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COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE

MMOIRES,
PLAIDOIRIES ET DOCUMEhTS

AFFAIRE RELATIVE
DES ACTIONS ARMES FRONTALIRES
ET TRANSFRONTALIRES
(NICARACiUA c. HONDURAS)
VOLUME 1
Requte: mmoire; contre-mmoire

INTERNATIORAL COURT OF JUSTICE

PLEADINGS. ORAL ARGUMENTS, DOCUMENTS

CASE CONCERNING
BORDER AND TRANSBORDER
ARMED ACTIONS
(NICARAGUA v. HONDURAS)
VOLUME 1
Application; Memorial; Counter-Mernorial

Rfrence abrge:
C I J . Mmoires. Acrions armes frontalires er rrirn.sfronr~r1ii.re.s
(Nicurrrgrra c. Honduras). vol. 1

Abbreviated reference:
I.C.J. Pleadings, Border and Transborder Artfred Acriotrs
(Nicaragiiri v. Hondrrras), Vol. 1

W " vente:
Sales numher

6-0

AFFAIRE RELATIVE
DES ACTIONS ARMES F R O N T A L I ~ R E S
ET TRANSFRONTALIRES(NICARAGUA c. HONDURAS)
CASE CONCERNING
BORDER AND TRANSBORDER ARMED ACTIONS
(NICARAGUA v. HONDURAS)

COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE

MMOIRES. PLAIDOIRIES ET DOCUMENTS

AFFAIRE RELATIVE
DES ACTIONS ARMES FRONTALIRES
ET TRANSFRONTALIRES
( N I C A R A G U A c. H O N D U R A S )
VOLUME 1
Requte; mmoire; contre-iiinioirc

INTERNATIONAL COUKT OF JUSTICE

PLEADINGS, ORAL ARGUMENTS, DOCUMENTS

CASE CONCERNING
BORDER AND TRANSBORDER
ARMED ACTIONS
( N I C A R A G U A v. H O N D U R A S )
VOLUME 1
Application; Mernorial; Counter-Memorial

L'affaire relative des Actions armes frontalires el fransfrorrtiilires (Nicoragtra c. Honduras), inscrite au rle gnral de la Cour sous le numro 74
le 28 juillet 1986. a fait l'objet d'un arrt rendu le 20 dcembre 1988 portant sur
la comptence de la Cour et la recevabilit de la requte (Acfions armes
fronrnlires et rransfron~alires (Nicaragr~ac. Ho~rd~rras),
comptence et recevabilit, arrt, C I J . Reci'eil 1988, p. 69). A la suite du dsistement du gouverne-

ment demandeur, elle a t rayke du rle par ordonnance de la Cour du 27 mai


1992 (Actions artnes fror~talireset rranrfrontitlires (Nicaragiin c. Hundr~ras),
ordorinance du 27 mai 1992, C.I.J. Rec~ieil1992, p. 222).
Les pices de procdure crite et les plaidoiries relatives cette affaire
sont publies dans l'ordre suivant:
Volume 1. Requte introductive d'instance du Nicaragua; mmoire du Honduras; contre-mmoire du Nicararua;
demande en indication de mesures
conservatoires du Nicaragua.
Volume II. Procdure orale; documents prsents A la Cour aprs la fin de la
procedure crite; correspondance.
Dans les rfrences, les chiffres romains gras indiquent les volunies de la
nrsente dition. La oaeinatiort et les renvois des oices de procdure et des
comptes rendus des iugences ont t modifis en'consqunce.
Ni la typographie ni la prsentation ne sauraient tre utilises aux fins de
l'interprtation des textes reproduits.

The case concerning Border and Transborder Armed Actions (Nicaragua


v. Ilondurus), which was entered on the Court's General List on 28 July 1986
under Number 74, was the subject of a Judgment delivered on 20 December 1988 concerning the jurisdiction of the Court and the admissibility of
the Application (Border and Transborder Armed Acfions (Nicarngtin v. Hondtrras), Jurisdicfion and Adr~~issibility,
Jirdgment, I.C.J. Reporrs 1988, p. 69).
Following discontinuance by the Applicant Government. the case was removed from the list by an Order of the Court of 27 May 1992 (Border and
Transborder A r n ~ e dAcfions (h'icaragtia v. Honduras), Order of 27 May 1992,
I.C.J. Reports 1992, p. 222).
The pleadings and oral arguments in the case are being published in the
following order:
Volume 1. Application instituting proceedings of Nicaragua: Memonal of
Honduras; Counter-Memorial of Nicaragua; request for the indication of
provisional measures of Nicaragua.
Volume II. Oral Arguments; Documents submitted to the Court after the
closure of the written proceedings; Correspondence.
In infernal referenccs. bold Roman numerals are used to refer to Volumes
and the cross-references in the pleadings and
of this edition. The
in the verbatim records of the hearings have been altered consequently.
Ncither the typography nor the presentation may be used for the purpose
of interpreting the texts reproduced.

TABLE DES M A T I K E S -CONTENTS


Requte introductive d'instance prtsente par le Gouvernement d u
Application lnstituting Priiceedings Suhmitted by the
Nicaragua
Government of Nicaragua

1. STATEMENT OF FACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II. LEGALGROUNDS O N WHICH TtIE Cl.r\lM IS BASED . . . . .
1. Brcaches of the Charler of Ihc United Nations . . . . . .
2. Brcaches of the Charter of the Organization of Amcrican
st;itcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Breachs i ~ the
f
American Trc;iiy I i ~ rthe Pcaccful Scttlcmcnt [of
Disputs] (Pact of Bogoti) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Brcaches of the obligatir~n<if customary international law not Lu
iniervcne in the affairs of another State . . . . . . . . .
5 . Brcaches of the obligation of customary international law no1 to
use force aeainst another Siatc . . . . . . . . . . . .

kill. wound or kidnai the citizcns of oiher States . .


