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Ministry of Defence

Defence Standard

00-35(PART 3)/Issue 3

7 May 1999

ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK FOR DEFENCE


MATERIEL
PART 3: ENVIRONMENTAL TEST METHODS

This Defence Standard is progressively


superseding AvP35 and supersedes DEF
STAN 07-55 and DEF STAN 00-1

AMENDMENTS ISSUED SINCE PUBLICATION


AMENDMENT NUMBER

DATE OF ISSUE

TEXT AFFECTED

SIGNATURE & DATE

Revision Note
This Standard is raised to Issue 3 to update its technical content and is now published in
separate parts to facilitate easier reference, amendment and distribution.
Historical Record
Def Stan 00-35/Issue 2 dated 29 March 1996, Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel
Def Stan 00-35/Issue 1 Parts 1 to 4 dated 1986, Environmental Handbook for Defence
Materiel, Part 1 General Requirements, Part 2 Specification of Service Environments,
Part 3 Environmental Testing, Part 4 Natural Environments
Def Stan 00-1/Issue 2 dated 1977, Climatic Environmental Conditions Affecting the Design of
Materiel for Use by NATO Forces in the Ground Role
STANAG 2831 dated 1977, Climatic Environmental Conditions Affecting the Design of
Materiel for Use by NATO Forces in the Ground Role
Def Stan 07-55 Part 2 , Sections 1 to 6 dated 1975, Environmental Testing of Service Materiel
Part 2 Tests, Section 1 Mechanical, Section 2 Climatic, Section 3 Chemical and Biological
Attack, Section 4 Penetration and Immersion, Section 5 Radiation, Section 6 Fire and
Explosion
Def Stan 07-55 Part 1 dated 10 February 1975, Environmental Testing of Service Materiel
Part 1 General Requirements
Def Stan 00-1/Issue 1 dated 1969, Climatic Environmental Conditions Affecting the Design of
Materiel for Use by NATO Forces in the Ground Role
QSTAG 200 dated 1969, Climatic Environmental Conditions Affecting the Design of
Materiel for Use by NATO Forces in the Ground Role
AvP 35 dated 1966, Environmental Handbook for Guided Weapons
DEF-133 dated 1963, Climatic, Shock and Vibration Testing of Service Equipment

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3

DEFENCE STANDARD 00-35


ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK FOR DEFENCE MATERIEL

Part 3 Environmental Test Methods


PREFACE
This Defence Standard contains environmental data and a range of tests representing conditions
which may be encountered during the life of defence materiel. The environmental data should be used
to select test methods and test severites to simulate the service, storage and transportation
environments for the materiel. The information available from the test results and subsequent
assessments should be capable of providing sufficient evidence to demonstrate compliance with the
specified environmental requirements for the materiel.
Defence Standard 00-35 is in six parts. More than one part may apply to the environmental
requirement and may cross reference to other parts of the Defence Standard. It is essential that all
parts be considered and used where appropriate. Users of this Defence Standard should make
reference to Defence Standard 00-00 Part 3 Section 4 to ensure the latest issue of each part is in use.
Issue 3 adds a further 15 test methods to Part 3. Issue 3 provides a comprehensive series of
environmental test methods for use during the design, development and certification of defence
materiel. Part 3 includes sections covering test methods for mechanical, climatic, chemical and
biological, and accident and hostile environments. The test methods are presented in a prescriptive
and mandatory style so that they can be readily invoked by the user. As far as has been possible the
lest methods included are compatible with those internationally agreed and published, such as those in
CENELEC Standard EN 60068 (converted from IEC 68) and NATO STANAG 4370.
The technical material in this Standard has been prepared by the Joint Technical Requirements
Committee (JTRC), Sub Committee No 2. The JTRC is composed of representatives from the Ministry
of Defence, the Defence Research Agencies, the Federation of Electronic Industries, and the Society
of British Aerospace Companies.
In accordance with HM Government policy the maximum use has been made in this Standard of
materiel, particularly in the field of environmental testing, published in British Standards and
internationally agreed standards. Where these standards are suitable they are invoked in this
Standard.
This Standard has been agreed by the authorities concerned with its use and is intended to be used
whenever relevant in all future designs, contracts, orders etc and whenever practicable by amendment
to those already in existence. If any difficulty arises which prevents application of this Defence
Standard, the Directorate of Standardisation shall be informed so that a remedy may be sought.
Any enquiries regarding this Standard in relation to an invitation to tender or a contract in which it is
incorporated are to be addressed to the responsible technical or supervising authority named in the
invitation to tender or contract.
This Standard has been devised for the use of the Crown and its contractors in the execution of
contracts for the Crown. The Crown hereby excludes all liability (other than liability for death or
personal injury) whatsoever and howsoever arising (including, but without limitation, negligence on the
part of the Crown its servants or agents) for any loss or damage however caused where the Standard
is used for any other purpose.

