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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards

DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION


SYSTEMS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Electrical
File Reference: COE 107.03

For additional information on this subject, contact


PEDD Coordinator on 862-1026

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Section

Page

OBJECTIVES

........................................................................................................ 1

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE....................................................................................... 1
ENABLING OBJECTIVES .................................................................................... 1
INFORMATION

........................................................................................................ 3

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 3
DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR BURIED
PIPELINES...................................................................................... 5
Galvanic Anode System Design for Road and Camel Crossings ......................... 5
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ................................ 6
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required....................................................... 8
Circuit Resistance ...................................................................................... 8
Galvanic Anode Current Output............................................................... 12
Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 12
Example 1........................................................................................................... 13
Number of Anodes ................................................................................... 13
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 13
Galvanic Anode Current Output............................................................... 14
Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 14
Impressed Current System Design for Buried Pipelines..................................... 15
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings .............................. 15
Minimum Number of Impressed Current Anodes..................................... 18
Anode Bed Resistance ............................................................................ 19
Example 2........................................................................................................... 24
Minimum Number of Impressed Current Anodes..................................... 24
Anode Bed Resistance ............................................................................ 25
DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE
WELL CASINGS ........................................................................... 29
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 30
Cathodic Protection Current Requirements ........................................................ 32
Surface Anode Bed Design ................................................................................ 34

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Deep Anode Bed Design .................................................................................... 35


Length of the Coke Breeze Column ......................................................... 35
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 36
Example 3........................................................................................................... 39
Length of the Coke Breeze Column ......................................................... 39
Check for allowable Anode Bed Resistance ............................................ 40
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 42
DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL
AND TANK INTERIORS ............................................................... 43
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 44
Galvanic Anode System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors........................... 47
Current Output Per Anode ....................................................................... 47
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required..................................................... 49
Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 49
Example 4........................................................................................................... 50
Surface Area............................................................................................ 50
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required to Comply with Resistance ......... 51
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required to Comply with Life ..................... 52
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required for the Final Design..................... 52
Impressed Current System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors ...................... 52
Number of Impressed Current Anodes Required..................................... 52
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 53
Example 5........................................................................................................... 56
Number of Impressed Current Anodes .................................................... 56
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 57
DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT
FACILITIES ........................................................................................................ 58
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 59
Number and Placement of Anodes in Distributed Anode Beds........................... 65
Circuit Resistance............................................................................................... 69
Example 6........................................................................................................... 71

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Number and Placement of Impressed Current Anodes ........................... 71


DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MARINE
STRUCTURES ................................................................................................... 75
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 76
Galvanic Anode System Design for Marine Structures....................................... 80
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required..................................................... 80
Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 81
Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 82
Number and Spacing of Galvanic Anode Bracelets ................................. 82
Example 7........................................................................................................... 84
Number of Anodes ................................................................................... 84
Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 85
Number and Spacing of Galvanic Anode Bracelets ................................. 86
Impressed Current System Design for Marine Structures .................................. 86
Number of Impressed Current Anodes Required..................................... 87
Rectifier Voltage Requirement ................................................................. 87
Example 8........................................................................................................... 89
Corrected Current Requirement............................................................... 89
Number of Anodes Required ................................................................... 90
Rectifier Voltage Requirement ................................................................. 90
WORK AIDS ...................................................................................................... 92
WORK AID 1A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN
GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR ROAD AND CAMEL CROSSINGS.......... 92
WORK AID 1B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN IMPRESSED
CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR BURIED PIPELINES ............................................. 95
WORK AID 2: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN CATHODIC
PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE WELL CASINGS......................... 100
WORK AID 3A: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF
GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK INTERIORS .............. 104
WORK AID 3B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF
IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK INTERIORS ...... 107
WORK AID 4. FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN CATHODIC
PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT FACILITIES ....................................... 110

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WORK AID 5A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE FOR THE
DESIGN OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR MARINE STRUCTURES .. 112
WORK AID 5B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF
IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR MARINE
STRUCTURES ................................................................................................. 117
GLOSSARY .................................................................................................... 121

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List of Figures
Figure 1A. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Open Cut Road Crossings
(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems) ................................ 7
Figure 1B. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for a Camel Crossing (For
pipelines without impressed current CP systems) ........................................ 7
Figure 1C. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Buried Valve Locations ................... 8
Figure 2. Galvanic Anodes at a Camel Crossing and an Equivalent Electrical
Circuit .............................................................................................................. 9
Figure 3. Pre-Packaged 27.2 kg Magnesium Anode .................................................... 10
Figure 4. Vertical and Horizontal Anode Installations from Standard Drawing
AA-036346 .................................................................................................... 16
Figure 5. Surface Anode Bed Detail from Standard Drawing AA-036346 ................... 18
Figure 6. TA-4 High Silicon Cast Iron (HSCI) Impressed Current Anodes .................... 21
Figure 7. Vertical Anode Design Chart for an Impressed Current Anode Bed
in Soil with a Resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm ..................................................... 27
Figure 8. Deep Anode Bed without Anode Support Pipe from Standard
Drawing AA-036385. ..................................................................................... 31
Figure 9. Casing Potential Profile ................................................................................. 33
Figure 10. Deep Anode Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical
Circuit........................................................................................................... 37
Figure 11. Length of the Coke Breeze Column in a Deep Anode Bed ........................ 41
Figure 12. Galvanic Anodes for Water Storage Tanks, Standard Drawing AA036354 ....................................................................................................... 45
Figure 13. Impressed Current for Water Storage Tanks, Standard Drawing
AA-036353 ................................................................................................. 46
Figure 14. Tank Galvanic Anode System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit for
Each Anode................................................................................................ 48
Figure 15. Tank Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit ............. 54
Figure 16. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036355, Tank Bottom
Impressed Current Details.......................................................................... 62
Figure 17A. Typical Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) Grid Anode System
Impressed Current for Storage Tank Bottom External................................ 63

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Figure 17B. Monitoring Techniques for Typical Impressed Current


Continuous Anode System for Storage Tank Bottom External ................... 64
Figure 18. Area of Influence of a Distributed Anode..................................................... 66
Figure 19. Additive Effect of Distributed Anodes .......................................................... 67
Figure 20. Placement of Distributed Anode.................................................................. 68
Figure 21. External Tank Bottom Impressed Current System and Equivalent
Circuit ......................................................................................................... 69
Figure 22A. Anode Gradient Effects.............................................................................. 72
Figure 22B. Anode Gradient Effects............................................................................. 73
Figure 23. Offshore Platform ........................................................................................ 75
Figure 24. Diagrams from Standard Drawings AA-036409 and AA-036335................. 78
Figure 25. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036348 ............................................ 79

List of Tables
Table 1. Minimum Anode Bed Distance from Underground Structures in
SAES-X-400 ................................................................................................... 17
Table 2. Anode Number and Resistance Values.......................................................... 25
Table 3. Vertical Anode Bed Calculations .................................................................... 26
Table 4. Minimum Required Potentials of Plant Structures .......................................... 60
Table 5. Current Density Criteria .................................................................................. 77
Table 6. Half Shell Anode Bracelet Type Anode For Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60" ...... 112

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OBJECTIVES
TERMINAL OBJECTIVE
Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to
design onshore and offshore cathodic protection systems, using
applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES) and
Saudi Aramco Material Specifications, according to the
procedures, specifications, and requirements in these Saudi
Aramco documents.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES
In order to accomplish the Terminal Objective, the participant
will learn to:

Design Cathodic Protection systems for buried pipelines


using SAES-X-400.

Design Cathodic Protection systems for onshore well


casings using SAES-X-700.

Design Cathodic Protection systems for the interiors of


vessels and tanks using SAES-X-500.

Design Cathodic Protection systems for plant facilities using


SAES-X-600.

Design Cathodic Protection systems for marine structures


using SAES-X-300.

Note: Definitions of words in italics are contained in the Glossary.

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INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION
In this module, you will use knowledge and skills you have
acquired from the first two modules to design basic cathodic
protection (CP) systems for onshore and offshore facilities.
Normally, a CP system design is based on information obtained
from a survey of similar facilities or a detailed study of site
conditions. These site conditions include the following:

Soil or water resistivity

Structure electrical continuity

Proximity of adjacent structures

Availability of electric power

Condition of structure coating

Accessibility for construction and maintenance

Electrical area classification

Most of these design considerations were discussed in the first


two modules.

Each section of this module presents relevant design


considerations and provides an example of CP system
design. In cases where conditions may require alternative
designs, examples are also given. This module will provide
basic design calculations that are typically included in any
CP system design. These design calculations include the
following:

Maximum anode current output

Number and spacing of anodes

Anode life

Circuit resistance

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There are industry guidelines or practices for cathodic


protection system designs. These include the following:

National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)


RP-01-69: Recommended Practice, Control of External
Corrosion of Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping
Systems

NACE RP-01-76: Recommended Practice, Control of


Corrosion on Steel, Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated
with Petroleum Production

CP-1021: 1773 Code of Practice for Cathodic Protection


published by the British Standards Institute

These documents are not mandatory requirements or


standards. Therefore, Saudi Aramco has developed
Standards, Standard Drawings, and Materials Specifications to
outline specific design and installation methods for most
structures (see Addenda).

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR BURIED


PIPELINES
This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers
galvanic anode system designs for short pipeline segments
such as road and camel crossings. Galvanic anodes are used if
the cathodic protection current requirement is small and the soil
resistivity is low. The second part will cover impressed current
systems for buried pipelines, which require much more cathodic
protection current. Normally, Saudi Aramco protects onshore
pipelines with impressed current systems.
Designs for galvanic anode and impressed current systems are
prepared after the following has been accomplished:

The cathodic protection current requirements have been


calculated

The effective resistivity of the soil has been determined

The anode bed location has been selected

The allowable anode bed resistance has been calculated

In Module 107.01, you calculated the current requirements for


various structures. In Module 107.02, you selected an anode
bed site based on soil resistivity, current distribution, and
available utilities. You also represented proposed CP systems
as equivalent electrical circuits and calculated their allowable
anode bed resistance. In this section, you will be given the
above information and other criteria that will allow you to design
cathodic protection systems for buried pipelines.

Galvanic Anode System Design for Road and Camel Crossings


Design standards and practices for galvanic anode systems for
road and camel crossings are presented below. The design of
galvanic anode systems for pipelines involves determining the
following:

Design requirements using Saudi Aramco standards and


drawings

The number of galvanic anodes required

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Circuit resistance

Galvanic anode current output

Galvanic anode life

After describing these requirements and calculations, an


example is provided which demonstrates the design of a
galvanic anode system for a section of pipeline.
Saudi Aramco
Engineering
Standards and
Drawings
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-X-400 provides
minimum design requirements that govern CP systems for
buried onshore pipelines. CP systems inside plant facilities are
not included. Reference SAES-X-400, section 4.2 to determine
where galvanic anodes are required.
Saudi Aramco uses either pre-packaged or bare magnesium
anodes to protect short pipeline segments. Bare anodes are
used only in Subkha areas. The design calculations in this
module are based on construction standards in Standard
Drawing AA-036352 Galvanic Anodes for Road & Camel P/L
Crossings. Figures 1A, 1B, and 1C show typical galvanic anode
installations from Standard Drawing AA-036352.

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Figure 1A. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Open Cut Road Crossings
(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems)

Figure 1B. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for a Camel Crossing


(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems)

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Junction box

Grade

Valve box with cover

Thermite weld

buried
valve

27.3 kg (60 lb.)


magnesium anodes

Figure 1C. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Buried Valve Locations

Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required
The number of galvanic anodes required depends on the
following:

The size (weight and dimensions) of the anodes

The length of the pipe

The diameter of the pipe

A table (TABLE 1) is shown on the minimum number of anodes


required for existing camel and road crossings on Standard
Drawing AA-036352.
Circuit Resistance
The total circuit resistance of the galvanic anode system, Rtotal,
is represented by the electrical circuit in Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Galvanic Anodes at a Camel Crossing and


an Equivalent Electrical Circuit

The structure-to-electrolyte resistance is represented by RS in


the electrical circuit. The anode resistances are RA1 and RA2.
For an anode buried in chemical backfill as shown Figure 3, the
total resistance between the anode and electrolyte includes (1)
the resistance from the anode to the outer edge of the backfill
package and (2) the resistance between the backfill package
and the soil. The total value of the resistance between the
anode and soil in contact with the anode backfill is commonly
called the anode-to-earth resistance. The contribution of the
anode to backfill resistance is insignificant relative to the
contribution of the backfill to soil resistance. This is because the
soil resistance is typically much greater than the resistance of
the backfill.

