduced her to the king saying that she was born from the core of a lotus. He said
that he brought her up by feeding the leftover milk
which he used in the fire rituals. The sage bowed and
offered the girl to the king. With immense pleasure,
the king accepted the girl and asked the sage what he
wished for in return. The sage humbly asked the king
to perform the fire ritual thereafter. Soon the royal
wedding was proclaimed throughout the country and
everybody in the country enjoyed the auspicious occasion. As the time passed by, the royal couple gave birth
to a baby boy. The newborn prince seemed very brilliant and bright like his father. The child was named
Duetsi Pedmai Tsug, which literally means the crown
of nectar giving lotus. The king was very much pleased
by the birth of the new prince and decided to host a

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At the time when the country was mourning


the great loss, the king of Kuru sent one of his men to
the court of King Tsugna Norbu and told him to beg
for the magical elephant which was already given to
Tsangpai Shingta before. The king of Kuru was always
unhappy and jealous about the wealth and the power
that the King Tsugna Norbu was endowed with. So
having understood the situation and the generosity of
the king he sent his men to get hold of the elephant.
The ministers couldnt tolerate such humiliation and
declared war against Kuru. King knew a war against
Kuru isnt a difficult task to carry on. He knew his
armies would easily invade the country of Kuru but
he hesitated to see the grave consequences. He knew
that wars resulting the lost of many lives and wealth
are because of the power and kingdom. It was miserable, the king was very much disturbed. At the very
moment when the king was in pensive mood, four
solitary realizers came flying from the deep forest and
explained the bliss of solitude to the king. The king
was very much inspired by the realizers and decided to
reside with them. He left everything behind and went
deep into the forest.
Like a hidden moon behind the northern ridges, their lord of the moon was no more to be seen, so
the depressed ministers were left in the darkness. With
the throne left vacant the ministers decided to go and
see Master Mari Tse. Upon arriving there the ministers begged him to hand over their crown prince back.
Having rightly judged the situation Master Mari Tse
gave back their crown Prince. Back in the palace the
crown prince was enthroned as the new king of Shaketa. The king himself being the commander fought
the Kurian battle and defeated them and drove them
out as far as the province of Hatina city.
After the war, Kuru experienced drought
for several months followed by famine and hunger
throughout the country. The king of Kuru consulted
with his ministers and decided to send somebody
to search King Tsugna Norbu. Soon they knew that
the king was meditating in the mountains of RiwoGangchen, far from their country. They sent five
Brahmins to beg the Crown Jewel of the king Tsugna
Norbu.
At that time, King Tsugna Norbu after his
long meditation practice decided to take a break and
go for a trip in the jungle. He arrived somewhere near
the place where Master Mari Tse resided. He walked
through the forest enjoying the freshness that nature

huge fire ritual to repay the kindness of the old Sage.


When the ceremonial procession went by and huge
fire was lit, lord Indra manifested himself as an old
wicked ogre and appeared amidst the huge fire, fiercely-looking with his magical powers. The wicked ogre
wailed in anguish and asked for food. King served him
all kinds of food but he refused everything and demanded fresh blood and flesh. King was really into
somebodys shoe. He thought in his dismay, that if
the ogre wasnt offered what he demanded, he wouldnt
be satisfied and if he was offered fresh blood and flesh,
it would be a great sin to take somebodys life, just for
that sake. After a while, as there was no other way,
the king decided to take a slice off his own flesh and
feed him. Queen Pema Den couldnt bear the pain in
witnessing the dying king soaked in his own blood.
She felt dizzy, her vision appeared blurred and she felt
her grips slowly fading away, the very next moment
the queen collapsed and lay unconscious. An eerie of
silence broke out through the crowds; it seemed as if
everything paused for a moment. The earth shook, the
sky grew dark and thunders roared to mark the great
act of compassion, everyone present there was amazed
by the bravery of their king. Lord Indra was very
much embarrassed after seeing the fearless act of the
brave king. He revealed his true form and healed the
king with his divine herb. Thereafter, the king became
more determined to give away anything one wished
from him. It is said that he even gave away his magical
elephant that could walk thousand miles in a day to
his minister called Tsangpai Shingta.
One day a man called Bahika came to the royal court and introduced himself as a student of Master
Mari Tse. He prostrated to the king and narrated his
story of being a student under the great master Mari
Tse and hardship he faced while studying. Bahika was
very much thankful to his master that he decided to
repay his kindness through anything he could offer,
but his master demanded an extraordinary woman
as his servant. So he asked the king to give his queen
along with the prince to him, so that he could offer
them to his master. The grief-stricken king totally
sunk in sorrows and gazed for a long time and slowly
said that, my beautiful Pema Den is my heart without whom I cant live. My beloved son, he is the direct
heir to the throne. I cant bear losing them, yet if you
wish to have them, then all I have is just yours, my fellow friend. Thus, the mighty king gave his queen and
prince to the man.

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prayed for the wellbeing of all sentient beings and gave


away his jewel to the hermits. As soon as the jewel was
brought to the country, it started to rain and with its
miraculous powers all misfortunes ceased, bringing
happiness and harmony to the country.
But to come back to the king Tsugna Norbus
condition, the blood continued to flow from kings
head; he was so soaked in his own blood that he was
hardly recognizable. The earth shook, the sky mourned
and Devas flew from the heaven to see the King. The
news of the King spread like wildfire and everybody his son, the then king, ministers, his people, the queen
and even Master Mari Tse came to see the king. Everybody present there including the Devas were amazed
to see such a great sacrifice made by the king for the
benefit of sentient beings. Queen Pema Den fainted
seeing her king in such a condition. Master Mari Tse
rose from the crowd and asked the king Oh! Mighty
king, is it worth giving your jewel to the Brahmins?
Dont you regret it? Or else, do you expect something
great out of this? The King calmly stood up, wiped
his face that was covered with blood and said that he
didnt have any expectations and he had no regrets as
it was done to benefit all sentient beings. To prove his
words, king further went on by saying that, If my
words are true, may my wound heal instantly. So as
said by the king the wound healed immediately and
his precious jewel also grew back.
Lord Indra and everybody present there including the queen, prince and the ministers prostrated
before him and pleaded the king for him to rule the
kingdom as before. But the king refused to take the
throne and decided to leave the sumptuous life of the
palace. When he was about to leave, those four solitary
realizers who were also among the crowd made a request jointly to the king, If you could give away your
own body for the sake of others then why not do so for
your loved ones who had always wished your return?
With this they petitioned the king to rule the country.
Then the king miraculously flew to his palace and
ruled his kingdom peacefully everafter.

served him, the running squirrels, the chirping sounds


of the birds and the bright daylight sun above him was
really such moment for him to rejoice. Suddenly in the
middle of the forest he heard a women crying pitifully
and in her mercy she cried out, Oh lord, please save
me, Im helpless and continued crying. He rushed to
the scene and saw his queen surrounded by hunters.
She was weak, frightened and helpless that she cried
out painfully. The king vividly remembered the olden
days in the palace where she was offered with all kinds
of comforts and now looking at her pathetic condition, his heart became very cold that tears rolled down
from his eyes. The king was filled with mixed feelings
of joy and sadness to see his queen. The hunters seeing the king in old robes and his hair long and tied
in an untidy bun thought he was a powerful ascetic.
Fearing that he might curse them they ran away from
the scene.
At the same time a demon came in a form of
young man and in order to divert kings interest from
meditation, he praised the royal couple and he told
that such a devoted queen would be difficult to find in
the future and told the king to hold on to her. Queen
also longed to stay with the king forever and expected
the same thing to happen as told. But the king having
renounced everything said to the queen, my angel,
please do not suffer as we depart, for this world is just
a web of illusion. Our deluded mind is the cause of all
suffering. Name and glory that we experience is like a
glimpse of lightning that flashes across the sky. Suffering is the truth. Everyone around you, your parents,
children even the trees and plants are like morning
dew - so fragile, so transient and so uncertain, disappearing as soon as the Sun ascends his throne, so my
dear queen it is better to go up in the mountains and
meditate having said that, the king left the scene,
leaving the queen behind.
On his way back he met those five Brahmins
who came searching for him and they narrated the
whole story about the purpose of their visit to his
place. The King felt sad about what had happened in
Kuru, at the same time he felt happy because those
Brahmins had come to seek help from him and he
could render service to pacify the suffering of beings.
So, without considering the pain, the king took out
his sharp sword and cut off the wish fulfilling jewel of
his head. He fell down on the ground as he couldnt
bear the pain, but still he was satisfied. He slowly rose
from the ground, holding the jewel in his hands he

Yeshi Rigzin
7th Yr. NNI

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Rajgir (Gyalpoi Khab)


The name Rajgir might have come from Rajagriha house of the king or royal house, or the word
Rajgir might have its origin in its plain literal meaning,
royal mountain. Rajgir is a city and a notified area in
Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Rajgir was the most famous city among the
six great cities renowned during the time of Buddha. Since it lies in the middle of all other cities, it
was called the Magadha or middle land. Moreover,
it is one of the most important sacred places where
Buddha dwelled. It was also the capital city of the
king Bimbisara (Zugchen Nyingpo) and his son king
Ajatasatru (Makye-Dra). There is controversy over the
age of King Bimbisara, some say that he was of same
age as the Buddha while others say that he was five
years younger than the Buddha. However, there is no
doubt that King Bimbisara was both patron and disciple of the Buddha. Due to this Buddha gave many
teachings in and around Rajgir under the patronage of
King Bimbisara. As the Buddha reconciled disagreement among the Sangha in Rajgir, it was later identified as the place of reconciliation. Since Lord Buddha expounded his teachings at many places within
the boundary of Rajgir, it is difficult to write about
them all, other than to give general information on
the area.
According to the guide book of Thang-SenTsang who visited the place some thousand years ago:
The wooden platform at the side of the stone house

which is about ten steps wide and about ten miles long
is said to have been constructed by king Bimbisara for
the purpose of seeing Buddha quickly whenever he
wished to do so. The city of Kusha is located around
120 miles to the east of Rajgir. It is known as the City
of Kusha because the glorious Kusha grass (the sacred grass used in religious ceremonies) grows there.
Magadha was the prominent place where the ancient
kings of central India always resided. It is in a valley
surrounded by rocky hills like fencing. It is broader
from east-west and narrower from north-south and the
circumference of its surrounding area is approximately
300 miles. In this valley are found many foundations
of ruined houses which were built within a circumference of 60miles. The pathways are adorned with trees
with golden flowers. So during spring seasons the city
looks like a golden city.
The stupa which stands outside the northern
gate of golden city is said to be the spot where Buddha miraculously tamed the furious elephant (Norchong) sent out to harm him by Devadatta and king
Ajatasatru. The legend goes: As Devadatta and the
king Ajatasatru became intimate friends, two of them
decided to instigate trouble for the Buddha and set
the furious elephant towards him as he was walking
casually along the way. But the Buddha stretched out
his hand and from his five fingers emerged lions. At
the sight of them the elephant collapsed and fainted
instantly. And when the elephant regained its senses it

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turned into a pond filled with the water of eight qualities covered with scented lotus flowers. Subsequently,
Buddha and his entourage went inside the house and
gently enjoyed the meals and expounded the teachings
in accordance with the time and the situation. Thus,
Palbay entered the authentic path, discarding the perverted views.
Another stupa located near the city to the
north of this trench was the place where Tshojed
Zhon-nu (a celebrated physician devoted to Buddha)
offered Buddha a temple surrounded by the flower
garden and fruit orchard. There you can also find the
traces of Buddhas footprints. These are all found in
the guide book of Thang-Sen-Tsang.
In the centre of the town is a hot spring, where
the ruins of the ancient enclosure can be seen even today. The hill where the hot spring is situated is one of
the five great hills and it is called Ngoyang in Tibetan.
To the north of the hot spring is hill called Kyasang
in Tibetan. On top of the hill there is a stupa built by
the Japanese.
Not far from the hot spring is a cave where,
under the patronage of king Ajatashatru of Magadha,
the great Shravakas Ananda, Upali and Mahakashyapa
compiled the Sutra, Vinaya and Abhidharma respectively amidst the assembly of five hundred Arhats.
The print of the wheel seen on the way to
Bodhgaya from Gridhakuta is said to be the print of
the wheels of the chariot in which king Bimbisara and
his retinue went to pay homage to the Buddha.

was totally tamed.


Another stupa to the north-east of this one is
the spot where Shariputra (Sharibu) attained liberation
under the guidance of Ashvajit (Ta-thul). The story
goes: During time when Shariputra was a lay person
and became famous for being learned, Lord Buddha
was residing in Rajgir with his five chief disciples. One
day when Ashvajit was going for his alms, Shariputra
saw him from a distance and called him, enquiring
thus; Oh! Respected monk, are your body and mind
at peace? And what type of dharma makes you exalted
physically and mentally? Ashvajit replied; What!
Dont you know Siddhartha? The son of the King
Suddhodana, who renounced the sovereignty of the
universal monarch and with immense compassion for
sentient beings attained perfect enlightenment after
striving with hardship for six years, is my great teacher.
The Dharma he expounded was: neither existence nor
nonexistence, wordless, inconceivable and it is the sole
object of experience for only Buddha and persons of
his calibre. As soon as Shariputra heard this he understood the profound meaning and attained the level
of Arhat.
In the vicinity of the above spot stands another Stupa, beside a deep trench. It is the place where
Buddha tamed the non-Buddhist householder Palbay
(Chimdag Palbay) and the trench is said to be doorway of the ruin of Palbays house.
The legend goes thus: During the time of
Buddha there lived a house holder named Palbay who
had faith in non-Buddhists. So a non-Buddhist who
lived there at that time instigated Palbay to assault
Buddha. He thought that Buddha was deceiving the
masses, which affected their fame and honour. Thus
he decided to assault the Buddha by any means. With
this malicious intention he summoned Palbay and
said: dig a pit near your doorway and fill it with hot
coals. Then mix food with poison and invite Gautama
and offer him the dishes. If he does not die by falling
into the fire pit he will definitely die by consuming
poison. Subsequently, Palbay obeyed his command
and invited Buddha and his entourage for a meal as
directed.
Many people knew about the conspiracy and
stopped Buddha on the way but the Buddha didnt
agree to halt. Some people gathered to witness the
scene. When the Buddha and his entourage arrived
at Palbays residence as soon as the Buddha walked
on the threshold of the door, the fire pit miraculously

How to Reach Rajgir


Air: The nearest airport is at Patna 101km.
Indian Airlines connects to Patna.
Road: Rajgir is connected by road to Patna
- 110km, Nalanda - 12km, Gaya - 78km,
Pawapuri - 38km, Bihar Sharif - 25km.
Bus: Regular buses are available from all the
above mentioned points to Rajgir.
Local Transport: Taxis and Buses and
Tongas are available to Calcutta, Bombay,
Delhi, Ranchi and Lucknow.
Rail: Though Rajgir itself has a railway station yet the nearest convenient railhead is at
Gaya 78km.