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DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3

DEF STAN 00-35


ENVIRONMENTAL HANDBOOK FOR DEFENCE MATERIEL

PART 3
ENVIRONMENTAL TEST METHODS

LIST OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1

GENERAL

Chapter 1-01

General

Chapter 1-02

Selection and Sequence of Tests

Chapter 1-03

Environmental Test Conditions

SECTION 2

MECHANICAL

Chapter 2-01

Test M1 - Basic Vibration Test

Chapter 2-02

Test M2 - Complete Store Vibration Test

Chapter 2-03

Test M3 - Basic Pulse Shock Test

Chapter 2-04

Test M4 - Drop topple and Roll Test

Chapter 2-05

Test M5 - Impact (Vertical and Horizontal) Test

Chapter 2-06

Test M6 - Operational Shock Simulation Test

Chapter 2-07

Test M7 - Shock Testing for Warship Equipment and Armament Stores

Chapter 2-08

Test M8 - Acoustic Noise Test using a Reverberation Chamber

Chapter 2-09

Test M9 - Acoustic Noise Test using a Progressive Wave Tube

Chapter 2-10

Test M10 - Combined Acoustic, Temperature and Vibration

Chapter 2-11

Test M11 - Wheeled Vehicle Transportation Bounce Test

Chapter 2-12

Test M12 - Bump Test

Chapter 2-13

Test M13 - Steady State Acceleration Test

Chapter 2-14

Test M14 - Test Track Trial

Chapter 2-15

Test M15 - Lifting Test

Chapter 2-16

Test M16 - Stacking Static Load Test

Chapter 2-17

Test M17 - Bending Test

Chapter 2-18

Test M18 - Racking Test


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DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3

/cont

SECTION 3

CLIMATIC

Chapter 3-00

Foreword - Climatic, Chemical and Biological Tests

Chapter 3-01

Test CL1 - Constant High Temperature - Low Humidity Test

Chapter 3-02

Test CL2 - High Temperature, Low Humidity and Solar Heating


Diurnal Cycle Test

Chapter 3-03

Test CL3 - Solar Radiation Test

Chapter 3-04

Test CL4 - Constant Low Temperature Test

Chapter 3-05

Test CL5 - Low Temperature Diurnal Cycle Test

Chapter 3-06

Test CL6 - High Temperature, Humidity and Solar Heating Diurnal Cycle Test

Chapter 3-07

Test CL7 - Constant High Temperature - High Humidity Test

Chapter 3-08

Test CL8 - Kinetic (Aerodynamic) Heating

Chapter 3-09

Test CL9 - Rapid and Explosive Decompression

Chapter 3-10

Test CL10 - Icing

Chapter 3-11

Test CL11 - High Temperature - Low Pressure

Chapter 3-12

Test CL12 - Low Temperature - Low Pressure Test

Chapter 3-13

Test CL13 - Low Temperature - Low Pressure - High Humidity

Chapter 3-14

Test CL14 - Thermal Shock and Rapid Rate of Change of Temperature

Chapter 3-15

Test CL15 - Air Pressure (above standard atmospheric)