111. 'SHE NATURE OF THE CLAIM. . . . . . . . . .
Mtmoire du Honduras (cnmptteiice et recevabilit) - Memiirial i)f
Honduras (Jurisdiction and Admissibility)
INTRODUClION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PART 1. THE BACKGROUND
OF THE DISPUTE . . . . . . . . .
Chapicr 1. The present dispui as part of the general conflict i n
Central America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 1. The causes of the conflici in Central America . . .
Section II. Thc position of Honduras in the Central Amcrican
conflici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section III. The peaceful settlcmcnt of disputes within the framcwork of the O A S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section IV. Thc efforts to achieve pc;iccful settlcmcnt of the conflict: froin bilateral to multilatcral procedures . . . . . .
Scciion V. The Contadora ncgotiaiions as a "special procedure"
wiihin the meaning of Article I I of thc Pact of Bogota . . . .
Sction VI. Nicaraguan responsibililics for blocking the Contsdora process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter II. Analysis of the Nicaraguan Application . . . . . .
Section 1. Artificiality of the Application . . . . . . . . .
Section II. Vagueness of the Application . . . . . . . . .
Scction III. Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . .

PARTII. THE QUESTION


OFTHE COMPETENCE OFTHE COURT . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter III. Objections to the admissibility of the dispute . , . .
Section 1. The requirement that, in the opinion of the parties, the
dispute cannot bc scttled by direct negotiations
. . . . .
Section II. Thc obligation on parties, having opted for a "special
procediire" for the settlement of any controversy, not to commence any oitier procedure until that "special procedure" has
been concluded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter IV. Objections to the jurisdiction of the Court . . . . .
Section 1. The Statute of the Court . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Article 36, paragraph 2, of the Statute of the Court and the
dcclarations made thereunder by Honduras and Nicaragua
1. The position of Honduras . . . . . . . . . . .
2. The position of Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . .
3. The effect of the reservations made by Nicaragua and
Honduras to the jurisdiction of the Court . . . . .
(ci)
Nicaragua's "reservation" . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Reservations of Honduras
. . . . . . . . .
(i) The reservation of "disputes relating to facts or
situations originating in armed conflicts or acts
of a similar nature which mav affect the- terri~-~~~
ter) of the Hepublic ui ticmJ"r:is. and i n which
11 mtiy find it\elf in\olved directlv ur indirectls '
(para: 2 (c) of the declaration)
. . . . . .
(ii) The reservation of "disputes in rcspeci of
which the parties have agreed or may agree to
resort to other means for the pacific settlement
of disputes" (para. 2 (a) of the declaration) . .
B. Article 36, paragraph 1, of the Statute of the Court and its
relation to the Pact of Bogoti . . . . . . . . . . .
~

Section II. The system of the Pact of Bogoti


A. Articulation of the regional system and of the general system for the settlement of disputes . . . . . . . . .
B. The general spirit and the ultimaie purpose of the Pact of
Bogoti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Examination of the relevant provisions of the Pact of Bogota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Articles II and IV of the Pact of Bogota . . . . . .
2. Situation of Article XXXI within Chapter IV of the Pact
of Bogoti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. The effect of reservations in the context of the alternative
analysis of Article XXXI of the Pact . . . . . . . .
I . The cllcct <,f rcwrvstions t,o Jecl:~r;tti<~ns
sonccriiing
Art~clc36. p:ir;tgr:iph 2. ,if the St3tute of the Court . .
? FIfcct ( i f rcicr\,:itiuns cunccrning ihc Pact of bugut2 . .