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Palyul Times

buddhist arts and symbols

2013

Lungta (Wind-horse) Prayer Flags


Origination
The IndianSutras, written on cloth were transmitted to other regions of the world.These sutras, written
on banners, were the origin of prayer flags. Legend ascribes the origin of prayer flag toShakyamuni Buddha, whose
prayers were written on battle flags used by the devasagainst their adversaries, theasuras. The legend may have given
the Indianbhikkua reason for carrying the heavenly banner as a way of signifying his commitment toahimsa.This
knowledge was carried intoTibetin around 800 AD, and the actual flags were introduced in around 1040 AD,
where they were further modified.The Indian monk Atisha(980 1054 AD) introduced the Indian practice of
printing on cloth prayer flags to Tibet and Nepal. From then the noble practice has been carried out by Buddhist
practitioners until the present all over the world.

Description of the symbols in the Lungta Prayer Flags:


Outer Level: Mythical Creature
On the outer level, the Lungta is a mythical creature from pre-Buddhist times that combines the speed of
the wind and the strength of the horse to carry prayers from earth to the heavens.

Inner Level: Positive Qualities


Lungta is associated with positive energy or life force and with good luck. It is both the subduer of evil and
the vehicle ofenlightenment.
The Lungta symbol is often depicted onprayer flags, which are flown to generate merit and increase ones
life force. Lungta prayer flags typically display atiger, asnow lion, agaruda, and adragon, (the four dignities) with
a lungta in the center. Certain lungta prayers also refer to these four symbols.
The tiger, snow lion, garuda, and dragon are ancient symbols of the qualities of lungta that originate with
pre-Buddhist Tibetan and Chinese astrological traditions. Generally, they symbolize fearlessness and resilience.

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Benefits of Hoisting Lungta prayer flags

Secret Level: The Space Element

Traditionally, Lungta prayer flags are used to


promote peace, compassion, strength, and wisdom.
The flags do not carry prayers to gods, a common misconception; rather we believe the prayers andmantras will be blown by the wind to spread good will
and compassion into all pervading space. Therefore,
prayer flags are thought to bring benefit to all. For instance, if a prayer flag is hoisted near a river or on a
high mountain, even the tiniest insects and animals in
and around that surrounding area will be blessed with
the bliss of the prayer flags blessings.
By hoisting prayer flags in high places, the
blessings depicted on the flags will be carried to all beings. As wind passes over the surface of the flags which
are sensitive to the slightest movement of the wind,
the air is purified and sanctified by the Mantras.
The written prayers of the flag become a permanent part of the universe as the images fade from
exposure to the elements. Just as life moves on and is
replaced by new life, we renew our hopes for the world
by continually mounting new flags alongside the old.
This act symbolizes a welcoming of lifes changes and
an acknowledgment that all beings are part of a greater
ongoing cycle.

At a deeper level, the Lungta and thefour dignitiessymbolize the play of thefive elements, out of
which all phenomena are formed. The lungta symbolizes space, the ground of all manifestation. The Tiger
symbolizes the wind element; the Snow Lion, Earth;
the Garuda, Fire; and the Dragon, Water. Traditionally, they are set out in the same configuration as the
five-part Mandala used for thefive Buddha families, as
can be seen in Lungtaprayer flags.

Most Secret Level: The Inner Air or Wind


In Tibetan Buddhism, the mind is seen as being dependent on, or mounted on the subtle energy or
inner air or wind within the body. This subtle energy
is therefore called the wind-horse, in Tibetan Lungta.
Whether the wind-horse is strong or weak determines
whether positive or negative tendencies dominate the
mind. On an everyday level, the wind-horse is also
very much linked to what is commonly known as
good luck.

Places of Hoisting

Note:

Lungta prayer flags are commonly hung on a


diagonal line from high to low between two objects
(e.g., a rock and the top of a pole, etc.) on places such
as the tops of temples, monasteries,stupas, and high
mountain passes, etc. They are sometimes erected on
the ground, along riversides, cairns, and rooftops.

Because the symbols and mantras on prayer


flags are sacred, they should be treated with respect.
They should not be placed on low and dirty ground
or used as clothing. Old prayer flags should be burned
or placed on high clean areas.

Jigme Lhundrup
6th Yr. NNI

Timing of Hanging and Taking down


Some believe that if the flags are hung on inauspiciousastrologicaldates, they may bring negative
results as long as they are flying. The best time to put
up new prayer flags are in the mornings of sunny or
windy days of auspicious astrological dates.
Generally, old prayer flags are replaced with new ones
annually on theTibetan New Year.

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The description of rosary as mentioned in the


commentary of embodiment of realization

II. The etymology


The same text states:
Beings possessing faith and belief
Are bonded to their master and so forth.
The etymology of rosary is thus stated accordingly, like the three root and vajra brothers and sisters
are bonded to each other. Since, it is called threng-wa
in Tibetan, which literally means to be bonded or to
be fond of each other.
The descriptions of rosary are divided into the following eight sections:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

III. The category


According to the same text, the categories of
rosary are the rosaries to be adopted and rosaries to
be discarded. The categories of rosary to be adopted
are as follows: Rosaries made of Jewel are supreme,
made of fruits are intermediate and made of wood,
earth; stone and the rosary of medicine dough are of
inferior quality. The rosaries made of conch shell and
bodhi wood are auspicious for peaceful activity. Gold,
apricot and fruits like mulberry accomplish enriching
activity. Coral, tamarisk and medicine rosaries are for
magnetizing activity. Iron, turquoise, black teak and
bone accomplish wrathful activity. Divine agate, bodhichi, ivory and rosary made of different kinds are
preferable for all activities.
As for the colour, white is praiseworthy for
peaceful, yellow for enriching, red for magnetizing
and black for wrathful activity. Multicoloured rosary
is used for accomplishing every activity.
The rosaries to be discarded are - those classes
of rosaries which are not revealed in the genuine tantra
texts. Since such rosaries are not effective in accomplishing divine power, they must be discarded. In case
of rosaries of glass and oysters etc, they are explained
and revealed in later translation tantra. In short, those
rosaries not explained in both, the earlier and later
translation tantra must be avoided.

the origin of rosary


the enumeration
the rosary string
the mode to string the rosary
the counter beads of rosary
the blessing
the counting method
the samaya

I. the origin of rosary


The origin of rosary can be divided into four
categories:
I. identity
II. etymology
III. category
IV. purpose
I. The identity of rosary
The lamp of tantra illuminating the principles
of rosary states thus; Firstly, the identity of a rosary It is threaded close and is finite in number. It is used
as adornments and is arranged in successive order to
hold the approximation of mantra recitation.

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IV. The purpose

2013

low cotton for enriching and red silk for magnetizing.


Similarly, roll with the kinds of intestine, skin and
leather cord for wrathful activities. For the rosary of
different activities, roll with five coloured strings. Keep
the thickness of the strings according to the size of the
rosary. While stringing the rosary it should not
be too loose or tight and the string should not
be too long or short. Activities wont accomplish if its
extremely tight. Obstacles will occur, if its extremely
loose. Deity accomplishment will delay, if the strings
are extremely long. Life will be painful, if its too short.
Misfortune will occur, if it is knotty, possess addendum and if there is inequality in the thickness
of the strings. Likewise, we must understand such distinction and alike.

The same text says:


Generally, holding a rosary is considered a
vow of tantra because it is the hand-sign of meditation deity. It is the symbol of upholding the enduring
memory and figuring out the essence in enumeration.
It is also an auspicious coincidence of wisdom mother
and object of wealth. It ripens causal condition and
power, raises the primordial wisdom of samaya and
reveals the distinction between self and deity. Increases
the limitless fruitions and revives the perspective of
recitation mantras. It is an object for accomplishing
entire activities of peaceful, enriching, magnetizing,
wrathful etc. It is also a means for turning the three
spheres of a teachers activity (exegesis, attainment and
work). In this way, the general purposes of rosary are
inestimable and specifically, it serves the purpose of
holding the numerical limit of mantras.
The superior purposes of rosary are: it ascertains maturation and liberation of generation and perfection phase. As it is a skilful means from the gateway
of secret tantra path, put the interdependence unity
of all phenomena into practice. In this way it is stated
that there are many such distinctive purposes of rosary.

4. The mode to string the rosary


The tantra text called Sambuti states;
While stringing the rosary visualize the thread
as the principal deity and the beads of rosary as the assembly of retinue deities surrounding it and chant the
HUNG syllable simultaneously.

5. Counter bead

2. Enumeration

The same text states;


Roll the white thread in round shape for
peaceful and yellow thread with knotty enclosure for
enriching. Roll red flower, flat and crescent in shape
for magnetizing. Roll black and triangular in shape for
wrathful. Embellish with white, red and blue beads
as the sign of body, speech and mind for various activities. Thus it is said that we must make the counter
beads which accords with the respective activities.
In general the counter beads are made with
three beads piled one upon another as the symbol of
three vajras (indestructible body, speech and mind of
Buddha). The colours are blue, red and white symbolizing mind, speech and the body of Buddha respectively from top.

The same text states:


Though one hundred and eight is the commonly recommended number, it can also be half of
hundred eight that is fifty four or twenty one or eleven. If you are reciting any mantra for peaceful activities, repeat eleven enumerations time and again. And
proceed with chanting hundred, thousand, hundred
thousand and so on according to the limits of enumerations mentioned in the valid scriptures. Similarly,
repeat one hundred and eight enumerations for enriching, fifty four for magnetizing and twenty one for
wrathful activities. Accordingly, recite all these mantras matching with numbers mentioned in the texts of
ones own spiritual tradition.

6. Blessing

3. The rosary string

The same text states;


Before using a new rosary for counting the
mantra recitation we must conduct cleansing, purifying and consecrating rituals. The root tantra of Manjushree states:
From the stainless river, purify with pure water,

From the same text: The strings of rosary are


as follows:
Roll white woollen string for peaceful, yel-

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rosary used by ones master shouldnt be used but it


should be taken care of as an object of devotion and
respect. One must keep a proper or a genuine rosary
inseparable from our body like its shadow. It is the
root samaya of rosary.
Although many branch samayas are being
mentioned in the texts, it can be summed up in brief
as follows:
Any kind of activities will be accomplished
quickly if one refrains from showing rosary to others
and if it is not separated with the body heat. Likewise,
do not pass it on others hand, specifically to the violator of samaya. Use it at the time of reciting but do not
pull the beads simply without any work at inappropriate time. Refrain from using rosary without any regard
and respect.
One must not bear rosary devoid of consecration. Do not use your rosary for other ordinary
purposes, but keep it in secret. Do not place it on the
ground or neglect it. Avoid mingling your rosary with
defiled rosaries. Avoid rosaries with beads of unequal
size, unpleasant colour and shape. If the string of your
rosary breaks, you must make it again within the same
day without delaying for the next day. Avoid rosaries
made from horns. You must also avoid rosaries like
- those obtained from the hands of those who have
committed heinous crime, butchers, samaya violators,
thieves, widows and so on; rosaries you find on the
way, seized from others, taken from ornaments of statue etc. If ones own rosary gets defiled with the above
mentioned defects, it must be either burnt or thrown
in the river or otherwise disposed off.
If you have an expensive rosary you must keep
it in secret to avoid vanity. You must also avoid unattractive rosaries because others will despise you and
you will lose interest in recitations. Thus, these are unmistaken intended meanings mentioned in the commentary of embodiment of realization as indispensible
specific samayas of secret Vajrayana to be observed by
all Vajrayana practitioners.

Then wash it completely with five cattle-products,


And anoint it with pleasing scent,
Then endeavour in reciting mantra with great efforts.
In annotation of the above text, Vidhyadhara
Dharmakriti states: At first, wash mouth and hand
with clear water. After that, wash rosary with five
objects of cattle and apply fragrant scent. Then hold
the rosary in the left hand coiled like a snake with the
counter bead in the middle and visualize ones left palm
being marked with syllable HUNG, right palm with
syllable AH SA. Purify the perception of taking rosary
as ordinary with the seal of emptiness and visualize the
counter bead as the principal deity on the triple seat
lotus, sun and moon piled one upon another and the
other surrounding beads as the retinue deities. Then
visualize that the lights emanating from the three syllables of the three places of these deities provoke and
invite wisdom deities and merged inseparable with
the deities visualized by ourselves. Thus if we recite
with this profound concepts with proper consecration
ceremony then whatever mantra one recites with this
particular rosary, its power will be increased 100,000
times.

7. The counting method


While counting peaceful mantras, count them
by placing the rosary upon the index finger. Likewise,
count enriching mantras by placing it upon the middle
finger, magnetizing upon the ring finger and wrathful
upon the small finger. Count all of them only with the
left hand and not with the right hand. However at several occasions, counting with both hands is also mentioned. It means with both hands together and not
only with right hand. Both earlier and later translation
texts commonly explain it as - holding rosary with the
right hand and counting with the left hand.
Recite mantras of peaceful activities by holding your rosary at the heart, enriching mantras at navel
and magnetizing towards secret part, with great zeal of
invocation. For wrathful mantras hold it on the knee
of cross-legged posture and for manifold activities
hold it wherever one feel convenient.

Karma Zangmo

8. The Samaya
The samaya for holding qualified and consecrated rosary are stated in the same text as follows: The

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spiritual advice

2013

Spiritual Message given during the 10th


Nyingma Monlam Chenmo (1999)

the lay practitioners who are the objects of veneration


since the time of Khen-Lop-Cho-Sum, should practice the outer, inner and the secret precepts relying on
their own conscience as the witness.
Vasubandhu proclaimed: The Buddhas teachings consist of two kinds: Scriptures and Realizations. Therefore, everyone should study the scriptures, contemplate on them and practice rigorously to attain high
insights, without which dharma will not flourish. This
is highlighted in the following verse:
The precious lamp of the Buddhas teachings
Shines only in the heart of Saffron-robed [monks] who
practices arduous asceticism.
Since morality is the basic foundation for upholding the Buddha Dharma, it is immensely necessary to observe the three classes of vows (i.e. the outer
pratimoksha vows, the inner bodhisattva vows, and
the secret tantric vows) strictly. The Scriptures foretell
that the precepts followed for a single day during the
degenerating era of Dharma would be more meritorious than those observed in the ancient times when
Buddhas teachings flourished so widely. Thus, practicing the vows perfectly is definitely beneficial to prolong and propagate the teachings. Discarding the false
appearance of a religious person, one should cultivate
unwavering faith in the teachings and live accordingly,
so that one could accumulate vast merit and cleanse
the obscurations, which will prove effective in preserving the Dharma. Particularly, the white robed tantric
practitioners have higher precepts and commitments
to fulfil than the monks. Therefore, as stated in the
Tantric scriptures, they should:

The infallible, supreme and glorious Guru,


Who from the depth of the unchanging, primordial
sphere of reality,
Radiates forth five rays of clear light that are unaffected
by anything
And are the union of appearance and emptiness.
To you, I pay homage from the heart with unflagging
faith.
Everyone, high and low, is well aware that the
tradition of Earlier Translation - Nyingma School- of
Tibetan Buddhism took birth during the time of the
Tibetan King Trisong Deutsen, Guru Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita. These three supreme beings
are the sole refuge of the snow land, due to whose inexpressible blessings; the light of Buddha Dharma illuminated the entire murky land of Tibet. To repay their
kindness, all the followers of this enlightened lineage,
mainly the two clans of the monastic community and

View the nature of all phenomena that are primordially


pure without any clinging to dualistic appearances;
Abandon physical artificiality by keeping the hair and

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to generate physical heat through the practice of energychannels and winds.

beard as they are;


Abandon verbal artificiality by reciting mantras
continuously;
Abandon the mental artificiality of meditation by
abiding in the pristine awareness that is empty but clear
in nature.
Such a Yogi (unfabricated practitioner) is truly
fortunate.

