Designing Cathodic Protection Systems

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Designing Cathodic Protection Systems

© All Rights Reserved

- CATHODIC PROTECTION
- Design & Calculation Cathodic Protection Impressed Cureent System
- Cathodic Protection Design
- Cathodic Protection Design Calculation
- Assessment and Retrofit of Concrete Structures
- 3_EnvironmentalEquivalence
- CP_MANUAL
- ARAMCO Standard for Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipelines
- AC Interference Mitigation Study
- Designing Cathodic Protection Systems
- Cathodic Protection Design
- COE 107.02 Design Basics for Cathodic Protection Systems
- [Enppi] Corrosion & Cathodic Protection in Petroleum Industry Course[Yasser Tawfik]
- M-001 2014 Materials Selection
- 17653
- Cathodic Protection
- 40CP Cathodic Protection of Above Ground Storage Tank Bottoms
- SAES-X-300.pdf
- PreStudy Guide API 653 January 2006
- Maintenance & Repair of Spillway Gates

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SYSTEMS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.

Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi

Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees.

Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public

domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third

parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission

of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Electrical

File Reference: COE 107.03

PEDD Coordinator on 862-1026

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Section

Page

OBJECTIVES

........................................................................................................ 1

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE....................................................................................... 1

ENABLING OBJECTIVES .................................................................................... 1

INFORMATION

........................................................................................................ 3

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 3

DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR BURIED

PIPELINES...................................................................................... 5

Galvanic Anode System Design for Road and Camel Crossings ......................... 5

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ................................ 6

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required....................................................... 8

Circuit Resistance ...................................................................................... 8

Galvanic Anode Current Output............................................................... 12

Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 12

Example 1........................................................................................................... 13

Number of Anodes ................................................................................... 13

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 13

Galvanic Anode Current Output............................................................... 14

Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 14

Impressed Current System Design for Buried Pipelines..................................... 15

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings .............................. 15

Minimum Number of Impressed Current Anodes..................................... 18

Anode Bed Resistance ............................................................................ 19

Example 2........................................................................................................... 24

Minimum Number of Impressed Current Anodes..................................... 24

Anode Bed Resistance ............................................................................ 25

DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE

WELL CASINGS ........................................................................... 29

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 30

Cathodic Protection Current Requirements ........................................................ 32

Surface Anode Bed Design ................................................................................ 34

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Length of the Coke Breeze Column ......................................................... 35

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 36

Example 3........................................................................................................... 39

Length of the Coke Breeze Column ......................................................... 39

Check for allowable Anode Bed Resistance ............................................ 40

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 42

DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL

AND TANK INTERIORS ............................................................... 43

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 44

Galvanic Anode System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors........................... 47

Current Output Per Anode ....................................................................... 47

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required..................................................... 49

Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 49

Example 4........................................................................................................... 50

Surface Area............................................................................................ 50

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required to Comply with Resistance ......... 51

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required to Comply with Life ..................... 52

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required for the Final Design..................... 52

Impressed Current System Design for Vessel and Tank Interiors ...................... 52

Number of Impressed Current Anodes Required..................................... 52

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 53

Example 5........................................................................................................... 56

Number of Impressed Current Anodes .................................................... 56

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 57

DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT

FACILITIES ........................................................................................................ 58

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 59

Number and Placement of Anodes in Distributed Anode Beds........................... 65

Circuit Resistance............................................................................................... 69

Example 6........................................................................................................... 71

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DESIGNING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR MARINE

STRUCTURES ................................................................................................... 75

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards and Drawings ......................................... 76

Galvanic Anode System Design for Marine Structures....................................... 80

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required..................................................... 80

Circuit Resistance .................................................................................... 81

Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 82

Number and Spacing of Galvanic Anode Bracelets ................................. 82

Example 7........................................................................................................... 84

Number of Anodes ................................................................................... 84

Galvanic Anode Life................................................................................. 85

Number and Spacing of Galvanic Anode Bracelets ................................. 86

Impressed Current System Design for Marine Structures .................................. 86

Number of Impressed Current Anodes Required..................................... 87

Rectifier Voltage Requirement ................................................................. 87

Example 8........................................................................................................... 89

Corrected Current Requirement............................................................... 89

Number of Anodes Required ................................................................... 90

Rectifier Voltage Requirement ................................................................. 90

WORK AIDS ...................................................................................................... 92

WORK AID 1A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN

GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR ROAD AND CAMEL CROSSINGS.......... 92

WORK AID 1B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN IMPRESSED

CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR BURIED PIPELINES ............................................. 95

WORK AID 2: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN CATHODIC

PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE WELL CASINGS......................... 100

WORK AID 3A: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF

GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK INTERIORS .............. 104

WORK AID 3B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF

IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK INTERIORS ...... 107

WORK AID 4. FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE TO DESIGN CATHODIC

PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT FACILITIES ....................................... 110

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WORK AID 5A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE FOR THE

DESIGN OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR MARINE STRUCTURES .. 112

WORK AID 5B: FORMULAS AND PROCEDURE FOR THE DESIGN OF

IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR MARINE

STRUCTURES ................................................................................................. 117

GLOSSARY .................................................................................................... 121

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List of Figures

Figure 1A. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Open Cut Road Crossings

(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems) ................................ 7

Figure 1B. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for a Camel Crossing (For

pipelines without impressed current CP systems) ........................................ 7

Figure 1C. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Buried Valve Locations ................... 8

Figure 2. Galvanic Anodes at a Camel Crossing and an Equivalent Electrical

Circuit .............................................................................................................. 9

Figure 3. Pre-Packaged 27.2 kg Magnesium Anode .................................................... 10

Figure 4. Vertical and Horizontal Anode Installations from Standard Drawing

AA-036346 .................................................................................................... 16

Figure 5. Surface Anode Bed Detail from Standard Drawing AA-036346 ................... 18

Figure 6. TA-4 High Silicon Cast Iron (HSCI) Impressed Current Anodes .................... 21

Figure 7. Vertical Anode Design Chart for an Impressed Current Anode Bed

in Soil with a Resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm ..................................................... 27

Figure 8. Deep Anode Bed without Anode Support Pipe from Standard

Drawing AA-036385. ..................................................................................... 31

Figure 9. Casing Potential Profile ................................................................................. 33

Figure 10. Deep Anode Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical

Circuit........................................................................................................... 37

Figure 11. Length of the Coke Breeze Column in a Deep Anode Bed ........................ 41

Figure 12. Galvanic Anodes for Water Storage Tanks, Standard Drawing AA036354 ....................................................................................................... 45

Figure 13. Impressed Current for Water Storage Tanks, Standard Drawing

AA-036353 ................................................................................................. 46

Figure 14. Tank Galvanic Anode System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit for

Each Anode................................................................................................ 48

Figure 15. Tank Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit ............. 54

Figure 16. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036355, Tank Bottom

Impressed Current Details.......................................................................... 62

Figure 17A. Typical Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) Grid Anode System

Impressed Current for Storage Tank Bottom External................................ 63

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Continuous Anode System for Storage Tank Bottom External ................... 64

Figure 18. Area of Influence of a Distributed Anode..................................................... 66

Figure 19. Additive Effect of Distributed Anodes .......................................................... 67

Figure 20. Placement of Distributed Anode.................................................................. 68

Figure 21. External Tank Bottom Impressed Current System and Equivalent

Circuit ......................................................................................................... 69

Figure 22A. Anode Gradient Effects.............................................................................. 72

Figure 22B. Anode Gradient Effects............................................................................. 73

Figure 23. Offshore Platform ........................................................................................ 75

Figure 24. Diagrams from Standard Drawings AA-036409 and AA-036335................. 78

Figure 25. Diagrams from Standard Drawing AA-036348 ............................................ 79

List of Tables

Table 1. Minimum Anode Bed Distance from Underground Structures in

SAES-X-400 ................................................................................................... 17

Table 2. Anode Number and Resistance Values.......................................................... 25

Table 3. Vertical Anode Bed Calculations .................................................................... 26

Table 4. Minimum Required Potentials of Plant Structures .......................................... 60

Table 5. Current Density Criteria .................................................................................. 77

Table 6. Half Shell Anode Bracelet Type Anode For Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60" ...... 112

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OBJECTIVES

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE

Upon completion of this module, the participant will be able to

design onshore and offshore cathodic protection systems, using

applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES) and

Saudi Aramco Material Specifications, according to the

procedures, specifications, and requirements in these Saudi

Aramco documents.

ENABLING OBJECTIVES

In order to accomplish the Terminal Objective, the participant

will learn to:

using SAES-X-400.

casings using SAES-X-700.

vessels and tanks using SAES-X-500.

SAES-X-600.

using SAES-X-300.

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INFORMATION

INTRODUCTION

In this module, you will use knowledge and skills you have

acquired from the first two modules to design basic cathodic

protection (CP) systems for onshore and offshore facilities.

Normally, a CP system design is based on information obtained

from a survey of similar facilities or a detailed study of site

conditions. These site conditions include the following:

two modules.

considerations and provides an example of CP system

design. In cases where conditions may require alternative

designs, examples are also given. This module will provide

basic design calculations that are typically included in any

CP system design. These design calculations include the

following:

Anode life

Circuit resistance

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protection system designs. These include the following:

RP-01-69: Recommended Practice, Control of External

Corrosion of Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping

Systems

Corrosion on Steel, Fixed Offshore Platforms Associated

with Petroleum Production

published by the British Standards Institute

standards. Therefore, Saudi Aramco has developed

Standards, Standard Drawings, and Materials Specifications to

outline specific design and installation methods for most

structures (see Addenda).

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PIPELINES

This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers

galvanic anode system designs for short pipeline segments

such as road and camel crossings. Galvanic anodes are used if

the cathodic protection current requirement is small and the soil

resistivity is low. The second part will cover impressed current

systems for buried pipelines, which require much more cathodic

protection current. Normally, Saudi Aramco protects onshore

pipelines with impressed current systems.

Designs for galvanic anode and impressed current systems are

prepared after the following has been accomplished:

calculated

various structures. In Module 107.02, you selected an anode

bed site based on soil resistivity, current distribution, and

available utilities. You also represented proposed CP systems

as equivalent electrical circuits and calculated their allowable

anode bed resistance. In this section, you will be given the

above information and other criteria that will allow you to design

cathodic protection systems for buried pipelines.