3. Examinaiion of the intention of Honduras in the present

case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUBMISSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anriexes ro rhe Mernorial of Ilonduras
A. Regional negotiations among Central American States
Annex 1. Resolution I I approved by the XVllth Meeting of Consiiltalion of Ministers of Foreign Relations of the Organization of
American States (OAS), 23 June 1979 . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 2. Guasaule Declaration. joint communiqu issued by His
Excellency the President of the Republic of Honduras, General
Policarpo Paz Garcia, and the Co-ordinator of the National Reconstruction Governing Junta of Nicaragua, Commander in the
Revolution Daniel Ortega Saavedra, as a result of their meeting
on 13 May 1981 at the frontier station of El Guasaule, Nicaragua,
13 May 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex S. Plan of the Government of Honduras to internationalize
peace in Central America; Address by the Minister of Foreign
Relations of Honduras I o the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States (OAS), 23 March 1982 (excerpts) . .
Annex 4. Note of the Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras to
the Minister of Foreign Relations of Nicaragua, 23 April 1982 . .
Annex 5. Note of the Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras to
the Minister of Foreign Relations of Nicaragua, 14 May 1982 . .
Annex 6. Final Act of the Meetine of Ministers for Foreien Relalions of Countries lnterested in the Furthering of Democracy in
Central America and the Caribbean, Points 1, II and 111, 4 October 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anne.r 7 Note [rom the Permanent Mission of Honduras transcribing the text of the invitation that the Minister of Foreign Affairs
of Honduras sent to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nicaragua
to visit the border zone between the two countries, 22 February
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex K. Report of the Minister for Foreign Relations to the National Coneress
of Honduras dated 15 June 1983 ( e x c e r ~ t ) . .
a
Annex 9. Declaration of Contadora Island by the ~in;sters ifForeign
Relations of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela, 9 January 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex IO. Draft resolution presented by the Permanent Mission of
Honduras at the special meeting of the Permanent Council of the
Organization of Americaii States held on 5 April 1983 . . . .
Annex I I . Informative Bulletin of the Contadora Group, 21 April
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 12. Statement by the Permanent Representative of Honduras
io the Permanent Council of the OAS relating to threats to Central
American peace and security on 14 July 1983. . . . . . . .
Annex 13. Cancun Declaration on Peace in Central America, Declaration by the Presidents of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela (United Nations document Sl15877, Annex). Cancun,
17 July 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

~~~

~~

XII

TABLE DES

MATIERES - CONTENTS

Annex 14. Speech of 19 July 1983 by Commander Daniel Ortega


Saavedra. Co-ordinalor of the National Reconstruction Governing Junta of Nicaragua, La Trihrina. Tegucigalpa, 22 July 1983
(excerpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antrex 15. Press release of the Ministers of Foreign Relatins of the
Contadora Groiip and of the Central American Countrics. 30 July
1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anrirr 16. "Docunient of Objectives" issued by the Joint Meeting of
Ministers of Foreign Relations of the Contadora Group and of the
Central American Countries (United Nations document Sl16041.
Annex). 9 September 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ar~nex17. Measures to be taken to fulfil the commitments cntered
into in the Document of Objectives by the Joint Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Relations of the Contadora Group and the Central
American Countries (United Nations document Al39171. S116262.
Appendix), 8 January 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anrlex 18. Lettre, en date du 1" mai 1984, adresse au Secrtaire
gnral de l'Organisation dcs Nations Unies par la reprEsent;inte
du Panama. Annexe: Bulletin d'information publi Panama le
1" mai 1984 par les ministres des relations extrieures dcs pays
membres du groupe de Contadora et des pays d'Amrique centrale (Nations Unies. doc. Sl16522). 1" mai 1984 . . . . .. .
Atrtiex 19. Note from the Contadora c r o u p to the Permanent Council of the Organization of Americzin States, enclosing for distribution the second version of the .'Contadora Act for feace and Cooperation in Central Amcrica" of 7 September 1984. OEAISER.
GICPllnf. 2222134.24 October 1984 . . . . . . . . . . .
Antrez; 20. Declar;ition of the Foreign Ministers of the Contadora
Groupai the close of the meeting of 8 and 9 January 1985 . . .
Arr~iex21. Report of thc Scrctary-General of the United Nations,
together with the cover of Anncx V concerning the third version
of the "Contadora Act for Peace and Co-operation in Central
America" (United Nations document A1401737. Sl17549). 9 October 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aiti~e.r22. Letter from the Prcsidcnt of Nicaragua to the President~
of the countries of the Contadora Group and the Support Group
(United Nations document Al401894. S117634. Annex). I I November 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . .
A
2.7 Sutc frein tlic r\iiihnss;iil~~r.I'crrn;~ncni Keprcscniati\,c
cd l':in:~m.~.for\v:tdln? the I C S I ,?i
llic c ~ ~ n ~ n i is~ucd
u ~ i ~hy~ihc
~u~
C~~ni.idi,r.i
Cir<iup.it ihc enri 01 thc iiis~str:riiit nicciinc
- <,f .nlcnipotentiaries on
November 1985 . . . . . . . . . . .
Anriex 24. Carabelleda Message for Peace, Security and Democracy
in Central America, issued hy the Ministers of Foreign Relations
of the Contadora Group and the Support Group (United N;itins
document Al4011075, Sl17736, Annex), 12 January 1986 . . . .
A~r!ie.r 25. Joint communiqu of the plenipotentiaries of Costa Rica,
El Salvador. Guatemala and Honduras (United Nations document
A/40/1117. Sl18074. Annex). 18 May 1986 . . . . . . . . .
A ~ i ~ r26.
e r Esquipulas Declaration. issued by the Presidents of Costa
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala. Honduras and Nicaragua (United
Nations document Al4011 1 IO. S118106. Annex), 25 May 1986 . .
~

Annex 27. Letter from the Ministers of Foreign Relations of the

Contadora Group to the Secrtary-General of the United Nations


(United Nations document Al4011136, S118184, Annex l), 26 June
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 28. Excerpts from the interview of the President of Nicaragua
by the Spanish Information Network (SIN), 27 July 1986 (a copy
of the vider>-tapehas been deposited al the Registry of the International Cour1 of Justice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antie.~29. Resolutions of the General Assembly of the Organization of Anierican States concerning "Peace Efforts in Central
America"
Documnt
Document
Document
Document

A.
B.
C.
D.

AGlRes. 675 (XIII-OlX3): 18 November 1983 . .


AGIRes. 702 (XIV-0184): 17 November 1984 . .
AGlRes. 770 (XV-0185): 9 December 1985 . . .
AGIcgdoc. 23/86: 14 November 1986 . . . . .

Annex 30. Rcsolutions of the General Assembly of the United Na-

tions concerning the situation in Central America: Threats to international peace and security and peace initiatives
Document A. 38/10 of 11 November 1983 . . . . . . . .
Document B. 3914 of 26 0ctober 1984 . . . . . . . . . .
Document C. 41 of 17 November 1986 . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 31. Extract from the Final Act of the Luxembourg Confc-

rence, I I and 12 November 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . .

Anner 32. Address hy the Minister of Foreign Relations of Hon-

duras to the General Assembly of the Organization of American


States. 13 November 1986 (excerpts). . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 33. Communiqu of the Ministers of Foreign Relations of the
Contadora Group and of the Support Group, following their
peace mission to the capitals of the five Central American coiintries, acconipanied by the Secretaries-General of the Organization of Anierican States and of the United Nations, Mexico City,
January 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B. Pact of Bogoti
Anner 34. American Treaty on Pacific Settlement ("Pact of Bo-

goti"). signed at the Ninth International Conference of American


States. Bogoti. 30 March-2 May 1948, official English text . .
Anne-r 35. Tr;iit amricain de rglement pacifique ("Pacte de Bogota"), official French tex1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arlnex 36. Tr;itado Americano de Solucioncs Pacificas ("Pacto de
Bogota"), official Spanisli text . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 3 7 Report of the Secretary General of the Organization of
American States presented to the Council of the Organization of
American States on 3 November 1948, O A S A ~ l n a l sVol.
,
1. No. 2.
1949. pp. 45-54
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 38. Annex III to the Application in the case concerning the
A ~ b i r r a lAivard Made by the King of Spniri on 23 December 1906
(Hondi~rnsv. Nicaragr~a),I.C.J. Pleiirli>~g,s(A: Washington Agreement of21 July 1957: B: Resolution of the Council of the Organization of Amcrican States passed on 5 July 1957) . . . . . .