It is extremely essential to keep in mind to


restrain oneself from every unwholesome deed of
the three doors [physical, verbal and mental] for the
general benefit of all beings and the enhancement
of the Buddhas teachings, and particularly for ones
happiness in the present and future lives. Regarding
the dress of Sangha, it should be in accordance with
the sutra and tantric teachings, and their behaviour
should be calm, disciplined, conscientious and free
from the eight worldly concerns. As everyone is well
aware of the sacredness of Vajrasana (Bodh-Gaya), the
holiest place of the Buddhists, it is needless to mention the importance of the meritorious actions to
be performed here. Due to the noble and profound
inspiration of Palyul Darthang Chogtrul Rinpoche,
who possesses peerless enthusiasm for the upholding and preservation of Buddha-dharma in general,
and the Nyingma lineage in particular, the Nyingma
Monlam Chenmo was established several years ago.
Since then it has dedicated its prayers for world peace
and harmony, and served those who are connected
to this ceremony directly or indirectly with temporal
and ultimate benefits. As we are the followers of the
Buddha, not only during this prayer ceremony, but
at all times we must abide by the teachings in terms
of our external and internal attitude, dress and the
way of thinking, as frequently advised by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Further, it is of utmost importance to avoid politics in our religious deeds, so that
our obligations will be purely religious. This will prove
a good example for the future generations and bring
enormous benefits to one and all.

And as stated furthermore:


Experiencing the blissful warmth through the practice of
energy channels, winds and essences;
Achieving power by remaining in the meditative
absorption of deity and mantra;
And actualizing the clear-light wisdom free from the
conception of grasping,
Such a Yogi who has realized the equality of cyclic
existence as liberation is truly fortunate.
It is utterly crucial for all practitioners to become purely devout by shunning all selfish thoughts
and practicing Dharma with a compassionate motivation toward all sentient beings, so that their endeavours will serve as an antidote to the afflicted emotions.
Moreover, it is really important to be able to sow the
seed of faith and devotion in the minds of all those
with whom they come into contact, then only will
their conduct be a meaningful service for the longevity
of Dharma and the happiness of all. If one is a highly
realized Yogi, then it is an exceptional case, but otherwise all others should totally avoid smoking cigarettes
and drinking alcohol as they are things which ruin the
very purpose of this and future lives. It is proclaimed;
Firstly, the non virtuous food meat,
Secondly, the yellow intoxicant beer,
Thirdly, the womans seducing touch,
Are like poison to the religious person.

Rigzod Editors

There are persons who pretend to be highly realized


masters, but their conduct totally contradicts their
presumptions. As these verses state:
Look at the consort who is impregnated by one who
boasts of his mastery to draw in the essential drops [semen virile].
Look at the doorsteps that are defecated on by one? Who
claims to possess the power to enchant pebbles.
Look at his shivering body in winter, one who presumes

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The Grave consequences Of Tobacco In Brief


- The guide who leads the blind from the
wrong path which ENDS IN a precipice
At present, the fruition of her wish is clearly
evident. Infamous opium and other related intoxicants
consumed through mouth and nose neither help to
dispel ones thirst or hunger, nor have a delicious taste;
they are without a single benefit for ones strength and
life force. Furthermore these substances serve to increase nervousness, blood pressure and cause pulmonary diseases. These days almost everyone, whether of
high or low status, develops an irresistible attraction
for these substances and consumes them without control. This is how the wish of the demoness has ultimately borne fruit. The treasure prophecy of Chogyal
Ratna Lingpa states:
When the great master Padmasambhava was
binding the samaya breakers (the nine brothers) to
an oath of loyalty, the youngest brother spoke thus:
Brothers do not despair and listen to me. I shall
manifest myself in the country of China as tobacco;
the name of this toxin will be the black poison (hala
nagpo). It will appear in the border lands, and from
there it will be introduced to Central Tibet. The people of Tibet will consume this enjoyable substance. Its
strength will cause the five poisons to grow and expand. People will reject the ten virtuous actions and
practise the ten non-virtuous ones. The lives of the
doctrine holders will become precarious, and they will
depart for the Buddha Fields. The smoke of this poison, penetrating the earth, will annihilate hundreds of
thousands of naga cities. Rain will not fall; crops and
livestock will not prosper; there will be civil disorder,
epidemics, and various undesirable events. The poisonous smoke rising to the sky will destroy the abodes
of the gods; ultimately, bad times will appear with
eclipses and comets, and the essential fluids and channels of those who smoke will dry up. It will cause four
hundred and four illnesses to arise. Whoever smokes
will be reborn in the lower realms. If one smoke and
others inhale the odour, it will be as if one were extracting the hearts of six million beings.

May this be auspicious!


Having paid homage with deep respect to the great
Ugyen,
Who is the wisdom body of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas,
And the embodiment of all the Buddha Families.
I shall relate here the history of tobacco.
Long ago, about a hundred years after Lord
Buddha had passed into Nirvana, in the mysterious
land of China there was a demoness who, maddened
by her great lust, spoke these words as she was dying:
As there is a curse that with this body of mine I
would lead most of the beings of this earth to the
lower realms, bury my corpse intact. After some time
a flower which is different from all others will grow
from my womb. Merely smelling its scent will cause
one to experience an unimaginable bliss in both body
and mind, far more pleasurable than the union of
male and female. It will spread far and wide until it is
enjoyed by most of the beings on this earth.

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The protector deities will turn aside and look only towards Mount Meru. Foreigners will invade central Tibet, and the natives will be forced to wander in border
lands. The doctrines of Mara will spread and the earth
will become an actual hell.
Drodul Lingpa discovered the following predictions:
Merely smelling the odour of these herbs, grasses and
leaves, which sprang from the drops of blood of an
ogress, will cause one to go to the hell of ceaseless torment.
Ma Chik Lapdrons prophecy reads thus:
In the final age of disputes, there will be
something that one puts in the mouth which is endowed with all of the five poisons. It will originate in
China and spread to Mongolia and will be consumed
by the people of Tibet. It will cause rainfall to be irregular. There will be great frosts and hail. If meditators take these substances, even if they practice for one
hundred kalpas, they will not realize the deity. In future lives, they will wander continuously in the lower
realms. Even the compassionate power of the Three
Jewels will not be able to protect them.
Thus, it is said in innumerable predictions.
The consumption of all these evil substances has also
been particularly forbidden by many of the accomplished sages of both the new and ancient traditions.
Since the adamantine words of Ugyen Rinpoche are
infallible, you cannot have such false views as: How
can there be such a grave consequences in the mere
smoke of a natural plant? If you take an example of
an Aconite, though it is also a species of plant, eating
just a small amount can take away your life force. Why
then cannot the fruit of the perverse wishes of a demoness cause spiritual death?
Therefore, wise persons will certainly do themselves a
great kindness and favour by completely renouncing
these evil substances.

Sangay Lingpas Terma states:


At this degenerate time people indulge in various unwholesome actions.
In particular, instead of relying on nutritious and tasty
food,
They will consume the worst substances which are both
poisonous and smell bad.
They will never be satisfied; instead the desire will
increase more and more.
All their work will be left half done and grab this poison
frantically,
Their spit and tears will run uncontrollably and their
facial glow will fade away.
Rinzin Godems catalogue of prophets states thus:
In the ultimate decadent age, people will absorb poisonous vomit, the food of smell eaters (Gandharwa).
Merely smelling it will cause one to go the hell of ceaseless torment. For this reason, give it up right now.
The treasure predictions discovered by Dundul Dorje
says:
Monks and nuns will enjoy inhaling the smoke of
these plants and sniffing their powder, and the country will be filled with samaya breakers. With compulsive desire arising ceaselessly, they will thus be deceived
by Mara, and as a sign of the exhaustion of merit, tears
will flow without control.
Longsal revealed the following prediction:
At the time when people enjoy this wicked substance,
There will be incidents where intimate friends poison each
other.
A prophecy from the treasure of Thugchog Dorje
also states:
Because of the five gross poisons, passions
and hatred, the troubles, quarrels and the sorrows of
beings will blaze like an inferno. As the ten virtues
are discarded, the non-virtues will rage like a storm.
Wholesome activities will be neglected, while perverse
practices will be propagated. In age, the protector gods
will vanish and demons will assume power. People will
inhale tobacco smoke, which will block the channels
of discriminating wisdom and cause agitation and
other obscuring emotions to intensify. The central
channel will be obstructed which will cause the limpid clarity of awareness to wane. The general exhaustion of merit will cause agitation around the world.
Religious objects - the receptacles of blessings - will
deteriorate; wrong views and false religions will spread.

By the power of this virtuous deed


May the faithful and wise people
Find relief in the blissful garden of liberation
By diverting themselves from the false path to the
precipice.
At the request of Golok Serta Jigme, this is written by
Dudjom Jigdrel Yeshey Dorje. May it be auspicious!

Rigzod Editors

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Entrance to the
MIDDLE WAY

(Madhyamakavatara)

(Tib: Tsa-Shay). Indeed it is the king of all the Shastras


expounding the ultimate view of the Madhyamika
pioneer Nagarjuna. Later, from the division between
the Prasangika and Svatantrika approaches to the
Madhyamika views, it was the Prasangika teachings
of Chandrakirti that came to be accepted by all the
four schools of Tibetan Buddhism as the summit of
Madhymika Buddhist tenet systems.
The presentation of Madhyamika teaching is
actually simpler and less extensive in terms of subject
matter and demonstration in this text, which is more
adapted for beginners, since Chandrakirti discusses
fewer arguments at greater length. Chandrakirti emphasizes at the starting point of the text that the seed
and accompaniment of the realization of wisdom is
compassion (the desire to release sentient beings from
suffering). He states:
Chandrakirti

Of Buddhahoods abundant crop, Compassion


is the seed.
It is like moisture bringing increase and is said
To ripen in the state of lasting happiness.
Thus at first I shall laud Compassion!

The author of this profound teaching on


emptiness and the vast teaching on the qualities of the
path and fruition popularly known as Madhyamakavatara (Tib: Uma-La-Jugpa) is the great Buddhist
adept-scholar known as Chandrakirti, who was born
in the land of Samanta in India in about the seventh
century. He was an extraordinary person deeply immersed in the truth of the supreme vehicle. He obtained illusion-like concentration, by which he could
obtain milk from the wall painting of a cow and thus
dispel the rigid belief of beings in the true existence of
phenomena.
This text, Madhyamakavatara, is the general meaning commentary which provides the overall
meaning of Nagarjunas Root text on Madhyamika

The explanation of the Madhyamika view in


this text is set within the framework of the ten paramitas which are correlated with the ten realization stages
or Bodhisattva grounds [1. Perfect Joy, 2. Immaculate,
3. Luminous, 4. Radiant, 5. Hard to keep, 6. Clearly
Manifest, 7. Far Progressed, 8. Immovable, 9. Perfect
Intellect, 10. Cloud of Dharma].
In the sixth ground explanation of the main
body of this treatise, logical ascertainment of the

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buddhist texts

meaning of emptiness is done under two broad subtopics viz.

2013

According to the ailments of an ailing man,


The doctor will apply his doctoring.
And likewise the Buddha, for the sake of beings
Has said indeed that mind alone is true.

1. Disapproving the self of phenomena.


2. Disapproving the self of persons.

2. Disapproving the self of person is done primarily


through the sevenfold analysis with an example of a
chariot. The text says:
We cannot claim that a chariot is other than its parts,
Nor that it is their owner, nor identical with them.
It is not in its parts; its parts are not contained in it.
Its not the mere collection of the parts nor yet their shape.

1. Disapproving the self of phenomena is


done through the refutation of the four theories of
production from the standpoint of two truths. The
text says thus:
Not from self, and how from something else?
Not from both, how without a cause, can things arise?

Just as the chariot is designated in dependence


on its wheels and so on, the self of a person is imputed in dependence on the relatively true phenomena
of empirical existence - the five aggregates, the sense
powers, the six elements, and so on. Thus we can conclude that the self is a mere designation and is not a
truly existing entity which is stable and immutable as
we conventionally think of it.

It means that if phenomena exist inherently,


they must be produced through one or another of the
four ways. But as there is no such production, phenomena are not produced. They do not come into
being out of themselves, from something other than
themselves, nor from a combination of these modes,
nor do they arise independently of causes. Therefore,
phenomena do not exist inherently.
In the process of ascertaining this meaning,
Chandrakirti takes into consideration the position of
the Chittamatra School and other great streams of the
Mahayana tradition which came into prominence after Nagarjunas time to establish emptiness by rational
demonstrations. For instance: Chandrakiriti asks the
Chittamatrins for an example of their ultimate judgement - inherently existent consciousness devoid of a
(separate) outer appearance. And the example given is
that of dreaming; they proclaim that while dreaming,
if the consciousness were not real, it would be impossible to recall ones dreams. But as a matter of fact, one
does remember dreams and this is one of the reasons
the Chittamarins believe that mind is real.
Chandrakirti refutes such statements by saying that it should be understood that just as there are
no phenomena or knowledge objects as such, neither
is the mind that perceives them an inherently existent
entity. To background his dialectic statement he repeats Buddhas words from the Lankavavatara-sutra;

Finally, Buddha-hood itself is made the subject of a detailed presentation at the conclusion of the
text.
Wise, they enter and forsake a hundred concentrations;
A hundred worlds they have the power to shake and
illumine;
With miracles they ripen to maturity a hundred beings
And journey to a hundred Buddha fields.
In its precise form, the Madhyamakavatara
falls into three main sections: the homage, the main
body of the treatise, and the conclusion.
# Note: This excellent text is included in the syllabus of
the third year of Ngagyur Nyingma Institute as one of the
main subjects.
Jigme Lhundrup
6th Yr. NNI

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Interview with venerable Khenchen


Namdrol Tsering
few monks. Our class room was near the residence of
H.H. and my first studies were reading and writing
Tibetan scriptures. H.H. himself taught me the skills
of reading and the text he used was the ritual text of
Karling Zhithro (text discovered by Karma Lingpa).
While teaching us to read the text he explained almost
the whole contents of the text. The contents ranged
from the difficulties of attaining the precious human
form endowed with the freedoms and endowments,
to the practice of the Guru Yoga. In the process of expounding these teachings, concerning impermanence,
the defects of cyclic existence and so on, H.H. used to
enquire about our feelings, asking: How do you feel
while hearing these teachings? In short, this is how
the link between H.H. and myself began.
For over a year our only classes were reading and writing. Of these, reading was given priority. After a year
we were also taught the ritualistic arts and by that time
we were around fifteen monks in total. During the
weekends H.H. used to take us for walks through the
forest along the stream near Kushalnagar, and let us
swim and play leisurely. Well, to put it in a nutshell,
we were taught everything starting from maintaining
a hygienic body.