Chapter 3-16

Test CL16 - High Winds

Chapter 3-17

Test CL17 - Elevated Ground Temperature/Humidity Diurnal Cycles

Chapter 3-18

Test CL18 - Driving Snow

Chapter 3-19

Test CL19 - Erosion and Structural Damage in Flight by Rain, Hail, Dust or
Sand

Chapter 3-20

Test CL20 - Rapid Change of Pressure

Chapter 3-21

Test CL21 - Low Air Pressure and Air Transportation Tests

Chapter 3-22

Test CL22 - Snow Load

Chapter 3-23

Test CL23 - Impact Icing

Chapter 3-24

Test CL24 - Freeze - Thaw


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DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3

/cont

Chapter 3-25

Test CL25 - Dust and Sand

Chapter 3-26

Test CL26 - Mist, Fog and Low Cloud

Chapter 3-27

Test CL27 - Driving Rain

Chapter 3-28

Test CL28 - Dripproofness

Chapter 3-29

Test CL29 - Immersion

Chapter 3-30

Test CL30 - Sealing (Pressure Differential)

SECTION 4

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL

Chapter 4-01

Test CN1 - Mould Growth

Chapter 4-02

Test CN2 - Salt (corrosive) Atmospheres

Chapter 4-03

Test CN3 - Acid Corrosion

Chapter 4-04

Test CN4 - Contamination by Fluids

Chapter 4-05

Test CN5 - Corrosion Test for Materiel Immersed in Salt Water

SECTION 5

ABNORMAL (ACCIDENTAL & HOSTILE)

Chapter 5-01

Test FX1 - Bullet Attack Test for Munitions

Chapter 5-02

Test FX2 - Standard Liquid Fuel Fire

Chapter 5-03

Test FX3 - Safety Impact Test for Munitions

Chapter 5-04

Test FX4 - Slow Heating Tests for Munitions

Chapter 5-05

Test FX5 - Sympathetic Reaction, Munition Test

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DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 1-01

CHAPTER 1-01
GENERAL
0

INTRODUCTION

0.1 The prime purpose of this Part of the Standard is to include test methods which simulate as far
as practicable known Service environments for which environmental testing is feasible. The test
methods are grouped into sections relating to commonly encountered environments. The tests are
applicable to materiel but some tests are also applicable to packages or materials.
0.2 The test methods as presented within this Part of the Standard are not suitable for direct
application without conversion into the appropriate documentation. Guidance on the derivation of
Environmental Test Specifications and Environmental Test Instructions is contained in Part 1,
Chapter 2-03.
0.3 General guidance on the selection and sequence of tests is given in Chapter 1-02 of this Part,
whilst information on environmental test conditions such as standard laboratory and reference
conditions is given in Chapter 1-03 of this Part.
0.4 The maximum use has been made of environmental tests published in International and British
Standards and where these are suitable they are invoked in this Part of the Standard. In cases where
the tests are similar but involve some differences, reference is made to the appropriate International
or British Standard together with the alternative parameters to be applied. Wherever possible BS EN
60068 (BS 2011) test methods are adopted in this Part of the Standard.
1

SCOPE

1.1 This Part of the Standard specifies a range of environmental test methods together with
durations and severities that are most likely to be representative of the life cycle of service use. As
far as possible, the tests adopted are those internationally agreed and published in EN 60068 (IEC
68) and implemented via BS EN 60068 (BS 2011). This Part also gives guidance on applying the test
conditions.
1.2 The particular scope of each test method contained within this Part is given at the beginning of
each chapter which contains an individual test.
2

WARNING

2.1
The Ministry of Defence (MOD) like its contractors are subject to both United Kingdom and
European laws regarding Health and Safety at Work, without exemption. All Defence Standards either
directly or indirectly invoke the use of processes and procedures that could be injurious to health if
adequate precautions are not taken. Defence Standards or their use in no way absolves users from
complying with statutory and legal requirements relating to Health and Safety at Work.
3

RELATED DOCUMENTS

3.1 The documents and publications referred to in this Part of the Standard are listed at the back of
this Part.
3.2

In addition, where relevant, each test contains a list of related documents relevant to that test.