Pogr

A. Washington Agreement of 21 July 1957 . . . . . . . .


B. Resolution of the Council of the Organization of American
States, taken on 5 July 1957 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 39. Communication of the tex1 of Decree No. 79-86 of 22 May
1986 of the National Congress of the Rcpublic of Honduras, La
Gacera, No. 24.940,6 June 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annel 40
A: Communication of the Government of Honduras to the Secretary General of the Organization of American States of the
tex1 of Decree No. 79/86 of the National Congress of Honduras on the modifications of the Honduran Declaration of Recognition of the Compulsory lurisdiction of the International
Court of Justice, 26 May 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . .
B: Note from the Secretarv General of the Organization o l American States to the permanent ~epresentatyveof Honduras to
the Organization of American States, 30 lune 1986 . . . .
Annex 41. Communication of the tex1 of Decree No. 79/86 to the
Permanent Representatives of the Mcmber States of the Organization of American States (Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, etc.)
by the Secretary General of the Organization of American States.
30 June 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. General documents
Annex 42. Note of the Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras to
the Registrar of the lnternational Court of Justice, 29 August 1986
Annex 43. Decree No. 75-86 of 22 May 1986 of the National Congress
of the Republic of Honduras, La Garera, No. 24.936,4 June 1986
Anne.r 44. Translations of the Declaration of Honduras of 22 May
1986 accepting the jurisdiction of the lnternational Court of Justice, for publication in the Yeorbook of the lnternational Court of
Justice for 1985-1986. A : English text: B: French text . . . .
Annex 45. Note from the Charg d'affaires of the Embassy of Honduras in the Netherlands to the Registrar of the lnternational
Court of Justice, 24 April 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 46. Exccrpt concerning Honduras from the Report of the
High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), 1985-1986 (United
Nations document AlAC.961677 (Part V), pp. 12-16), 15 July 1986
Anner 47. Human rights of the Nicaraguan population of Miskito
origin. A : Report of the Inter-American Commission of Human
Rights: Table of Contents and Introduction (OEA/Ser.UV/11.62.
d m . 10, rev. 3), 29 November 1983; B: Excerpts from the pcriodical
La Tribirna of Tegucigalpa. concerning the exodus of the Miskito
population of Nicaragua under the direction of the Bishop of
Bluefields, Monsignor Salvador Schlaefer, 24 December 1983 . .

D. Border incidents
Annex 48. Chronology of incidents with the Republic of Nicaragua,
according to ihc Certificates of the Ministry of Foreign Relations
of Honduras
A. From 29 July 1979 through 19 November 1981 . . . . . .
B. From 19 January 1982 through 17 July 1986. . . . . . .

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233
236

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TABLE DES MATIERES - CONTENTS

xv
Page

Annex 49. Communication of the Protests by the Government of

Honduras to the Organization of American States following the


destruction in the Gulf of Fonseca of a Honduran helicopter
Document A . Note No. 15/84 of 8 May 1984 (OEAlSer.GlCP1
lNF.2159184) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document B. Note No. 16184 of 9 May 1984 (OEA/Ser.G/CP/
INF.2162184) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annrx 50. Note No. 04186 from the Ambassador, Permanent Reprcsentative of Honduras, transcribing lhc text of the Note dated
March 25, 1986, sent by the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Honduras tu the Minister of Foreign Afiairs of Nicaragua (OEAlSer.
GlCP.INF.2392186) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A11ne.r 51. Incursion by the Sandinista People's Army into Honduras from 4 tu 8 Dccemhcr 1986
A. Chronology of the invasion of Honduras by the troops of the
Sandinista Peoplc's Army (SPA) (4 to 8 December 1986) . .
B. Note from the Ministcr of Foreign Relations of Honduras tu
the Foreign Minister of Nicaragua, 5 Decemher 1986 . . .
C. Note from the Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras ta
the Foreign Minister of Nicaragua, 6 December 1986 . . .
D. Press Release No. 091-86 concerning the murder of a Honduran soldier captured by the Sandinista Forces, 17 December
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cnntre-mmoire du Nicaragua (comptence et recevabilit)
Memorial of Nicaragua (Jurisdiction and Adrnissibility)

- Counier-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION
PART1. J U R I S D I C ~ IUNDER
O N ARTICLE36 (2) OFTHE STATUTE OFTFIE
COURT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1. The Court has jurisdiction under Article 36 (2) of ils
Statute, and the Honduran declaration of 22 May 1986 is no1 effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Having been made with no stipulations as to duration, the
"new declaration" hv Honduras could not be withdrawn or
modified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. In a n s event, the change adopted by Honduras cannot be invoked against Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PARTII. JURLSDICTION UNDER THE PACT OF BOGOTA
Chapter 2. Article XXXl of the Pact of Bogoli provides a separte
and independent basis of jurisdiction in this case . . . . . .
A. The purported reservation of Honduras tu the Pact of Bogot6
was no1 made al the tirne of signature or adherence tu the
Treaty and is therefore ineffective ta vary the obligations of
Honduras under the Pact . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Article XXXl establishes a binding obligation ta submit tu the
jurisdiction of.the Court with respect to disputes in the enumcrated categories hetween parties tu the Treaty, independent of

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270

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TABLE DES MATleRES - CONTENTS

XVI

Page

any othcr unilateral or bilateral undcrtaking of any party with


respect to such disputes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. The langunge of the text . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Truv<rrix ornarnfoires
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
~r
4. Contemporaneous understanding. . . . . . . . . .
5. The opinions of American jurists and other puhlicists . .
Chapter 3. The jurisdiction of the Court uiider Article XXXI of the
Pact is no1 subjcct to a condition prccedent of exhaustion of the
conciliation proccss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Comp;irison of the texts of Articles XXXI and XXXII shows
thst thcy ;ire separate and independent modes of access to the
Court. and resorl to the Court under Article XXXI is not subject to a precondition of conciliation . . . . . . . . .
B. The work of thc Inter-American Juridical Committee both in
preparation for the Conference and in subsequent review of
the Pact of Rogoti supports the textual interpretation that
direct resort to the Court is available under Article XXXI
without the necessity of prior concilation . . . . . . .
C. The wcight of the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the Inter-American system supports the position that
exhaustion of the conciliation procedure is not a prccondition
to rcsort to the Court under Articl XXXI of the Pact . . .
1. Publicists not cited in the Memorial of Honduras . . . .
2. Puhlicists cited in the Memorial of Honduras . . . . .
Conclusion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4. Articles I I and IV of the Pact of Bogoti do no1 constitute
a bar to the Court's jurisdiction in the prcscnt dispute. . . . .
A. Article I I does not condition recourse to the Court under
Article XXXI upon agreement by al1 parties that a dispute
cannot he settled by direct negotiations . . . . . . . .
B. Thc Contadora process is not a "specinl procedure" under Article 11 oc thc i'act of Bogatota and, in any cvcnt, it docs not addccss
the bil;iteral legal dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras . .
1 . Neither the parties. the Contadora countries nor any other
State or competent international organization has given
any indication. express or implied, that the Contadora process is a soecial ~ r o c e d u r ewithin the meanine of Article I I .
2. The ~ o n i a d o r a ' ~ r o c e scannot
s
have the efkct of waiving
recourse to other procedures. as required by Article IV of
the Pact. hecause i i has never been envisaeed-as an exclusive
means 10 scttle disputes among Central ~ m e r i c a ncountries .
3. The Cont:idora process cannot be a spccial procedure within
the rncanine of Article II bccausc its subiect-matter is distinct froni he dispute before the Court
. . . . . .
4. To require that the Contadora process has concluded before permitting Nicaragua ta invoke the jurisdiction of the
Court would no1 serve the purpose of the exhaustion requirement of Article IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~~~~

313
314
315
318
319
320

321

321

323

327
328
333
335
336
337
341

342

343
345

347

PART II1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 5. The mcaning and application of the reservation of I-londuras concerning arrnd conflicts . . . . . . . . . .