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Figure 3. Pre-Packaged 27.2 kg Magnesium Anode

The anode-to-earth resistance of a single vertical anode is


calculated using the Dwight Equation as follows:

RV =

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Where RV

=
resistance of one vertical anode to earth in
ohms

resistivity of soil in ohm-cm

length of anode package in centimeters

diameter of anode package in centimeters

When calculating Rv for prepackaged galvanic anodes, use the


dimensions of the anode package. When calculating Rv for
impressed current anodes, use the dimensions of the coke
breeze backfill column.
You can calculate the anode bed resistance of two or more
vertical anodes in parallel by using the Sunde Equation as
follows:
Rv =

0.159 8L 2L
(ln0.656N )
1 +
ln

NL d
S

Where RV

=
resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in
parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a
straight line.

soil resistivity in ohm-cm

number of anodes

=
length of anode (package or backfill column) in
centimeters

=
diameter of anode (package or backfill column)
in centimeters

anode spacing in centimeters

Anodes are usually cast in the shape of a trapezoid or square


bar, rather than a cylinder. When calculating the resistance for
a bare anode, this becomes significant because the effective
diameter must be approximated. For non-cylindrical anodes,
the current densities are highest at the corners, which corrode
away more rapidly. Ultimately the geometry resembles a

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cylinder with the effective diameter equaling the nominal width


of the anode. Though a number of approximation
methodologies would be correct, based on the above logic, a
reasonably accurate and simple approximation is the nominal
width (smallest dimension) of the anode.
Galvanic Anode
Current Output
The current output of a galvanic anode system is a function of
its driving potential and circuit resistance, as shown in the
following formula:
IA = Ed/Rtotal
Where IA

anode current output

Ed

the galvanic anode driving potential

Rtotal =

the total circuit resistance

The galvanic anode driving potential, Ed, is the difference


between the anodes open circuit solution potential and the
protected potential of the pipeline.
Galvanic Anode Life
The number of galvanic anodes selected for a design must
comply with the life expectancy detailed in the respective
standard. The number of anodes required to achieve the
specified life is given by the following equation:
Y x IA x C

N =

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Where N

number of anodes

anode life in years

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode in kg

IA

total required current output in amperes

The actual consumption rate, C, of standard and high potential


magnesium anodes is 7.71 kg per ampere-year.

Example 1
We will use the following data to determine the number and
current output of pre-packaged 27.2 kg (60 lb.) magnesium
anodes required to protect a 15-meter section of 12" existing
tape wrapped pipeline at road crossing. Use the following
engineering data:

Driving potential: 0.45 V versus Cu-CuSO4

Anode Lead wire resistance: negligible

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance: 2.67 ohms

Anode dimensions: 50 mm x 50 mm x 1524 mm

Anode package dimensions: 20.7cm x 195 cm

Soil resistivity: 1,000 ohm-cm

Number of Anodes
According to the Table 1 in AA 036352, two anodes are required
for 15 meters of 12" pipe.
Circuit Resistance
The anode-to-earth resistance of two anodes is given by the
Sunde Equation as shown below:

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0.159

R =
v
NL

8L 2L

ln d 1 + S (ln0.656N )

0.159 x 1000 8 x 195 2 x 195


(
R =
ln
ln0.656 x 2 )
1 +

v
2 x 195
20.7
1500

Rv = 1.38 ohms

The circuit resistance of the galvanic anode system is:


Rtotal = 2.67 + 1.38 4.05 ohms.
Galvanic Anode
Current Output
The current output of the two galvanic anodes is
I = Ed/Rtotal = 0.5/4.05 = 0.12 amps (or 0.06 A for each
anode)
Saudi Aramco normally uses magnesium anodes in areas
where soil resistivity is greater than 1,000 ohm-cm. In 5,000
ohm-cm soil, the anode-to-earth resistance in the example
above would be 6.9 ohms (five times as much as in 1,000 ohmcm soil). The circuit resistance would increase to 9.57 ohms and
the current output would decrease as follows:
I = 0.45 /9.57 = 0.047 A
Galvanic Anode Life
The expected lifetime of one 27.2 kg anode with a current
output of 0.055 A in 1,000 ohm-cm soil can be calculated by
transposing the following equation as shown below:
Y x IA x C
therefore if N = 1, then Y = W
N=

W
I xC

27.2 kg

Y =
7.71 kg/amp - yr. 0.055 amp
Y = 64 years

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The anode requirements, formulas, and procedure needed to


design galvanic anode systems for short sections of buried
pipelines are provided in Work Aid 1A.

Impressed Current System Design for Buried Pipelines


Design standards and practices for impressed current systems
for buried pipelines are presented below. These standards and
practices include the following determinations:

Design requirements using Saudi Aramco standards and


drawings

The minimum number of impressed current anodes

Anode bed resistance (based on number of anodes and


anode spacing)

After a discussion of the above information, an example is


provided.
Saudi Aramco
Engineering
Standards and
Drawings
Refer to SAES-X-400 to determine total operating circuit
resistance, minimum and maximum voltage, and design life
requirements of an impressed current system.
Anode bed installation practices are based on construction
standards set by Saudi Aramco in Standard Drawing
AA-036346, Surface Anode Bed Details. This drawing contains
diagrams of vertical and horizontal anode installations as shown
in Figure 4.

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Figure 4. Vertical and Horizontal Anode Installations from


Standard Drawing AA-036346

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Impressed current anode beds should be remote from the


protected structure to provide uniform current distribution.
Figure 5 gives the minimum distances allowed between anode
beds and buried structures. These criteria cover both surface
and deep anode beds.

Table 1. Minimum Anode Bed Distance from


Underground Structures in SAES-X-400
Anode Bed Capacity

Minimum Distance from


Underground Structures

35 amperes

35 meters

50 amperes

75 meters

100 amperes

150 meters

150 amperes

225 meters

SAES-X-400 states that remote surface anode beds shall be


used where soil resistivity is compatible with system design
requirements and economic considerations. Figure 5 shows a
typical anode bed of 10 vertical anodes from Standard Drawing
AA-036346. Additional groups of 10 anodes can be installed as
required to meet current output requirements. SAES-X-400
requires that adjacent anode beds, powered by separate
rectifiers, must be separated by at least 50 meters. If the output
capacity of either anode bed is greater than 50 amperes, they
must be separated by at least 100 meters.

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Additional group of 10 as required

1200 mm

Typical group of 10 anodes

No. 6 AWG
anode leads

Junction
Box

To rectifier or
d-c power source
To additional groups of
10 anodes as required

Figure 5. Surface Anode Bed Detail from Standard


Drawing AA-036346
Minimum Number of
Impressed Current
Anodes
There are two ways to calculate the minimum number of
impressed current anodes required. One method considers the
anodes maximum current output in the electrolyte and the other
method considers the anodes consumption rate. The method
that gives the more conservative value (the greatest number of
anodes) shall be used.
To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the
anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:
N=

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I
(dL A )

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Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2

To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the


anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of impressed current anodes

=
the impressed current system design life in
years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode in kg

Anode Bed
Resistance
The current output of an impressed current system is a function
of the dc power source driving voltage and the circuit resistance.
The current output, I, is given by the following formula:
I = ED/Rtotal

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Where ED

=
the rated voltage of the dc power source
(minus 2 volts back emf)

Rtotal =

the total circuit resistance

In Module 107.02, we used the following formula to calculate


circuit resistance, Rtotal, of an impressed current system circuit.

Rtotal = RS + RLW + Rab


Where RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RW

total lead wire resistance

Rab

the anode bed resistance

The anode bed resistance, Rab, is the total resistance of all the
anodes in the anode bed. If the anodes are surrounded by a
coke breeze column, the resistance between each anode and
electrolyte includes the anode internal resistance and the
anode-to-earth resistance.

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Figure 6. TA-4 High Silicon Cast Iron (HSCI) Impressed Current Anodes

The resistivity of the coke breeze is typically insignificant relative


to the surrounding soil, regardless of whether the soil is wet or
dry. In addition, the anode is almost always well centered in the
backfill column. Therefore, the industry commonly considers
the anode-to-earth resistance as a function of the coke breeze
column dimensions rather than the anode dimensions. You can
calculate the anode-to-earth resistance of a single vertical
impressed current anode by using the Dwight Equation as
follows:

RV =

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0.159 8L
1
In
d

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Where RV

=
resistance of one vertical anode to earth in
ohms

resistivity of soil in ohm-cm

length of backfill column in centimeters

=
effective diameter of backfill column in
centimeters

You can calculate the anode bed resistance of two or more


vertical anodes in parallel by using the Sunde Equation as
follows:
RV =

0.159 8L 2L

In
1 +
(
In0.656N)

S
NL d

Where Rv

=
resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in
parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a
straight line.

resistivity of soil in ohm-cm

number of anodes

length of backfill column in centimeters

diameter of backfill column in centimeters

anode spacing in centimeters

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According to the Sunde Equation, the anode bed resistance


decreases with an increase in the number of anodes and/or an
increase in the anode spacing. By adjusting the number and
spacing of anodes, you can achieve a desired anode bed
resistance. The desired anode bed resistance should be less
than the allowable anode bed resistance given by the following
formula:
Rmax = ED / Irated
Also,
Rmax = Raab +RS + RW
Raab = Rmax - (RS + RW )
Therefore,
Raab = (ED / Irated ) - (RS + RW )

Where Raab

the allowable anode bed resistance

Rmax =
the maximum allowable circuit resistance (the
rectifiers rated voltage minus 2 volts, divided by its
rated current output)
RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RW

total lead wire resistance

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Example 2
The following example assumes that the structure-to-electrolyte
resistance and the lead wire resistance are known and the
maximum allowable anode bed resistance has been
determined. We will determine the number and spacing of
anodes needed so that the anode bed resistance does not
exceed the allowable anode bed resistance. Use the following
engineering data:

CP current required: 40 amperes


Anode material: Silicon iron
Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3 cm length (TA-4)
Anode weight: 38.6 kg
Backfill dimensions: 25 cm dia. x 300 cm
Anode consumption rate: .45 kg/A-yr
Max. anode current density: 0.7 ma/sq. cm
Soil resistivity: 3,000 ohm-cm
Allowable design anode bed resistance: 0.7 ohms

Minimum Number of
Impressed Current
Anodes
We will design the anode bed so that it can discharge
50 amperes (nearest rectifier to 40 amps). To estimate the
number of anodes required, multiply the total current
requirement by the design life and consumption rate of the
anode material as follows.

Y I C (20 years )(50A )(0.45kg/A yr )


= 11.66 anode s
N=
=
38.6kg
W

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Also, to ensure we dont exceed the maximum allowable current


density on the anode surface we must calculate the following:

I
N =
d L xA

50,000mA
=
= 11.22 anodes
2
x 9.5cm x 213.3cm x 0.7mA/cm

Therefore we will use 12 anodes for the first calculation.


Anode Bed
Resistance
Substitute 12 anodes for N, 300 cm (10 ft.) spacing for S, and
the backfill dimensions into the Sunde Equation as follows.
0.159
8L
2L
(ln0.656N )}
{(ln
1) +
NL
d
S
0.159 (3,000)
8 (300)
2 (300)
(ln0.656 x 12))}
RV =
{( ln
1) + (
12 (300)
25
300
R V = 1.02 ohms
RV =

This anode bed resistance exceeds the maximum allowable


anode bed resistance of 0.7 ohms. However, according to the
Sunde Equation, increasing the number of anodes can lower the
resistance. If we substitute values of 15, 18, and 21 anodes for
N at the 300 cm spacing, we obtain the following information in
Table 2.
Table 2. Anode Number and Resistance Values
No. of Anode Bed Resistance

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Anodes

at 300 cm Spacing

12
16
20
24

1.02
0.82
0.69
0.60

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The calculated anode bed resistance of 24 anodes installed with


300 cm spacing is less than the allowable resistance of 0.7
ohm. However, remember that increasing the anode spacing
also decreases the anode bed resistance. If we repeat the
calculations for spacings of 500, 750, and 1,000 cm, we obtain
Table 3.
Table 3. Vertical Anode Bed Calculations
Anode Spacing in Centimeters
No. of
Anodes

300

500

750

1,000

12

1.02

0.80

0.69

0.64

16

0.82

0.63

0.54

0.49

20

0.69

0.53

0.45

0.41

24

0.60

0.46

0.38

0.35

Based on the allowable anode bed resistance of 0.7 ohms, one


option appears to be 20 anodes with 300 cm spacings. Another
option16 anodes with 500 cm spacings. We can graph the
values in the table to create a design chart as shown in Figure
7.