Palyul Times(PT): Tashi Delek! Khen Rinpoche.


With due respect and your benevolent consideration,
we the members of the Palyul Times would like to
take this special opportunity to receive your golden
words of experience based on your lifetime spiritual
endeavour through the following interview with the
altruistic aim of guiding our beloved readers on the
path of dharma.

About a year later, as H.H. became busy with the construction of the monastery he assembled all the monks
and appointed the elderly Lama Sonam Tenzin of Palyul as our tutor. He was well versed in philosophy
as well as in ritualistic arts. He was indeed a genuine
practitioner.
These are my memories of how H.H compassionately
nurtured me from the beginning.

PT: As Khen Rinpoche was brought up under the


compassionate guidance of His Holiness Drubwang
Pema Norbu Rinpoche from a very young age, can
you kindly relate the sequence of events that brought
H.H and yourself together?

For the next three years I studied reading and writing


exclusively. When I was around fifteen or sixteen years
old H.H. said that as a genuine preliminary practice,
we have to perform five hundred thousand accumulations and purification practices. Thus he began to give
us the teachings on preliminary practice from The

Khen Rinpoche Namdrol Tshering (KNTR):


When I was thirteen years old, H.H. performed my
first hair cutting ritual and bestowed me the name
Thubten Pema Singye. During that time H.H. lived
in a Tibetan settlement camp and there were only a

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Words of My Perfect Teacher. We were only around


twenty monks receiving the teachings. In particular,
when we were taught the lessons on taking refuge
and generation of enlightened mind, H.H. gave us
summarized notes he had written. These contained
the essence of the practices, such as how to visualise
the accumulation field, mind training with the four
immeasurable and the practice of equalizing and exchanging of oneself with others. During the nights of
a month of mandala offering sessions, H.H himself led
us in performing the chod (a form of Tantric meditation introduced by the female siddha Machig Labdron, which involves offering ones body to demons
in order to exorcise them) as the chant master. It was
done through the Chodyul Khandro Gegyang(chod
practice revealed by Jigmed Lingpa).

a great institution for learning and practice in Namdroling monastery from the very beginning itself, we
were always blessed with the opportunity to receive
teachings whenever Ngoshul Khen Rinpoche, Khen
Rinpoche Pema Sherab and others visited our monastery. His Holiness always requested them to bestow
teachings during their stay. But during those days, on
one hand, the students were unable to put continuous effort into their studies, and on the other hand
there were not as many teachers as there are today.
Even those visiting Khenpos did not have much time
to stay here. With such problems the teaching session
could not go on for the whole year. H.H. was often
disappointed about this and even told me personally
that it was very difficult to establish a great institution
as he wished.

In the case of Guru Yoga practice, though the actual


number recommended for the recitation of the Vajra
Guru mantra was ten million, during our time H.H.
specifically told us to recite the Seven-line prayer of
Guru Rinpoche one hundred thousand times at first.
Then we were told to take a vow to recite Vajra Guru
mantra at least one thousand times daily. He said that
if we miss reciting even for a day and then supplement
it by reciting four or five thousand times the next day,
it is not acceptable. In short, he let us take this vow
of recitation and assured us that if we continue with
this recitation daily, then there will be no obstacles for
dharma practices throughout our lives.

As H.H. realized that it was very difficult to establish a


major institute with invited teachers from outside, he
told me, Now I am relying on the hope of establishing an institute by sending our own monks to study
outside to learn to teach and hold responsibilities in
our monastery in the future. Since H.H. shared
with me that dream with great hope, I developed the
ambition to fulfil his noble wishes. Ngoshul Khen
Rinpoche also gave me guidance about going to study
with Khenpo Dazer in Bhutan, Khunu lama Tenzin
Gyamtsho and with Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue in
Sikkim. Among these, H.H. told me about the advantages of studying with Khen Rinpoche Tsuntrue
in Sikkim, as he was administrating the Buddhist College of the Sikkim government.

After that, I began to study the great philosophical


treatises. At first, when Khen Rinpoche Pema Sherab
was invited as the teacher of our monastery, I studied Tibetan grammar and other minor treatises like
the precepts of taking refuge and so on. Then Sakya
Khenpo Khedrub was invited from whom we received teachings on many great treatises like the Ornament of the Middle Way, the Summary of Tenets, etc.
Although Khenpo Khedrub was a Sakyapa, he had
received the complete transmissions of the Thirteen
Treatises from Khenpo Zhenga, a great Nyingmapa
scholar. Later, when Ngoshul Khen Rinpoche visited
our monastery, we were granted the opportunity to
receive teachings such as the Praise of Transcendental
Qualities, the Conduct of Bodhisattvas and other minor treatises.

Eventually, in accordance with His Holiness guidance, I went to Sikkim for studies. When I was leaving, H.H. advised me, In the future after studying
well, try to be able to hold the responsibilities of our
future institute in this monastery and come back annually to spend your vacation for at least a month or
two. Thus, I spent five years studying in Sikkim.
In the meantime, Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue had the
intention to move to a bigger monastery, and coincidentally, H.H. also sent him several invitation letters inviting him to Namdroling Monastery. Finally I
managed to invite Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue to Namdroling monastery. Although Khen Rinpoche came to
the south to treat a health problem and not to establish an institute, he was greatly moved after he noticed
the great enlightened activities and noble intentions

As H.H. cherished the noble objective of establishing

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ular place where I and my family members met H.H.


for the first time. During that period, at least three or
four Tibetans were dying daily due to the intense heat
in India as they had descended from a very high altitude. H.H. was the main lama who performed the
rituals like transference of consciousness, and so forth
for all the deceased. Though most Tibetans had a very
difficult time earning a livelihood, H.H. continuously
went out to perform local rituals day and night without any rest. Sometimes, when there was a seriously ill
patient, H.H. would go and help them even at midnight. On those occasions I accompanied His Holiness as his assistant several times. When performing
the ritual of transferring the consciousness, H.H. left
none without the signs of transference mentioned in
the tantra texts. As it was a very difficult time, people
had little to offer for his great service. Even if they did
make offerings, he would not accept them and simply
put them below the table in front of his seat. This is
what I personally noticed while serving H.H. as an
attendant.

of His Holiness. Khen Rinpoche said that although


he would not be able teach for a long period of time
due to his old age, Namdroling would surely succeed
if he inaugurated an institute, since everything turns
out well for him because of his good karmic fruition.
He also told me that the continuation of the academic
sessions could be maintained by Khenpo Pema Sherub and me. Khen Rinpoche told me to inform His
Holiness about his wish. Accordingly, I conveyed the
message and H.H. too was pleased with this decision.
I dont remember the exact year, but it was on the 10th
of the first Tibetan month that the first teaching session
of the Ngagyur Nyingma Institute was inaugurated,
and held its first teaching session. It was conducted in
a small class room on the top floor of our old temple,
where we prepared a throne for Khen Rinpoche and
even H.H. himself attended the class with us. During
that initial year Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue bestowed
the teachings on the lessons which are included in
the present 1st year syllabus and I taught the revision
class as a teaching assistant. At the same time I also
took the responsibility of disciplinarian and the first
year was completed in this way. The construction of
our hostels was also begun at that time. In short, these
are the sequence of events in my relationship with His
Holiness.

Gradually, H.H. moved to South India. He arrived


in Bylakuppe in 1960. During those days, H.H. lived
at First Camp in a bamboo hut allotted by the Indian
Government along with other Tibetan refugees. During that period, H.H. began to conduct the 100 million recitation accomplishment, which is performed
annually in our monastery today. It was conducted
in a huge bamboo hut by his entourage and other
monks. At His Holiness behest, people were also
given a teaching on the Conduct of Bodhisattvas by a
Sakya Khenpo who was residing in the region.

PT: Khen Rinpoche, as you spent many years with


H.H., can you briefly highlight us about extraordinary qualities of H.H. from your point of view?

KRNT: As you all have said, most probably I might


be the person who had the most intimate relationship
with H.H. in this monastery, because as I have already
mentioned above I was brought up under his guidance from the age of thirteen. In fact, the enlightened
activities and qualities of H.H. are not something
which can be understood by a person like me. Although earlier I didnt see anything extraordinary in
the way H.H. performed his activities, now when I
really examine them, they are all transcendental, far
beyond our perceptions. Such activities are certainly
the enlightened activities of a highly realized being.
To mention a few examples: In 1959, when Tibetans
fled to India due to the Chinese intrusion, H.H. also
fled to India facing all the difficulties almost empty
handed. H.H. lived for some months at the beginning
in a place called Balingpur in Assam. A large group of
refugees was assembled there and it was at that partic-

In 1963, H.H. laid the foundation stone of Namdroling monastery. If we think of the condition of the
livelihood of that period, it was almost impossible for
anyone to have a thought of establishing a monastery.
He had nothing more than the clothes he was wearing. It was in such a difficult time that H.H. began
to establish our monastery. During those days, everybody relied solely on agriculture for their livelihood.
H.H. used to perform rituals for rain whenever the
rain failed to come on time. Sometimes, when there
was severe drought and he could not bring the rain
by rituals performed in the monastery he would go to
the Betapur hill top and perform the ritual for several
days until the rain fell. After H.H. went out and performed the rituals for sure the rain would fall. This is

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very easy to understand how great his intentions and


activities were.

something I have noticed personally, for I went with


him as attendant several times. He also accomplished
treasure vases and distributed them free of cost among
the people, for the wellbeing of the place and the people. However, out of religious partiality, some people
blindly said that distributing treasure vases was merely
a mode of deceiving common people; and the rain falls
when the season comes, so the rituals for bringing rain
are useless. Hearing this, H.H. was greatly disheartened and stopped performing these services for almost
a year. Consequently, the common people suffered a
lot. They didnt have enough agricultural products as
there was a severe drought for nearly the entire year.

PT: As the number of people becoming Buddhist is


rising in todays world due to improved awareness, can
you give some important instructions to those beginners?

KRNT: It is really true that the Buddha-dharma is


spreading pervasively in the present world. It is an undeclared fact that one will gain more and more faith
and confidence in Buddha-dharma as one analyzes
more with logical reasoning, for Buddha dharma solely
deals with the infallible truth. Therefore, it is very important to study the Buddhist philosophy. In case one
cannot study properly and lacks proper understanding
of the intrinsic meanings taught in Buddha-dharma,
it is possible to lose faith and deviate from the path.
Thus, the main thing is to study well at the beginning.
It is very beneficial in this and future lives if you can
merge the meaning of the texts into your mind stream
and practise well. Therefore, I consider it imperative to
listen and contemplate at the beginning as a mode of
entrance into whatever path one aspires to practice, be
it sutra or tantra.

To come back to the establishment of a learning Institute as spoken about earlier, although Khen Rinpoche
Tsundrue was invited to our monastery, H.H. realized
that the result of Khen Rinpoches hardships in bestowing education would not be satisfactory as there
were only a small number of monks. Therefore, he
planned to invite aspiring students from other places
and provide accommodations and food by himself.
Initially, he had planned to accommodate at least one
hundred monks, which was really a huge gathering at
that time. However, over time the number gradually
rose higher and higher and finally he aimed to provide learning opportunities for five hundred monks.
In general, although there were great economical setbacks, H.H. continued to work with strong determination and unshakable mental strength, despite all the
hurdles.

PT: Khen Rinpoche, can you give some instructions


for lay practitioners on how to practise dharma along
with their daily activities?

KRNT: Not only Tibetans, but almost all the people


residing along the chain of Himalayan ranges are Buddhist by birth as Buddhism is their ancestral religion.
They have faith in it. In general it is very important to
study dharma before practicing, but it is very difficult
for those lay practitioners to study the profound and
vast meanings of the texts. Even so, one must receive
the vow of refuge on entering the Buddhist path as it is
the entrance way. With this as the basis, if one receives
the vow of lay practitioner and then takes up any practice of the sutras and tantras of ones choice, one will
at least have the basis for practice, since discipline is
considered as the basis for all the dharma practices.

Regarding the Institute, His Holiness stated: This is


a Nyingmapa institute, so no one is allowed to create
disagreement among the religious sects by saying, I am
a follower of Palyul, I am a follower of Zhechen and
so on. Thus, he named it the Ngagyur Nyingma Institute. Unlike today, many students came from Sakya
and Kagyud to study in our monastery. The Institutes
curriculum was designed by Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue
and approved by H.H. when it was presented to him.
Unfortunately, Khen Rinpoche Tsundrue passed away
before long. During that time, we didnt feel much
about this, but H.H. was really saddened and said:
Although I have great enthusiasm to render service to
Buddha-dharma, there are always some obstacles following it. So I think it will probably not work now.
With such words, I saw him weeping several times in
his chamber. If we judge him by all these actions, it is

PT: Khen Rinpoche, what is your opinion on the


flourishing of the profound views and tenets of Buddhism in the modern world?

KRNT: If we judge from one angle, this is due to


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also divided into earlier and later translations. Among


these, the majority of the earlier translated tantra
teachings were the class of highest yoga tantra. The
practitioners of these teachings are known as Ngagyur
Nyingmapa.

the extensive spread of science because the results of


much scientific research match with those mentioned
in Buddhist texts. In addition, there are many hidden facts in Buddhism which have been thoroughly
examined and proven, but modern science is yet to
enter that profound world of research. As a result,
many scientists become Buddhist today. In short it is
due to the spread of science that Buddhism is gaining
importance in this modern world. From another side,
it is also due to the gradual improvement of human
intellect in the present time, because Buddhas teachings directly deal with infallible truth which requires a
great deal of intelligence to understand.

Among the three classes of highest yoga tantra, the


teachings of Great Perfection (Dzogpachenpo) are
considered the unique teachings of the practitioners
of Ngagyur Nyingma. Although the teachings of
Great Perfection possess many distinctive qualities in
general, the distinction must be made based on the
view, meditation and conduct. The view of the Great
Perfection should be the wisdom transcending the ordinary mind. In this context, even many tantra texts of
the later translations say this, but when really merging
with mind they are not able to transcend the ordinary
mind. Likewise, the meditation of Great Perfection
is to meditate on the transcendental wisdom, as it
should match with the view. When we talk about the
conduct, this is generally meant for the enhancement
of the view and the meditation, so the unique conduct
of the great perfection must not transgress the boundary of transcendental wisdom.

PT: Nowadays empowerments, oral transmissions,


and explanations of the secret tantra are bestowed
openly in the world, especially in the west. Can you
kindly share your opinion on this?