A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Admissibility of the reservation . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Failure to dischargc thc burden of proof. . . . . . . .
D. The application of the "armed conflicis" reservalion in the
light of the conduct of the parties . . . . . . . . . .
E. The criteria relevant to the determination of an armcd conflict
or acts of similar natiirc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .
. .
(cl The use of arnied force should have a markcd intensity . .
(a) The concept of an armcd conflict

(b) There mus1 bc a use of armed force wliich is persisicnt

(d) The "armed conflict" mus1 be the suhjcct of ;I notification


to the Sccurity Council in accordance with Chaptcr VI1 of
the United Nations Charter . . . . . . . . . . .
(e) The "armed conflici" must be the subject of a request by
one of the States concerned for help in the exercise of collective self-defence . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(fl There must he a recognition of belligerency and of
the application of the laws of neutrality vis--vis a third
State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(g) The continued cnistencc of a pattern of normal diplomatic and econoniic relations creates a strong prcsumption
against the existence of an "armed conflict" hctwccn the
States concerned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(11) The attitudc of third States in recognizing thc absence of
an armed conflicr . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F. The application of the critcria in the present case . . . . .


G. The reservation does no1 possess an exclusively preliminary
character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H. Suhmissions relating to the "armcd conflicts" reservation and
"prclirninary objection" of Honduras . . . . . . . . .
PART IV. THE ADMISSIBII.1TY OF TtlE APPLICATION
Chapter 6. Nicaragua's application is fully admissiblc and justiciable .
A. Thc application is ncither vague nor incomplete . . . . .
B. Nicaragua's Application is a fully justiciable lcgal dispute . .

Arineres Io [lie Coirrrrer-Merrrorialof Nicnrngiia


Anrrrr I . Bicfiun<tryof Internationnl ReI<rtions Tert~rs.United S1;ites
Departnient of State I.ibr;iry, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . .
Ari~~ex
2. '.Contra Prescncc in Honduras". New York Tinies. 18 April
1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anr1e.r 3. Interview iind ncws conference given by Prcsident Jos
Azconii, Tegucigalpa Cadciia Audio Video and Radio Amrica,
10 December 1986, printed in FBIS. 11 Deceniber 1986. . . .

Annex 4. "President Says He Hasn't Expelled Contras". United

Press International. 11 December 1986 . . . . . . . . . .

Anner 5. "Interview with President Jos Azcona", Tegucigalpa

Voz de Honduras, 22 April 1987, printed in FRIS, 28 April 1987


Congress Leader Says Nicaragua Rebels
Should Go". Reuters North Eurovean Service. 2 March 1986 . .
Annex 7. Article quoting Honduran Foreign Minister L6pez Contreras, El Tiempo, 24 November 1986 . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 8 Letter from AHPROCAFE to United States Coneressmen, 12 January 1987. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex !?. United States Economic and Military Aid 10 Honduras
1977-1986, from Banana Cases 10 Contra Bases: A Chronology of
United States-Honduran Relations, January 1977 to July 1986,
Central American Historical lnstitute (Washington. D.C., 1986);
and "US Said to Link Latin Aid Support for Contras", New York
Tirnes, 18 May 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 10. "Former Army Chief Says CIA Bribed Honduran Politicians", Associated Press, 1 April 1987 . . . . . . . . . .
Annex II. "Ousted Chief of Honduran Military was Hired as US
Defcnse Consult;intn, Washir~gronPosr, 10 May 1987. . . . .
Annex 12. Guasaule Declaration. Joint CommuniquC issued by His
Excellency the President of the Republic of Honduras General
Policarpo Paz Garcia, and the Coordinator of the National Reconstruction Governing Junta of Nicaragua, Commander of the
Revolution Daniel Ortega Saavedra, as a result of their meeting
on 13 Mav 1981 at the frontier station of El Guasaule. Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 13. Examples of Nicaraguan Proposals to Honduras . . .
Annex 14. Communication from the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of
the Contadora Ciroup addressed to the five ~ e n t G lAmerican
Heads of State, 7 Seplember 1984 . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 15. Nicaraguan acceptance of Contadora, 22 September
1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 16
Annex 6. "Honduran

A : "Document Describes How US 'Blocked' a Contadora Treaty",


Washington Posf, 6 November 1984 . . . . . . . . .
B: "Background Paper for NSC Meeting on Central America",
30 October 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 17. Letter from Foreign Ministers of Contadora countries to

Foreign Ministers of Central American countries, 6 June 1986. .

Annex 18. Nicaraguan response to Contadora. 17 June 1986 . . .


A n n a 19. Response of Honduras to Contadora, 13 June 1986. . .
Annex 20. Letter of Honduran Foreign Minister Contreras . . . .
Annex 21. "Flight Crew Log Trip and Expense Record. obtained by

Government of Nicaragua from C-123 plane that was shot down


over Nicaragua on 5 October 1986 and whose crew included
Eugene Hasenfus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A I I I I ~ 22.
X Note from the Government of Nicaragua to the Organization of American States concerning Honduras's "New Declaralion" of 26 May 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xix

'TABLE DES MATIERES - CONTENTS

23. Opinion of the Inter-An~ericanJuridical Committee on


the American Treaty on Pacific Settlement (Pact of Bogoti), Organization of American States d o ~OEA1Ser.G.
.
CPldoc. 1603185,
3 September 1985
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annex

Opinion of the Intcr-American Juridical Committce on the American Trcaly on Pacific Settlement (Pact of BogotA) . . . .
Explanation of the vote of Dr. Manuel A. Vieira . . . . . .
Explanation of the vote of Dr. Luis Herrera Marcano. . . . .
Explanation of the vote of Dr. Roberto MacLean Ugarteche . .
Report of the Rapporteur . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 24. Act of Contadora for Peace and Co-operation in Central

America (revised version) . . . . . . . . .

. . .
Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1. Commitments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1. General commitments
. . . . . . . . .
Sole Section. Principles . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter II. Commitments on political malters . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

Section 1. Commitments in rgard to regional dtente and


building of confidence. . . . . . . , . . . . : .
Section 2. Commitments in regard to national reconciliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 3. Commitments in regard to human rights . . .
Section 4. Commitments in regard to electoral processes
and legislative co-operation . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter III. Commitinents on security matters. . . . . .
Section 1. Commitments in regard to military manuvres .
Section 2. Commitments in regard to weapons
. . . .
Section 3. Commitments in regard to foreign military bases
Scction 4. Commitments in regard to foreign military advisers
Section 5. Commitments in regard to arms tf?ffic . . . .
Section 6 . Commitments in regard to prohibition of support
to irregular forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 7. Commitments in regard to terrorism, subversion
or sabotage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Section 8. Commitments in regard to direct communication
systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter IV. Commitments on economic and social matters .
Scction 1. Commitments in the economic and social area .
Section 2. Commitinents in regard to refugees . . . . .
Part II. Commitments in regard to execution and follow-up . .
1, Ad floc Committee for Evaluation of and Follow-up on Commitmcnts on Political Matters and in regard Io Refugees
.
2. Commission for Verification and Control in Security Matters
3. Ad floc Committee for Evaluation of and Follow-up on Commitments in the Economic and Social Area . . . . . .
Part Ill. Final provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xx

T-ABLE DES MATIRES - CONTENTS


Poge

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Proti~colto the Act of Contadora for Peace and Cooperation in Central America . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annex 25. Note from Honduras to the United Nations, 18 April
1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Atinex 26. "The Situation in Central America", Notc by the Secretary-General, Unitcd Nations doc. Si16041, I X October 1983 . .
Annex 2 7 United Nations General Assembly resolulion 38110,
adopted I l Novemher 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ar1ne.r 28. United Nations Security Council resolution 530 (1983).
adopted 19 May 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

495

499
501
504
506
509

Demande en indication d e mesures conservatoires orsente


- - nar le
<;ouscrnerneni du Nicuragu>i- Hcque*t for the Indirt<lit,n of Prori.
\iunal hleawre Siil>miltedII) the Cuiernrnent Sicarsgiia . . . 51 I
~