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Figure 7. Vertical Anode Design Chart for an Impressed Current


Anode Bed in Soil with a Resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm

Design charts are an efficient alternative to making several


calculations for each anode bed design; an excel spreadsheet is
even a better method. The design chart in Figure 7 is based on
a soil resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm. To use this chart for other soil
resistivities, the allowable anode bed resistance, R, must be
converted to a value that corresponds to a soil resistivity of
5,000 ohm-cm. The Sunde Equation can be used to show that
anode bed resistance is directly proportional to soil resistivity as
follows:

Rohm cm
R1000ohm cm

ohm - cm
1000 ohm - cm

Therefore,
R= R1000 (/1,000)

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In summary, the allowable anode bed resistance is determined


for 1,000 ohm-cm soil. Then the design chart in Figure 7 is used
to select the optimum number and spacing of anodes to achieve
an anode bed resistance less than or equal to the allowable
anode bed resistance.
The formulas and procedure to design impressed current anode
beds are provided in Work Aid 1B.

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE


WELL CASINGS
Saudi Aramco cathodically protects all onshore well casings with
impressed current systems. Saudi Aramcos goal is to protect
both well casings and associated flow lines and pipelines as an
integrated system. This is accomplished by minimizing the use
of pipeline insulating devices. If an insulation device is installed,
a bonding box is used in case it becomes necessary to short
circuit the insulator. Saudi Aramco normally uses an individual
impressed current system to protect each well. However,
multiple wells are sometimes protected by a single impressed
current system.
Saudi Aramco uses both surface and deep anode beds to
protect onshore well casings. The type of anode bed and its
location are determined by the following:

Its current output capacity

The surface soil resistivity

The number of well casings to be protected

The physical layout of the wells and facilities

Economics

Saudi Aramco uses remote surface anode beds where soil


resistivity is low enough for adequate current distribution. Where
surface soil resistivity is high, deep anode beds are used. Deep
anode beds are also used in congested areas such as pipeline
corridors and plant areas to provide better current distribution.
Both surface and deep anode bed designs involve the following
determinations:

Design requirements using Saudi Aramco Engineering


Standards and Drawings

Cathodic protection current requirements

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Descriptions of both requirements are provided in this section.


After the information on cathodic protection current requirement
is presented, surface and deep anode bed designs are
discussed separately. Surface anode bed design for a well
casing is similar to surface anode bed design for a buried
pipeline, which was covered in the first section of this module.
Therefore, this section focuses mainly on the design of deep
anode beds.

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings


The design of cathodic protection systems for onshore well
casings is governed by SAES-X-700. Refer to SAES-X-700 for
the design current capacity for impressed current systems and
their design life.
SAEP-333, Appendix A specifies the required operating current
requirement for well casings in different operating areas.
A minimum distance of 150 meters for an uncoated well casing,
and 75 meters for a coated well casing, shall be maintained
between the nearest anode in an anode bed and the well casing
it is to protect. In addition, SAES-X-700 requires that deep
anode beds are located remote from other buried structures. For
example, a distance of 35 meters is required for deep anode
beds with a design current output of 35 amperes or less. A
distance of 75 meters is required for anode beds with capacities
between 36 and 50 amperes.
Surface anode beds should be designed in accordance with
Standard Drawing AA-036346.
Deep anode bed without anode support pipe contain anodes
and coke breeze without a full length of casing (see Figure 8).
An individual lead wire connects each anode to the junction box.
Saudi Aramco installs a PVC vent pipe to allow gases formed by
anodic reactions to escape. A separate loading pipe is run to the
bottom of the hole and used to pump a water slurry of coke
breeze into the hole. The loading pipe is slowly withdrawn from
the hole as it is filled with coke breeze. This procedure allows
the slurry to be pumped upward from the bottom of the well until
the anodes are completely surrounded.

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Deep anode installations must be approved by Saudi Aramcos


Hydrology Department. The Hydrology Department regulates
the drilling depth to minimize the chances of communication
between subsurface aquifers.

Figure 8. Deep Anode Bed without Anode Support Pipe from Standard Drawing
AA-036385.

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Cathodic Protection Current Requirements


The current required to protect an onshore well casing depends
on its environment. The operating environment can be very
complex. Environmental considerations include the following:

Well spacing

The size, area, and depth of well casings, cementing


information, and coatings (if used)

Nearby pipelines with or without cathodic protection systems

Process plants

Storage tanks

Electrical power lines, substations, etc.

Hazardous or unique requirements at proposed sites

Current requirements can be determined for a particular


producing area since formation conditions and well completion
methods are usually similar. Saudi Aramco uses casing
potential profile techniques to determine current requirements.
Casing profiles are similar to line current surveys for buried
pipelines. These tests are expensive so they are not performed
on every well. The tubing must be pulled so that the potential
profile tool can contact the internal casing wall.
Basically, a down hole-logging tool measures the voltage (IR
drop) at regular intervals in the casing. The logging tool contains
hydraulically activated contacts that are located several feet
apart.
Once the well bore has been prepared, the logging tool is
lowered into the well. The voltage between the contacts is
measured by using a sensitive voltmeter. Readings are usually
taken from the bottom to the top of the casing. The tool also
measures casing resistance so an accurate current flow can be
calculated (I=V/R).
Current that flows onto the casing is assumed to be cathodic
protection current. Current that flows away from the casing is
assumed to be corrosion current. Current must flow onto the
entire casing for it to be adequately protected. Figure 9 shows
how the readings are plotted and interpreted.

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Microvolts
-400
0

-200

Bottom of
surface pipe

Well
casing

meters

300

Negative
readings
indicate
current
flow down
casing
Negative slope
indicates
current is
leaving the
casing

Positive readings
indicate current
flow up casing

Depth

600

+200

Positive
slope indicates
current is entering
the casing

900

1200

Figure 9. Casing Potential Profile

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Surface Anode Bed Design


Surface anode beds that protect well casings are designed
similarly to anode beds that protect buried pipelines. The
number and spacing of anodes can be adjusted so that the total
circuit resistance is less than the maximum allowable circuit
resistance. The resistance of a surface anode bed is given by
the Sunde Equation.

R=

0.159 8L 2L
(ln0.656N)
- 1 +
ln

NL d
S

Where R

=
resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in
parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a
straight line.

soil resistivity in ohm-cm

number of anodes

length of backfill column in centimeters

diameter of backfill column in centimeters

anode spacing in centimeters

The formulas and procedure used to design surface anode beds


for onshore well casings are similar to those used for buried
pipelines, which are provided in Work Aid 1B.

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Deep Anode Bed Design


Deep anode bed design includes determining the following:

Length of the coke breeze column (based on the number of


anodes required)

Circuit resistance

After describing how the above information is determined, an


example demonstrating the design of a deep anode bed is
provided.
Length of the Coke
Breeze Column
The length of the coke breeze column depends on the number
and spacing of anodes in the deep anode bed. The anode
spacing is determined in the field. Anodes are usually vertically
spaced on 5-meter centers. As with surface anode beds, the
required number of anodes can be calculated by using the
anodes maximum current output in the electrolyte or the
anodes consumption rate. Use the method that gives the more
conservative value or the greater number of anodes.
To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the
anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:
N = I/(dL x A)
Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2

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To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the


anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of impressed current anodes

=
the impressed current system design life in
years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode

Circuit Resistance
The total current output of a deep anode impressed current
system is given by the formula:
I = ED/Rtotal
Where ED

=
the voltage capacity of the dc power source
minus 2 volts

total circuit resistance of the deep anode


Rtotal =
impressed current system
The circuit resistance, RC, is represented by the equivalent
electrical circuit in Figure 10. For design purposes, a deep
anode bed is treated as if it were a single vertical anode.

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RRPL
I

Well
casing

Cathodic protection current

RLW

ED

RV
RRNL

I
RS

Figure 10. Deep Anode Impressed Current System and


Equivalent Electrical Circuit

The circuit resistance, RC, is given by the following formula:


Rtotal = RPW + RNW + RV + RS + RAW
Where RPW

=
the resistance in the positive lead wire from the
rectifier to the junction box

RAW

=
the equivalent resistance of the anode lead
wires in parallel

RV

=
the resistance of the anode bed column as a
single vertical anode

RS

RNW

=
the resistance in the negative lead wire from
the well casing to the rectifier

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Because the anode bed is treated as a single vertical anode, the


anode bed resistance can be calculated by using the Dwight
Equation as follows:

RV =

0.159eff 8L
In
1
d

Where RV

resistance of vertical anode to earth in ohms

effective soil resistivity in ohm-cm

length of coke breeze column in centimeters

diameter of deep anode hole in centimeters

The effective soil resistivity, , is the average resistivity over the


length of the coke breeze column where the anodes will be
placed. The soil resistivity is measured by using Geonics
instruments, or calculated from site measurement taken during
drilling of the anode hole.
The circuit resistance, RC, must be less than the maximum
allowable circuit resistance. The maximum circuit resistance,
Rmax, is given by the following formula:
Rmax = ED/I
Where ED

=
the driving voltage of the dc power source
minus 2 volts

=
the current output rating of the dc power
source

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Example 3
This example will demonstrate the preliminary design of a deep
anode bed to protect an onshore well casing in accordance with
Saudi Aramco standards and practices. Using the following
data, we will design the anode bed:
Current Required for Commissioning: 40 amperes
Average Soil Resistivity: 2500 ohm-cm
Well casing-to-soil resistance: 0.02 ohms
Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron
Anode consumption rate: 0.45 kg/A-yr
Weight per anode: 38.6 kg
Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3 cm length
Rectifier output rating: 50 V, 50 A
Wire resistance (total): 0.145 ohms
Coke breeze density: 1180 kg/m3
Distance from rectifier to junction box: 5 meters
Distance from rectifier to well casing: 150 meters
Depth at top of coke breeze column: 69 meters
Diameter of coke breeze column: 25 cm
Length of the Coke
Breeze Column
To estimate the number of anodes, the current required is
multiplied by the design life and the anode consumption rate.
Then the total weight is divided by the mass per anode as
follows:
N = (20 years)(50 A)(0.45 kg/A-yr)/38.6 kg per anode
= 12 anodes
If we use the current density formula for calculating the number
of anodes needed, we get:

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I/(dL x A)

=
50,000/ (9.5)(213.3)(0.7) = 11.2 anodes round
up to 12 anodes
Twelve high silicon chromium cast iron anodes (213.3 meters
long) spaced at 2.3 meter will be installed in the hole (Figure
11). Standard Drawing AA-036356 requires at least 3 m of coke
breeze above the anodes and recommends a minimum of 1.5 m
below the anodes. Also it is required to install a 3 meters
cement plug at the top of the hole and I meters cement plug at
the bottom. Therefore, the minimum length of this particular
coke breeze column is 3.0++ 3.0+(12 x 2.13) + (11 x 2.3) +
1.5+1 = 60 m.
Check for allowable
Anode Bed
Resistance
To verify that the proposed installation will comply with the
maximum allowable anode bed resistance, we need to calculate
the maximum allowable anode bed resistance and the
resistance of the proposed anode bed:
The resistance of the anode bed can be calculated using the
Dwight equation as follows:
RA = ((0.159 x 2500) / 5600) x (ln((8 x 5600) / 25) 1)
= 0.46 ohms
The allowable anode bed resistance (RAAB )can be calculated as
follows:
RAAB = Rmax Rs - Rw
= [((50-2) / 50) x 0.7] 0.02 0.145
= 0.507 ohms
The theoretical anode bed resistance is 0.46 ohms and it is
below the allowable anode bed resistance of 0.57 so it is
acceptable from that perspective.