Design standards and practices for galvanic anode systems for

road and camel crossings are presented below. The design of

galvanic anode systems for pipelines involves determining the

following:

drawings

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Circuit resistance

example is provided which demonstrates the design of a

galvanic anode system for a section of pipeline.

Saudi Aramco

Engineering

Standards and

Drawings

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-X-400 provides

minimum design requirements that govern CP systems for

buried onshore pipelines. CP systems inside plant facilities are

not included. Reference SAES-X-400, section 4.2 to determine

where galvanic anodes are required.

Saudi Aramco uses either pre-packaged or bare magnesium

anodes to protect short pipeline segments. Bare anodes are

used only in Subkha areas. The design calculations in this

module are based on construction standards in Standard

Drawing AA-036352 Galvanic Anodes for Road & Camel P/L

Crossings. Figures 1A, 1B, and 1C show typical galvanic anode

installations from Standard Drawing AA-036352.

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Figure 1A. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Open Cut Road Crossings

(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems)

(For pipelines without impressed current CP systems)

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Junction box

Grade

Thermite weld

buried

valve

magnesium anodes

Figure 1C. Typical Galvanic Anode Installation for Buried Valve Locations

Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required

The number of galvanic anodes required depends on the

following:

required for existing camel and road crossings on Standard

Drawing AA-036352.

Circuit Resistance

The total circuit resistance of the galvanic anode system, Rtotal,

is represented by the electrical circuit in Figure 2.

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an Equivalent Electrical Circuit

the electrical circuit. The anode resistances are RA1 and RA2.

For an anode buried in chemical backfill as shown Figure 3, the

total resistance between the anode and electrolyte includes (1)

the resistance from the anode to the outer edge of the backfill

package and (2) the resistance between the backfill package

and the soil. The total value of the resistance between the

anode and soil in contact with the anode backfill is commonly

called the anode-to-earth resistance. The contribution of the

anode to backfill resistance is insignificant relative to the

contribution of the backfill to soil resistance. This is because the

soil resistance is typically much greater than the resistance of

the backfill.

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calculated using the Dwight Equation as follows:

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

10

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Where RV

=

resistance of one vertical anode to earth in

ohms

dimensions of the anode package. When calculating Rv for

impressed current anodes, use the dimensions of the coke

breeze backfill column.

You can calculate the anode bed resistance of two or more

vertical anodes in parallel by using the Sunde Equation as

follows:

Rv =

0.159 8L 2L

(ln0.656N )

1 +

ln

NL d

S

Where RV

=

resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in

parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a

straight line.

number of anodes

=

length of anode (package or backfill column) in

centimeters

=

diameter of anode (package or backfill column)

in centimeters

bar, rather than a cylinder. When calculating the resistance for

a bare anode, this becomes significant because the effective

diameter must be approximated. For non-cylindrical anodes,

the current densities are highest at the corners, which corrode

away more rapidly. Ultimately the geometry resembles a

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of the anode. Though a number of approximation

methodologies would be correct, based on the above logic, a

reasonably accurate and simple approximation is the nominal

width (smallest dimension) of the anode.

Galvanic Anode

Current Output

The current output of a galvanic anode system is a function of

its driving potential and circuit resistance, as shown in the

following formula:

IA = Ed/Rtotal

Where IA

Ed

Rtotal =

between the anodes open circuit solution potential and the

protected potential of the pipeline.

Galvanic Anode Life

The number of galvanic anodes selected for a design must

comply with the life expectancy detailed in the respective

standard. The number of anodes required to achieve the

specified life is given by the following equation:

Y x IA x C

N =

12

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Where N

number of anodes

IA

magnesium anodes is 7.71 kg per ampere-year.

Example 1

We will use the following data to determine the number and

current output of pre-packaged 27.2 kg (60 lb.) magnesium

anodes required to protect a 15-meter section of 12" existing

tape wrapped pipeline at road crossing. Use the following

engineering data:

Number of Anodes

According to the Table 1 in AA 036352, two anodes are required

for 15 meters of 12" pipe.

Circuit Resistance

The anode-to-earth resistance of two anodes is given by the

Sunde Equation as shown below:

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0.159

R =

v

NL

8L 2L

ln d 1 + S (ln0.656N )

(

R =

ln

ln0.656 x 2 )

1 +

v

2 x 195

20.7

1500

Rv = 1.38 ohms

Rtotal = 2.67 + 1.38 4.05 ohms.

Galvanic Anode

Current Output

The current output of the two galvanic anodes is

I = Ed/Rtotal = 0.5/4.05 = 0.12 amps (or 0.06 A for each

anode)

Saudi Aramco normally uses magnesium anodes in areas

where soil resistivity is greater than 1,000 ohm-cm. In 5,000

ohm-cm soil, the anode-to-earth resistance in the example

above would be 6.9 ohms (five times as much as in 1,000 ohmcm soil). The circuit resistance would increase to 9.57 ohms and

the current output would decrease as follows:

I = 0.45 /9.57 = 0.047 A

Galvanic Anode Life

The expected lifetime of one 27.2 kg anode with a current

output of 0.055 A in 1,000 ohm-cm soil can be calculated by

transposing the following equation as shown below:

Y x IA x C

therefore if N = 1, then Y = W

N=

W

I xC

27.2 kg

Y =

7.71 kg/amp - yr. 0.055 amp

Y = 64 years

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design galvanic anode systems for short sections of buried

pipelines are provided in Work Aid 1A.

Design standards and practices for impressed current systems

for buried pipelines are presented below. These standards and

practices include the following determinations:

drawings

anode spacing)

provided.

Saudi Aramco

Engineering

Standards and

Drawings

Refer to SAES-X-400 to determine total operating circuit

resistance, minimum and maximum voltage, and design life

requirements of an impressed current system.

Anode bed installation practices are based on construction

standards set by Saudi Aramco in Standard Drawing

AA-036346, Surface Anode Bed Details. This drawing contains

diagrams of vertical and horizontal anode installations as shown

in Figure 4.

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Standard Drawing AA-036346

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protected structure to provide uniform current distribution.

Figure 5 gives the minimum distances allowed between anode

beds and buried structures. These criteria cover both surface

and deep anode beds.

Underground Structures in SAES-X-400

Anode Bed Capacity

Underground Structures

35 amperes

35 meters

50 amperes

75 meters

100 amperes

150 meters

150 amperes

225 meters

used where soil resistivity is compatible with system design

requirements and economic considerations. Figure 5 shows a

typical anode bed of 10 vertical anodes from Standard Drawing

AA-036346. Additional groups of 10 anodes can be installed as

required to meet current output requirements. SAES-X-400

requires that adjacent anode beds, powered by separate

rectifiers, must be separated by at least 50 meters. If the output

capacity of either anode bed is greater than 50 amperes, they

must be separated by at least 100 meters.

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Additional group of 10 as required

1200 mm

No. 6 AWG

anode leads

Junction

Box

To rectifier or

d-c power source

To additional groups of

10 anodes as required

Drawing AA-036346

Minimum Number of

Impressed Current

Anodes

There are two ways to calculate the minimum number of

impressed current anodes required. One method considers the

anodes maximum current output in the electrolyte and the other

method considers the anodes consumption rate. The method

that gives the more conservative value (the greatest number of

anodes) shall be used.

To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the

anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:

N=

I

(dL A )

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Where N

anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

=

the impressed current system design life in

years

Anode Bed

Resistance

The current output of an impressed current system is a function

of the dc power source driving voltage and the circuit resistance.

The current output, I, is given by the following formula:

I = ED/Rtotal

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Where ED

=

the rated voltage of the dc power source

(minus 2 volts back emf)

Rtotal =

circuit resistance, Rtotal, of an impressed current system circuit.

Where RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RW

Rab

The anode bed resistance, Rab, is the total resistance of all the

anodes in the anode bed. If the anodes are surrounded by a

coke breeze column, the resistance between each anode and

electrolyte includes the anode internal resistance and the

anode-to-earth resistance.

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Figure 6. TA-4 High Silicon Cast Iron (HSCI) Impressed Current Anodes

to the surrounding soil, regardless of whether the soil is wet or

dry. In addition, the anode is almost always well centered in the

backfill column. Therefore, the industry commonly considers

the anode-to-earth resistance as a function of the coke breeze

column dimensions rather than the anode dimensions. You can

calculate the anode-to-earth resistance of a single vertical

impressed current anode by using the Dwight Equation as

follows:

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

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Where RV

=

resistance of one vertical anode to earth in

ohms

=

effective diameter of backfill column in

centimeters

vertical anodes in parallel by using the Sunde Equation as

follows:

RV =

0.159 8L 2L

In

1 +

(

In0.656N)

S

NL d

Where Rv

=

resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in

parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a

straight line.

number of anodes

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decreases with an increase in the number of anodes and/or an

increase in the anode spacing. By adjusting the number and

spacing of anodes, you can achieve a desired anode bed

resistance. The desired anode bed resistance should be less

than the allowable anode bed resistance given by the following

formula:

Rmax = ED / Irated

Also,

Rmax = Raab +RS + RW

Raab = Rmax - (RS + RW )

Therefore,

Raab = (ED / Irated ) - (RS + RW )

Where Raab

Rmax =

the maximum allowable circuit resistance (the

rectifiers rated voltage minus 2 volts, divided by its

rated current output)

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RW

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Example 2

The following example assumes that the structure-to-electrolyte

resistance and the lead wire resistance are known and the

maximum allowable anode bed resistance has been

determined. We will determine the number and spacing of

anodes needed so that the anode bed resistance does not

exceed the allowable anode bed resistance. Use the following

engineering data:

Anode material: Silicon iron

Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3 cm length (TA-4)

Anode weight: 38.6 kg

Backfill dimensions: 25 cm dia. x 300 cm

Anode consumption rate: .45 kg/A-yr

Max. anode current density: 0.7 ma/sq. cm

Soil resistivity: 3,000 ohm-cm

Allowable design anode bed resistance: 0.7 ohms

Minimum Number of

Impressed Current

Anodes

We will design the anode bed so that it can discharge

50 amperes (nearest rectifier to 40 amps). To estimate the

number of anodes required, multiply the total current

requirement by the design life and consumption rate of the

anode material as follows.