~~~~~

~~

ATTACHMENTS
TO THE REQUESTFOR THE INDICATION OF PROVISIONAL MEASURES
Letter of 18 March 1988 from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of
Nicaragua io the Minister of Foreign Relations of Honduras . .
Letter of 19 March 1988 from the Ministcr of Foreign Affairs of
Nicaragua lo the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Honduras . . .
Lctter of 19 Marcli 1988 from the Minister of Furcign Affairs of
Nicaragua to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Honduras . . .
President Daniel Ortega's message to the Nicaraguan people. 19 March
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

515
516
517
518

I.I:TTER k K C ) \ t I l l l . ~ ~ ~ E X l ' O ~ ~ l ( ' ~ \ R . 4I l(I l~: lRk.(;l<rn,\n


j ~ \ ' l ~ J OF 1111:
~Vll:KSrVl'lllS,\LC 0 l i ~(Il:
I .IUSrl<E ?!<II II-YIVC T H E \VI'I'IIVK,\WAI
BY THE GOVERNMENT
OF NICARAGUA
OF ITS REQUEST FOR THE
INDICATION OF PROVISIONAL
MEASURES . . . . . . . . . 521

REQUTE INTRODUCTIVE D'INSTANCE


PRSENTE PAR LE GOUVERNEMENT
D U NICARAGUA
APPLICATION INSTITUTING
PROCEEDINGS SUBMITTED BY THE
GOVERNMENT OF NICARAGUA

MINISTERIO
DEI. EXTERIOR,
MANAGUA,
NICARAGUA.

25 July 1986.
To the Reeistrar of the International Court of Justice. the undersianed
being duly auihorized by the Republic of Nicaragua and being the ~ m b s s a dor of the Republic of Nicaragua accredited at The Hague:
I h:ivc ihe Iionuur 10 rcfcr 181 ihc provisiuiii uf ArIicIc XXXI ut thr. 11:8ct i>I
Ho-oli and 10 the I>c~l.trni~ons
ni;ide hy the Republic i ) f Nic:~rigunancl hv
the Kciluhlis < i f Il,oiidur;is r c ~ o c i l i v e l ~;icceniine
.
ihe iuri~dictiun i ~ fthe
Court as provided for in ~ r t i c l 36, pa;agraphs 1 and 2,'respectively of the
Statute of the International Court of Justice and, by virtue of the consent to
the jurisdiclion based upon those instruments, either jointly or separately, to
submit. in accordance with Article 40 of the Statute and Article 38 of the
Rules
Court, an Application instituting proceedings in the name of the
Republic of Nicaragua aeainst the Republic of Honduras on the following

of

1. STATEMENT
OF FACTS
1. The Somoza Reime was overthrown bv revolutionarv forces in Julv
1979. 2nd n ncu Gi>vernnisiiiwas inst:illcd in Nic;iragua
?. Memhers 01 thc mili1;iry ;ind parnmilitilr) hircci of the ~lepu\erlpivcrn.
ment fled to neiehbourina c-ountri-es.Manv o f these ex-national euardsmen
sought refuge in kondurasfrom whcncc thy launched armed attacks against
the territory of Nicaragua.
3. At first, these armed attacks consisted of sporadic forays into Nicaraguan territory with the object of rustling cattle and pillaging peasant communities.
4. In the course of 1980, the attacks became more frequent and acquired a
more political and military objective. Government installations wcre destroyed
and military patrols ambushed. At the lime Nicaragua was in the midst of a
literacy campaign that involved hundreds of thousands of people, mostly
young students. They became targcts of the armed bands and many were
murdered or kidnapped.
5. All of these activities were reported to the Honduran Government by
means of diplomatic notes immediately.
6. In 1981. the character and the comoosition of the armed bands started
to change. They were better equipped and trained: their organization became
more of a military nature and the size of the armed bands increased. It was
hecoming apparent to the Nicaraguan Government that they could not
operate with such freedom without the complicity or at least the indifference
of the Honduran authorities.
7. O n April 19, 1981, Nicaraguan border patrols captured two members of
the Honduran armed forces inside Nicaraguan territory. They confessed that
the purpose of their mission was 10 gather intelligence information to be used
by the armed bands attacking Nicaragua.