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Figure 11. Length of the Coke Breeze


Column in a Deep Anode Bed

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Circuit Resistance
Assume that the Geonics instrument measured an effective soil
resistivity of 2500 ohm-cm. By using eff and treating the anode
bed as a single anode, we can calculate the deep anode bed
resistance. The anode bed is 25 cm in diameter and 6000 cm
long. Therefore, the anode bed resistance is as follows:
R

0.159 (2500 ) 8(6000 )


1 = 0.434 ohm
In
25
6000

Next, we must ensure that the total circuit resistance is less than
the maximum allowable circuit resistance and calculate the
amount of coke breeze required. The resistance in the rectifiers
negative and positive lead wires is calculated as follows
RNW + RPW = (150m + 5m)(110%)(0.85 x 10-3 ohm/m) = 0.145
ohm
The following is the equivalent resistance of the lead wires from
the junction box to the anodes:

1
(110% ) 1.35 10 3 ohm/m = 0.016
R
= n
AW

(1/(LA1 +i (2.13 +S)

i=0

Rtotal = 0.434 + 0.145 + 0.016 = 0.595 ohm.


The total circuit resistance is less than the maximum allowable
design circuit resistance, Rmax.
Rmax = (50-2 V/50 A * 0.7) = 0.672 ohm.
The formulas and procedure to design deep anode beds are
provided in Work Aid 2.

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL AND


TANK INTERIORS
Production vessels and storage tanks contain fluids that range
from very corrosive hot, sour brines to demineralized water or
steam condensate. Sometimes, coatings alone can adequately
protect vessels but only if there is no water or the water
resistivity is greater than 2000 ohm-cm. In most cases, both
coatings and cathodic protection are required to prevent
corrosion.
Galvanic anodes are usually the most economical choice except
in very large tanks. In drinking water systems, where
contamination from anode corrosion products is a concern,
Saudi Aramco uses indium activated aluminum galvanic
anodes. Saudi Aramco normally uses high silicon chromium
cast iron impressed current anodes to protect the interiors of
large tanks. Whenever impressed current systems are
considered, an economic analysis should be performed.
This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers
galvanic anode system designs for vessel and tank interiors.
The second part covers impressed current system designs for
tank interiors. The designs for both types of CP systems include
determining the following:

Cathodic protection current requirement

Design requirements in accordance with Saudi Aramco


Engineering Standards and Drawings

In Module 107.01, we calculated the total current requirement


by multiplying the required current density from SAES-X-500 by
the water-wetted surface area. Therefore, the designs in this
section assume that the total current requirement has been
calculated. After the following description of design
requirements from Saudi Aramcos standards and drawings,
methods and examples for designing galvanic and impressed
current systems are presented.

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Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings


The design of cathodic protection systems for vessel and tank
interiors is governed by SAES-X-500. SAES-X-500 states the
following:

Section 4.1.1 Cathodic protection is mandatory if the


resistivity of the contents of the tank or vessel will be 2000
ohm-centimeter or less at any time during the life of the tank
or vessel.

Section 4.3.1 - The minimum design life for galvanic or


impressed current anode systems shall be either 7 years, or
the testing and inspection (T&I) period, whichever is greater.

Section 4.5.1 - The steel-to-water potential shall be a


minimum of 0.90 V (current on) with reference to a Ag-AgCl
electrode, or a maximum of +0.15 V (current on) with
reference to a zinc electrode.

Section 4.6.3 - Aluminum and zinc anodes shall not be used


if the electrolyte resistivity at normal operating temperature is
more than 1000 ohm-centimeters.

Section 4.6.4 - Magnesium anodes shall not be used if the


electrolyte resistivity at normal operating temperature is less
than 500 ohm-centimeters.

Section 4.6.5 - Zinc anodes shall not be used in


environments where the temperature exceeds 50 C, except
for high temperature zinc anodes certified by the
manufacturer as suitable for use at temperatures up to a
maximum of 70 deg C.

Cathodic protection installation practices for tanks are based on


construction standards set in the following Standard Drawings:
AA-036354 (Water Storage Tanks Galvanic Anodes) and AA036353 (Water Storage Tanks Impressed Current). The
number, depth, and location of galvanic and impressed current
anodes are based on tank size, water level variation, and water
resistivity. Some diagrams from AA-036354 and
AA-036353 are shown in Figure 12.

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Weld

Junction box
0.01 ohm shunt

Access
hatch

Cable
Polypropylene
rope
Top View

Reference electrode
access hole

Anode Installation Detail

Access
hatch

Anode
Polypropylene
rope
See Anode
Installation Detail

Lead
wire

Cable tie

See Anode
String Detail

1.5 m

Anode String Detail

Figure 12. Galvanic Anodes for Water Storage Tanks,


Standard Drawing AA-036354

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Anode Assembly Detail

Reference
electrode

Header
cable

Anode
assembly

Junction
box

Top View
See Anode
Assembly Detail
Junction box

Reference
electrode
1.2m min.

Center of
Tank

h
1/ h
2

Figure 13. Impressed Current for Water Storage Tanks,


Standard Drawing AA-036353

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Galvanic Anode System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors


The design of galvanic anode systems for vessel and tank
interiors includes determining the following:

The current output per anode

The number of galvanic anodes required

Galvanic anode life

After describing these calculations, an example, which


demonstrates the design of galvanic anode systems, is
provided.
Current Output Per
Anode
The current output of a single galvanic anode in a vessel or tank
is given by the following formula:
IA = ED/Rtotal
Where IA

current output of a single anode

ED

anode driving potential

Rtotal =

total circuit resistance for one anode

The circuit resistance of a single anode, RC, is represented in


Figure 14, in the equivalent electrical circuit.

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IA

RLW

ED
RV
RS

Galvanic anode

Figure 14. Tank Galvanic Anode System and Equivalent


Electrical Circuit for Each Anode

The circuit resistance is given by the following formula:


Rtotal = RS + RW + RA,
Where RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms

RLW

the anode lead wire resistance in ohms

RA

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms

The anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single vertical anode,


RV, is given by the Dwight Equation.
RA =

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Where RA

=
resistance of one vertical anode to the
electrolyte in ohms

resistivity of the electrolyte in ohm-cm

length of the anode in centimeters

diameter of the anode in centimeters

Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required
The number of galvanic anodes required is calculated by
dividing the total current requirement by the current output of a
single galvanic anode as shown in the following equation:
N = I/IA
Where N

the number of anodes

=
the total current required to protect the
structure

IA

the current output of a single anode

Galvanic Anode Life


The number of anodes required to achieve the necessary life
can be calculated if the weight of one anode and total current
output of all anodes are known. The number of anodes required
is given by:

N=

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Where N

number of anodes

anode life in years

weight of one anode in kg

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

total current output in amperes

Example 4
Given the following engineering data, we will calculate the
current output, number, and life of galvanic anodes required to
protect the interior of a water storage tank.
Tank diameter: 60 meters
Maximum water level: 23 meters
Internal coating: Epoxy
Structure-to-electrolyte resistance: negligible
Lead wire resistance: negligable
Water resistivity: 100 ohm-cm
Anode: Aluminum
Anode dimensions: 152.4 cm dia. x 6.3 cm
Anode actual consumption: 3.7 kg/A-yr
Anode weight: 10.91 kg
Anode solution potential: -1.05 V versus Ag-AgCl
Required structure-to-electrolyte potential: -0.90 V versus AgAgCl
Surface Area
The surface area is given by the sum of the area of the bottom
plus the area of shell in contact with the water:
S.A. = r2 + dL = 7163 m2
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The current requirement is given by the surface area multiplied


by the cathodic current density:

I = S.A. x s = 7163m x 0.5mA/m2 = 3581.5 mA = 3.6 amps

The driving voltage is given by:


Ed = Eo Ep = 1.05 0.9 = 0.15 volts

The maximum acceptable total circuit resistance is given by:


Rmax = Ed / I = 0.15 / 3.6 = 0.042 ohms

The allowable anode bed resistance is given by:


Rmax = Raab + Rs + RLW
0.042 = Raab + 0.0 + 0.0
Raab = 0.042
Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required to
Comply with
Resistance
Considering that the electrolyte is low resistivity and we are
using galvanic anodes, we can use Dwights equation for one
anode and parallel resistance theories to determine the
combined anode resistance as follows:
RV =

0.159 8L 0.159(100 ) 8(152.4 )


- 1 = 0.47 ohms
- 1 =
ln
ln
5
152.4
L d

To achieve Raab = 0.042 we need 0.47 / 0.042 = 11.2 anodes, or


at least 12 anodes.

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Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required to
Comply with Life
The minimum number of anodes required to achieve a 7 year
life for this tank is given by:
N = (Y x I x C) / W = (7yr x 3.6A x 3.7kg/Ay) / 10.91kg = 8.6
anodes, or at least 9 anodes.
Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required for
the Final Design
The minimum number of anodes required to achieve the
resistance and life requirements is 12 anodes

Impressed Current System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors


The design of impressed current systems for vessel and tank
interiors includes determining the following:

The number of impressed current anodes required

The circuit resistance

After describing these calculations, an example, which


demonstrates the design of an impressed current system for a
tank interior, is provided.
Number of Impressed
Current Anodes
Required
The number of anodes can be calculated based on the anodes
maximum current output in the electrolyte or the anodes
consumption rate. It is necessary to use the method that gives
the more conservative value; that is, the method that results in
the greatest number of anodes.
To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the
anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:
N = I/(dL x A)
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Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes*

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2

To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the


anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of impressed current anodes

=
the impressed current system design life in
years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode

Circuit Resistance
Impressed current anodes in vessels or tanks are connected in
parallel as shown in Figure 15. The circuit resistance includes
the anode resistances in parallel and the resistances in the
negative and positive lead wires of the rectifier.

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RRPL
I
ED
RRNL

I1

I2

RA1

RA2

Impressed current anodes

RS

Figure 15. Tank Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit

The equivalent resistance of N resistances in parallel is obtained


from the following formula:
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
Req R A1 R A2
R AN

If the resistances are equal, the equivalent resistance is given


by the following formula:
N
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
=
R AN R A
R eq R A R A

Req =

RA
N

Therefore, the circuit resistance is given by the formula shown


below:

Rtotal = R PW +

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RA
+ R S + R NW
N

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Where RC

=
the circuit resistance of the entire impressed
current system in ohms

RRPL =
the resistance in the positive lead wire from the
rectifier to the junction box
N

the number of impressed current anodes

RA

=
the resistance of a single impressed current
anode

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

the resistance in the negative lead wire from


RRNL =
the structure to the rectifier
The totalcircuit resistance, Rtotal, must be less than the
maximum allowable circuit resistance given by the formula
Rmax = ED/I
Where ED

=
the current output rating of the dc power
source

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Example 5
We will design an impressed current system to protect a large,
bare storage tank by using the following information:
Current required: 30 amperes (Use 50V/50A rectifier)
(Surface area and current density per SAES-X-300)
Structure-to-electrolyte resistance: negligible
Anode lead wire resistance: 0.038 ohms
Rectifier negative lead resistance: 0.04 ohm
Rectifier positive lead resistance: 0.05 ohm
Water resistivity: 15 ohm-cm
Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron
Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3" dia.
Anode weight: 38.6kg
Anode maximum current density: 0.7 mA/cm2
Anode consumption rate: 0.45 kg/A-yr
Required structure-to-electrolyte potential: -0.90 V versus
Ag-AgCl
Number of Impressed
Current Anodes
Using the Anode current density method
N = 50,000 / (3.14 x 9.5 x 213.3) = 11.2 Anodes

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Therefore, the number of anodes required is:


12 anodes.

Using the Life method


N = 7 x 50
Circuit Resistance
The resistance of the 12 anodes in parallel is given by the
following formula:

RA =

+R

We can solve for RV by using the Dwight Equation for a single


anode as follows.