KRNT: According to the secret tantra texts and treatises, it is not good to spread the teachings of secret
tantra openly. It is said that one will accomplish the attainments quickly if one conducts the tantra practices
in a secret way. On the other hand, the tantra texts also
mention that the teachings of tantrayana will flourish
just as much the five degenerations increase. For example Jamgon Mipham Rinpoche stated:

The quintessential instructions of the mind-teachings


discriminating between the mind and wisdom are also
found in the Great Perfection texts. These instructions
are not elucidated clearly in the tantra texts of the later
translations. The Great Perfection teachings are distinguished chiefly by these qualities. If you want to
see the background Great Perfection texts and their
distinctive qualities you can find them in many of the
collected works of the omniscient master Longchen
Rabjam as well as the collected works of other ancient
scholars of Ngagyur Nyingma. The collected works of
Khenpo Ngaga also state clearly, with support of valid
reasoning and citations, that the view of Great Perfection is transcendental wisdom.

Even if the powers of degeneration become stronger and


stronger,
The enlightened activities of victorious Padma will shine
like a moon.
In this context, the enlightened activities of victorious
Padma are chiefly connected with the teachings of secret tantrayana. This also indicates that tantra is a suitable teaching for this degenerate era. Therefore, I am
not able to give you a firm answer on the matter.

PT: Khen Rinpoche, can you elucidate briefly about

PT: Khen Rinpoche, can you kindly give us concise

the unique qualities of Ngagyur Nyingma (earlier


translation) teachings based on view, meditation and
conduct?

advice on how we, the disciples of late H.H. should


act and perform the outer, inner and the secret deeds
to fulfil the enlightened intentions of H.H. in his absence?

KRNT: Today, the teachings of secret tantra are


popularly known as the religion of Tibet. This doesnt
mean that the teachings of secret tantra did not ever
spread in India, but they did not spread pervasively
in India as in Tibet. The secret tantra teachings are

KRNT: In general, if you follow and practise the advice which H.H. used to bestow on us at least once a
year, I think this alone will serve well to fulfil his di-

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vine wishes. From this, if we classify the things we are


obliged to do in his absence, we have the magnificent
structures and facilities for studies, built through his
relentless life long effort. Considering the numbers of
monks, they were assembled spontaneously through
the power of his great presence and virtue. It is very
important to maintain the vows as the base of Buddha-dharma without fail. For students of the Institute;
their main responsibility is to uphold the teachings
on theory. The responsibility of the retreatants in the
Retreat Center is to uphold the teachings on practice.
It is our common responsibility to look after the management of the Institute, the Retreat Center, Monastic
Junior High School, and the Nunnery, which H.H.
established with the aim of upholding the undefiled
lineages of theory and practice of Buddhism.

2013

PT: Khen Rinpoche, Can you kindly give some valuable guidance on serving our readers with Buddhadharma through this magazine?

KRNT: Nowadays, there are many types of magazines that are beneficial in their own way. For example,
there are many magazines on politics that are benefitting immensely in the political field. So, in a similar
way, a magazine on Buddha-dharma must be able to
benefit those interested in dharma. I think the subject matter of such a magazine should be on common
teachings and these should be explained explicitly
without misinterpretations. Since most of readers are
beginners; they are striving to understand the meaning of dharma with help of such magazines, as they do
not have enough time to study the vast and profound
scriptural texts. Thus, it is very crucial to elucidate the
meaning precisely without mistakes. If the Dharma is
misinterpreted in the magazines, there is the danger
of misleading those aspiring beginners by instilling
disbelief in them. For instance, we can find many
people in the west who have lost faith in Buddhism
due to misinterpretation by some lamas. Although it
is not the mistake of dharma in reality, but rather the
blunder of the concerned people, it can certainly mislead those beginners. I think the magazines have same
effect in influencing readers as the lamas or teachers
in the west. Therefore, it is better to focus more on
the teachings of common subjects which can be easily
understood by the beginners. If you include too many
topics on the specific secret tantra teachings, there is
the chance of becoming a cause for instilling perverted
views in those beginners minds. Therefore, I think
this is a very important point.

The ultimate purpose of dharma practices and studies is to benefit beings, and during the time of H.H.
Namdroling Monastery served as the primary support
for the teachings of Buddha to flourish in Bhutan,
Nepal and India by producing and sending qualified
teachers. It is the collective responsibility of every one
of us, the whole assembly of this monastery, disciples
of late H.H., to uphold and maintain the continuity
of his enlightened activities. In addition to this, if you
can put those secret teachings of Great Perfection that
you have received from H.H. into practice accordingly, then I think his ultimate intentions will also
be fulfilled, for he was a highly realized master who
solely thought about the purpose of sentient beings.
Just as the noble efforts and the kindness of the followers of Lord Buddha have upheld and assured the
continuous flow of the Buddha-dharma until now, in
a similar way, if we can maintain the continuity of His
Holiness enlightened activities, then I think there is
no other means greater than this by which we fulfil
his noble wishes.

Rigzod Editors

Did the thought never come to


you that you too are subject to
death, decay and disease and
cannot escape them?
Lord Buddha

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Buddha Dharma and practitioners

qualified to be a genuine practitioner. Note that


simply wearing red robes and shaving ones head
or sitting on a high throne is not enough to be a
practitioner. Even a mad man can wear robes and
shave his hair or sit on the throne, provided he has
the opportunity, but he can never possess those
noble qualities. Although it is very difficult to
judge someones inner qualities precisely, we can
make a partial judgment through their physical
signs, such as the way they represent themselves
with outer conduct. As the Buddha proclaims in
the Sutra of the Ten Bhumis:

It is an undeclared fact that we the ordinary people are always masked and lured by the
superficial aspect of phenomena, leaving the inner
intrinsic truth in the state of oblivion.
Considering this fact, I could not hold my
heart from jotting some lines about the Dharma
and its practitioners since, as a sign of this degenerate time, many people falsely represent themselves
as practitioners and others take them as the basis
for evaluating the Dharma and its practitioners,
throwing themselves into the abyss.
What is Dharma and who are the practitioners?
Dharma or Choe in Tibetan means to
correct the mind. One should begin with the notion - As I desire to be happy, so does everyone else
and as I do not desire to suffer, no one else desires
to suffer. In this way, genuine love and compassion will take root in ones mind. That is the wish
that - may all beings possess both happiness and its
cause and - may all the beings be free from suffering and its causes. And then the Bodhicitta or the
enlightened mind (aspiring to attain the Buddhahood for the sake of other sentient beings) will be
generated. Love and compassion are basis or the
root of Buddhas teachings, while Bodhicitta is the
heart or the essence of Mahayana Buddhism. In
short, trying to help others, at your best with an
altruistic motivation, and avoiding harming others directly or indirectly is called Dharma.
Thus, we can conclude here that anyone
who possesses these qualities, irrespective of caste,
gender, status, wealth and so forth, is an authentic
Dharma practitioner. He or she can be a monk, a
nun, a lay practitioner and so forth. If one lacks
these qualities, then no matter how famous,
wealthy, learned, etc. one may be; he or she is not

As you can know the presence of fire by ascending


smoke,
And the presence of water by the flying water fowl.
The Buddha nature of those wise Bodhisattvas
Can be understood by their physical signs of body
and speech.
There is no single teaching of Buddha
which causes harm to sentient beings neither
directly nor indirectly. If one finds a teaching of
Buddha related to causing suffering, then there
must be a flaw in either ones own understanding
or ones teachers interpretations. Because all the
teachings of Buddha are valid scriptures validated
with the three-fold scrutiny and examination.
Moreover, he taught solely with immense love and
compassion for every being without any hope and
fear, as he was free from the tiniest traces of obscurations which cause such ignoble thoughts. But to
really understand the Buddhas vast and profound
teachings, one must sacrifice a good deal of time
and energy. For Buddha applies different modes
of expounding Dharma in accordance with the
needs of myriad dispositions and mental capaci-

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who become stuck on the way, due to the same


problem of not approaching in an organized manner. Therefore, it is imperative to have a proper
order in approaching the teachings, as is the case
in any other endeavour, rather than jumping into
an ocean of confusion. If a proper procedure is
required even for preparing a cup of tea, then it is
needless to mention the importance of a systematic order in approaching the profound teachings,
the only means to attain perfect happiness, for
which everybody is desperately yearning.
Another important point which is closely
related with Buddhist ethics, concerns consuming
meat, alcohol and tobacco. In this case, we can use
our own intellects to connect with the essence of
the Buddhas teachings of unbiased love and compassion for every motherly sentient being. Since it
is obvious that taking meat is directly connected
with harming other beings; I dont think that we
have to wait for any additional reasons for its denial in Buddhas teachings.

ties of sentient beings. Basically, his teaching can


be divided into definitive and interpretive meanings. Teachings of definitive meanings are those
teachings which expound the ultimate truth directly without any intended hidden meaning and
do not require any conditional interpretations.
For example, all the phenomena are empty and selfless. Whereas, the teachings of interpretive meanings are, those teachings with intended hidden
meanings that require conditional interpretations.
For example; praising the qualities of morality as superior to generosity or giving. In this context, the
teaching is meant for a specific individual who has
too much grasping and pride over his practice of
generosity and is contented with it. It is primarily
expounded as the antidote for contentment with
a trifling amount of merit, which bars the further
accumulation of merits.
In a similar way there are numerous profound and intrinsic meanings in Mahayana, and
especially in the secret teachings of Tantra-yana
which would appear to contradict the teachings of
the common lower yanas or vehicles, if one does
not have the insight and wisdom to put the teachings of common and specific yanas in order. Therefore, one should not be too early in gauging the
authenticity of any teachings to save oneself from
the unfortunate action of forsaking Dharma.
For example, last year a cousin of one
of my friends who is working as a manager in a
trading office in Calcutta was complaining to me
about the teachings of Buddha, saying that the
meaning of two Buddhist texts which he had read
recently contradict each other. He remarked sarcastically - too much knowledge is dangerous and
it is better to have just a little knowledge. With
this remark he meant to say that reading or studying too much is not good as it generates doubts
and disbelief. But when I investigated the matter, I found out that the texts he read were a text
of Sutrayana and one of Tantrayana which were
taught for completely different levels of mental
capacity and understanding and which demand
very different modes of expounding. I explained
to him about the different approaches, and told
him about the importance of taking a systematic
approach in understanding the profound meaning
of Buddhas teachings. In a similar manner, we can
find many beginners, especially among foreigners,

As Buddha said in Lankavatara Sutra:


Lodroe Chenpo! As I am endowed with the kind
of love a mother has for her only son, to all sentient
beings,
How can I ever permit my followers to consume the
flesh of my children?
When it comes to alcohol, it is a substance
which is prohibited emphatically at all levels of
teachings with grave consequences in present and
future lives. Buddha said thus:
Whoever consumes alcohol, he or she is not my
follower;
And neither am I their teacher as well.
This is an obvious fact, not only from the
point of Dharma, but alcohol is equally hazardous
in society and for ones health.
Prohibition of Smoking or the consumption of tobacco in Buddhas teaching is considered
as questionable, as it is not specifically mentioned
by name and words, but we can say that it is included among intoxicants in general along with
alcohol, as Lord Buddha prohibited all types of
intoxicants. However tobacco is strictly prohib-

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ited in the infallible treasure teachings of Guru


Rinpoche, the second Buddha, with all its history
and grave consequences. The treasure predictions
discovered by Dundul Dorje say:

Religious Harmony
Vital for Global
peace

Monks and nuns will enjoy inhaling the smoke


of these plants, and sniffing their powder, and the
country will be filled with samaya breakers. With
compulsive desire arising ceaselessly, they will thus be
deceived by Mara, and as a sign of the exhaustion of
merit, tears will flow without control.

Religious harmony means a mutual respect


and understanding, shared among the great diversities of religions across the globe. The word harmony means a state free from undesired conflicts
and disorders. If a nation is said to be harmonious
then that particular country should be devoid of
internal strife, disharmony and misunderstandings.

In addition, Drodul Lingpa discovered the following predictions:


Merely smelling the odour of these herbs, grasses
and leaves, which sprang from the drops of blood of
an ogress, will cause one to go to the hell of ceaseless
torment.
To understand in detail, refer to the treasure prophecies of Chogyal Ratna Lingpa and other great treasure revealers. Note that all these prohibitions are particularly meant for beginners who
have not yet mastered their conceptual minds,
since all these conduct will prove to be obstacles
in advancing on the path of dharma practice. As
for those great beings who have gained complete
mastery over their minds, they can do anything as
a part of skilful means to lead beings of different
inclinations in the right way without the slightest touch of self interest. For them everything will
prove to be conducive for advancing their profound realization.
Finally, to conclude, lets do ourselves a
favour by relying on the authentic Dharma texts
instead of putting trust in the interpretation of a
single individual, as Buddha himself proclaimed:

Why is it vital for global peace?


At this juncture, we are dwelling in this very
complicated world of unfathomable transitions
in the field of science and ideas, where more and
more contradictions arise out of misunderstandings. Spirituality and secularism are the two major
classifications for dividing the entire world and its
people. Secular power and its misuse had already
resulted in numerous human casualties during the
first half of the last century in the bloody First and
Second World Wars. These are the results of powerful human beings abusive usage of their power
over those powerless beings who share the same
Mother Earth.
If we do not equally pay attention in the
field of spirituality, then we are in the danger of
holy wars which will lead to the same consequences as before. Regarding ones religious system as
superior to others, one tries to condemn other
religious view points, leading to those problems
of Jihads, Crusades and many other unfortunate
incidents. Hence, it is the main duty for all the
spiritual friends to consider these spiritual problems under good guidelines, so that we are not left
with the awful burden of future regret. As per the
statistical reports, a majority of the worlds population fall within the spiritual category. Thus, we
can comprehend that they do follow the principles
of their respective spiritual paths based on loving
kindness, universal brotherhood, non-violence
and so on. Therefore, if we can attain a global religious harmony by instilling a deep sense of uni-

Rely on the doctrine rather than upon individuals,


Rely on meaning rather than words,
Rely on the definitive rather than on the provisional
meanings,
And rely upon pristine cognition rather than on
consciousness.
Tenzin Wangdi
8th Yr. NNI

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versal brotherhood then the world will definitely


cool down, opening the door of lasting peace and
happiness. Hence, I think the religious harmony is
imperative in maintaining global peace and happiness.

2013

any partiality, as each of them has a definite purpose meant for a particular group with a common
karmic vision. According to the Buddhism condemning other religions is considered a violation
of vows. So even if we are not able to respect other
religions, let us at least refrain from criticizing
them. As it is said; Even if you cant help others, at
least do not harm others. As living Buddha, H.H.
Dalai Lama commits thus: Till my death, I promise to promote human values and maintain religious
harmony. Let us all follow his golden words to
make our Mother Earth a better place for tomorrow.

How can we accomplish this?