3.3 Reference in this Standard to any related document means in any invitation to tender or
contract the edition and all amendments current at the date of such tender or contract unless a
specific edition is indicated.

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 1-01

DEFINITIONS

4.1 For the purpose of this Standard the definitions given in BS EN 60068 (BS 2011) and BS 3015
apply, subject to the exceptions given in Part 1 Chapter 1-01 of this Defence Standard.
5

USE OF THIS PART

5.1

Part 1 of this Standard shall apply whenever this part is invoked.

5.2

Tests shall be selected in the manner described in Part 1 of this Standard.

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 1-02

CHAPTER 1-02
SELECTION AND SEQUENCE OF TESTS
1

GENERAL

1.1

In this chapter the requirements for the selection of tests and their sequencing are discussed.

1.2 It is not intended that this Standard should specify lists of tests or sequences for different types
of materiel. But it should be recognised that when a series of tests is specified, the sequence in
which they are carried out is often important since it is possible for materiel to pass a test if carried
out in one particular sequence, but fail if carried out in another.
2

THE USE OF BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

2.1 In preparing suitable test methods for defence materiel, every effort has been made to adopt
British Standard test methods such as those in BS EN 60068 (BS 2011). Sometimes this application
has not been possible either because no relevant test methods exist or because one or more aspects
of corresponding British Standard test methods are inconsistent with the testing of defence materiel.
2.2 For every test method included in this Standard a comparison has been made with the relevant
British Standard test method where such a test method exists. The existence of a British Standard
test method is indicated in the scope to each test and the degree of conformance is indicated in the
following terms:
(a)

Identical - This means that the British Standard test method in terms of test procedure
and severity levels is applicable to the testing of defence materiel.

(b)

Technically similar - This means that the testing philosophy as well as the test procedure
of the British Standard test method is acceptable for the testing of defence materiel.
However, there will have been a need either to add other severity levels or test
procedures to cover the specific defence needs.

SELECTION OF TESTS

3.1

General

3.1.1
To demonstrate that the defence materiel conforms with the environmental conditions
it will encounter during its life cycle, it is necessary to give full consideration to the levels, durations
and combinations of the natural and induced environmental conditions to which it will be exposed.
3.2

Selection

3.2.1
To test the materiel, it is necessary to select the environmental test method and,
where necessary, to tailor the test method and environmental conditions to simulate the in-Service
conditions.
3.2.2
In selecting, and where necessary tailoring, an environmental test, a comparison
should be made between the Environmental Requirement and the relevant test method in this
Standard. When this comparison is undertaken the following is the basis upon which the tests in this
Standard shall be applied:
(a)

If both the test method and a preferred severity are acceptable simulations, then the test
specified in this Standard shall be used in its entirety.

(b)

If the test method is an acceptable simulation but the quoted preferred severities do not
represent those of the Environmental Requirements, then the test method in this
Standard shall be called up but with the severity derived from the Environmental
Requirement.

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 1-02

(c)

If neither the test method nor the quoted severities in this Standard are acceptable then,
and only then, shall a test be derived to satisfy the conditions of the Environmental
Requirement.

3.2.3
If measured data are not available for the environmental conditions then the test
levels should be chosen from the preferred severity levels given in each test method.
4

SEQUENCE OF TESTS

4.1 The test sequence should reflect as far as possible the anticipated environments that the
materiel will experience from the point of manufacture to the end of the materiel's life. This will
include the environmental conditions that exist during depot and field storage, transportation, handling
and operation.
4.2 The test sequence may be influenced by the interaction of various environmental conditions.
In some cases, therefore, combined environment tests will be more realistic than individual tests.
4.3 For munitions, reference should also be made to the guidance and tests contained in OB
PROC 42242.
4.4 Some stages of the operational life may be regarded as environmentally critical to the
confirmation of performance or structural integrity. Such critical conditions, can form a primary
requirement in the sequencing of tests. It may, in such cases, be desirable to apply incrementally
increasing levels during development testing in order to assess the failure point.