= 11.66 anode s

N=

=

38.6kg

W

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density on the anode surface we must calculate the following:

I

N =

d L xA

50,000mA

=

= 11.22 anodes

2

x 9.5cm x 213.3cm x 0.7mA/cm

Anode Bed

Resistance

Substitute 12 anodes for N, 300 cm (10 ft.) spacing for S, and

the backfill dimensions into the Sunde Equation as follows.

0.159

8L

2L

(ln0.656N )}

{(ln

1) +

NL

d

S

0.159 (3,000)

8 (300)

2 (300)

(ln0.656 x 12))}

RV =

{( ln

1) + (

12 (300)

25

300

R V = 1.02 ohms

RV =

anode bed resistance of 0.7 ohms. However, according to the

Sunde Equation, increasing the number of anodes can lower the

resistance. If we substitute values of 15, 18, and 21 anodes for

N at the 300 cm spacing, we obtain the following information in

Table 2.

Table 2. Anode Number and Resistance Values

No. of Anode Bed Resistance

Anodes

at 300 cm Spacing

12

16

20

24

1.02

0.82

0.69

0.60

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300 cm spacing is less than the allowable resistance of 0.7

ohm. However, remember that increasing the anode spacing

also decreases the anode bed resistance. If we repeat the

calculations for spacings of 500, 750, and 1,000 cm, we obtain

Table 3.

Table 3. Vertical Anode Bed Calculations

Anode Spacing in Centimeters

No. of

Anodes

300

500

750

1,000

12

1.02

0.80

0.69

0.64

16

0.82

0.63

0.54

0.49

20

0.69

0.53

0.45

0.41

24

0.60

0.46

0.38

0.35

option appears to be 20 anodes with 300 cm spacings. Another

option16 anodes with 500 cm spacings. We can graph the

values in the table to create a design chart as shown in Figure

7.

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Anode Bed in Soil with a Resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm

calculations for each anode bed design; an excel spreadsheet is

even a better method. The design chart in Figure 7 is based on

a soil resistivity of 1,000 ohm-cm. To use this chart for other soil

resistivities, the allowable anode bed resistance, R, must be

converted to a value that corresponds to a soil resistivity of

5,000 ohm-cm. The Sunde Equation can be used to show that

anode bed resistance is directly proportional to soil resistivity as

follows:

Rohm cm

R1000ohm cm

ohm - cm

1000 ohm - cm

Therefore,

R= R1000 (/1,000)

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for 1,000 ohm-cm soil. Then the design chart in Figure 7 is used

to select the optimum number and spacing of anodes to achieve

an anode bed resistance less than or equal to the allowable

anode bed resistance.

The formulas and procedure to design impressed current anode

beds are provided in Work Aid 1B.

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WELL CASINGS

Saudi Aramco cathodically protects all onshore well casings with

impressed current systems. Saudi Aramcos goal is to protect

both well casings and associated flow lines and pipelines as an

integrated system. This is accomplished by minimizing the use

of pipeline insulating devices. If an insulation device is installed,

a bonding box is used in case it becomes necessary to short

circuit the insulator. Saudi Aramco normally uses an individual

impressed current system to protect each well. However,

multiple wells are sometimes protected by a single impressed

current system.

Saudi Aramco uses both surface and deep anode beds to

protect onshore well casings. The type of anode bed and its

location are determined by the following:

Economics

resistivity is low enough for adequate current distribution. Where

surface soil resistivity is high, deep anode beds are used. Deep

anode beds are also used in congested areas such as pipeline

corridors and plant areas to provide better current distribution.

Both surface and deep anode bed designs involve the following

determinations:

Standards and Drawings

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After the information on cathodic protection current requirement

is presented, surface and deep anode bed designs are

discussed separately. Surface anode bed design for a well

casing is similar to surface anode bed design for a buried

pipeline, which was covered in the first section of this module.

Therefore, this section focuses mainly on the design of deep

anode beds.

The design of cathodic protection systems for onshore well

casings is governed by SAES-X-700. Refer to SAES-X-700 for

the design current capacity for impressed current systems and

their design life.

SAEP-333, Appendix A specifies the required operating current

requirement for well casings in different operating areas.

A minimum distance of 150 meters for an uncoated well casing,

and 75 meters for a coated well casing, shall be maintained

between the nearest anode in an anode bed and the well casing

it is to protect. In addition, SAES-X-700 requires that deep

anode beds are located remote from other buried structures. For

example, a distance of 35 meters is required for deep anode

beds with a design current output of 35 amperes or less. A

distance of 75 meters is required for anode beds with capacities

between 36 and 50 amperes.

Surface anode beds should be designed in accordance with

Standard Drawing AA-036346.

Deep anode bed without anode support pipe contain anodes

and coke breeze without a full length of casing (see Figure 8).

An individual lead wire connects each anode to the junction box.

Saudi Aramco installs a PVC vent pipe to allow gases formed by

anodic reactions to escape. A separate loading pipe is run to the

bottom of the hole and used to pump a water slurry of coke

breeze into the hole. The loading pipe is slowly withdrawn from

the hole as it is filled with coke breeze. This procedure allows

the slurry to be pumped upward from the bottom of the well until

the anodes are completely surrounded.

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Hydrology Department. The Hydrology Department regulates

the drilling depth to minimize the chances of communication

between subsurface aquifers.

Figure 8. Deep Anode Bed without Anode Support Pipe from Standard Drawing

AA-036385.

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The current required to protect an onshore well casing depends

on its environment. The operating environment can be very

complex. Environmental considerations include the following:

Well spacing

information, and coatings (if used)

Process plants

Storage tanks

producing area since formation conditions and well completion

methods are usually similar. Saudi Aramco uses casing

potential profile techniques to determine current requirements.

Casing profiles are similar to line current surveys for buried

pipelines. These tests are expensive so they are not performed

on every well. The tubing must be pulled so that the potential

profile tool can contact the internal casing wall.

Basically, a down hole-logging tool measures the voltage (IR

drop) at regular intervals in the casing. The logging tool contains

hydraulically activated contacts that are located several feet

apart.

Once the well bore has been prepared, the logging tool is

lowered into the well. The voltage between the contacts is

measured by using a sensitive voltmeter. Readings are usually

taken from the bottom to the top of the casing. The tool also

measures casing resistance so an accurate current flow can be

calculated (I=V/R).

Current that flows onto the casing is assumed to be cathodic

protection current. Current that flows away from the casing is

assumed to be corrosion current. Current must flow onto the

entire casing for it to be adequately protected. Figure 9 shows

how the readings are plotted and interpreted.

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Microvolts

-400

0

-200

Bottom of

surface pipe

Well

casing

meters

300

Negative

readings

indicate

current

flow down

casing

Negative slope

indicates

current is

leaving the

casing

Positive readings

indicate current

flow up casing

Depth

600

+200

Positive

slope indicates

current is entering

the casing

900

1200

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Surface anode beds that protect well casings are designed

similarly to anode beds that protect buried pipelines. The

number and spacing of anodes can be adjusted so that the total

circuit resistance is less than the maximum allowable circuit

resistance. The resistance of a surface anode bed is given by

the Sunde Equation.

R=

0.159 8L 2L

(ln0.656N)

- 1 +

ln

NL d

S

Where R

=

resistance, in ohms, of N vertical anodes in

parallel and spaced S centimeters apart along a

straight line.

number of anodes

for onshore well casings are similar to those used for buried

pipelines, which are provided in Work Aid 1B.

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Deep anode bed design includes determining the following:

anodes required)

Circuit resistance

example demonstrating the design of a deep anode bed is

provided.

Length of the Coke

Breeze Column

The length of the coke breeze column depends on the number

and spacing of anodes in the deep anode bed. The anode

spacing is determined in the field. Anodes are usually vertically

spaced on 5-meter centers. As with surface anode beds, the

required number of anodes can be calculated by using the

anodes maximum current output in the electrolyte or the

anodes consumption rate. Use the method that gives the more

conservative value or the greater number of anodes.

To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the

anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:

N = I/(dL x A)

Where N

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anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

=

the impressed current system design life in

years

Circuit Resistance

The total current output of a deep anode impressed current

system is given by the formula:

I = ED/Rtotal

Where ED

=

the voltage capacity of the dc power source

minus 2 volts

Rtotal =

impressed current system

The circuit resistance, RC, is represented by the equivalent

electrical circuit in Figure 10. For design purposes, a deep

anode bed is treated as if it were a single vertical anode.

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RRPL

I

Well

casing

RLW

ED

RV

RRNL

I

RS

Equivalent Electrical Circuit

Rtotal = RPW + RNW + RV + RS + RAW

Where RPW

=

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the

rectifier to the junction box

RAW

=

the equivalent resistance of the anode lead

wires in parallel

RV

=

the resistance of the anode bed column as a

single vertical anode

RS

RNW

=

the resistance in the negative lead wire from

the well casing to the rectifier

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

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anode bed resistance can be calculated by using the Dwight

Equation as follows:

RV =

0.159eff 8L

In

1

d

Where RV

length of the coke breeze column where the anodes will be

placed. The soil resistivity is measured by using Geonics

instruments, or calculated from site measurement taken during

drilling of the anode hole.

The circuit resistance, RC, must be less than the maximum

allowable circuit resistance. The maximum circuit resistance,

Rmax, is given by the following formula:

Rmax = ED/I

Where ED

=

the driving voltage of the dc power source

minus 2 volts

=

the current output rating of the dc power

source

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Example 3

This example will demonstrate the preliminary design of a deep

anode bed to protect an onshore well casing in accordance with

Saudi Aramco standards and practices. Using the following

data, we will design the anode bed:

Current Required for Commissioning: 40 amperes

Average Soil Resistivity: 2500 ohm-cm

Well casing-to-soil resistance: 0.02 ohms

Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron

Anode consumption rate: 0.45 kg/A-yr

Weight per anode: 38.6 kg

Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3 cm length

Rectifier output rating: 50 V, 50 A

Wire resistance (total): 0.145 ohms

Coke breeze density: 1180 kg/m3

Distance from rectifier to junction box: 5 meters

Distance from rectifier to well casing: 150 meters

Depth at top of coke breeze column: 69 meters

Diameter of coke breeze column: 25 cm

Length of the Coke

Breeze Column

To estimate the number of anodes, the current required is

multiplied by the design life and the anode consumption rate.