0.159 8L 0.159(15 ) 8(213 )


- 1 = 0.047 ohm
In
ln d 1 =
9.5
213
L

Substituting all resistance values into the circuit resistance


formula we obtain the following circuit resistance:

+R
AW
V +R
NW
PW
C
N
0.038 + 0.047
+ 0.05
R = 0.04 +
C
12
R = 0.097 ohm
C
R

=R

The calculated circuit resistance is less than the maximum


allowable design circuit resistance, which is
Rmax = (50 V 2V)/50 A x 0.7 = 0.67ohms

The formulas and procedure used to design an impressed


current system to protect the interior of a vessel or tank are
provided in Work Aid 3B.

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT


FACILITIES
There are a particular set of problems involved when
cathodically protecting structures within a plant area.
Hydrocarbon lines, firewater piping, buried valves, and tank
bottoms are examples of critical systems, which require
cathodic protection in plant areas. Significant external corrosion
problems are caused by the buried copper grounding grid,
which is designed to protect personnel in case of an electrical
ground fault. Buried steel is anodic to copper and will corrode
rapidly if electrically connected and in the same soil.
Saudi Aramco protects above-ground storage tanks and plant
piping with close, or distributed impressed current systems. this
type of design is applicable in congested areas such as plants
because (1) remote anode beds are electrically shielded by
other buried structures, and (2) some buried metal in the plant
does not require cathodic protection (e.g., rebar in foundations).
The design of impressed current systems that protect external
tank bottoms and plant piping involve determination of the
following:

Design requirements using Saudi Aramco standards and


drawings

The current required to shift the potential of the earth under


the tank bottom or around the piping

The number of impressed current anodes required

After the following information about Saudi Aramcos standards


and drawings is presented, a method and example are given to
demonstrate the design of impressed current systems to protect
plant piping and tank bottoms.

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Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings


The design of cathodic protection systems for plant facilities is
governed by SAES-X-600, structures which are cathodically
protected include the following:

Pressurized and non-pressurized steel hydrocarbon


pipelines.

Bottoms or soil side of above ground storage tanks

Buried storage tanks.

Sea walls and associated anchors.

Pipeline casings for pressurized piping at road or dike


crossings.

Buried or the buried portions of metal support piles, valves,


hydrants, monitors and fittings.

SAES-X-600 also states the following:

The design life of impressed current anode systems shall be


20 years.

The maximum system operating voltage shall be 100 volts.

Designs for plant CP systems shall utilized the earth


potential rise method, using distributed impressed current
systems or continuous impressed current anodes. A
combination of remote and distributed anodes may also be
used in certain cases.

The minimum structure-to-soil potentials of plant structures are


listed in Table 4, Reference SAES-X-600, section 4.5.

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Table 4. Minimum Required Potentials of Plant Structures

Structure

Required Potential

Buried Plant Piping

-1.00 to 3.0 volt (current on), -850 mV off potential,


or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4
electrode

Buried Metal Pipeline


Casings

-1.00 to 3.0 volt (current on), -850 mV off potential,


or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4
electrode

On Grade Tank
Bottoms

-1.00 to 3.0 volt (current on), -850 mV off potential,


or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4
electrode

Buried Storage Tanks

-1.00 to 3.0 volt (current on), -850 mV off potential,


or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4
electrode

Buried Metal Valves,


Hydrants, Monitors and
Fittings

-1.00 volt or more negative (current on), versus CuSO4


electrode

Sea Walls (Water Side)

-0.90 volt or more negative (current on), versus AgCl


electrode

Sea Walls (Soil Side)

-0.85 volt or more negative (current on), versus CuSO4


electrode

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Cathodic protection designs for existing tanks are based on


construction standards set in Standard Drawing AA-036355
Tank Bottom Impressed Current Details. AA-036355 requires a
distance between the anodes and the tank of about one-quarter
of the tanks radius. Some diagrams from AA-036355 are shown
in Figure 16.
Cathodic protection systems for new tanks require the
installation of anodes installed directly under the storage tank
bottom. Two of the common systems used for this type of an
application are mixed metal oxide grid type anodes, and
polymeric continuous anodes, shown in Figures 18A and 18B,
respectively.

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Figure 16. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036355,


Tank Bottom Impressed Current Details

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Figure 17A. Typical Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) Grid Anode System
Impressed Current for Storage Tank Bottom External

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Figure 17B. Monitoring Techniques for Typical Impressed Current Continuous


Anode System for Storage Tank Bottom External

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Number and Placement of Anodes in Distributed Anode Beds


Saudi Aramco uses distributed anode beds in congested areas
where electrical shielding prevents the use of remote anode bed
installations. Normally, high silicon chromium cast iron anodes
are used. Distributed anode systems are designed so that the
structure to be protected is within the area of influence that
surrounds each anode (see Figure 18). The idea of this type of
design is to change the potential of the earth around the
structure. The earth within the area of influence of each currentdischarging anode will be positive with respect to remote earth.
For a buried pipeline run in a plant area, there is a limited length
of the pipeline section where the net potential difference
between the pipeline and adjacent soil will be sufficient to attain
cathodic protection. Note in the figure that although a single
anode may cathodically protect the pipeline section closest to it,
the anode cannot adequately protect the rest of the buried
pipeline length.

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Figure 18. Area of Influence of a Distributed Anode

It must be remembered that the earth potential change is


additive for all the anodes that cause a change (see
Figure 19). Hence, the earth potential shift at a given point on
the buried pipeline must include the potential shift caused by
neighboring anodes. For example, if the earth potential shift at a
given point is 0.2 volt from one anode and 0.1 volt from a
neighboring anode, then the total earth potential change would
be 0.3 volt.

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Figure 19. Additive Effect of Distributed Anodes

To determine the spacing between anodes, there will be some


calculations involved to be sure that an adequate potential shift
is achieved at all points along the protected structure. The
number and size of anodes shall be determined based on
providing a sufficient voltage gradient over the entire length of
the buried pipeline, to achieve the protection criteria.
The amount of earth potential change depends on (1) the size
and shape of each anode, (2) the anodes position relative to
the structure to be protected, (3) the current flow, and (4) the
soil resistivity. The earth potential shift is given by the following
formulas:
(1) For a single vertical anode
V =

0.5 * l * p
L2 + X2 + L
ln
*L
X

(see Figure 20).

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(2) For a single horizontal anode

(0.5L )2 + X2 + h2 + 0.5L
I
V =
ln
L
X2 + h2
Where V

=
earth potential change at the center of the tank
in volts

current flow in amperes

soil resistivity in ohm-cm

anode length in cm

=
horizontal distance from the anode to the
pipeline in cm (see Figure 20).

depth of burial to centerline of anode in cm

Figure 20. Placement of Distributed Anode

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Circuit Resistance
Impressed current anodes around a tank are connected in
parallel as shown in Figure 21. Saudi Aramco normally uses
high silicon chromium cast iron anodes.

Figure 21. External Tank Bottom Impressed Current


System and Equivalent Circuit

The circuit resistance of the impressed current system is given


by the following formula:

RC = R NW + R AW

RA
+ R S + R PW
N

Where Rtotal

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the total circuit resistance of the entire impressed


current system

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RPW

=
the resistance in the positive lead wire from the
rectifier to the junction box

RAW

the resistance in the header cable

the number of impressed current anodes

RA

=
the resistance of a single impressed current
anode

RS

RNW

=
the resistance in the negative lead wire from
the structure to the rectifier

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

The resistance, RA, is given by the following formula:


RA = RW + RV,

Where RW

the anode lead wire resistance in ohms

RV

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms

The anode lead wire resistance, RLW, is very small and can be
ignored. Therefore, RA is equal to the anode-to-electrolyte
resistance of a single vertical anode, which is given by the
Dwight Equation.

RA = RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where RV

=
resistance of one vertical anode to the
electrolyte in ohms

resistivity of the electrolyte in ohm-cm

length of the backfill in centimeters

diameter of the backfill in centimeters

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For high resistivity soils like those found in Saudi Arabia, RV is


much greater than the sum of the other resistances. Therefore,
RRPL, RRNL, RCBL, and RS, can be ignored.

Example 6
Given the following engineering data, we will design an
impressed current system to protect a buried pipeline section.
Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron
Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213 .3cm (backfill, 25 cm dia. x
300 cm)
Pipeline length: 300 m long
Pipeline horizontal distance from anodes: 5 m
Spacing between anodes: 25 m
Pipeline native potential: -0.5 V vs. CuSO4 electrode
Soil resistivity: 2,000 ohm-cm
Rectifier output rating: 50 V, 35 A
Number and
Placement of
Impressed Current
Anodes

The number and placement of impressed current anodes can be


easily calculated by using the earth potential shift formula in a
spread sheet format. Varying the anode spacing and anode
output current results in obtaining the required potential levels.
This spacing and current output can then be used for the CP
system design.
Minimum number of anodes
SAES-X-600 requires sufficient anodes to discharge the rectifier
amperage rating without exceeding the maximum anode current
density provided that the 20 years life is met. The minimum
number of anodes for this system should be:
1. Using the current density method:

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N=

I
35,000
=
(dL A ) ( * 9.5 * 213.3 * 0.7) = 7.8

2. Using the consumption rate method:


N=

(20 yrs)(35A )(0.45kg/A


Y I C
=
W
38.6kg

yr )

= 8.2

Use a minimum of 9 anodes. The output of each anode is:


I = 35/9 = 3.8 amps
Anode Gradient Calculation
Using the spreadsheet program, the anode gradient effects are
as follows:
ANODE GRADIENT CHANGE
VERTICAL ANODE

A2

A4

Y
P2

P1

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

SOIL RESISTIVITY

2000 ohm-cm

A1 CURRENT

3.8

amps

DISTANCE ( X )

2500 cm

A2 CURRENT

3.8

amps

DISTANCE ( Y )

500

cm

A3 CURRENT

3.8

amps

ANODE LENGTH

300

cm

A4 CURRENT

3.8

amps

POINT
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9

NATIVE

TOTAL

A1

DISTANCE FROM
A2

A3

A4

A1

POTENTIAL RISE (V) CAUSED BY


A2

A3

A4

POT.

POT.

1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2
5024.9
6270.0
7516.6
8764.3

3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2
5024.9
6270.0

6270.0
5024.9
3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2

8764.3
7516.6
6270.0
5024.9
3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3

0.89
2.29
0.89
0.47
0.32
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.14

0.32
0.47
0.89
2.29
0.89
0.47
0.32
0.24
0.19

0.19
0.24
0.32
0.47
0.89
2.29
0.89
0.47
0.32

0.14
0.16
0.19
0.24
0.32
0.47
0.89
2.29
0.89

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

2.04
3.67
2.80
3.98
2.92
3.98
2.80
3.67
2.04

Figure 22A. Anode Gradient Effects

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The potential at some points on the pipeline exceeds the 3.0


volt maximum criteria and as a result the current output of the
anodes should be decreased.
Calculating the gradient for anode output of 2 amps will result in
the following numbers:
ANODE GRADIENT CHANGE
VERTICAL ANODE

A2

A4

Y
P2

P1

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

SOIL RESISTIVITY

2000 ohm-cm

A1 CURRENT

amps

DISTANCE ( X )

2500 cm

A2 CURRENT

amps

DISTANCE ( Y )

500

cm

A3 CURRENT

amps

ANODE LENGTH

300

cm

A4 CURRENT

amps

POINT
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9

NATIVE

TOTAL

A1

DISTANCE FROM
A2

A3

A4

A1

POTENTIAL RISE (V) CAUSED BY


A2

A3

A4

POT.

POT.