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DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 1-03

CHAPTER 1-03
ENVIRONMENTAL TEST CONDITIONS
1

GENERAL

1.1 In this chapter the requirements for the control and conduct of environmental tests are
discussed, including the general conditions that are applicable for valid environmental testing.
2

STANDARD LABORATORY CONDITIONS

2.1 When Standard Laboratory Conditions are specified in a test procedure of this Standard the
following limits shall apply. These conditions are identical to the 'Standard Atmospheric Conditions
for Testing' of BS EN 60068 (BS 2011) Part 1.1
Temperature

15oC to 35oC

Relative Humidity

45% to 75%

Air Pressure

860 hPa to 1060 hPa

2.2 During a series of measurements the temperature and humidity should remain substantially
constant. Where this is impractical, the test report shall state what the actual conditions were over
the measurement period and the durations of the measurement periods.
3

STANDARD REFERENCE CONDITIONS

3.1 When performance is considered to be sensitive to temperature, pressure, humidity or any


combination of these, and measurements are required for reference purposes, the measurements
shall be made, unless other specified, at one or more of the following conditions:
Temperature

24oC to 26oC

Relative Humidity

45% to 55%

Air Pressure

860 hPa to 1060 hPa

3.2 Any deviation from these specified conditions shall be recorded in the test report with reasons
given for the deviation.
4

TEST CHAMBERS

4.1 Test chambers shall be capable of providing the conditions required within their 'working
space', and shall be of such volume that the bulk of the test specimen does not interfere with the
generation and maintenance of the specified conditions.
4.2 The heat source of a chamber shall be located so that the test specimen cannot receive direct
radiation except where this is specified such as in the case of a solar radiation test.
4.3 Unless otherwise specified, the air velocity adjacent to the test specimen shall not exceed 1
m/s. Convection currents from heat dissipating items will not normally exceed this value.
5

MOUNTING OF SPECIMEN

5.1 The method of mounting the test specimen shall be such as to simulate as closely as
practicable the installation arrangements which exist or will exist in normal use. Unrepresentative
structural frames, orientation, thermal screening, mixing of incompatible stores, etc., can all influence
the conduct of the test, and these effects shall be minimized.

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Chapter 1-03

5.2 Whenever possible materiel should be tested in the fully assembled state as it will exist in
service use. Where it is necessary to test the constituent parts of the materiel separately, for reasons
such as cost or handling capabilities of the test facilities, the division of the materiel into the items to
be tested shall be agreed with the Test Specifier.
5.3 When a test is applied to a test specimen the choice of test conditions shall take into account
any modification of the system environment caused by the location and function of the specimen
within the system.
6

SUPPLIES

6.1 The Environmental Test Specification shall state supplies and services necessary. In all tests,
supplies and services shall, where practicable, be derived from or simulated by sources identical to or
typical of those provided in operational use. During each test, supply and input parameters shall be
adjusted as stated in the equipment specification, usually to the limits of their tolerance, so that they
subject the materiel to its greatest operational disadvantage.
7

STABILIZATION OF TEMPERATURE

7.1 Unless otherwise specified, temperature stabilization is attained when that part of the test
specimen which is considered to have the longest thermal lag reaches a temperature within the test
tolerances of the nominal test temperature, with any critical component within 1oC of the nominal test
temperature.
7.2 When changing the temperature of the chamber during a test programme, the temperature of
the chamber can be adjusted beyond the test limits to reduce the stabilization time provided that the
temperature overrun does not adversely affect any critical component or area of the test specimen, or
take the test specimen beyond the test temperature limit.
7.3 For non-heating dissipating items, the final temperature will be the mean of the test chamber.
For heat dissipating items, it may be necessary to make repeated temperature measurements to
establish when stabilization has occurred.
8

TEST TOLERANCES

8.1 Unless otherwise specified, the overall tolerances on the test conditions in the vicinity of the
test specimen shall be:

8.2

Temperature

2 C

Relative Humidity

5%

Air Pressure

5%

Time

5%

Wider temperature tolerances may be permitted in the following situations:


3

(a)

For large items with a volume greater than 0.5m , the temperature tolerance can be
3oC.