Then the total weight is divided by the mass per anode as

follows:

N = (20 years)(50 A)(0.45 kg/A-yr)/38.6 kg per anode

= 12 anodes

If we use the current density formula for calculating the number

of anodes needed, we get:

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I/(dL x A)

=

50,000/ (9.5)(213.3)(0.7) = 11.2 anodes round

up to 12 anodes

Twelve high silicon chromium cast iron anodes (213.3 meters

long) spaced at 2.3 meter will be installed in the hole (Figure

11). Standard Drawing AA-036356 requires at least 3 m of coke

breeze above the anodes and recommends a minimum of 1.5 m

below the anodes. Also it is required to install a 3 meters

cement plug at the top of the hole and I meters cement plug at

the bottom. Therefore, the minimum length of this particular

coke breeze column is 3.0++ 3.0+(12 x 2.13) + (11 x 2.3) +

1.5+1 = 60 m.

Check for allowable

Anode Bed

Resistance

To verify that the proposed installation will comply with the

maximum allowable anode bed resistance, we need to calculate

the maximum allowable anode bed resistance and the

resistance of the proposed anode bed:

The resistance of the anode bed can be calculated using the

Dwight equation as follows:

RA = ((0.159 x 2500) / 5600) x (ln((8 x 5600) / 25) 1)

= 0.46 ohms

The allowable anode bed resistance (RAAB )can be calculated as

follows:

RAAB = Rmax Rs - Rw

= [((50-2) / 50) x 0.7] 0.02 0.145

= 0.507 ohms

The theoretical anode bed resistance is 0.46 ohms and it is

below the allowable anode bed resistance of 0.57 so it is

acceptable from that perspective.

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Column in a Deep Anode Bed

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Circuit Resistance

Assume that the Geonics instrument measured an effective soil

resistivity of 2500 ohm-cm. By using eff and treating the anode

bed as a single anode, we can calculate the deep anode bed

resistance. The anode bed is 25 cm in diameter and 6000 cm

long. Therefore, the anode bed resistance is as follows:

R

1 = 0.434 ohm

In

25

6000

Next, we must ensure that the total circuit resistance is less than

the maximum allowable circuit resistance and calculate the

amount of coke breeze required. The resistance in the rectifiers

negative and positive lead wires is calculated as follows

RNW + RPW = (150m + 5m)(110%)(0.85 x 10-3 ohm/m) = 0.145

ohm

The following is the equivalent resistance of the lead wires from

the junction box to the anodes:

1

(110% ) 1.35 10 3 ohm/m = 0.016

R

= n

AW

i=0

The total circuit resistance is less than the maximum allowable

design circuit resistance, Rmax.

Rmax = (50-2 V/50 A * 0.7) = 0.672 ohm.

The formulas and procedure to design deep anode beds are

provided in Work Aid 2.

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TANK INTERIORS

Production vessels and storage tanks contain fluids that range

from very corrosive hot, sour brines to demineralized water or

steam condensate. Sometimes, coatings alone can adequately

protect vessels but only if there is no water or the water

resistivity is greater than 2000 ohm-cm. In most cases, both

coatings and cathodic protection are required to prevent

corrosion.

Galvanic anodes are usually the most economical choice except

in very large tanks. In drinking water systems, where

contamination from anode corrosion products is a concern,

Saudi Aramco uses indium activated aluminum galvanic

anodes. Saudi Aramco normally uses high silicon chromium

cast iron impressed current anodes to protect the interiors of

large tanks. Whenever impressed current systems are

considered, an economic analysis should be performed.

This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers

galvanic anode system designs for vessel and tank interiors.

The second part covers impressed current system designs for

tank interiors. The designs for both types of CP systems include

determining the following:

Engineering Standards and Drawings

by multiplying the required current density from SAES-X-500 by

the water-wetted surface area. Therefore, the designs in this

section assume that the total current requirement has been

calculated. After the following description of design

requirements from Saudi Aramcos standards and drawings,

methods and examples for designing galvanic and impressed

current systems are presented.

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The design of cathodic protection systems for vessel and tank

interiors is governed by SAES-X-500. SAES-X-500 states the

following:

resistivity of the contents of the tank or vessel will be 2000

ohm-centimeter or less at any time during the life of the tank

or vessel.

impressed current anode systems shall be either 7 years, or

the testing and inspection (T&I) period, whichever is greater.

minimum of 0.90 V (current on) with reference to a Ag-AgCl

electrode, or a maximum of +0.15 V (current on) with

reference to a zinc electrode.

if the electrolyte resistivity at normal operating temperature is

more than 1000 ohm-centimeters.

electrolyte resistivity at normal operating temperature is less

than 500 ohm-centimeters.

environments where the temperature exceeds 50 C, except

for high temperature zinc anodes certified by the

manufacturer as suitable for use at temperatures up to a

maximum of 70 deg C.

construction standards set in the following Standard Drawings:

AA-036354 (Water Storage Tanks Galvanic Anodes) and AA036353 (Water Storage Tanks Impressed Current). The

number, depth, and location of galvanic and impressed current

anodes are based on tank size, water level variation, and water

resistivity. Some diagrams from AA-036354 and

AA-036353 are shown in Figure 12.

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Weld

Junction box

0.01 ohm shunt

Access

hatch

Cable

Polypropylene

rope

Top View

Reference electrode

access hole

Access

hatch

Anode

Polypropylene

rope

See Anode

Installation Detail

Lead

wire

Cable tie

See Anode

String Detail

1.5 m

Standard Drawing AA-036354

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Reference

electrode

Header

cable

Anode

assembly

Junction

box

Top View

See Anode

Assembly Detail

Junction box

Reference

electrode

1.2m min.

Center of

Tank

h

1/ h

2

Standard Drawing AA-036353

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The design of galvanic anode systems for vessel and tank

interiors includes determining the following:

demonstrates the design of galvanic anode systems, is

provided.

Current Output Per

Anode

The current output of a single galvanic anode in a vessel or tank

is given by the following formula:

IA = ED/Rtotal

Where IA

ED

Rtotal =

Figure 14, in the equivalent electrical circuit.

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IA

RLW

ED

RV

RS

Galvanic anode

Electrical Circuit for Each Anode

Rtotal = RS + RW + RA,

Where RS

RLW

RA

RV, is given by the Dwight Equation.

RA =

0.159 8 L

1

In

L d

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Where RA

=

resistance of one vertical anode to the

electrolyte in ohms

Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required

The number of galvanic anodes required is calculated by

dividing the total current requirement by the current output of a

single galvanic anode as shown in the following equation:

N = I/IA

Where N

=

the total current required to protect the

structure

IA

The number of anodes required to achieve the necessary life

can be calculated if the weight of one anode and total current

output of all anodes are known. The number of anodes required

is given by:

N=

Y I C

W

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Where N

number of anodes

IA

Example 4

Given the following engineering data, we will calculate the

current output, number, and life of galvanic anodes required to

protect the interior of a water storage tank.

Tank diameter: 60 meters

Maximum water level: 23 meters

Internal coating: Epoxy

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance: negligible

Lead wire resistance: negligable

Water resistivity: 100 ohm-cm

Anode: Aluminum

Anode dimensions: 152.4 cm dia. x 6.3 cm

Anode actual consumption: 3.7 kg/A-yr

Anode weight: 10.91 kg

Anode solution potential: -1.05 V versus Ag-AgCl

Required structure-to-electrolyte potential: -0.90 V versus AgAgCl

Surface Area

The surface area is given by the sum of the area of the bottom

plus the area of shell in contact with the water:

S.A. = r2 + dL = 7163 m2

Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards

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by the cathodic current density:

Ed = Eo Ep = 1.05 0.9 = 0.15 volts

Rmax = Ed / I = 0.15 / 3.6 = 0.042 ohms

Rmax = Raab + Rs + RLW

0.042 = Raab + 0.0 + 0.0

Raab = 0.042

Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required to

Comply with

Resistance

Considering that the electrolyte is low resistivity and we are

using galvanic anodes, we can use Dwights equation for one

anode and parallel resistance theories to determine the

combined anode resistance as follows:

RV =

- 1 = 0.47 ohms

- 1 =

ln

ln

5

152.4

L d

at least 12 anodes.

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Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required to

Comply with Life

The minimum number of anodes required to achieve a 7 year

life for this tank is given by:

N = (Y x I x C) / W = (7yr x 3.6A x 3.7kg/Ay) / 10.91kg = 8.6

anodes, or at least 9 anodes.

Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required for

the Final Design

The minimum number of anodes required to achieve the

resistance and life requirements is 12 anodes

The design of impressed current systems for vessel and tank

interiors includes determining the following:

demonstrates the design of an impressed current system for a

tank interior, is provided.

Number of Impressed

Current Anodes

Required

The number of anodes can be calculated based on the anodes

maximum current output in the electrolyte or the anodes

consumption rate. It is necessary to use the method that gives

the more conservative value; that is, the method that results in

the greatest number of anodes.

To calculate the minimum number of anodes based on the

anodes maximum current density, the following formula is used:

N = I/(dL x A)

Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards

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Where N

anodes consumption rate, the following formula is used:

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

=

the impressed current system design life in

years

Circuit Resistance

Impressed current anodes in vessels or tanks are connected in

parallel as shown in Figure 15. The circuit resistance includes

the anode resistances in parallel and the resistances in the

negative and positive lead wires of the rectifier.