1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2
5024.9
6270.0
7516.6
8764.3

3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2
5024.9
6270.0

6270.0
5024.9
3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3
2549.5
3783.2

8764.3
7516.6
6270.0
5024.9
3783.2
2549.5
1346.3
500.0
1346.3

0.47
1.21
0.47
0.25
0.17
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.07

0.17
0.25
0.47
1.21
0.47
0.25
0.17
0.13
0.10

0.10
0.13
0.17
0.25
0.47
1.21
0.47
0.25
0.17

0.07
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.17
0.25
0.47
1.21
0.47

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

1.31
2.17
1.71
2.33
1.77
2.33
1.71
2.17
1.31

Figure 22B. Anode Gradient Effects

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Number of anodes based on the anode separation


The number is calculated as follows:

N=

Pipe Length
+ 1= 300 + 1 = 13 anodes
25
X

Output of anodes

I= I

= 35 = 2.7 amps
N 13
rect

2.0

The maximum output of each anode should be calculated as


follows to ensure that it can discharge the amount of current that
the calculation was based on:

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MARINE


STRUCTURES
Saudi Aramco cathodically protects the entire submerged
surface area of marine structures (see Figure 23). This
submerged surface area extends from the base of the structure
to the Indian Spring Mean High Tide Level. To calculate the
current required to protect the structure, you must know the
following:

The area of steel which is immersed in sea water

The area of steel which is immersed below the mud line

The actual or anticipated number of well casings

Any insulated or unprotected foreign structures

And the required current density for the specific environment

Splash zone

Water line

Immersed zone
Mud line

Figure 23. Offshore Platform


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The immersed surface areas can be calculated from drawings


and specifications of the structure or obtained from the structure
designer.
This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers
galvanic anode system designs for marine structures. Saudi
Aramco cathodically protects all marine structures and pipelines
with galvanic anodes. The second part covers impressed
current systems. Impressed current systems are used when ac
power is available. When used with a galvanic anode system,
an impressed current system is intended as the primary system.
The galvanic anode system is used as a backup for the
following two reasons:
1)

To protect the structure until the impressed current system


is energized.

2)

To protect the structure when electrical power is


interrupted. Power can be interrupted during break downs
or during scheduled shutdowns.

The designs for both types of CP systems involve determination


of design requirements by using Saudi Aramco Engineering
Standards and Drawings. Therefore, after the following
information about Saudi Aramcos standards and drawings,
methods and examples for designing galvanic and impressed
current systems are described separately.

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings


The design of cathodic protection systems for marine structures
is governed by SAES-X-300. Section 4.3 & 4.5 of SAES-X-300
states the following:

Galvanic anode systems, when used alone, shall have a


design life of 25 years.

Galvanic anode systems accompanied by impressed current


systems shall have a design life of 5 years and the
impressed current system shall have a design life of 20
years.

The cathodic protection system shall achieve a minimum


structure-to-electrolyte potential of -0.90 volt versus Ag-AgCl

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over the entire structure. Saudi Aramco (SAES-X-300)


requires the following current densities in the immersed
surface areas.
Table 5. Current Density Criteria

Current Density (mA/m2)


Environment
Coated

Coated
Structure (1)

Uncoated Pipeline
Structure

Seawater (2)

10

2.5

50

Mud or Soil

10

2.5

20

Notes: (1) Coated structures not including coated pipelines


(2) Higher current densities may be required depending on water
turbulence and/or velocity.

Cathodic protection designs for offshore structures are based on


construction standards set in the following Standard Drawings:
AA-036348 (Galvanic and Impressed Current Anodes on
Offshore Structures), AA-036409 (Replacement of Galvanic
Anodes on Offshore Structures and Risers), and AA-036335
(Half Shell Bracelet Type Anode for Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60").
Standard Drawing AA-036335 states that the maximum spacing
for all sizes of anode bracelets shall be 150 meters. Some
diagrams from AA-036348, AA-036409, and AA-036335 are
shown in Figures 24 and 25.

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75 mm dia.
coating
removed

Anode bracelet

Copper cable thermite


welded to pipe
AA-036335
Galvanic Anode Bracelet
for Submarine Pipelines

Mean Sea Level

Aluminum Alloy

Pipeline Riser

Anodes laid on
sea bed under
pile structure
Pile Mounted Anode
AA-036409
Anodes Installed on the Sea Bed
AA-036409

Figure 24. Diagrams from Standard Drawings AA-036409 and AA-036335

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Nylon
Strapping
Galvanic
anodes

Impressed
current anode

Dielectric
shield

Impressed
current anodes

Impressed Current Anode

Typical Galvanic and Impressed Anodes

Typical Jacket Leg


Junction Box.

2" PVC Coated


Conduit
1-1/2" Conduit

Main Deck

Junction Box Mounting for


Impressed Current Anode Cables

Figure 25. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036348

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AA-036348

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Galvanic Anode System Design for Marine Structures


Saudi Aramco uses indium-doped aluminum alloy or zinc-tindoped aluminum alloy galvanic anodes to protect marine
structures. Galvanic anodes are usually installed at least
30 cm (1 ft.) from the structure. A calcareous build-up forms on
the structure as it polarizes. This build-up increases the current
distribution of the anodes. Galvanic anode bracelets are used to
protect marine pipelines.
The design of galvanic anode systems for marine structures
(such as platforms, mooring buoys, etc.) involves determining
the following:

The number of galvanic anodes required

Galvanic anode life

The design of galvanic anode systems for marine pipelines


involves determining the following:

The number of galvanic anode bracelets required

The spacing of the bracelets

After describing these calculations, an example, which


demonstrates the design of a galvanic anode system for a
marine platform and pipeline, is provided.
Number of Galvanic
Anodes Required

The number of anodes needed to protect a marine structure


depends on the total current required and the current output per
anode. In Module 107.01, we calculated the total current
requirement by multiplying the required current density from
SAES-X-300 by the immersed surface area of the marine
structure. The total number of anodes is calculated by using the
following equation:
N = I/IA

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Where N

the number of anodes

=
the total current required to protect the
structure

IA

the current output of a single anode

The current output from a single anode, IA, can be found using
the following equation:
IA = ED/Rtotal,

Where IA

ED

=
the anode driving potential in volts versus AgAgCl

Rtotal =

anode current output in amperes

the total circuit resistance in ohms

Circuit Resistance

The total circuit resistance, Rtotal , is given by the following


equation:
Rtotal = RS + RV

Where RS

=
the structure-to-electrolyte resistance (for
offshore structures, this is negligible)

RV

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance

For galvanic anodes on marine structures, the Dwight Equation


is used to calculate RV.

RV =

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0.159 8L
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Where

the electrolyte (seawater) resistivity in ohm-cm

the length of the anode in centimeters

=
the diameter of the anode in centimeters or the
circumference divided by for non-cylindrical shapes

Galvanic Anode Life

The anodes must last over the design life of the system. The
number of anodes required to provide the necessary life is given
by the following equation.

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of anodes

anode life in years

weight of one anode in kg

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

total current output in amperes

Number and Spacing


of Galvanic Anode
Bracelets

The number of anode bracelets required to protect a marine


pipeline is calculated as follows.
N = L/150 m

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Where N

the number of anode bracelets

length of the pipeline

The anode bracelets must last over the design life of the
pipeline. The anode life is given by the following equation.

N=

Y I C
W

Where -

Number of anodes

anode life in years

net weight of one anode bracelet in kg

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

current output of one anode in amperes

The net weight per bracelet, W, can be obtained from Standard


Drawing AA-036335 (see also Work Aid 5A). The current
requirement for one anode bracelet, IA, can be calculated by
dividing the total current requirement by the number of anode
bracelets.
An alternative method involves calculating the current output of
a single anode bracelet by dividing the driving potential of the
galvanic anode material by the circuit resistance. As shown
previously, the circuit resistance is equivalent to the anode-toelectrolyte resistance because the structure-to-electrolyte
resistance is negligible. For bracelet type anodes, the following
equation is used to calculate the anode-to-electrolyte
resistance.
RA =

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Where RA

=
the anode-to-electrolyte resistance for bracelet
type anodes

the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm

the exposed surface area of the anode in cm2

Then, the number of anodes can be calculated by dividing the


total current requirement by the current output of a single anode
bracelet.

Example 7
We will calculate the number of Galvalum III anodes needed to
protect an offshore platform and a coated marine pipeline. We
will use the following information to design the platforms
galvanic anode system:

Current required: 250 amperes

Galvalum III solution potential: -1.05 V versus Ag-AgCl

Galvalum III anode dimensions: 28 cm x 28 cm x 304.8 cm


(11" x 11" x 120")

Galvalum III anode weight: 625 kg (1,380 lbs.)

Galvalum III consumption rate: 3.7 kg/A-yr

Water resistivity: 15 ohm-cm

Required structure potential: -0.90 V versus Ag-AgCl

Number of Anodes

The current output of each anode is given by the equation I =


ED/RA. The driving potential of the Galvalum III anode is
ED = 1.05 V - 0.90 V = 0.15 V versus Ag-AgCl.

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To calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of the anode,


we must insert its dimensions and the water resistivity into the
Dwight Equation. The effective diameter of the anode is
d = (28+28+28+28)/ = 35.7 cm.

Therefore, the anode-to-electrolyte resistance is

RV =

0.159 8L
1 =0.025 ohms
In
d

and the current output of a single Galvalum III anode on the


platform is:
I = ED/RV = 0.15 V/0.025 ohm = 6.0 A.

The number of anodes required to produce the required current


is:
N = 250 amperes/6.0 amperes per anode = 42 anodes.
Galvanic Anode Life

The lifetime of one anode is

625kg
=
= 28 years.
Y =
*
C
I
3.7kg/amp
yr.
6.0amp

This is greater than the design lifetime of 10 years.


Now, using the following information, we will calculate the
current requirement and number of Galvalum III anodes needed
to protect the coated marine pipeline:
Length of pipeline: 4.5 km

Pipe diameter: 45.7 cm

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Number and Spacing


of Galvanic Anode
Bracelets

The number of anode bracelets required is:


N = 4500 m/150 m = 30 bracelets.

According to Standard Drawing AA-036335 (see table in Work


Aid 5A), the net anode material weight of a bracelet for a 45.cm
(18) diameter pipeline is 61 kg.
The formulas and procedure used to design galvanic anode
systems for marine structures and offshore pipelines are
provided in Work Aid 5A.

Impressed Current System Design for Marine Structures


The driving potentials of impressed current anodes are much
greater than galvanic anodes. Therefore, fewer impressed
current anodes are required to provide the same amount of
current. However, their placement is more critical to achieve
adequate current distribution. An impressed current anode will
tend to over-protect areas close to it and under-protect more
remote areas. To improve the current distribution of impressed
current anodes, the following methods are sometimes used:
An insulating shield is installed on the structure near
impressed current anodes.

Impressed current anodes are separated from the structure


by at least 1.5 m.

The design of impressed current systems for marine structures


involves determining:
The number of impressed current anodes required

The rectifier voltage requirement

After describing these calculations, an example, which


demonstrates the design of an impressed current system to
protect a marine platform, is provided.

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Number of Impressed
Current Anodes
Required

The number of impressed current anodes is calculated based


on the maximum anode current output as follows:

N=

ITotal
IA

Where ITotal

=
Total current requirement for an impressed
current system

IA

=
The maximum current output of one impressed
current anode

The maximum current output is the maximum current density of


the anode material multiplied by the anode surface area.
Rectifier Voltage
Requirement

Saudi Aramco sizes the rectifier to meet the total current


requirement of the anodes. The rectifier output voltage is given
by the following formula:

E=

IRe ctifier
RC

The total circuit resistance, RC, is given by the following formula:

Rtotal = R NW + R PW +

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R LW + RV
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Where Rtotal =
the total circuit resistance of the entire
impressed current system
RPW

=
the resistance in the positive lead wire from the
rectifier to the junction box

RNW

=
the resistance in the negative lead wire from
the structure to the rectifier

RV

=
the resistance of a single impressed current
anode (Dwight Equation)

RAW

the number of impressed current anodes

anode lead wire resistance

Note that the structure-to-electrolyte resistance, RS, is omitted


from the formula for Rtotal. This is because RS is negligible in
seawater.

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Example 8
We will design an impressed current system to protect the
previous offshore platform for which we designed a galvanic
anode system. However, assume that the platform is also
electrically bonded to four conductor pipes with wells.
Current required for platform: 175 amperes
Anode material: Platinized niobium
Anode dimensions: 2.5 dia x 76.2 cm (3" dia. x 30")
Anode max. current output density: 40 mA/cm2
Water resistivity: 15 ohm-cm
Anode lead wire: No. 2 AWG, 50 meters long
Lead wire resistance: 0.531 x 10-3 ohm/m
Total resistance in both rectifier lead wires: 0.02 ohm
Current requirement for conductor pipes: 25 amperes each
Current requirement for conductor pipes: 3 amperes each
Corrected Current
Requirement

The total current requirement for the platform and conductor


pipes is:
I = 175 A +(4)(25 A) + (4)(3 A) = 287 A.