To accomplish this goal, we need not do
anything extraordinary; the only thing we have to
understand is the cause of the religious disharmony. As a matter of fact, the root of all such undesirable circumstances lies right within oneself, that
is ego, the grasping at I as an omnipotent entity.
Once you have this dreadful notion then the concept of I and you, mine and yours, ours and theirs,
and we and they - very basis for every disharmony
emerge. As one considers oneself and things related to one as important, he will definitely forget
the wellbeing of others. So, here we can apply a
simple logical method of minimizing importance
of self, as the 14th Dalai Lama, the great leader
of peace and happiness always asserts - As I desire
happiness, so does every sentient being and as I do not
desire suffering, no being desires to suffer. With this
simple, truthful and logical notion, I think we can
make great difference in our perception of other
beings. This will ultimately lead to universal peace
and harmony.
Though the nations of the world are constituted with different forms of faiths, we are all
basically seeking the very goal of peace and happiness. This peace and happiness do not come
from anywhere else, there is no question of gods
or demons, but it solely depends upon the sort
of atmosphere that we human beings create while
dwelling in this world. If the cause is good, then
the fruit it bears will be wholesome and beneficial while bad cause bear unwholesome outcomes.
As the Newtons third law states; To every action,
there is an equal and opposite reaction. We can
achieve global religious harmony to improve the
wellbeing of all sentient beings by broadening our
understanding of the essence or the primary motive of all religions and finding a way to apply this
in practical action.
Finally to draw towards the conclusion it
is very important to revere every faith without

Cheki Dorji
6th Yr. NNI

An inexhaustible
cycle of cause and
effect
What causes us to be born in the higher or
lower realms? This depends on the good and bad
actions that we have accumulated. In fact, Samsara itself is produced by our own actions. There is
nothing else that delivers us to the higher realms
or to the lower realms. Anything good or bad we
have experienced or are facing at the moment is
the inevitable consequence of our past actions,
and the kind of future we expect truly depends on
our present actions.
Why have we taken birth in this human
realm? Why are all humans not equal in terms of
mentality, wealth, looks and so forth? Why do
rich people get richer and the poor remain poor in
spite of making the same effort? Ask these questions to yourself and analyze them time and again.
Our own karmic actions and their consequences
lead to the conclusion that every individual must
bear the fruit of his or her own past deeds, irrespective of whether they were good or bad.
In this context the Sutra of Employing Mindfulness says:
It is possible for the fire to change its nature and
become cold;

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scream but to his dismay, he found that he couldnt


scream at all. He felt severe pain in his mouth,
he tried to speak but all in vain. The frightened
farmer opened his mouth to look in a mirror and
to his amazement he saw half of his tongue already
cut off. He lost his ability to speak thereafter. He
consulted many great doctors, but nobody could
help him. The helpless farmer then remembered
the incident of many years back when he ruthlessly sliced off the tongue of the innocent dog.
He regretted his mindless act towards the helpless
dog and he also realized that he was paying for his
own misdeed.

It is possible for the wind to be caught and be bound


by a lasso;
It is possible for the sun and moon to fall on the
ground;
But the fruits of past actions are infallible.
The law of cause and effect basically tells us
that the pain and pleasure we experience today are
the result of past deeds. The inevitable law of cause
and effect is unavoidable, just as a shooter cannot
control his arrow after it has been shot.
In order to comprehend the essence of
cause and effect, I would like to relate a story of a
man and his cruelty:
Once there lived a farmer who was very
cruel and ill-tempered. He owned a poultry farm,
where he raised as many as hundreds of chickens,
usually selling them in the meat markets and to
the hotels. One day as he went around checking
his farm, he found a dog had entered his chicken
house and killed one of his chickens. Seeing this,
the farmer became very angry and dragged the dog
outside. He became so furious that he shouted at
the dog saying, You filthy dog, I have taken so
much trouble in raising these chickens and you
have come to steal themhuh!!! With that he
took out his sharp knife and said, I am not going
to kill you but I will slice off your tongue. Lets
see if you ever dare to eat my chickens again.
The dog seemed to look sorry, he bowed his head
down and cried softly for mercy but the cruel
farmer grabbed the dog by the neck and brutally
sliced off its tongue.
Many years passed after this brutal incident and one day the farmer received an invitation from his relatives saying he must attend the
marriage ceremony of his nephew. The next day,
he got on a bus and left for the wedding. On the
way the bus slipped off the road and fell into a
river, where many passengers died while some survived with severe injuries. The farmer was among
the survivors but he was severely wounded too.
When he woke up he found himself lying on one
of the beds in the hospital, but he couldnt understand what was happening. His memory was
lost for sometime but slowly everything started to
reappear in his mind. He remembered the journey
by bus and the clear image of that tragic incident
which nearly took his life. Out of fear he tried to

With this story I shall pause here by quoting a


saying:
As you sow, so shall you reap.
Similarly, Lord Buddha once said:
Even after a hundred eons
Sentient beings actions are never lost.
When the conditions come together
Their fruits will fully ripen.
Therefore one must be very cautious in
considering ones own actions. It is said that you
will not be exempted from even for a slightest
negative act without experiencing its grave consequences in the future. So as much as possible, try
not to commit even a single unwholesome deed
and try to develop a firm faith in the law of cause
and effect.
Nyima Wangdi
8th Yr. NNI

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THE SOUND OF MY
VIBRATING SOUL

Peerless master! I offer you my three doors;


With your compassionate wisdom
Please stare, gaze and behold
To enlighten me.

But I can see you in person nowhere.


Cant you feel the ominous whispers
Of a broken and destitute soul
Weeping tears in solitude.
Alas! Grant us the greatest blessing.

Rinpoche! Im calling from afar


But from the pith of my heart.
Im here in thy paradise
But nowhere could I see thee.

Though beauteous birds chirp and hover blissfully,


And pious cripples circumambulate diligently,
Still your elegant palace looks impaired;
So emerge soon to replenish what is incomplete.

Drawing a portrait in the core of my heart


To mine my deep enthusiasm;
Guide my spirit to luminosity
And tune my thought with thy blessings.

On whom can I rely the most,


If compassionate ones like you delay?
Who will lighten the dire sufferings,
If the sun of your wisdom sets?

Oh! Come once in my gleaming dream


And bestow thy heart teachings.
Tears roll down and my heart sinks,
Ah! How gloomy are the days without you!

For the tremendous steps youve made,


For insane and ignorant beings like me,
Your kindness is beyond limitation to repay.
Oh Rinpoche! Behold me until the pristine state
of my mind is reached.

I seek and strive to blaze so much in life,


Nevertheless, certainty is that you are always by
me;
Oh Guru! Descend, instruct and guide me.
I thirst to listen to your eloquent teachings.
Always I remember your noble words,
But barely can I see you anywhere.
I feel your compassion everywhere,

Kunzang Dorji
3rd Yr. NNI

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THE CREMATION CEREMONY OF THE HOLY BODY


OF LATE HIS HOLINESS PENOR RINPOCHE AT
NAMDROLING MONASTERY

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On 17th May, 2013, at around 5 p.m. His


Eminence Gyangkhang Thubten Thrinley Palzang
and his retinue were welcomed, with a grand reception headed by the faculty of the Monastery
along with the monks and nuns. Rinpoche was
led into the great Temple, where he sat on the
fearless lion throne. Then the mandala was offered
to Rinpoche, while the Sangha body chanted the
prayers of auspiciousness.
On the same day, His Eminence Sungtul
Rinpoche of Bhutan, and his retinue arrived here.
On 18th May, at 10 a.m, His Holiness Karma
Kuchen, the 12th Throne Holder of Palyul lineage
arrived at Namdroling Monastery, the second seat
of the Palyul Lineage of the Ngagyur Nyingma
Tradition. On 20th May, at 3.30 in the morning,
Domang Yangthang Rinpoche arrived. On that
same day, at 8 p.m, His Holiness Dilgo Kyentse
Yangsi Rinpoche was received with a grand reception.
Following the wishes and guidance of
great masters of the Nyingma Lineages, the general administration office of Namdroling formally
announced the programme of the cremation ceremony of His Holiness Penor Rinpoches holy
body a year ago. On 20th May, 2013, corresponding to the 10th day of the 4th Tibetan month, the

2013

Khenpos, Tulkus, Lopons, and the assemblage


of Namdroling and many devotees from far and
wide performed the elaborate feast offering according to the rites of Lama Rigzin Duepa. H.E.
Gyangkhang Thubten Thrinley Palzang Rinpoche
presided over the ceremony.
On 21st and 22nd May, 2013, according to the recommendations from His Holiness
Jadral Rinpoche and His Holiness Dodrupchen
Rinpoche, the Neten Chagchoe (Venerating
Prayer to the sixteen Arhats) and the Seven-chaptered Prayer to Guru Rinpoche were chanted. In
the morning of 22nd May, 2013, Khenchen Tsewang Gyatso read out the programmes of Kudung Zhugbul (cremation ceremony of the holy
body), finalized by the faculty members of Namdroling Monastery. On that day, at 11 a.m, His
Holiness Minling Khenchen Rinpoche, Khochim
Rinpoche, and Rigo Tulku Rinpoche arrived. At
around 3.50 p.m, His Holiness Taglung Tsetul
Rinpoche, the sixth Supreme head of Ngagyur
Nyingma Lineages, along with his retinue were
received with the ceremonial procession by the
assemblage of the Namdroling Monastery, joined
by many devotees from far and wide. Then, in the
Golden Temple, the mandala of body, speech, and
mind were offered, while the assemblage of monks

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other lineages of Tibetan Buddhism; the representatives from Bhutan and Nepal governments;
the Religion Minister of the Tibetan government
in exile, Kalyon Pema Chejor; the vice president
of the Tibetan peoples representative, Khenpo
Sonam Tenphel; Indo-Tibetan Friendship Associations ex-member, Gyari Lodroe Gyaltshen;
former Religion minister, Tshering Phuntsho;
devotees from India, Nepal and Bhutan; disciples
of late His Holiness from USA, Taiwan, and other parts of the world; lamas and sponsors of the
dharma centres from abroad; and Tibetans from
the nearby settlements gathered around the four
directions of the Cremation Stupa to pay their
humble tribute and seek blessings from the holy
body. Nearly 20,000 devotees from far and wide
came to witness the cremation ritual.
At around eight in the morning, guided by
the faculty members of Namdroling Monastery,
the holy body of His Holiness Penor Rinpoche,
which was kept in the Zangdog Palri Temple,
was carried out to the cremation stupa, with the
chanting of this prayer: Wake up, Padmasambhava and retinues of dakinis, by the lead chanter,
along with incense, Tibetan trumpets, canopy,
victory banner and a variety of offering materials;
dakas and dakinis, in procession received it with a
grand ceremonial reception. Then, His Holiness
Karma Kuchen Rinpoche took out the Five Buddhas Crown (Rig-nga) from the Kudung, which
was adorned with the Sambhogakayas ornament,
and placed it in the Cremation Stupa. Subsequently, the great masters of Dharma lineages and
the great leaders offered ceremonial scarves to the
holy body. And then, those who were assigned
to perform the cremation ritual conducted the
short rituals for the veneration of the Guru (Lama
Choepa), and received the Four Initiations from
the holy body. After that the actual ritual of cremation took place from the four directions.
The offering of ritual substances, recitation
of the required numbers of mantras, and supplications were made to the worldly fire deities and
the wisdom-fire deities. In the end, a thanksgiving feast was offered to these deities, and thus
concluded the cremation ritual. In the afternoon,
those conducting the ceremonies assembled in
their respective venues, where they concluded
their morning rituals.

and nuns chanted the prayer of Auspiciousness,


venerating ritual to the Sixteen Arhats, Oration to
Delight the Dharma King and Auspicious Words
of Aspirations.

The actual events


on the Kudung
Zhugbul Day
On 23rd May, 2013, the actual day of Kudung Zhugbul, at 5 o clock in the morning, the
monks who were assigned to conduct the rituals
under the four vajra masters were assembled in the
respective halls. Those who were assigned to carry
out the cremation ritual from the eastern direction, at Crematorium, assembled in the Zangdog
Palri Temple, where His Holiness Taglung Tsetul
Rinpoche presided over the rituals of Jangter
Thugje Kundrel, discovered by Rigdzin Goedem.
The ritual was attended by the lead chanter from
Mindroling Monastery, and more than thirty
monks of Namdroling. Similarly, those who were
assigned to carry out cremation ritual from the
Southern direction at Crematorium, assembled in
the Kilaya Temple, and conducted the Minling
Dorsem, revealed by Terdag Lingpa, under the vajra masters His Holiness Kyentse Yangsi Rinpoche
and His Holiness Karma Kuchen Rinpoche with
more than thirty monks. Those who were assigned to carry out the cremation ritual from the
Western and the Northern directions at Crematorium, assembled in the Tara Temple and the
NNIs congregation hall with thirty monks each,
and performed the Rigzin Palchen Duepa and
Ngonsong Jongwa (the ritual for Purifying the
Lower Realms) respectively. They were led by vajra masters H.E. Gyangkhang Thubten Thrinley
Palzang Rinpoche and H.E. Domang Yangthang
Rinpoche. Thus, they conducted their respective
rituals until the Tshog-lhag (feast residual), and
proceeded to the cremation stupa.
At seven in the morning, led by the special
invitee, His Holiness Taglung Tsetul Rinpoche;
other eminent lamas; great masters and representatives from Nyingmapa monasteries; two
Khenchens from Serje and Sermey with their
monks; the monks, nuns and lay practitioners
from Drigung Kagyud, Karma Kagyud, Sakya and

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On 25th May, 2013, led by His Eminence


Gyangkhang Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche and His
Eminence Domang Yangthang Rinpoche, the assemblage conducted 100,000 accumulations of
feast offerings with the ritual of the Essence of the
Supreme Jewels, discovered by Jatshon Nyingpo.
That day, in the morning, His Holiness Kyentse
Yangsi Rinpoche and his retinue left Namdroling,
with Khenchen Padma Sherab and others accompanying Rinpoche up to the Bangalore International Airport.
On 26th May, 2013, in the morning, the
assemblage chanted the Venerating Prayer to the
sixteen Arhats; the prayer to entreat compassionate pledges of Guru Rinpoche; and so on. Headed
by His Holiness Karma Kuchen Rinpoche and His
Eminence Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche, the faculty
of Namdroling and the standing committee of different divisions of Namdroling gathered together,
chanted the prayer of Auspiciousness, and with
sweet incense and dharma trumpets carried the
remains of heart, tongue, eyes, skull, bones, ashes,
etc to the Golden Temple. Then, from 9.30 in the
morning, led by the vajra masters, His Eminence
Gyangkhang Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche and His
Eminence Domang Yangthang Rinpoche, the assemblage conducted the Rue-drub (bone sadhana) according to the rites of Minling Dorsem,
while the Hundred Syllable Mantra of Vajrasattva was chanted many times. Later, these holy
bones were taken to the Tara Temple and made
into Tsha-tsha. On 31st May, 2013, presided over
by His Holiness Gyangkhang Tulku Thubzang
Rinpoche, the assemblage of Namdroling performed the Tsha-drub according to the rites of
Minling Dorsem. Thus, all the post-cremation
events ended successfully.

From 3 p.m, the assemblage of monks,


nuns, lay practitioners and devotees chanted
the Venerating Prayer to the sixteen Arhats; the
prayer to entreat compassionate pledges of Guru
Rinpoche; and so on. For next three days and
nights, from 23rd May to 25th May, led by one of
the vajra masters, more than thirty monks and
thirty nuns took turns in performing the extensive
offering with the ritual for venerating the Guru
(Namchoe Lama Chepa).
On the final day, in the evening, for longevity and for the wide spread of his spiritual activities throughout the world, the family of Namdroling Monastery offered auspicious substances
like statues, scriptures and stupa, along with an
extensive thanksgiving service.
According to the arrival list kept by the
Kudung Zhugbul Committee, there were 920
visitors from West, Taiwan and so forth. Similarly,
300 people came from Bhutan, 200 from Nepal
and 130 from India. Led by the Khenpos, Tulkus
and Lamas of Palyul Jangchub Dargyeling Monastery, about 30 devotees from Tibet attended the
historic event in Namdroling Monastery.