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RRPL

I

ED

RRNL

I1

I2

RA1

RA2

RS

Figure 15. Tank Impressed Current System and Equivalent Electrical Circuit

from the following formula:

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

Req R A1 R A2

R AN

by the following formula:

N

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

=

R AN R A

R eq R A R A

Req =

RA

N

below:

Rtotal = R PW +

RA

+ R S + R NW

N

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Where RC

=

the circuit resistance of the entire impressed

current system in ohms

RRPL =

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the

rectifier to the junction box

N

RA

=

the resistance of a single impressed current

anode

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RRNL =

the structure to the rectifier

The totalcircuit resistance, Rtotal, must be less than the

maximum allowable circuit resistance given by the formula

Rmax = ED/I

Where ED

=

the current output rating of the dc power

source

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Example 5

We will design an impressed current system to protect a large,

bare storage tank by using the following information:

Current required: 30 amperes (Use 50V/50A rectifier)

(Surface area and current density per SAES-X-300)

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance: negligible

Anode lead wire resistance: 0.038 ohms

Rectifier negative lead resistance: 0.04 ohm

Rectifier positive lead resistance: 0.05 ohm

Water resistivity: 15 ohm-cm

Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron

Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213.3" dia.

Anode weight: 38.6kg

Anode maximum current density: 0.7 mA/cm2

Anode consumption rate: 0.45 kg/A-yr

Required structure-to-electrolyte potential: -0.90 V versus

Ag-AgCl

Number of Impressed

Current Anodes

Using the Anode current density method

N = 50,000 / (3.14 x 9.5 x 213.3) = 11.2 Anodes

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12 anodes.

N = 7 x 50

Circuit Resistance

The resistance of the 12 anodes in parallel is given by the

following formula:

RA =

+R

anode as follows.

- 1 = 0.047 ohm

In

ln d 1 =

9.5

213

L

formula we obtain the following circuit resistance:

+R

AW

V +R

NW

PW

C

N

0.038 + 0.047

+ 0.05

R = 0.04 +

C

12

R = 0.097 ohm

C

R

=R

allowable design circuit resistance, which is

Rmax = (50 V 2V)/50 A x 0.7 = 0.67ohms

current system to protect the interior of a vessel or tank are

provided in Work Aid 3B.

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FACILITIES

There are a particular set of problems involved when

cathodically protecting structures within a plant area.

Hydrocarbon lines, firewater piping, buried valves, and tank

bottoms are examples of critical systems, which require

cathodic protection in plant areas. Significant external corrosion

problems are caused by the buried copper grounding grid,

which is designed to protect personnel in case of an electrical

ground fault. Buried steel is anodic to copper and will corrode

rapidly if electrically connected and in the same soil.

Saudi Aramco protects above-ground storage tanks and plant

piping with close, or distributed impressed current systems. this

type of design is applicable in congested areas such as plants

because (1) remote anode beds are electrically shielded by

other buried structures, and (2) some buried metal in the plant

does not require cathodic protection (e.g., rebar in foundations).

The design of impressed current systems that protect external

tank bottoms and plant piping involve determination of the

following:

drawings

the tank bottom or around the piping

and drawings is presented, a method and example are given to

demonstrate the design of impressed current systems to protect

plant piping and tank bottoms.

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The design of cathodic protection systems for plant facilities is

governed by SAES-X-600, structures which are cathodically

protected include the following:

pipelines.

crossings.

hydrants, monitors and fittings.

20 years.

potential rise method, using distributed impressed current

systems or continuous impressed current anodes. A

combination of remote and distributed anodes may also be

used in certain cases.

listed in Table 4, Reference SAES-X-600, section 4.5.

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Structure

Required Potential

or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4

electrode

Casings

or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4

electrode

On Grade Tank

Bottoms

or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4

electrode

or 100 mV polarization potential, versus CuSO4

electrode

Hydrants, Monitors and

Fittings

electrode

electrode

electrode

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construction standards set in Standard Drawing AA-036355

Tank Bottom Impressed Current Details. AA-036355 requires a

distance between the anodes and the tank of about one-quarter

of the tanks radius. Some diagrams from AA-036355 are shown

in Figure 16.

Cathodic protection systems for new tanks require the

installation of anodes installed directly under the storage tank

bottom. Two of the common systems used for this type of an

application are mixed metal oxide grid type anodes, and

polymeric continuous anodes, shown in Figures 18A and 18B,

respectively.

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Tank Bottom Impressed Current Details

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Figure 17A. Typical Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) Grid Anode System

Impressed Current for Storage Tank Bottom External

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Anode System for Storage Tank Bottom External

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Saudi Aramco uses distributed anode beds in congested areas

where electrical shielding prevents the use of remote anode bed

installations. Normally, high silicon chromium cast iron anodes

are used. Distributed anode systems are designed so that the

structure to be protected is within the area of influence that

surrounds each anode (see Figure 18). The idea of this type of

design is to change the potential of the earth around the

structure. The earth within the area of influence of each currentdischarging anode will be positive with respect to remote earth.

For a buried pipeline run in a plant area, there is a limited length

of the pipeline section where the net potential difference

between the pipeline and adjacent soil will be sufficient to attain

cathodic protection. Note in the figure that although a single

anode may cathodically protect the pipeline section closest to it,

the anode cannot adequately protect the rest of the buried

pipeline length.

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additive for all the anodes that cause a change (see

Figure 19). Hence, the earth potential shift at a given point on

the buried pipeline must include the potential shift caused by

neighboring anodes. For example, if the earth potential shift at a

given point is 0.2 volt from one anode and 0.1 volt from a

neighboring anode, then the total earth potential change would

be 0.3 volt.

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calculations involved to be sure that an adequate potential shift

is achieved at all points along the protected structure. The

number and size of anodes shall be determined based on

providing a sufficient voltage gradient over the entire length of

the buried pipeline, to achieve the protection criteria.

The amount of earth potential change depends on (1) the size

and shape of each anode, (2) the anodes position relative to

the structure to be protected, (3) the current flow, and (4) the

soil resistivity. The earth potential shift is given by the following

formulas:

(1) For a single vertical anode

V =

0.5 * l * p

L2 + X2 + L

ln

*L

X

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(0.5L )2 + X2 + h2 + 0.5L

I

V =

ln

L

X2 + h2

Where V

=

earth potential change at the center of the tank

in volts

anode length in cm

=

horizontal distance from the anode to the

pipeline in cm (see Figure 20).

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Circuit Resistance

Impressed current anodes around a tank are connected in

parallel as shown in Figure 21. Saudi Aramco normally uses

high silicon chromium cast iron anodes.

System and Equivalent Circuit

by the following formula:

RC = R NW + R AW

RA

+ R S + R PW

N

Where Rtotal

current system

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RPW

=

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the

rectifier to the junction box

RAW

RA

=

the resistance of a single impressed current

anode

RS

RNW

=

the resistance in the negative lead wire from

the structure to the rectifier

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RA = RW + RV,

Where RW

RV

The anode lead wire resistance, RLW, is very small and can be

ignored. Therefore, RA is equal to the anode-to-electrolyte

resistance of a single vertical anode, which is given by the

Dwight Equation.

RA = RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where RV

=

resistance of one vertical anode to the

electrolyte in ohms

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much greater than the sum of the other resistances. Therefore,

RRPL, RRNL, RCBL, and RS, can be ignored.

Example 6

Given the following engineering data, we will design an

impressed current system to protect a buried pipeline section.

Anode material: High silicon chromium cast iron

Anode dimensions: 9.5 cm dia. x 213 .3cm (backfill, 25 cm dia. x

300 cm)

Pipeline length: 300 m long

Pipeline horizontal distance from anodes: 5 m

Spacing between anodes: 25 m

Pipeline native potential: -0.5 V vs. CuSO4 electrode

Soil resistivity: 2,000 ohm-cm

Rectifier output rating: 50 V, 35 A

Number and

Placement of

Impressed Current

Anodes

easily calculated by using the earth potential shift formula in a

spread sheet format. Varying the anode spacing and anode

output current results in obtaining the required potential levels.

This spacing and current output can then be used for the CP

system design.

Minimum number of anodes

SAES-X-600 requires sufficient anodes to discharge the rectifier

amperage rating without exceeding the maximum anode current

density provided that the 20 years life is met. The minimum

number of anodes for this system should be:

1. Using the current density method:

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N=

I

35,000

=

(dL A ) ( * 9.5 * 213.3 * 0.7) = 7.8

N=

Y I C

=

W

38.6kg

yr )

= 8.2

I = 35/9 = 3.8 amps

Anode Gradient Calculation

Using the spreadsheet program, the anode gradient effects are

as follows:

ANODE GRADIENT CHANGE

VERTICAL ANODE

A2

A4

Y

P2

P1

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

SOIL RESISTIVITY

2000 ohm-cm

A1 CURRENT

3.8

amps

DISTANCE ( X )

2500 cm

A2 CURRENT

3.8

amps

DISTANCE ( Y )

500

cm

A3 CURRENT

3.8

amps

ANODE LENGTH

300

cm

A4 CURRENT

3.8

amps

POINT

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

NATIVE

TOTAL

A1

DISTANCE FROM

A2

A3

A4

A1

A2

A3

A4

POT.

POT.

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

5024.9

6270.0

7516.6

8764.3

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

5024.9

6270.0

6270.0

5024.9

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

8764.3

7516.6

6270.0

5024.9

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

0.89

2.29

0.89

0.47

0.32

0.24

0.19

0.16

0.14

0.32

0.47

0.89

2.29

0.89

0.47

0.32

0.24

0.19

0.19

0.24

0.32

0.47

0.89

2.29

0.89

0.47

0.32

0.14

0.16

0.19

0.24

0.32

0.47

0.89

2.29

0.89

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

2.04

3.67

2.80

3.98

2.92

3.98

2.80

3.67

2.04

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volt maximum criteria and as a result the current output of the

anodes should be decreased.

Calculating the gradient for anode output of 2 amps will result in

the following numbers:

ANODE GRADIENT CHANGE

VERTICAL ANODE

A2

A4

Y

P2

P1

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

SOIL RESISTIVITY

2000 ohm-cm

A1 CURRENT

amps

DISTANCE ( X )

2500 cm

A2 CURRENT

amps

DISTANCE ( Y )

500

cm

A3 CURRENT

amps

ANODE LENGTH

300

cm

A4 CURRENT

amps

POINT

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

NATIVE

TOTAL

A1

DISTANCE FROM

A2

A3

A4

A1

A2

A3

A4

POT.

POT.