Select 300 amps rectifier for the stock

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Number of Anodes
Required

The current output of a single platinized niobium anode is


IA = (2.5 cm)(76.2 cm)(40 mA/cm2) = 23,939 mA = 23.9 A.
The number of anodes required is
N = ICorr/IA = 300 A/23.9 A = 12.6 anodes = 13 anodes.
Rectifier Voltage
Requirement

The output voltage is given by the equation E = ICorrRC. The


total circuit resistance, RC, is calculated as follows: (Remember,
RS is negligible in seawater)

RC = RRNL + RRPL +

RLW + RV
N

The anode-to-electrolyte resistance, RV, is calculated using the


Dwight Equation as follows:
RV =

0.159 8L 0.159(15 ) 8(76.2)


1 =
1 = 0.14 ohm
In
In
L
76.2
2.5
d

The anode lead wire resistance is:


RAW = (50 m)(0.531 x 10 -3 ohm/m) = 0.03 ohm.
The total resistance in the rectifier lead wires, RRPL + RRNL, is
0.02 ohm. Therefore, the circuit resistance is
RC = 0.02 + (0.14 + 0.03)/13 = 0.033 ohm.

The voltage requirement of the rectifier is:


E = ICorrRC = (300 A)(0.033 ohms) = 10 volts.

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Considering that the design circuit resistance should be 70% of


the rated circuit resistance of the rectifier:
E=10/0.7 = 15 volts
Therefore, select 25 volts/ 300 amps rectifier
Formulas and procedures used to design impressed current
systems for marine structures are provided in Work Aid 5B.

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WORK AIDS
WORK AID 1A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE TO
DESIGN GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR ROAD
AND CAMEL CROSSINGS
This Work Aid provides formulas, and a procedure for determining the number, circuit
resistance, current output, and design life of galvanic anodes used to protect buried
pipelines. These can be used to determine additional quantities of galvanic anodes, if
the anode requirement is greater than the minimum required by standard drawing AA036352.

Formulas
Number of Galvanic Anodes Required
N = IR/IA
Where
IR

current required for protection (amperes)

IA

current output of a single anode (amperes)


Galvanic Anode Current Output

IA = ED/RC
Where IA

anode current output (amperes)

ED

driving potential of the galvanic anode (volts)

RC

circuit resistance (ohms)


Circuit Resistance

RC = RS +

RLW + RV

Where -

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RC

circuit resistance (ohms)

RS

the structure-to-soil resistance (ohms)

RLW

the lead wire resistance (ohms)

RV

the resistance of a single vertical anode to earth (ohms)

the number of anodes


Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where RV

resistance of vertical anode to earth in ohms

resistivity of soil in ohm-cm

length of anode (or backfill column) in centimeters

diameter of anode (or backfill column) in centimeters


Galvanic Anode Life

W UF

Y=
C I A
Where Y

life in years

anode mass in kg

UF

utilization factor

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

anode current output in amperes

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Procedure
1.0 Determine the number of anodes.
1.1 Obtain the dimensions of buried pipe section and calculate the pipeline
protection current requirement.
1.2 From the calculations in Step 2.0 below, determine if the minimum
number of anodes specified in standard drawing AA-036352 will meet
the required current, and anode life requirements. If not, then repeat
step 2.0 using N>minimum number of anodes specified, to obtain the
required current and design life...
2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode dimensions (in centimeters)
Chemical backfill package dimensions (in centimeters)
Soil resistivity
2.2

If the anode is bare, determine the working diameter of the galvanic


anode.
If anode is cylindrical, use its diameter (in centimeters)
If anode is not cylindrical, calculate its effective diameter
(circumference/3.14).

2.3 Calculate the anode-to-earth resistance by inserting the values for soil
resistivity and the backfill dimensions into the Dwight Equation. In
Subkha, where no backfill package is used, insert the anode
dimensions.
2.4 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and anode-to-earth
resistance by the number of anodes. Add this resistance to the
structure-to-electrolyte resistance to calculate the circuit resistance.
3.0 Calculate the anode current output.
3.1 Divide the anode driving potential by the circuit resistance calculated in
Step 2.4.

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4.0 Calculate the galvanic anode life.


4.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode mass in kg
Anode utilization factor
Actual anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr
Substitute the anode current output from Step 3.1 and the values
from Step 4.1 into the Galvanic Anode Life formula and
calculate the anode life.

WORK AID 1B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN


IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR BURIED
PIPELINES
This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to calculate the number and spacing
of impressed current anodes and the volume of coke breeze needed for the anode bed.
This procedure assumes that you have determined the current requirement and
allowable anode bed resistance.

Formulas
Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current
Density
N = I/(dL x A)
Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2


Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C
W

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Where N

number of impressed current anodes

the impressed current system design life in years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode in kg

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Design Circuit Resistance:


RC <= Rmax x 0.7
Where RD

Rmax =

circuit resistance
maximum circuit resistance

And Rmax =

V-2/I for rectifier & photovoltaic systems

Rmax =

Raab + RLW + RS

rectifier or PV system rated voltage

Rectifier rated current

Raab

allowable anode bed resistance

RLW

total lead wire resistance

RS

structure resistance
Sunde Equation (for multiple vertical anodes in parallel)

RV =

0.159 8L 2L

In
1 +
(
In0.656N)

S
NL d

Where RV

resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in parallel and spaced S


centimeters apart along a straight line.

soil resistivity in ohm-cm

number of anodes

length of anode (or backfill column) in centimeters

diameter of anode (or backfill column) in centimeters

anode spacing in centimeters

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Procedure
1.0 Determine the minimum number of impressed current anodes.
1.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode material
Anode weight (in kg)
Anode consumption rate
Coke breeze backfill column dimensions (in centimeters)
Soil resistivity (in ohm-cm)
Current required
Design circuit resistance
Structure-to-electrolyte resistance
Total lead wire resistance
1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode
current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the
largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas. Round up
to the nearest multiple of 10.
2.0 Determine the anode bed resistance.
2.1 Calculate the rated circuit resistance, RR, of the CP power source.
2.2 For a vertical anode bed, calculate Rab by using the Sunde equation.
2.3 Determine the maximum allowable value of the CP system design
circuit resistance, RD (70% of the rated circuit resistance RR ). The
calculated value of RD should not exceed the maximum allowable
value. If it does, relocate the anode bed to a lower resistivity location,
increase the number of anodes, or increase the anode bed length to
decrease RAB. Larger diameter negative and positive cables can also
be used to decrease RLW.

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3.0 Calculate the weight of coke breeze needed for the anode bed.
3.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode diameter and length (in centimeters)
Coke breeze column dimensions
Coke breeze density
3.2 Subtract the volume of one anode from the volume of the backfill
column to obtain the net volume of coke breeze.
3.3 Multiply the net volume of coke breeze by 1.2 (for spillage) and by the
number of anodes from Step 3.2.
3.4 Multiply the total volume of backfill by the density of the coke breeze.

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WORK AID 2:

FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN


CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE
WELL CASINGS

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design impressed current deep
anode beds to protect onshore well casings. This procedure assumes that you have
determined the current requirement and allowable anode bed resistance.

Formulas
Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current
Density
N = I/(dL x A)
Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2


Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of impressed current anodes

the impressed current system design life in years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode

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Circuit Resistance
RC = RRPL + RLW + RV + RS + RRNL
Where RC

circuit resistance

RRPL =

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the
junction box

RLW =

the equivalent resistance of the anode lead wires (the sum of the
individual lead wire resistances divided by the number of lead
wires)

RV

the resistance of the anode bed as a single vertical anode

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RRNL =

the resistance in the negative lead wire from the well casing to the
rectifier
Dwight Equation (for a deep anode bed)

RV =

0.159eff 8L
In
1
d

Where RV

resistance of vertical anode to earth in ohms

eff

effective soil resistivity of the interval in ohm-cm

length of the coke breeze column in centimeters

diameter of deep anode hole in centimeters


Volume of Coke Breeze Column

VC = (d2/4)H
Where d

diameter of the coke breeze column in meters

height of the coke breeze column in meters

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Procedure
1.0 Determine the length of the coke breeze column.
1.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode material
Anode diameter and length (in centimeters) and weight (in kg)
Anode consumption rate
Current required
Anode spacing
1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode
current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the
largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas.
1.3 Calculate the length of the coke breeze column. Allow at least 6 meters
above the top anode and at least 1.5 meters below the bottom anode
for the coke breeze backfill.
2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Effective soil resistivity from Geonics measurement
Length of coke breeze column (from Step 1.3)
Diameter of coke breeze column
Maximum allowable circuit resistance
Structure-to-electrolyte resistance
Length of anode lead wires
Length of rectifier lead wires

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2.2 Calculate the deep anode bed resistance by inserting the effective soil
resistivity and the dimensions of the coke breeze column into the
Dwight Equation.
2.3 Multiply the total length of the rectifier lead wires by both the lead wire
resistance (in ohm/m) and 110%.
2.4 Divide the total length of the anode lead wires by the number of lead
wires. Multiply this amount by the lead wire resistance (in ohm/m) and
110%.
2.5 Add the resistances from Steps 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4 to the well casing-tosoil resistance. Make sure that this total circuit resistance is less than
the maximum allowable design circuit resistance, Rmax. Rmax = (rated
voltage/ current required) * 0.07.
3.0 Calculate the amount of coke breeze.
3.1 Obtain the following information:
Coke breeze density
Coke breeze column dimensions
3.2 Calculate the volume of coke breeze using the provided formula. Add 2
inches to the coke column diameter to account for spillage.
3.3 Multiply the volume of coke breeze by the coke breeze density to
obtain the weight of coke breeze required.

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WORK AID 3A: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF


GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK
INTERIORS
This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design galvanic and impressed
current systems for the interior of tanks and vessels.

Formulas
Current Output of a Galvanic Anode in a Vessel or Tank
1

1
= EO
I = EO
RC
RS + RLW + RV
Where I

current output of the anode(s)

ED

anode driving potential

RC

circuit resistance

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RLW

resistance of a single anode lead wire

RV

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode


Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where RV

anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode in ohms

electrolyte resistivity

anode length in centimeters

anode diameter in centimeters

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Anode Life (galvanic anode)


W UF

Y=
C I A
Where Y

life in years

anode mass in kg

UF

utilization factor

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

anode current output in amperes

Procedure
1.0 Calculate the current output per anode.
1.1 If you have the manufacturers performance chart for the anode, locate
the protected potential of the structure on the horizontal or X axis.
Move vertically up the chart until you intersect the curve for the water
resistivity of interest. Move horizontally along the chart and read the
value of the anodes current output on the vertical or Y axis. Go to
Step 2.1.
CAUTION: Performance charts are developed based on specific
design parameters. You must be sure that the performance chart you
use was developed for your particular situation.

1.2 If you do not have the manufacturers performance chart, obtain the
following information:
Total current required to protect the tank or vessel
Electrolyte resistivity
Anode material
Anode diameter and length (in centimeters)
Maximum allowable circuit resistance

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Structure-to-electrolyte resistance
Anode lead wire resistance
1.3 Insert the anode dimensions and water resistivity into the Dwight
Equation to calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance.
1.4 Add the structure-to-electrolyte resistance, anode lead wire resistance,
and the anode-to-electrolyte resistance from Step 1.3 to calculate the
circuit resistance.
1.5 Subtract the required potential of the structure from the solution
potential of the galvanic anode to calculate the driving potential of the
anode.
1.6 Divide the driving potential from Step 1.5 by the circuit resistance from
Step 1.4 to calculate the current output of a single galvanic anode.
2.0 Determine the number of galvanic anodes.
2.1 Divide the total current required by the anode current output from Step
1.6 to calculate the number of anodes required. Round up to the
nearest integer.
3.0 Calculate the galvanic anode life.
3.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode mass in kg
Anode utilization factor
Anode actual consumption rate
3.2 Divide the product of the anode mass and utilization factor by the
product of the anode consumption rate and anode current output
calculated in Step 1.6.