BORDER A N D TRANSBORDER ARMED ACTIONS

6 . These activities were the ohject of strong protest notes by the Nicaraguan Government t o the Honduran authorities.
9. O n May 13, 1981, the Head of Statc of Nicaragua mct with the President of Honduras in the border ~ o s of
t El Guasaule. At that meeting the
Il.>nJur;iii : ~ i i t l i i i r i t i r . \ ni:~ilccoiiiiiiitniciitx t c i hclp ,i,<p il12 .trincd incuriiwi,
iiii,~hic.ir:~iii.t iii;adc hc11I1hy ihe \ c ~ i i i t ~ ~ i > L~. ir i i i c dhcaiidh :in* hv e l c i ~ ~ c icd
it~
the ond dur an army.
10. Unfortunately, the commitmcnts made in the mccting of Hcads o f
State were ignored hy the Honduran authorities.
I I . By the end of 1981 and the beginning of 1982, the armed attacks
incrcased t o such a n extent in thc Nicaraguan territory bordering Honduras
that much of the civilian population in that area had tu he vacuaicd.
12. This situation led the Nicaraguan Government t o request an urgent
mccting of the Security Council of the Uniied Nations on April 1982. O n that
occasion the United States vetoed a resoluiion concerning questions of principle.
13. Since 1982 t o the Drcscnt. thc atiacks from Honduras havc consistcntlv
15,0(10 men.
14. Public statemeiits by Honduran authorities at the highcsi lcvcl confirm that the co~lrraforces operate with the knowledge and assistance o f the
Honduran Government.
15. President Jos Azcona Hoyos of Honduras stated in a press conference in April 1986. that the Government of Honduras could wiihdraw the
coiirras from Honduran territory and that thcy had "the capacity of doing it
immediatelv".
16. The ~ r e s i d e n tof the Honduran Congress has publicly acknowledged
that the corltras are based on Honduran territory and that this is donc in order
to hack the struggle against thc "Marxist-~eniiistsof Nicaragua".
17. Thc contra forccs operate in such an opcn fashion in Honduras and in
such numbers, ihat the ex-Recior of ihc National University o l Honduras.
Dr. Arturo Jorge Reina, has statcd thal in Honduras "therc a r c threc armies:
the Honduran. the United States army, and the army of the Nicaraguan
COIII~BS".
18. United States governmcni officials. among them the Secretary o f
Delense. have made public siaicmenis to the effect that the coirrrii forces
operate inside Honduras with the Honduran authorities' knowledge and
tolerance.
IL). Aoart from aidine and abettine the contras. the Honduran miliiarv forces
havc dirctly participared in militaTy attacks on Nicaragua and ha& given
vital intelligence and logistical support tu the contras. Some examplcs o f thesc
acts are:
~

- April 4, 1982: three squadrons of ihe Honduran army froni the military

Company stationed in the border area o f .'El Guasaule" in full army uniform penetrated Nicaraguan tcrriiory in the area of "La Ceiba". situated
5 kilometres wcst of Somitillo. and proceeded t o kidnap 21 pensants from
ihat sector. T h e peasants were taken 10 the Honduran city of Choluteca.
l u n e 5, 1983: in the sector called "El Porvenir". situated 16 kilometres
northeast of Jalapa. Nicaragua. a force of about 600 corrrriis penctrated
Nicaraguan territory with protective cuver fire of cannon and mortar
[rom the Honduran army. Membcrs of the Honduran army look part with

APPLICATION

the contra force in the incursion into Nicaraguan tcrritory. Twenty Nicaraguans lost their lives in this operation.
Octobcr 3, 1983: the Nicaraguan army downed a military airplane that
was transporting mililary supplies to the conrnis in the sector of "Los
Ccdros", 25 kilometres north of the Rio Blanco, inside Nicaragua. The
aircraft was a Douglas DC-3C that had taken off from the airstrip "El
Aguacate", in Czitacamas, Department of Olancho, in Honduras. The aircraft was piloted by ex-army officers of the Somoza guardia nacional.
Three of them were captured, and confessed the assistance given by the
Honduran army.
- February 3. 1984: four aircraft of the Push and Pull type approached from
Honduran territory and attncked a military unit of the Nicaraguan army
in the sector of Manazanillo. Department of Cliinandega. The airplanes
withdrew after the attack into Honduran trritory.
April 18, 1985: thrcc combat planes of the Honduran airforce attacked
and sank a Nicaraguan coast guard boat 10 miles southwest of Cape
Gracias a Dios in Nicaragua's sovereign and jurisdictional waters. This
attack left one dead and one missing.
- March 14. 1986: three detachments of corilras of approximately 60 men
each. made an incursion in10 Nicaraguan territory in the sector of the
border pass of La Fraternidad. located on the Pan-American highway.
The attack was against the Nicaraguan customs house. The Honduran
army gave support lire to the attack with mortars and rifles.