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

5024.9

6270.0

7516.6

8764.3

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

5024.9

6270.0

6270.0

5024.9

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

2549.5

3783.2

8764.3

7516.6

6270.0

5024.9

3783.2

2549.5

1346.3

500.0

1346.3

0.47

1.21

0.47

0.25

0.17

0.13

0.10

0.08

0.07

0.17

0.25

0.47

1.21

0.47

0.25

0.17

0.13

0.10

0.10

0.13

0.17

0.25

0.47

1.21

0.47

0.25

0.17

0.07

0.08

0.10

0.13

0.17

0.25

0.47

1.21

0.47

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.31

2.17

1.71

2.33

1.77

2.33

1.71

2.17

1.31

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The number is calculated as follows:

N=

Pipe Length

+ 1= 300 + 1 = 13 anodes

25

X

Output of anodes

I= I

= 35 = 2.7 amps

N 13

rect

2.0

follows to ensure that it can discharge the amount of current that

the calculation was based on:

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STRUCTURES

Saudi Aramco cathodically protects the entire submerged

surface area of marine structures (see Figure 23). This

submerged surface area extends from the base of the structure

to the Indian Spring Mean High Tide Level. To calculate the

current required to protect the structure, you must know the

following:

Splash zone

Water line

Immersed zone

Mud line

Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards

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and specifications of the structure or obtained from the structure

designer.

This section is divided into two parts. The first part covers

galvanic anode system designs for marine structures. Saudi

Aramco cathodically protects all marine structures and pipelines

with galvanic anodes. The second part covers impressed

current systems. Impressed current systems are used when ac

power is available. When used with a galvanic anode system,

an impressed current system is intended as the primary system.

The galvanic anode system is used as a backup for the

following two reasons:

1)

is energized.

2)

interrupted. Power can be interrupted during break downs

or during scheduled shutdowns.

of design requirements by using Saudi Aramco Engineering

Standards and Drawings. Therefore, after the following

information about Saudi Aramcos standards and drawings,

methods and examples for designing galvanic and impressed

current systems are described separately.

The design of cathodic protection systems for marine structures

is governed by SAES-X-300. Section 4.3 & 4.5 of SAES-X-300

states the following:

design life of 25 years.

systems shall have a design life of 5 years and the

impressed current system shall have a design life of 20

years.

structure-to-electrolyte potential of -0.90 volt versus Ag-AgCl

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requires the following current densities in the immersed

surface areas.

Table 5. Current Density Criteria

Environment

Coated

Coated

Structure (1)

Uncoated Pipeline

Structure

Seawater (2)

10

2.5

50

Mud or Soil

10

2.5

20

(2) Higher current densities may be required depending on water

turbulence and/or velocity.

construction standards set in the following Standard Drawings:

AA-036348 (Galvanic and Impressed Current Anodes on

Offshore Structures), AA-036409 (Replacement of Galvanic

Anodes on Offshore Structures and Risers), and AA-036335

(Half Shell Bracelet Type Anode for Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60").

Standard Drawing AA-036335 states that the maximum spacing

for all sizes of anode bracelets shall be 150 meters. Some

diagrams from AA-036348, AA-036409, and AA-036335 are

shown in Figures 24 and 25.

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75 mm dia.

coating

removed

Anode bracelet

welded to pipe

AA-036335

Galvanic Anode Bracelet

for Submarine Pipelines

Aluminum Alloy

Pipeline Riser

Anodes laid on

sea bed under

pile structure

Pile Mounted Anode

AA-036409

Anodes Installed on the Sea Bed

AA-036409

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Nylon

Strapping

Galvanic

anodes

Impressed

current anode

Dielectric

shield

Impressed

current anodes

Junction Box.

Conduit

1-1/2" Conduit

Main Deck

Impressed Current Anode Cables

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Saudi Aramco uses indium-doped aluminum alloy or zinc-tindoped aluminum alloy galvanic anodes to protect marine

structures. Galvanic anodes are usually installed at least

30 cm (1 ft.) from the structure. A calcareous build-up forms on

the structure as it polarizes. This build-up increases the current

distribution of the anodes. Galvanic anode bracelets are used to

protect marine pipelines.

The design of galvanic anode systems for marine structures

(such as platforms, mooring buoys, etc.) involves determining

the following:

involves determining the following:

demonstrates the design of a galvanic anode system for a

marine platform and pipeline, is provided.

Number of Galvanic

Anodes Required

depends on the total current required and the current output per

anode. In Module 107.01, we calculated the total current

requirement by multiplying the required current density from

SAES-X-300 by the immersed surface area of the marine

structure. The total number of anodes is calculated by using the

following equation:

N = I/IA

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Where N

=

the total current required to protect the

structure

IA

The current output from a single anode, IA, can be found using

the following equation:

IA = ED/Rtotal,

Where IA

ED

=

the anode driving potential in volts versus AgAgCl

Rtotal =

Circuit Resistance

equation:

Rtotal = RS + RV

Where RS

=

the structure-to-electrolyte resistance (for

offshore structures, this is negligible)

RV

is used to calculate RV.

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

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Where

=

the diameter of the anode in centimeters or the

circumference divided by for non-cylindrical shapes

The anodes must last over the design life of the system. The

number of anodes required to provide the necessary life is given

by the following equation.

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

number of anodes

IA

of Galvanic Anode

Bracelets

pipeline is calculated as follows.

N = L/150 m

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Where N

The anode bracelets must last over the design life of the

pipeline. The anode life is given by the following equation.

N=

Y I C

W

Where -

Number of anodes

IA

Drawing AA-036335 (see also Work Aid 5A). The current

requirement for one anode bracelet, IA, can be calculated by

dividing the total current requirement by the number of anode

bracelets.

An alternative method involves calculating the current output of

a single anode bracelet by dividing the driving potential of the

galvanic anode material by the circuit resistance. As shown

previously, the circuit resistance is equivalent to the anode-toelectrolyte resistance because the structure-to-electrolyte

resistance is negligible. For bracelet type anodes, the following

equation is used to calculate the anode-to-electrolyte

resistance.

RA =

0.315

A

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Where RA

=

the anode-to-electrolyte resistance for bracelet

type anodes

total current requirement by the current output of a single anode

bracelet.

Example 7

We will calculate the number of Galvalum III anodes needed to

protect an offshore platform and a coated marine pipeline. We

will use the following information to design the platforms

galvanic anode system:

(11" x 11" x 120")

Number of Anodes

ED/RA. The driving potential of the Galvalum III anode is

ED = 1.05 V - 0.90 V = 0.15 V versus Ag-AgCl.

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we must insert its dimensions and the water resistivity into the

Dwight Equation. The effective diameter of the anode is

d = (28+28+28+28)/ = 35.7 cm.

RV =

0.159 8L

1 =0.025 ohms

In

d

platform is:

I = ED/RV = 0.15 V/0.025 ohm = 6.0 A.

is:

N = 250 amperes/6.0 amperes per anode = 42 anodes.

Galvanic Anode Life

625kg

=

= 28 years.

Y =

*

C

I

3.7kg/amp

yr.

6.0amp

Now, using the following information, we will calculate the

current requirement and number of Galvalum III anodes needed

to protect the coated marine pipeline:

Length of pipeline: 4.5 km

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of Galvanic Anode

Bracelets

N = 4500 m/150 m = 30 bracelets.

Aid 5A), the net anode material weight of a bracelet for a 45.cm

(18) diameter pipeline is 61 kg.

The formulas and procedure used to design galvanic anode

systems for marine structures and offshore pipelines are

provided in Work Aid 5A.

The driving potentials of impressed current anodes are much

greater than galvanic anodes. Therefore, fewer impressed

current anodes are required to provide the same amount of

current. However, their placement is more critical to achieve

adequate current distribution. An impressed current anode will

tend to over-protect areas close to it and under-protect more

remote areas. To improve the current distribution of impressed

current anodes, the following methods are sometimes used:

An insulating shield is installed on the structure near

impressed current anodes.

by at least 1.5 m.

involves determining:

The number of impressed current anodes required

demonstrates the design of an impressed current system to

protect a marine platform, is provided.

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Number of Impressed

Current Anodes

Required

on the maximum anode current output as follows:

N=

ITotal

IA

Where ITotal

=

Total current requirement for an impressed

current system

IA

=

The maximum current output of one impressed

current anode

the anode material multiplied by the anode surface area.

Rectifier Voltage

Requirement

requirement of the anodes. The rectifier output voltage is given

by the following formula:

E=

IRe ctifier

RC

Rtotal = R NW + R PW +

87

R LW + RV

N

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Where Rtotal =

the total circuit resistance of the entire

impressed current system

RPW

=

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the

rectifier to the junction box

RNW

=

the resistance in the negative lead wire from

the structure to the rectifier

RV

=

the resistance of a single impressed current

anode (Dwight Equation)

RAW

from the formula for Rtotal. This is because RS is negligible in

seawater.

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Example 8

We will design an impressed current system to protect the

previous offshore platform for which we designed a galvanic

anode system. However, assume that the platform is also

electrically bonded to four conductor pipes with wells.

Current required for platform: 175 amperes

Anode material: Platinized niobium

Anode dimensions: 2.5 dia x 76.2 cm (3" dia. x 30")

Anode max. current output density: 40 mA/cm2

Water resistivity: 15 ohm-cm

Anode lead wire: No. 2 AWG, 50 meters long

Lead wire resistance: 0.531 x 10-3 ohm/m

Total resistance in both rectifier lead wires: 0.02 ohm

Current requirement for conductor pipes: 25 amperes each

Current requirement for conductor pipes: 3 amperes each

Corrected Current

Requirement

pipes is:

I = 175 A +(4)(25 A) + (4)(3 A) = 287 A.

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Number of Anodes

Required

IA = (2.5 cm)(76.2 cm)(40 mA/cm2) = 23,939 mA = 23.9 A.

The number of anodes required is

N = ICorr/IA = 300 A/23.9 A = 12.6 anodes = 13 anodes.

Rectifier Voltage

Requirement

total circuit resistance, RC, is calculated as follows: (Remember,

RS is negligible in seawater)

RC = RRNL + RRPL +

RLW + RV

N

Dwight Equation as follows:

RV =

1 =

1 = 0.14 ohm

In

In

L

76.2

2.5

d

RAW = (50 m)(0.531 x 10 -3 ohm/m) = 0.03 ohm.