Post-CREMATION events
On 24th May, 2013, presided over by His
Eminence Domang Yangthang Rinpoche, the assemblage of Namdroling Monastery chanted the
Venerating Prayer to the Sixteen Arhats; the prayer
to entreat the compassionate pledges of Guru
Rinpoche; the supplication for the swift rebirth of
His Holiness and so on. That morning, His Holiness Taglung Tsetul Rinpoche left Namdroling
having completed his spiritual activities here.

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Empowerment by His eminence Gyangkhang


Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche

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From 27th to 30th May, 2013, in


the morning, the assemblage chanted
the Venerating Prayer to the Sixteen Arhats; the prayer to entreat compassionate
pledges of Guru Rinpoche; the Sevenchaptered Prayer to Guru Rinpoche, and
so on.
From 3 p.m, as requested by
the faculty members of Namdroling
Monastery, His Eminence Gyangkhang
Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche bestowed
the empowerments of Minling Dorsem, Jampal
Dorje Nonpo, Kunzang Den-gyi Thrinley, Dolma Rig-nga, Dolma Yidzhin Khorlo Tsewang,
and Phurpa Bum-ngag, upon the His Eminence
Domang Yangthang Rinpoche, Khentul Gyangkhang Rinpoche, Mugsang Kuchen Rinpoche,
Khenchen Padma Sherab, Khenchen Tsewang
Gyatsho and around 5000 monks and nuns. His
Eminence also bestowed the oral transmission of
Dzogchen Kongshak.
On 29th May, at 3 p.m, His Eminence
compassionately bestowed the long life empowerment of Dechen Zhingdrup to the assemblage and
public. The Namdroling family offered the mandala of body, speech and mind, for the longevity
of His Eminence. The Namdroling family also of-

2013

fered a thanksgiving service to Rinpoche for his


spiritual activities.
On 1st June, 2013, His Eminence Gyangkhang Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche and his retinue
returned to Tibet. On the way, Rinpoche visited
the Tshogyal Shedrup Dargyeling Nunnery, where
His Eminence consecrated the newly constructed Retreat Centre and Temple. His Eminence
Gyangkhang Tulku Thubzang Rinpoche was accompanied to the Bangalore International Airport
by Khentul Gyangkhang Rinpoche, the president
of Namdroling; vice president, Khenchen Padma
Sherab, Vice president, Khenchen Tshewang
Gyatsho and others.

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Activities at the Namdroling Dratsang

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hoisted. In the afternoon, the empowerment of


the Accomplishment Practice was bestowed to the
monks and all other devotees who had gathered.
As initiated by His Holiness Penor
Rinpoche, the annual month long retreat began
from 18th day of the first month of the Tibetan
calendar, the 28th February, 2013. His Eminence
Gyangkhang Rinpoche, Khenchen Tsewang
Gyatso and Khenchen Padma Sherab bestowed
the teachings on Namcho Ngondro, Tsalung and
Dzogchen respectively to over three hundred devoted practitioners.
Starting from 30th day of the second month
of the Tibetan calendar, the 11th March, 2013, the
assemblage of Namdroling Monastery and faithful
followers performed the ritual of Karling Zhithro
with the extensive offerings of Lama Chodpa,
(ritual of worshipping guru) to commemorate the
parinirvana anniversary of His Holiness Padma
Norbu Rinpoche. The ritual of Minling Dorsem
was conducted by the nuns in the ground floor
of Zangdog Palri Temple. On the 11th day of the
second month of the Tibetan Calendar, the 23rd
March, 2013, the assemblage of Namdroling
Monastery performed the puja for the longevity
and accomplishment of the noble wishes of His
Holiness Jadral Rinpoche. On the 30th March, the
one month retreat ended successfully with the extensive offerings. This year, more than 211 new
monks and nuns joined the family of Namdroling.
Unlike previous years, the Kama Drubche, the Great Accomplishment Ceremony on
the Kama Teaching, began on the 8th May, 2013,
which coincides with the 29th day of the 3rd Tibetan month, one week early. This was done to enable the Kudung Zhugbul of His Holiness Penor
Rinpoche, which took place in the Vaishakha, the
fourth month of the Tibetan Calendar. On that
day, Tsa Cham (the root dance) was performed.
The Thigchog, sand Mandalas, were completed
on the 9th May and the actual accomplishment
ceremony began on the 11th and ended on the
18th May, the 8th day of the fourth month of the
Tibetan calendar. This sanctified ceremony of the
long lineage, the Kama teaching, was conducted
on seven different Mandalas: the Mandala of the
Sutra Practice of the Great Gathering, the Peaceful and Wrathful Magical Net, the Union of Bud-

On 29th January 2013, the eighteenth day


of the twelve month of the Tibetan calendar, the
monks of Namdroling Monastery conducted a
ritual of Karling Zhithro (Karma Lingpas Ritual
of Peaceful and Wrathful Deities) and made extensive offerings to commemorate the parinirvana
anniversary of Omniscient Longchen Rabjam.
The Institute monks gave a religious discourse
and engaged in debate. From 5th February, 2013,
for the duration of five days, the Gutor (religious
cake thrown on the 29th day of the twelfth month
of the Tibetan calendar to ward off evils and obstacles) ritual was started by performing the rites
of Kagyed (Eight Heruka Sadhana), Sengdong
(ritual of the lion-faced deity), Rat-phur (kilaya
of Ratna Lingpa) and Gurdrag (ritual of wrathful
Padmasambhava). The mask dance of the Gutor
along with the ritual of throwing tormas (religious
cakes) was carried out on 9th February, 2013. Karma Lingpas ritual of procuring long life was conducted on the 10th February, 2013, the thirtieth
day of the twelve month of the Tibetan calendar.
The Tibetan New Year is an eventful day
and festive eve for all Tibetans. The Tibetan New
Year is celebrated on the 1st day of the first month
of the Tibetan calendar. Likewise, in the early
morning of the 11th February, 2013, the assemblage of khenpos, trulkus, lamas, monks and nuns
gathered in the Padmasambhava Buddhist Vihara,
(the Golden Temple) where prayers of auspiciousness and other sacred prayers were chanted followed by the offering of ceremonial scarf to the
indestructible golden throne of His Holiness
Penor Rinpoche. Then Khenpos, lamas, lopons,
monks, nuns and faithful people made supplications before the holy body of His Holiness Padma
Norbu Rinpoche, which was previously preserved
in the Nirmanakayas mansion of Zangdog Palri
Temple.
On 18th February, 2013, the annual weeklong Accomplishment Practice on Konchog Chidue (the Essence of the Supreme Jewels, terma
discovered by Jatshon Nyingpo) has commenced.
On the 20th February, 2013, the ritual dance of
the eight manifestations of Guru Rinpoche was
performed and Gurus painting was also raised.
The final day, the 25th, was full of activity. Five
different great dances were performed and the
giant 180 ft painting of Buddha Amitayus was

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The regular rituals like Rigzin Dupa and


Yumka are performed during the auspicious days
like 10th and 25th day of every Tibetan month. For
the peace and prosperity in the world, and particularly for the spread of Buddha-dharma and the
longevity of living Dharma masters, the ritual of
Rath-ling Phurpa is performed daily at Namdroling, according to the noble wishes of late His Holiness Penor Rinpoche.
During the auspicious period of the Summer Retreat, around 600 monks of the Dratsang
and Monastic School, from class four and above
performed the puja of Nyingthig Solkha and
Namcho Solkha, from the 24th July to 6th August,
2013. Likewise, for the period of one month, the
rituals of Karling Zhithro, Thugchen Sangdue,
Rath-ling Tshechog and Rath-ling Phurpa were
performed. Finally, the 43-day rituals were ended
successfully with the feast offerings on the 5th September. In the February month, the monks and
nuns of Namdroling will attend the annual Nyingma Monlam Chenmo, the annual World Peace
Ceremony, at Bodhgaya.

dhas, the Yangdag Heruka, Rongzoms Version


of Vajrakilaya and the Six-faced Yamantaka. The
Mandala of the Sutra of Great Gathering was established in the main temple and the rest in other
separate temples. During the ceremony different
ritual dances were performed. These were the
Garcham, on the 16th, and Rolcham (dance with
cymbals) and Throcham (the wrathful dance), on
17th May, 2013.
The last day involved a fire ritual that was
especially significant because of the many substances offered by the local people. In the morning, the
greatest painting of Lord Buddha was displayed.
The empowerment of the Accomplishment practice was granted to all devotees in the afternoon
and in the late evening, inspirational prayers such
as Butter Lamp Prayer, Dedications and Extensive
Prayers of Auspiciousness were chanted with munificent offerings of butter lamps, flowers, spiritual hymns and the music of ritual instruments.
Likewise, the Mahakala Sadhana was conducted
from the 11th May, by many hundreds of lamas,
Tulkus and monks, in the Zangdog Palri Temple.
The ritual ended successfully with the three ferocious activities of subduing, scorching and casting
out against the enemy of dharma.
On 20th May, the 10th day of the fourth
month of the Tibetan calendar, the annual Preliminary Practice session was begun. About a hundred monks and lay people are undertaking the
six month practice. The practice is according to
the Namcho Cycle (the treasure revealed as sky
treasure by Terton Migyur Dorje, and taught to
him by Avalokiteshvara himself ). Venerable Khen
Rinpoche Tshewang Sonam, the president of
NNI, bestowed the oral transmissions. The practice is scheduled to end on the 22nd day of the 9th
Tibetan month, the Day of Lord Buddhas Descent from Heaven.
On the 7th day of the fifth Tibetan month,
the 15th June, chaired by the vice president of
Namdroling Monastery, His Eminence Khenchen
Padma Sherab, in the presence of monks and
nuns, the annual accounts of Dratsang, Monastic School, Institute and Nunnery were read out
by their individual treasurers. Khenchen also bestowed the precious advice for the welfare of this
and the next life.

News from the Ngagyur


Nyingma Institute (NNI)
On 14th March, 2013, the NNI was reopened after the winter vacation. On the 14th and
the 15th March, interviews and written tests were
conducted for more than 100 applicants from
outside and Namling Monastic Jr. High School.
The results of the annual examination
were announced on the 19th of March. On that
momentous day, His Eminence Gyangkhang
Rinpoche and the faculty of Namdroling graced
the occasion with their presence and awarded the
mark-sheets to the graduates and presents to the
class toppers. Spiritual advice was also given by
His Eminence Gyangkhang Rinpoche, Khenchen
Padma Sherab, Khenchen Namdrol and Khenchen
Tsewang Gyatso.
The three-day general puja for the welfare
of the family of NNI was successfully completed

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on the 1st April, 2013. From that day Khenchen


Padma Sherab bestowed the full ordination vow
to 72 monks, and novice vows to 125 monks and
nuns at the Vinaya Temple. The course for the
academic year started from the 27th day of the second month of the Tibetan calendar, the 7th April,
2013. The 3rd day of the 3rd Tibetan month is an
annual day of appointing staff of NNI. Accordingly, in the morning, the previous workers and
staff were discharged and new ones appointed. In
the evening, spiritual advice was given by the former faculty members of institute. The next day,
the new faculty members of NNI bestowed the
spiritual advice to the monks of the institute. Sixteen teachers from NNI are serving in the Dratsang, whereas 51 teachers are currently teaching
the monks of the Monastic Junior High School.
Likewise, 31 teachers were also appointed from
the monks of NNI to teach English, Mathematics,
rituals, etc to the young monks of the Monastic
Junior High School. This year, more than 84 able
teachers and khenpos were sent to the monasteries and Dharma Centres in India, Nepal, Bhutan,
Canada, Singapore, Switzerland and other parts of
the world.
On 24th May, 2013, the family of Ngagyur
Nyingma Institute hosted lunch to guests such

2013

as His Holiness Dilgo Kyentse Yangsi, His Eminence Thubten Palzang Rinpoche, Khenchen
Padma Sherab, Khenchen Namdrol Tshering,
Khenchen Tshewang Gyatsho, and the alumni of
this institute, including Dr. Karma Phuntsho. His
Eminence Thubten Palzang Rinpoche, Khenchen
Padma Sherab, Khenchen Namdrol Tshering and
Khenchen Tshewang Gyatsho bestowed spiritual
advice concerning the welfare of Ngagyur Nyingma Institute, and emphasised the importance of
being co-operative with each other. On the 29th
day of the fourth Tibetan month, the 7th June, the
parinirvana anniversary of Mipham Rinpoche, the
great master of Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition was
organized. On that day, the mandala of Manjushrinamasamgiti was established and colossal feast
offerings were arranged to mark the festive ceremony with the purest devotion and respect. The
historic day was presided over by Khen Rinpoche
Tshewang Sonam, the current president of NNI.
During this period, students carried out
discourses and debate competitions. Every year,
the Universal Smoke Ritual Day is celebrated on
the 15th day of the fifth month of the Tibetan calendar. This year, it fell on 23rd June. On that day,
at Betapur, the annual Universal Smoke Ritual
was performed for peace, happiness, and prosper-

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Research Centre took place on the 24th and the 25th


May. The meeting was attended by associate scholars of NNI such as Professor Dorje Wangchuk and
Dr. Karma Phuntsho. The decision to open the
research centre, to provide an opportunity to carry
out research on Buddhist philosophy in general,
and especially on the Ngagyur Nyingma, were
taken at the historic meeting. Rules and regulations were also framed for the same.

ity in the world.


During the academic sessions, the various
rituals are performed once a month as spiritual
cause for the swift rebirth of His Holiness Penor Rinpoche and the longevity of His Holiness
Jadral Rinpoche and other living masters. Regular
monthly debate competitions are held between
classes.
The annual 45-day summer retreat began
on 23rd July. More than thousand monks carried
out the retreat. During this period seminars, expositions, debates, and composition competitions
were held for the improvement of studies.
Moreover, Khen Rinpoche Tshewang
Sonam gave teachings on Paltrul Rinpoches Prajnaparamita commentary in the morning, from
7.30 to 8.30; the Astrology of Elements in the
afternoon, from 12 to 1; and Tibetan Grammar
in the evening, from 6.30 to 7.30. Likewise, Khen
Rinpoche also gave teachings on Refuge, Bodhicitta, an Elucidation on Grounds and Paths,
followed by the oral transmission of the Seven
Treasuries of Omniscient Longchen Rabjam.
As per the noble aspiration of Khenchen
Tshewang Gyatsho and under the direction of
Khen Rinpoche Tshewang Sonam, the first ever
Translation class was officially started from this
year in NNI. Around twenty enthusiastic monks
are attending class under the guidance of Khenpo
Sonam Tshewang, the ex-editor of Ngagyur Rigzod Editorial Committee. The self-study for final
exam will begin from the 23rd November, 2013.
More than one thousand monks of NNI will sit
for the annual exam which is scheduled to start
from 15th December, 2013. The first three exams
will end by 23rd December. Then the monks of
NNI will attend the teaching on Jangchub Lamrim to be bestowed by His Holiness Dalai lama,
at Sera Thegchen Ling. The remaining two exams
will be conducted on 11th and 13th January, 2014.
Thus final exam of NNI will end by 13th January,
2014.