20. The Honduran Govcrnnicnt has also used the threat of force against
Nic;iragua not cinly in words but also in facts. Sirice 1981 they have constructed military airports, naval bases and other militsry infrastructure along
thc border with Nicaragua, and have continuously held manuvres with the
United States Arniy with the express object of intimidating Nicaragua.
II. LEGAL GROUNDS
ON WHICI1 THE C L A ~ M
IS BASED

21. O n the basis of the abov statement of facts, Nicaragua claims that
Honduras has incurred leg.zl responsibility for the breach of major obligations arising under the United Nations Charter and other multilateral trefzlies, and also from the hrczich of certain well-estahlished obligations of customary internalional law. The particular legal grounds on which Nicaragua
bases ils claims arc as follows.
1. Brencha of the Charter of the U,iiie<l Natioils
22. The facts on which Nicaragua relies disclose serious and persistent violations of the provisions of the llnited Nations Charter. Article 2. paragraph 4.
according to which al1 Membeis of the United Nations shall refrain in their
international relations from the threat or use of force against the terri1ori;il
intcgrity or political independence of any State. The conduct of Honduras (as
described above) involvcs both the use of force and the threat of force. In
particular both the direct attacks by elements of the Honduran armed forces
and the assistance provided tci the somocista armed bands in their attacks on
the territorv of Nicaragua and ils civilian oooulation constitute the use of force
.ig.iin\t Ilic:zri~guiz.In ;z~l.liiion.ins Cio\crnnir.nt cit tlcindur.i\ hy in:iii> < i f milit:ir) rnizlicuvrci ;ind :issociatecl acii,,itics in roiilunciion i\.ith thc .irmcJ forces
o l thc IJiiitcJ Stnics Ii:is uscd the thrctit < i f forcc :is;iinst 3ic:trizgu~.

..

BORDER A N D TRANSBORDER ARMED ACTIONS

2. Breaches r,f the Churrer of rhe Organizalion of American Sfarer

23. The acts of Honduras (as described above) constitute serious and
persistent violations of the provisions of Article 18 of the Charter of the
Oreanization of American States. accordine to which Honduras is under the
obligation not to intervene directly or indiretly for any reason whatsoever
in the infernal o r external affairs of Nicaragua, whether by armed force o r
bv. anv. othcr form of interferencc or altemoid threat against
the orrsonality
< i f Sis:~r;agi~.i
< I I .igiiist I I > ~ O I I I I C ~ I I . cc~in<imic
or sultur;il c l c n i ~ n i ~
a i ! 1-l,indiir:ii ;il,o i n \ a i l \ c . ,crir>us nnJ p~.r\i\tcnl\i<,l;ition~
oi
24. The
th< nri~i.i\ionso i r\rti;lc ?Ir i,f thc Charter of thr. Or~anizstii,nu i 4meric;in
~ t a t s according
,
to which the territory of Nicaraguais inviolable and mus1
no1 be subjected to military occupation or othcr forcible measures, directly or
indirectly, on any grounds whatever,

3. Breoches of Ihe American Treory for rhe Pracefirl Serrlemenr [of Dkpiires]
(PUCI

B U ~ O ~ ~ )

25. The acts of Honduras (as described above) constitute further serious
and persistent violations of the provisions of Article 1 of the American Treaty
for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes ("Pact of Bogota"), according to
which Honduras is under an obligation to abstain from the threat or use of
force, or any coercion, as a means of settling disputes.
4. Breoches of rhe Obligation of Cusromnry lnlernarional Law Nol ru
lnrervene in the Affairs of Anorher Srare

26. A significant element in the conduct of lionduras in the relevant period


(as described above) has been the Dattern of assistance to and toleration of
the violent actions of armed band; of somocistas operating against Nicaragua from bases within Honduras. The conduct of Honduras in this respect
involves serious and oersistent violations of the well-established obligation of
.
customary internatiokl law not to intervene in the affairs of ~ i c a r c u aThe
serious character of the violations is enhanced by the publicly proclaimed
objective of the contras and their supporters in Honduras to overihrow the
Governmenl of Nicaragua.
5. Breaches of rhe Obligation of C~rsromaryInler~~alional
Law Nor Io Use
Force oguinsl Anolher Srare

27. The nolicv of assistance to the armed bands of somocistas adonted bv


Honduras iAvol;es bre&hes of the obligation of customary internatidna1 la;
not to use forc aaainst another State: and so also the direct attacks against
Nicaragua by thearmed forces of Honduras constitutc serious breaches of
this same obligation.
6. Breaches of rhe Obligarion of Cirstomary Inlerrirrrional Law Nor lu
Violore the Sovereignry of Anorher Srare

28. The direct attzicks carricd out against Nicaragua by the armed forces
of Honduras (as descrihed above) constitute breaches of the obligation no1
to violate the sovereignty of another State. Morcovcr, certain attacks have
involved the brutal kidnapping of Nicaraguan citizens hy Honduran armed
forces, as, for example. during the incursion by Honduran forces on April 4,
1982.

APPLICATION

7. Breaches of lhe Obligation of Cuslomary lnfernational Law Nol


Worrnd o r Kidnap the Citizens of OOther Slares

IO

Kill,

29. The conduct of Honduras (as described above) constitutes serious and
persistent breaches of the obligation under customary international law not
to kill, wound or kidnap the citizens of other States.
III. THE NATUREOF THE CLAIM

30. On the basis of the foreeoine statemenl of facts and considerations of


law. Nizir~gu:~.
rcservirig tlic rishi 10 supplcni~.itto r to ariicnd this Aplilicaticln : t n J whlcct 1.1 ihr: prc,cnt.iiii>n ici thi. Ciiuri of the r~.lvi.;intc\idr.nc~.
.in.l
legal argument, requesis the Court to adjudge and declars as follows:
(a) that the acts and omissions of Honduras in the material period coitstitule
breaches of the various obligations of customary international Iaw and
the treaties specified in the body of this Application for which the Republic of Honduras bears legal responsibility;
(b) that Honduras is under a duty immediately 10 cease and to refrain from
al1 such acts as may constitute breaches of the foregoing legal obligations;
(c) that Honduras is under an cibligation to make reparation to the Republic
of Nicaragua for al1 injury caused to Nicaragua hy the breaches of obligations under the pertinent rules of customary international law and treaty
provisions.
31. Nicaragua reserves the right to present a request that the Court indicale interim measures of prolrction.
32. The Government of Nicaragua has designated the undersigned as ils
Agent for the purposes of these proceedings. All communications relating to
this case should be sent to the Embassy of the Republic of Nicaragua, The
Hague, Wattstraat 19.
Respectfully submitted,
(Signrd) Carlos ARGELLOG6,wEZ,
Agent of the Republic
of Nicaragua.