The total resistance in the rectifier lead wires, RRPL + RRNL, is

0.02 ohm. Therefore, the circuit resistance is

RC = 0.02 + (0.14 + 0.03)/13 = 0.033 ohm.

E = ICorrRC = (300 A)(0.033 ohms) = 10 volts.

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the rated circuit resistance of the rectifier:

E=10/0.7 = 15 volts

Therefore, select 25 volts/ 300 amps rectifier

Formulas and procedures used to design impressed current

systems for marine structures are provided in Work Aid 5B.

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WORK AIDS

WORK AID 1A: DATA BASE, FORMULAS, AND PROCEDURE TO

DESIGN GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR ROAD

AND CAMEL CROSSINGS

This Work Aid provides formulas, and a procedure for determining the number, circuit

resistance, current output, and design life of galvanic anodes used to protect buried

pipelines. These can be used to determine additional quantities of galvanic anodes, if

the anode requirement is greater than the minimum required by standard drawing AA036352.

Formulas

Number of Galvanic Anodes Required

N = IR/IA

Where

IR

IA

Galvanic Anode Current Output

IA = ED/RC

Where IA

ED

RC

Circuit Resistance

RC = RS +

RLW + RV

Where -

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RC

RS

RLW

RV

Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where RV

Galvanic Anode Life

W UF

Y=

C I A

Where Y

life in years

anode mass in kg

UF

utilization factor

IA

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Procedure

1.0 Determine the number of anodes.

1.1 Obtain the dimensions of buried pipe section and calculate the pipeline

protection current requirement.

1.2 From the calculations in Step 2.0 below, determine if the minimum

number of anodes specified in standard drawing AA-036352 will meet

the required current, and anode life requirements. If not, then repeat

step 2.0 using N>minimum number of anodes specified, to obtain the

required current and design life...

2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode dimensions (in centimeters)

Chemical backfill package dimensions (in centimeters)

Soil resistivity

2.2

anode.

If anode is cylindrical, use its diameter (in centimeters)

If anode is not cylindrical, calculate its effective diameter

(circumference/3.14).

2.3 Calculate the anode-to-earth resistance by inserting the values for soil

resistivity and the backfill dimensions into the Dwight Equation. In

Subkha, where no backfill package is used, insert the anode

dimensions.

2.4 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and anode-to-earth

resistance by the number of anodes. Add this resistance to the

structure-to-electrolyte resistance to calculate the circuit resistance.

3.0 Calculate the anode current output.

3.1 Divide the anode driving potential by the circuit resistance calculated in

Step 2.4.

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4.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode mass in kg

Anode utilization factor

Actual anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

Substitute the anode current output from Step 3.1 and the values

from Step 4.1 into the Galvanic Anode Life formula and

calculate the anode life.

IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR BURIED

PIPELINES

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to calculate the number and spacing

of impressed current anodes and the volume of coke breeze needed for the anode bed.

This procedure assumes that you have determined the current requirement and

allowable anode bed resistance.

Formulas

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current

Density

N = I/(dL x A)

Where N

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C

W

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Where N

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RC <= Rmax x 0.7

Where RD

Rmax =

circuit resistance

maximum circuit resistance

And Rmax =

Rmax =

Raab + RLW + RS

Raab

RLW

RS

structure resistance

Sunde Equation (for multiple vertical anodes in parallel)

RV =

0.159 8L 2L

In

1 +

(

In0.656N)

S

NL d

Where RV

centimeters apart along a straight line.

number of anodes

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Procedure

1.0 Determine the minimum number of impressed current anodes.

1.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode material

Anode weight (in kg)

Anode consumption rate

Coke breeze backfill column dimensions (in centimeters)

Soil resistivity (in ohm-cm)

Current required

Design circuit resistance

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance

Total lead wire resistance

1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode

current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the

largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas. Round up

to the nearest multiple of 10.

2.0 Determine the anode bed resistance.

2.1 Calculate the rated circuit resistance, RR, of the CP power source.

2.2 For a vertical anode bed, calculate Rab by using the Sunde equation.

2.3 Determine the maximum allowable value of the CP system design

circuit resistance, RD (70% of the rated circuit resistance RR ). The

calculated value of RD should not exceed the maximum allowable

value. If it does, relocate the anode bed to a lower resistivity location,

increase the number of anodes, or increase the anode bed length to

decrease RAB. Larger diameter negative and positive cables can also

be used to decrease RLW.

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3.0 Calculate the weight of coke breeze needed for the anode bed.

3.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode diameter and length (in centimeters)

Coke breeze column dimensions

Coke breeze density

3.2 Subtract the volume of one anode from the volume of the backfill

column to obtain the net volume of coke breeze.

3.3 Multiply the net volume of coke breeze by 1.2 (for spillage) and by the

number of anodes from Step 3.2.

3.4 Multiply the total volume of backfill by the density of the coke breeze.

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

WORK AID 2:

CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR ONSHORE

WELL CASINGS

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design impressed current deep

anode beds to protect onshore well casings. This procedure assumes that you have

determined the current requirement and allowable anode bed resistance.

Formulas

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current

Density

N = I/(dL x A)

Where N

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

100

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Circuit Resistance

RC = RRPL + RLW + RV + RS + RRNL

Where RC

circuit resistance

RRPL =

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the

junction box

RLW =

the equivalent resistance of the anode lead wires (the sum of the

individual lead wire resistances divided by the number of lead

wires)

RV

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RRNL =

the resistance in the negative lead wire from the well casing to the

rectifier

Dwight Equation (for a deep anode bed)

RV =

0.159eff 8L

In

1

d

Where RV

eff

Volume of Coke Breeze Column

VC = (d2/4)H

Where d

101

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Procedure

1.0 Determine the length of the coke breeze column.

1.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode material

Anode diameter and length (in centimeters) and weight (in kg)

Anode consumption rate

Current required

Anode spacing

1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode

current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the

largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas.

1.3 Calculate the length of the coke breeze column. Allow at least 6 meters

above the top anode and at least 1.5 meters below the bottom anode

for the coke breeze backfill.

2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Effective soil resistivity from Geonics measurement

Length of coke breeze column (from Step 1.3)

Diameter of coke breeze column

Maximum allowable circuit resistance

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance

Length of anode lead wires

Length of rectifier lead wires

102

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2.2 Calculate the deep anode bed resistance by inserting the effective soil

resistivity and the dimensions of the coke breeze column into the

Dwight Equation.

2.3 Multiply the total length of the rectifier lead wires by both the lead wire

resistance (in ohm/m) and 110%.

2.4 Divide the total length of the anode lead wires by the number of lead

wires. Multiply this amount by the lead wire resistance (in ohm/m) and

110%.

2.5 Add the resistances from Steps 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4 to the well casing-tosoil resistance. Make sure that this total circuit resistance is less than

the maximum allowable design circuit resistance, Rmax. Rmax = (rated

voltage/ current required) * 0.07.

3.0 Calculate the amount of coke breeze.

3.1 Obtain the following information:

Coke breeze density

Coke breeze column dimensions

3.2 Calculate the volume of coke breeze using the provided formula. Add 2

inches to the coke column diameter to account for spillage.

3.3 Multiply the volume of coke breeze by the coke breeze density to

obtain the weight of coke breeze required.

103

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL & TANK

INTERIORS

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design galvanic and impressed

current systems for the interior of tanks and vessels.

Formulas

Current Output of a Galvanic Anode in a Vessel or Tank

1

1

= EO

I = EO

RC

RS + RLW + RV

Where I

ED

RC

circuit resistance

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RLW

RV

Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where RV

electrolyte resistivity

104

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

W UF

Y=

C I A

Where Y

life in years

anode mass in kg

UF

utilization factor

IA

Procedure

1.0 Calculate the current output per anode.

1.1 If you have the manufacturers performance chart for the anode, locate

the protected potential of the structure on the horizontal or X axis.

Move vertically up the chart until you intersect the curve for the water

resistivity of interest. Move horizontally along the chart and read the

value of the anodes current output on the vertical or Y axis. Go to

Step 2.1.

CAUTION: Performance charts are developed based on specific

design parameters. You must be sure that the performance chart you

use was developed for your particular situation.

1.2 If you do not have the manufacturers performance chart, obtain the

following information:

Total current required to protect the tank or vessel

Electrolyte resistivity

Anode material

Anode diameter and length (in centimeters)

Maximum allowable circuit resistance

105

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance

Anode lead wire resistance

1.3 Insert the anode dimensions and water resistivity into the Dwight

Equation to calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance.

1.4 Add the structure-to-electrolyte resistance, anode lead wire resistance,

and the anode-to-electrolyte resistance from Step 1.3 to calculate the

circuit resistance.

1.5 Subtract the required potential of the structure from the solution

potential of the galvanic anode to calculate the driving potential of the

anode.

1.6 Divide the driving potential from Step 1.5 by the circuit resistance from

Step 1.4 to calculate the current output of a single galvanic anode.

2.0 Determine the number of galvanic anodes.

2.1 Divide the total current required by the anode current output from Step

1.6 to calculate the number of anodes required. Round up to the

nearest integer.

3.0 Calculate the galvanic anode life.

3.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode mass in kg

Anode utilization factor

Anode actual consumption rate

3.2 Divide the product of the anode mass and utilization factor by the

product of the anode consumption rate and anode current output

calculated in Step 1.6.

106

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR VESSEL &

TANK INTERIORS

Formulas

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Maximum Current

Density

N = I/(dL x A)

Where N

Minimum Number of Anodes Based on Anode Consumption Rate

N=

Y I C

W

Where N

107

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Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Circuit Resistance

RC = RRNL +

RLW + RV

+ RS + RRPL

N

Where RC

RRPL =

the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the

junction box

RLW

RV

RS

structure-to-electrolyte resistance

RRNL =

the resistance in the negative lead wire from the structure to the

rectifier

Dwight Equation (for a single vertical anode)

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where RV

electrolyte resistivity

108

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Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Procedure

1.0 Determine the number of impressed current anodes.

1.1 Obtain the following information:

Total current required to protect the tank or vessel

Anode material and dimensions

Maximum current density of the anode

1.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode

current density formula and anode consumption rate formula. Use the

largest number of anodes calculated from the two formulas. Round up

to the nearest integer.