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WORK AID 3B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF


IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL &
TANK INTERIORS
Formulas
Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current
Density
N = I/(dL x A)
Where N

number of impressed current anodes

total current required in milliamperes times

anode diameter in centimeters

anode length in centimeters

anode maximum current density in mA/cm2


Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C
W

Where N

number of impressed current anodes

the impressed current system design life in years

total current required in amperes

anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

weight of a single anode

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Circuit Resistance

RC = RRNL +

RLW + RV
+ RS + RRPL
N

Where RC

the circuit resistance of the entire impressed current system

RRPL =

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the
junction box

the number of impressed current anodes

RLW

anode lead wire resistance

RV

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RRNL =

the resistance in the negative lead wire from the structure to the
rectifier
Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where RV

anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode in ohms

electrolyte resistivity

anode length in centimeters

anode diameter in centimeters

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Procedure
1.0 Determine the number of impressed current anodes.
1.1 Obtain the following information:
Total current required to protect the tank or vessel
Anode material and dimensions
Maximum current density of the anode
1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode
current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the
largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas. Round up
to the nearest integer.
2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Structure-to-electrolyte resistance
Anode lead wire resistance
Rectifier to junction box lead wire resistance
Resistance in the lead wire from the tank or vessel to the rectifier
Water resistivity
Rectifier voltage and current output ratings
2.2 Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode by
inserting the anode dimensions and the water resistivity into the Dwight
Equation.
2.3 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and the anode-to-electrolyte
resistance by the number of anodes calculated in Step 1.2. To this
resistance, add the structure-to-electrolyte resistance and the
resistances in the positive and negative lead wires of the rectifier. This
will give you the total circuit resistance of the impressed current
system.
2.4 Divide the rated voltage of the rectifier by its output current rating to
calculate the maximum allowable circuit resistance. Ensure that the
circuit resistance you calculated in Step 2.3 is less than the maximum
allowable circuit resistance.

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WORK AID 4.

FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN


CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT
FACILITIES

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design impressed current systems
to protect the bottom exterior of storage tanks using the earth potential shift formula.

Formulas
Earth Potential Shift
For a single vertical anode
2
2
L + X + L
0.5 I
In
VX =

X
L

For a single horizontal anode

I
VX =
In
L

(0.5L2 )+ X2 + h2 + 0.5L
X2 + h2

Where VX

= earth potential change at the tank center (volts)

I =

current flow (amperes)

soil resistivity (ohm-cm)

L=

anode backfill length (cm)

X=

horizontal distance from the anode to the center of the tank (cm)

h=

depth of burial to centerline of anode (cm)

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Procedure
1.0 Determine the number and location of impressed current anodes.
1.1 Select the location of the anodes within one-quarter of the tank radius
from the tank wall according to Standard Drawing AA-036355.
1.2 Add the distance between one anode and the tank to the tank radius to
obtain the radius of the anode header cable. Multiply the header cable
radius by 2p to calculate the circumference of the header cable.
1.3 Divide the anode header cable length by 20 m to obtain the minimum
number of anodes required.
2.0 Calculate the earth potential shift due to each anode.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Average tank native potential
Soil resistivity
Anode and anode backfill dimensions
Distance between the anodes and tank center
2.2 Substitute the soil resistivity, anode distance, anode backfill length,
and required earth potential shift
(0.35 volts according to Saudi Aramco Standards) into the earth
potential shift formula for a single vertical anode and solve for the
current I, required.
2.3 Divide the current flow by the number of anodes to obtain the
estimated current required from each anode.
3.0 Calculate the current required to protect the tank based on surface area and
required current density.

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WORK AID 5A:

DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE FOR


THE DESIGN OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR
MARINE STRUCTURES

This Work Aid provides requirements from Standard Drawing AA-036335, formulas, and
a procedure for determining the number, circuit resistance, current output, and design
life of galvanic anodes used to protect marine platforms and pipelines.
Table 6. Half Shell Anode Bracelet Type Anode For
Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60"

Pipe Size
10.2 cm (4") NB
15.2 cm (6") NB
20.3 cm (8") NB
25.4 cm (10") NB
30.5 cm (12") NB
35.6 cm (14") OD
40.6 cm (16") OD
45.7 cm (18") OD
50.8 cm (20") OD
55.9 cm (22") OD
61.0 cm (24") OD
66.0 cm (26") OD
71.1 cm (28") OD
76.2 cm (30") OD
81.3 cm (32") OD
86.4 cm (34") OD
91.4 cm (36") OD
106.7 cm (42") OD
116.8 cm (46") OD
121.9 cm (48") OD
132.1 cm (52") OD
152.4 cm (60") OD

Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards

Net Weight
16 kg
23 kg
30 kg
36 kg
41 kg
50 kg
54 kg
61 kg
68 kg
75 kg
82 kg
86 kg
91 kg
95 kg
100 kg
104 kg
109 kg
129 kg
143 kg
167 kg
161 kg
186 kg

112

Nominal Weight
24 kg
31 kg
39 kg
46 kg
51 kg
61 kg
66 kg
74 kg
82 kg
89 kg
96 kg
109 kg
116 kg
120 kg
127 kg
132 kg
138 kg
161 kg
177 kg
184 kg
204 kg
230 kg

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Corrosion
Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Formulas
Current Output of a Galvanic Anode
IA = ED/RC
Where IA

= anode current output in amperes

ED

= the anode driving potential in volts versus Ag-AgCl

RC = the circuit resistance in ohms


Circuit Resistance of a Galvanic Anode
RC = RS + RA = RA
Where RC = Circuit resistance in ohms
RS

= the structure-to-electrolyte resistance (approximately zero)

RA

= the anode-to-electrolyte resistance


Dwight Equation

RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where =

the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm

L=

the length of the anode in centimeters

d=

the diameter of the anode in centimeters or the circumference divided


by for non-cylindrical shapes

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Number of Galvanic Anodes Required


N = I/IA
Where N=

the number of anodes

I =

the total current required to protect the structure

IA

= the current output of a single anode


Galvanic Anode Lifetime

W UF

Y=
C I A
Where Y=

anode life in years

= anode mass in kg

UF

= Utilization factor

C=

actual consumption rate in kg/A-yr

IA

= current output of one anode in amperes

Procedure
1.0 Calculate the required current.
1.1

Obtain the following information:


Platform surface area in seawater in m2
Current density required in seawater in mA/m2
Platform surface area below mud line in m2
Current density required in mud in mA/m2

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1.2 To calculate the total current requirement, multiply the immersed


surface area of the structure in seawater by Saudi Aramcos current
density requirement. Multiply the surface area of the structure below
the mud line by Saudi Aramcos current density requirement. Add the
two current requirements together.
2.0 Calculate the number of galvanic anodes for an offshore platform.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode solution potential in volts versus Ag-AgCl
Anode dimensions in centimeters
Anode weight in kg
Seawater resistivity in ohm-cm
Anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr
Anode utilization factor
Galvanic anode design life in years
2.2 If the anode is not cylindrical, determine its effective diameter by
dividing its circumference by . Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte
resistance of the anode by inserting its effective diameter, length, and
the electrolyte resistivity into the Dwight Equation.
2.3 Subtract the required potential of the structure from the solution
potential of the anode to calculate the anode driving potential. Divide
the anode driving potential by the anode-to-electrolyte resistance from
Step 2.2 to determine the current output of a single anode.
2.4 Divide the total current required by the anode current output from Step
2.3 to calculate the number of anodes required. Round up to the
nearest integer.
2.5 Insert the weight of a single anode, utilization factor, consumption rate,
and current output from Step 2.3 into the Galvanic Anode Lifetime
formula. Ensure that the anode life is greater than the required design
life. If the anode life is less than the required design life, multiply the
number of anodes from Step 2.4 by the ratio of the design lifetime and
calculated lifetime. The result is the proper number of anodes required
for the design life of the cathodic protection system.
3.0 Calculate the number of galvanic anode bracelets for marine pipelines.

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3.1

Obtain the following information:


Pipeline surface area in seawater in m2
Pipeline length in meters
Pipeline diameter in cm
Anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr
Anode utilization factor
Anode design life in years

3.2 To calculate the pipelines current requirement, multiply its surface


area by Saudi Aramcos required current density of 2.5 mA/m2.
3.3 Divide the length of the pipeline by 150 meters to calculate the number
of anode bracelets required.
3.4 Verify that the anode bracelet will last over the required design life.
Substitute the anode consumption rate, current output, utilization
factor, and net weight of anode material into the galvanic anode life
formula and solve for Y.

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WORK AID 5B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF


IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR MARINE
STRUCTURES
Formulas
Current Requirement for Impressed Current Systems
I

total current requirement (multiply total surface area by Saudi


Aramcos current density requirement)

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current


Density
N = I/(dL x A)
Where N=

number of impressed current anodes

I =

total current requirement for an impressed current system in mA

d=

anode diameter in centimeters

L=

anode length in centimeters

= anode maximum current density in mA/cm2

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Circuit Resistance

RC = RRNL + RRPL +

RLW + RV
N

Where RC

= the circuit resistance of the entire impressed current system

RRPL = the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the
junction box
RRNL = the resistance in the negative lead wire from the structure to the
rectifier
N=

the number of impressed current anodes

RV

= the resistance of a single impressed current anode (Dwight


Equation)

RLW

= anode lead resistance


Dwight Equation

RA = RV =

0.159 8L
1
In
d

Where RA

= The anode-to-electrolyte resistance

the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm

L=

the length of the anode in centimeters

d=

the diameter of the anode in centimeters or the circumference divided


by for non-cylindrical shapes

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Procedure
1.0 Calculate the current requirement.
Add the current required to protect any conductor pipe and unprotected
pipelines to the current required to protect the structure.
2.0 Calculate the number of impressed current anodes.
2.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode dimensions in centimeters
Anode maximum current density
2.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode
current density formula. Round up to the nearest integer.
3.0 Calculate the rectifier voltage requirement.
3.1 Obtain the following information:
Anode dimensions in centimeters
Seawater resistivity in ohm-cm
Anode lead wire resistance
Rectifier lead wire resistance
3.2 Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode by
inserting the anode dimensions and the seawater resistivity into the
Dwight Equation.
3.3 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and the anode-to-electrolyte
resistance by the number of anodes calculated in Step 2.2. To this
resistance, add the resistances in the positive and negative lead wires
of the rectifier. This will give you the total circuit resistance of the
impressed current system.
3.4 To calculate the voltage requirement of the rectifier, multiply the
corrected current by the circuit resistance. Divide this result by the
rectifier efficiency to determine the actual voltage requirement.

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GLOSSARY
Anode Internal Resistance

The resistance from the anode to the outer edge of


the backfill.

Anode-To-Earth Resistance

The resistance between the anode, or backfill, and


the soil.

Backfill

A low resistance, moisture-retaining material


immediately surrounding a buried impressed current
anode for the purpose of increasing the effective area
of contact with the soil and thus reducing the
resistance to earth. Calcined petroleum coke backfill
is commonly used as backfill for deep and surface
anode beds in Saudi Aramco.

Conductor Pipe

Tubular members through which oil or gas wells are


drilled and then through which casing and tubing are
inserted and often grouted into place.

Current Density

Current density is generally expressed as amperes


per square meter or milliamperes per square meter.
The current density required to achieve cathodic
protection varies depending on the environment and
metal being protected.

Deep Anode Bed

A type of anode bed that uses a drilled vertical hole


to contain impressed current anodes.

Insulating Flange or
Isolating Flange

A flanged joint used to electrically isolate pipelines


and systems. The flange faces and securing bolts are
electrically insulated from each other by insulating
sleeves, washers, and gaskets.

Polarization

The change of potential of a metal surface resulting


from the passage of current to or from an electrolyte.

Protective Potential

A term used in cathodic protection to define the


minimum potential required to suppress corrosion.
Protective potential depends on the structure metal
and the environment.

Remote Earth

The area(s) in which the structure-to-earth potential


change is negligible with change in reference
electrode position away from the structure.

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Shielding

Structure-To- Electrolyte
Potential

The act of preventing or diverting cathodic protection


current from reaching a structure. Shielding may be
caused by a non-metallic barrier or by metallic
structures that surround the structure to be protected.
The potential difference between a buried or
immersed metallic structure and the electrolyte
surrounding it, measured with a reference electrode in
contact with the electrolyte.

Surface Anode Bed

A type of anode bed that uses vertically or horizontally


placed impressed current or galvanic anodes.

Utilization Factor

The factor determined by the amount of anode


material consumed when the anode can no longer
deliver the current required efficiency.

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