Activities at the MONASTIC Junior High School


The students are taught Tibetan Grammar,
History of Dharma, Political History of Tibet, Nagarjunas letter to his king friend, the Thirty Seven
Stanzas of Bodhisattvas conduct, English Language, how to play ritual instruments like trumpets, flute and cymbals, hymns and tones, and
how to prepare tormas (ritual cakes). As per the
wishes of His Holiness Rinpoche, beneficial advice is given almost every month to the students.
Different types of rituals for the swift rebirth of
His Holiness are held frequently.
On 22nd March, 2013, in the presence of
Khenchen Padma Sherab and Khenchen Tshewang
Gyatsho, the examination controller declared the
Monastic Junior High Schools results. Prizes were
given for the toppers; and the certificates distributed to 87 monks who have completed class eight.
Likewise, mark sheets for the toppers and those
87 monks were handed to them. On 24th March,
the mark sheets for the rest of the students were
given. Khenchen also bestowed the advice on importance of good conduct.
In 2013, around 80 newcomers joined the
Monastic School. Under the management of 50
teachers, more than 1000 monks study the above
mentioned subjects. In order to improve Tibetan
language skills, the first Tibetan Language Test for
the academic year began from the 9th June and
ended on 13th June, 2013. The first six-month
teachings concluded on the 9th August and the
second six-month teachings began from 11th August, 2013.
On the 19th August, in the presence of the

The Decision to open A


Research Centre
As per the wishes of His Holiness Penor
Rinpoche, a meeting on the establishment of the

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principal and teachers of Monastic School, Khen


Rinpoche Tshewang Sonam, the president of
Ngagyur Nyingma Institute officially inaugurated
the new syllabus of the School. It was distributed
freely to the students of class six, seven and eight.
Students of the Nunnery School from class six
and above also received the free book. On that
occasion, the principal of Monastic School spoke
on the newly compiled text, and Khen Rinpoche
Tshewang Sonam presented prizes to those who
were involved in compiling this new book. He
also bestowed the advice on the inclusion of the
new syllabus. The annual Calligraphy exams were
conducted on 19th September. More than 48
teachers are working tirelessly for the welfare of
the Monastic School.

2013

long life of the living masters of dharma, peace


and prosperity in the world, and particularly for
the swift rebirth of His Holiness Padma Norbu
Rinpoche, the ritual of Rat-ling Tshechog, the
ritual for procuring long life, was performed successfully.
From 28th February, 2013, many nuns have
undertaken the annual month long retreat, where
His Eminence Gyangkhang Rinpoche, Khenchen
Tsewang Gyatso and Khenchen Padma Sherab
bestowed the teachings on Namcho Ngondro,
Tsalung and Dzogchen respectively to over three
hundred devoted practitioners.
On 15th April, chaired by Khenchen Padma
Sherab, Khenchen Tshewang Gyatsho, and former
principal, Khenpo Tshering Dorje, the previous
workers and staff were discharged and new ones
appointed. On 25th April, Khenchen Tshewang
Gyatsho and Khen Rinpoche Tshering Dorje bestowed the spiritual advice to the nuns. Starting
from 28th April, 2013, the eight-day rituals such
as Smoke Offering, Dharmapala petition offerings, and reciting of Kangyur texts were carried
out for the welfare of all beings, and especially for
the welfare of nuns in the nunnery. During that
period, 30 monks from Namdroling Dratshang
were invited to perform the exorcist rites.
From 11th to 18th May, with the Dugngal
Rangdrol ritual, the self-liberation of suffering,

ACTIVITIES AT THE
Nunnery
The Nunnery also has Dratsang, School
and Institute. The nuns perform monthly feast offerings according to the Nyingma tradition practised by former supreme lineage holders. This year,
around 30 new nuns have enrolled in the Nunnery. From 18th to 25th February, 2013, for the

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the eight-day sadhana was performed. A feast offering, butter lamp offering, dedication and aspiration marked the successful end of the sadhana.
This year, under the standing committee
of Nunnery headed by Khen Rinpoche Tshewang
Sonam, the Three Dharmachakras: reading, hearing and contemplation are being upheld as usual.
During the Summer Retreat, more than
100 nuns of Nunnery Dratshang performed the
rituals of Solkha, Minling Dorsem, Sengdong,
and Tshechog followed by the fasting ritual from
23rd August to 3rd September.

2013

ing in Nepal, India and Bhutan.


On the 29th day of the fourth Tibetan
month, the 7th June, 2013, the parinirvana anniversary of Mipham Rinpoche, the great master of
the Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition, was organized.
On that day, the mandala of Manjushrinamasamgiti was established and colossal feast
offerings were arranged to mark the festive ceremony with the purest devotion and respect.
All activities like carrying out the Summer Retreat
and competitions for the betterment of studies fall
on the same period like NNI. The nuns study
the same subjects and their course is of the same
duration.
Their exams will begin from 16th December, 2013 and end by the 14th January, 2014.

ACTIVITIES AT THE NUNNERY INSTITUTE (NNNI)


Reopening the Institute and announcement of results were carried out in the same day
with NNI. Nuns from Tibet, Bhutan, India, Nepal and rest of the world are studying in the Nunnery Institute, under the same rules and regulations that apply to the students at NNI. Under
the Board of Directors of NNI, Nine Khenpos
and lecturers from NNI, and 21 nuns lecturers
teach and look after the affairs of the Nunnery
Institute.
On 6th April, the courses for the new academic session started. This year, eight nuns graduated NNNI. 20 nuns lecturers are currently teach-

ACTIVITIES AT THE NUNNERY JR. HIGH SCHOOL


On the 10th day of the second month
of the Tibetan calendar, the 22nd March, 2013,
Khenchen Padma Sherab chaired the announcement of results, where prizes for the toppers and
certificates for the nuns who have completed class
eight were given. Khenchen also bestowed the advice on importance of good conduct. Nuns from
different parts of the world study in the Nunnery
School under the guidance of one each senior

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and junior principal, and around 20 teachers.


They study the same subjects as the Monastic Junior High School. There are more than 700 nuns
from Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and far and wide. The
monthly exams on Tibetan and English Subjects
are being conducted to improve their studies.

sary assistance for this project.


Accordingly, the faculty of NNI appointed
Lopon Drimed Gyaltsen, Lopon Tsewang Rigzin,
Lopon Ogyen Jampa, and Lopon Konchog Dargye, from this institute as editors. Subsequently,
the four editors attended a two-day seminar on
this project at Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh,
India. On 7th April, Khenchen Padma Sherab, in
the presence of Khenpos and Lopons, inaugurated
the International Ngagyur Nyingma Dictionary
Editorial Office, at NNI, Namdroling. Since then,
the office has organized two conferences, and the
work of compiling and editing Nyingma Dictionary is in progress.

INAUGURATION OF THE
INTERNATIONAL NYINGMA
DICTIONARY EDITORIAL
Office
Under the noble aspirations of His Holiness Dalai Lama, and the recommendation from
his private office, the great Tibetan Dictionary to
be used in the computer of the Monlam Bo-yig
Research Centre, will be compiled by the International Nyingma Dictionary Editorial Committee.
This project will be completed within nine years.
The notice on this project was sent to the spiritual
heads of all lineage holders of Tibetan Buddhism.
The proposal for this project was finalized following approval from His Holiness Taglung Tsetul
Rinpoche, the 6th supreme head of Ngagyur Nyingma Tradition.
Last year, during the Ngagyur Nyingma
Monlam Chenmo, the organizing committee of
Monlam Chenmo arranged a meeting, at Zhechen Monastery, Bodhgaya, India. It was attended
by the head of Ngagyur Nyingma Lineages, Khenpos, Tulkus and Lopons, and the following decisions were taken:

2013

THE RITUAL FOR THE


genuine REINCARNATION
OF HIS HOLINESS Penor
Rinpoche
Under the spiritual advice of His Holiness
Jadral Rinpoche and the faculty of Namdroling
Monastery, the Sangha Community and the Nuns
of Theg-chog Namdrol Shedrub Dargyeling have
performed the following rituals:
On 8th August, 2013, 100,000 times Venerating ritual to Sthavira; 100,000 times Subjugation prayer (dbang sdud gsol debs); and Lionfaced goddess Mantra (seng gdong bsnyen pa)
were chanted.
On 9th August, 2013, more than 40 lakh
times supplication to Guru Rinpoche for Clearing the Obstacles of the Path (bar chad lam sel);
followed by Seven-chaptered Prayer to Guru
Rinpoche (gsol debs leu bdun ma), and Lionfaced goddess Mantra (seng gdong bsnyen pa)
were chanted.
On 10th August, 2013, the prayer for protection (srung khor gnam lcags rdo rje thogchen
log dren klad gems), prayer to the gods and protectors (gsol kha) and Lion-faced goddess Mantra
(seng gdong bsnyen pa) were chanted successfully.

The opening of new editorial office to compile


and edit Nyingma Dictionary
The accommodation and expenditure to be
borne by the Nyingma Monlam Chenmo
International Foundation
Khenchen Padma Sherab to look after this
project
Namdroling Monastery to take the chief
responsibility
Other institutes and monasteries of Nyingma
Lineages to co-operate and provide the neces-

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2013

THE VISIT BY H.H. DALAI LAMA, THE SPIRITUAL


HEAD OF TIBETAN Buddhism

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On 11th June, 2013, corresponding to the


3 day of the fifth Tibetan month, at 8.30 IST in
the morning, His Holiness Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism was received here,
the second seat of Gyalwa Palyul, Thegchog Namdrol Shedrup Dargyeling with a grand reception

2013

headed by H.E. Khentul Gyangkhang Rinpoche,


Khenchen Namdrol along with the monks and
nuns of Namdroling. There were also many devoted people from the nearby Tibetan Settlement.
His Holiness was led into the great Temple,
the Ugyen Dongag Shedrup Wodsel Dargyeling,

rd

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where he sat on the fearless lion throne. Then His


Eminence Khentul Gyangkhang Rinpoche offered
the mandala to His Holiness while the assemblage
chanted the Prayers of Auspiciousness. Sweet rice
and tea were served to the guests and assemblage.
On that special occasion, His Holiness graced the
22nd issue of the Padmai Rangdang, compiled and
edited by the Ngagyur Rigzod Editorial Committee. Subsequently, it was distributed to over 130
guests. His Holiness compassionately bestowed
the spiritual advice concerning the significant of
vinaya vows. With his advice, His Holiness also
remembered and paid tribute to the noble activities of late His Holiness Penor Rinpoche.
Then, His Holiness was invited to the
NNIs Temple, where Rinpoche bestowed the full
ordination vow to over seventy monks of Namdroling and others. At the end, His Holiness gave
advice on the significant of protecting the vinaya
vows. His Holiness and his retinue stayed at Namdroling for a night.
On 12th June, 2013, at around 6 IST in
the morning, after granting audience to the faculty and staff, His Holiness Dalai Lama left NNI
having completed his spiritual activities at Namdroling Monastery.

2013

ducted the following trainings for the editors


based in Bhutan, Nepal and India:
The month-long travel started from the
13-07-2013 and ended on 13-8-2013. On 17th
July, 2013, organized by the Ati-Ling Foundation,
in Thimphu, Bhutan, nine editors from Ati-Ling,
Nyima Lung, Tharpa Ling, Kharchu Monastery,
Rangjung Wodsal Choeling, Dorje Ling Monastery and Gangteng Sangag Choeling attended the
training. The editor from Tamzhing Monastery
could not attend the training.
On 27th July, 2013, organized by the Gonjang Monastery, in Sikkim, India, nine editors
from Gonjang Monastery, Sangag Rabten Ling
and Choten Gonpa attended the training. The
editor from Drejong Nyingma Institute could not
attend the training.
On 29th of that same month, organized
by the Zhechen Monastery, in Nepal, 21 editors
from Zhechen Monastery, Rinchen Palri Monastery, Samye Jedren, Kanying Shedrup Ling,
Neydo Chagme Monastery, Palyul Ogyen Dorje
Choeling, Tshognyi Gechag Ling, Rigon Tashi
Choeling and Zarong Thubten Choeling Monastery were trained. However, editor from Khentsun
Monastery could not attend the training.
On 7th August, 2013, in Dharamsala, organized by the Shugseb Nunnery, nine editors from
Shugseb Nunnery and Bir Palyul Chokhor Ling
Monastery attended the training.
On 9th August, 2013, In Dehradun, organized by the Mindroling Monastery, 52 teachers
and students attended the training.

Rigzod Editors

THE REPORT of the


training conducted
by Namdroling based
International Nyingma
Dictionary Editorial
Committee

Rigzod Editors
(Source: International Nyingma Dictionary Editors)

Realizing the great need of training the Nyingma Dictionary editors based in the various regions, one of the editors planned to travel for this
purpose. After consulting the director, Khenchen
Padma Sherab through Khenpo Sonam Tsewang,
and informing Khen Rinpoche Tshewang Sonam
about this matter, Lopon Drimed Gyaltsen con-

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Darthang Dongag Shedrub Chokhor


(Prosperous Land of Study and practice of Sutra and Tantra teachings) is one of the most
prominent branch monasteries of Palyul Tradition in Tibet. It was established by the second
Karma Kuchen Rinpoche, Karma Gyurmed
Ngedon Tenzin, (1794-1851) the sixth throne
holder of Palyul Namgyal Jangchub Choling
in 1850 A.D. Currently, it is administered by
H.E. the third Palyul Lhatrul Garwang Nyima
and there are more than one thousand monks
residing in the monastery.
We, the members of Ngagyur Rigzod Editorial Committee would like to express our
heartiest gratitude to Darthang Chogtrul Rinpoche and all the Palyul Darthang Dharma Centers
in Taiwan, for generously sponsoring the 6th issue of Palyul Times. May Rinpoches enlightened
activities pervade throughout the world, and may all the disciples of Rinpoche at Palyul Darthang Dharma Centers in Taiwan fulfill their every wish in accordance with the dharma!

ABOUT THE RIGZOD EDITORIAL COMMITTEE


Since the inception of the Editorial Committee in 1991 it has compiled 68 books of
biographies, stories, memorandums, introductions, histories, poems and so forth. In particular, it has been publishing the biannual Tibetan literary journal Padmai Rangdang Magazine
since 25th October 2002, which contains biographies, advice of great masters, literal translations, analytic compositions and so forth. In addition, since 2008 we have been publishing
annual English literary journal Palyul Times in accordance with noble wishes and guidance
of H.H. Penor Rinpoche and Khenchen Tsewang Gyatso. With continuous guidance and
support from Khenchen Tsewang Gyatso, we are able to publish its sixth issue and we hope to
publish it yearly.