2.0 Calculate the circuit resistance.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Structure-to-electrolyte resistance

Anode lead wire resistance

Rectifier to junction box lead wire resistance

Resistance in the lead wire from the tank or vessel to the rectifier

Water resistivity

Rectifier voltage and current output ratings

2.2 Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode by

inserting the anode dimensions and the water resistivity into the Dwight

Equation.

2.3 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and the anode-to-electrolyte

resistance by the number of anodes calculated in Step 1.2. To this

resistance, add the structure-to-electrolyte resistance and the

resistances in the positive and negative lead wires of the rectifier. This

will give you the total circuit resistance of the impressed current

system.

2.4 Divide the rated voltage of the rectifier by its output current rating to

calculate the maximum allowable circuit resistance. Ensure that the

circuit resistance you calculated in Step 2.3 is less than the maximum

allowable circuit resistance.

109

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

WORK AID 4.

CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR PLANT

FACILITIES

This Work Aid provides formulas and procedures to design impressed current systems

to protect the bottom exterior of storage tanks using the earth potential shift formula.

Formulas

Earth Potential Shift

For a single vertical anode

2

2

L + X + L

0.5 I

In

VX =

X

L

I

VX =

In

L

(0.5L2 )+ X2 + h2 + 0.5L

X2 + h2

Where VX

I =

L=

X=

horizontal distance from the anode to the center of the tank (cm)

h=

110

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Procedure

1.0 Determine the number and location of impressed current anodes.

1.1 Select the location of the anodes within one-quarter of the tank radius

from the tank wall according to Standard Drawing AA-036355.

1.2 Add the distance between one anode and the tank to the tank radius to

obtain the radius of the anode header cable. Multiply the header cable

radius by 2p to calculate the circumference of the header cable.

1.3 Divide the anode header cable length by 20 m to obtain the minimum

number of anodes required.

2.0 Calculate the earth potential shift due to each anode.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Average tank native potential

Soil resistivity

Anode and anode backfill dimensions

Distance between the anodes and tank center

2.2 Substitute the soil resistivity, anode distance, anode backfill length,

and required earth potential shift

(0.35 volts according to Saudi Aramco Standards) into the earth

potential shift formula for a single vertical anode and solve for the

current I, required.

2.3 Divide the current flow by the number of anodes to obtain the

estimated current required from each anode.

3.0 Calculate the current required to protect the tank based on surface area and

required current density.

111

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

THE DESIGN OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEMS FOR

MARINE STRUCTURES

This Work Aid provides requirements from Standard Drawing AA-036335, formulas, and

a procedure for determining the number, circuit resistance, current output, and design

life of galvanic anodes used to protect marine platforms and pipelines.

Table 6. Half Shell Anode Bracelet Type Anode For

Pipe Sizes 4" Through 60"

Pipe Size

10.2 cm (4") NB

15.2 cm (6") NB

20.3 cm (8") NB

25.4 cm (10") NB

30.5 cm (12") NB

35.6 cm (14") OD

40.6 cm (16") OD

45.7 cm (18") OD

50.8 cm (20") OD

55.9 cm (22") OD

61.0 cm (24") OD

66.0 cm (26") OD

71.1 cm (28") OD

76.2 cm (30") OD

81.3 cm (32") OD

86.4 cm (34") OD

91.4 cm (36") OD

106.7 cm (42") OD

116.8 cm (46") OD

121.9 cm (48") OD

132.1 cm (52") OD

152.4 cm (60") OD

Net Weight

16 kg

23 kg

30 kg

36 kg

41 kg

50 kg

54 kg

61 kg

68 kg

75 kg

82 kg

86 kg

91 kg

95 kg

100 kg

104 kg

109 kg

129 kg

143 kg

167 kg

161 kg

186 kg

112

Nominal Weight

24 kg

31 kg

39 kg

46 kg

51 kg

61 kg

66 kg

74 kg

82 kg

89 kg

96 kg

109 kg

116 kg

120 kg

127 kg

132 kg

138 kg

161 kg

177 kg

184 kg

204 kg

230 kg

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Formulas

Current Output of a Galvanic Anode

IA = ED/RC

Where IA

ED

Circuit Resistance of a Galvanic Anode

RC = RS + RA = RA

Where RC = Circuit resistance in ohms

RS

RA

Dwight Equation

RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where =

L=

d=

by for non-cylindrical shapes

113

Engineering Encyclopedia

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

N = I/IA

Where N=

I =

IA

Galvanic Anode Lifetime

W UF

Y=

C I A

Where Y=

= anode mass in kg

UF

= Utilization factor

C=

IA

Procedure

1.0 Calculate the required current.

1.1

Platform surface area in seawater in m2

Current density required in seawater in mA/m2

Platform surface area below mud line in m2

Current density required in mud in mA/m2

114

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surface area of the structure in seawater by Saudi Aramcos current

density requirement. Multiply the surface area of the structure below

the mud line by Saudi Aramcos current density requirement. Add the

two current requirements together.

2.0 Calculate the number of galvanic anodes for an offshore platform.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode solution potential in volts versus Ag-AgCl

Anode dimensions in centimeters

Anode weight in kg

Seawater resistivity in ohm-cm

Anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

Anode utilization factor

Galvanic anode design life in years

2.2 If the anode is not cylindrical, determine its effective diameter by

dividing its circumference by . Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte

resistance of the anode by inserting its effective diameter, length, and

the electrolyte resistivity into the Dwight Equation.

2.3 Subtract the required potential of the structure from the solution

potential of the anode to calculate the anode driving potential. Divide

the anode driving potential by the anode-to-electrolyte resistance from

Step 2.2 to determine the current output of a single anode.

2.4 Divide the total current required by the anode current output from Step

2.3 to calculate the number of anodes required. Round up to the

nearest integer.

2.5 Insert the weight of a single anode, utilization factor, consumption rate,

and current output from Step 2.3 into the Galvanic Anode Lifetime

formula. Ensure that the anode life is greater than the required design

life. If the anode life is less than the required design life, multiply the

number of anodes from Step 2.4 by the ratio of the design lifetime and

calculated lifetime. The result is the proper number of anodes required

for the design life of the cathodic protection system.

3.0 Calculate the number of galvanic anode bracelets for marine pipelines.

115

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

3.1

Pipeline surface area in seawater in m2

Pipeline length in meters

Pipeline diameter in cm

Anode consumption rate in kg/A-yr

Anode utilization factor

Anode design life in years

area by Saudi Aramcos required current density of 2.5 mA/m2.

3.3 Divide the length of the pipeline by 150 meters to calculate the number

of anode bracelets required.

3.4 Verify that the anode bracelet will last over the required design life.

Substitute the anode consumption rate, current output, utilization

factor, and net weight of anode material into the galvanic anode life

formula and solve for Y.

116

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS FOR MARINE

STRUCTURES

Formulas

Current Requirement for Impressed Current Systems

I

Aramcos current density requirement)

Density

N = I/(dL x A)

Where N=

I =

d=

L=

117

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Circuit Resistance

RC = RRNL + RRPL +

RLW + RV

N

Where RC

RRPL = the resistance in the positive lead wire from the rectifier to the

junction box

RRNL = the resistance in the negative lead wire from the structure to the

rectifier

N=

RV

Equation)

RLW

Dwight Equation

RA = RV =

0.159 8L

1

In

d

Where RA

L=

d=

by for non-cylindrical shapes

118

Engineering Encyclopedia

Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Procedure

1.0 Calculate the current requirement.

Add the current required to protect any conductor pipe and unprotected

pipelines to the current required to protect the structure.

2.0 Calculate the number of impressed current anodes.

2.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode dimensions in centimeters

Anode maximum current density

2.2 Calculate the minimum number of anodes required by using the anode

current density formula. Round up to the nearest integer.

3.0 Calculate the rectifier voltage requirement.

3.1 Obtain the following information:

Anode dimensions in centimeters

Seawater resistivity in ohm-cm

Anode lead wire resistance

Rectifier lead wire resistance

3.2 Calculate the anode-to-electrolyte resistance of a single anode by

inserting the anode dimensions and the seawater resistivity into the

Dwight Equation.

3.3 Divide the sum of the lead wire resistance and the anode-to-electrolyte

resistance by the number of anodes calculated in Step 2.2. To this

resistance, add the resistances in the positive and negative lead wires

of the rectifier. This will give you the total circuit resistance of the

impressed current system.

3.4 To calculate the voltage requirement of the rectifier, multiply the

corrected current by the circuit resistance. Divide this result by the

rectifier efficiency to determine the actual voltage requirement.

119

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120

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Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

GLOSSARY

Anode Internal Resistance

the backfill.

Anode-To-Earth Resistance

the soil.

Backfill

immediately surrounding a buried impressed current

anode for the purpose of increasing the effective area

of contact with the soil and thus reducing the

resistance to earth. Calcined petroleum coke backfill

is commonly used as backfill for deep and surface

anode beds in Saudi Aramco.

Conductor Pipe

drilled and then through which casing and tubing are

inserted and often grouted into place.

Current Density

per square meter or milliamperes per square meter.

The current density required to achieve cathodic

protection varies depending on the environment and

metal being protected.

to contain impressed current anodes.

Insulating Flange or

Isolating Flange

and systems. The flange faces and securing bolts are

electrically insulated from each other by insulating

sleeves, washers, and gaskets.

Polarization

from the passage of current to or from an electrolyte.

Protective Potential

minimum potential required to suppress corrosion.

Protective potential depends on the structure metal

and the environment.

Remote Earth

change is negligible with change in reference

electrode position away from the structure.

121

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Corrosion

Desiging Cathodic Protection Systems

Shielding

Structure-To- Electrolyte

Potential

current from reaching a structure. Shielding may be

caused by a non-metallic barrier or by metallic

structures that surround the structure to be protected.

The potential difference between a buried or

immersed metallic structure and the electrolyte

surrounding it, measured with a reference electrode in

contact with the electrolyte.

placed impressed current or galvanic anodes.

Utilization Factor

material consumed when the anode can no longer

deliver the current required efficiency.

122

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