(b)

When temperatures greater than 100oC are specified, the temperature tolerance can be
5oC. The actual tolerance achieved in the test shall be specified in the test report.

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Chapter 1-03

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

9.1 Prior to any test or sequence of tests, the specimen shall be visually examined, and
functionally and physically checked as required by the Environmental Test Instruction. Except where
otherwise specified, these checks shall be made with the specimen operating and rigged in the
chamber ready for test.
9.2 Performance evaluation of the test specimen shall include a functional demonstration and
visual examination to assess the specimen's structural condition, the development of corrosion, or the
development of any other degradation.
9.3 Unless otherwise specified, test apparatus and instrumentation used for monitoring the
performance of the specimen under test shall be capable of quantitative and accurate assessment of
the specimen, not only within the tolerances required for the functional demonstration, but also where
drift in performance occurs outside the range of those tolerances.
9.4 The accuracy of all instrumentation and test apparatus used to control or monitor the test
parameters shall be verified at regular periods. All instruments and test apparatus used shall:
(a)

Be subject to regular calibration using a Standard that is traceable to a National


Standard.

(b)

Have a measurement uncertainty which is not greater than one third of the tolerance of
the parameter to be measured.

Guidance on the evaluation and expression of electrical measurement uncertainties is provided in


DEF STAN 00-26.
9.5 On completion of any test or sequence of tests the test specimen shall be visually examined,
and functionally and physically checked as required by the Environmental Test Instruction.

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Chapter 2-01

CHAPTER 2-01
TEST M1 - BASIC VIBRATION TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1

This test is applicable to equipment required to withstand the effects of a vibration environment.

1.2 The purpose of this test is to demonstrate the adequacy of an equipment to resist unacceptable
degradation of its functional and/or structural performance when subjected to the specified vibration
severity.
1.3 The range of procedures encompassed within this test includes basic sinusoidal and random
vibration tests together with more complicated composite vibration tests.
1.4 The test is designed to have general applicability in terms of procedure and severity. However
for larger dynamically complicated equipment the procedure of Test M2 may be more applicable.
1.5 Equipment vibration characterization tests, such as resonance searches, determination of
frequency response functions, and model analyses, are not addressed in this Chapter, since published
information is readily available.
1.6 This test includes procedures technically similar to the Sinusoidal and Random vibration tests
given in BS EN 60068 (BS 2011). Reasons for variations are summarized in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
The availability of digital computer based control equipment has considerably widened
the scope of vibration testing. This vibration test procedure has been formulated to permit the ready
use of such equipment, but any vibration inducing equipment capable of satisfying the test
requirements is acceptable.
2.1.2
This test has been formulated to allow a range of basic excitation types to be
encompassed. A range of commonly encountered types of excitation are described in Annex A. This
Annex also indicates their applicability and the parameters by which each type is defined.
2.1.3
An explanation of the characteristics, effects and simulation of the more commonly
encountered vibration environments is given in Part 5 of this Standard.
2.2

Control strategies

2.2.1
The vibration excitation is controlled to within specified bounds by sampling the
vibratory motions of the equipment under test at specific locations. These locations may be at, or in
close proximity to, the equipment fixing points (controlled input tests) or at defined points on the
equipment (controlled response tests). Also, the vibratory motions may be sampled at a single point
(single point control), or at several locations(multi-point control).This test procedure has been
formulated to permit use of any of these control strategies.
2.2.2
Controlled input testing is the most commonly encountered control strategy. In general
it ensures the vibration excitation is controlled within specified bounds at the position the vibration
would normally be applied to the equipment in-Service. It is appropriate when the specified severities
represent the in-Service excitation levels. Moreover, this control strategy should be utilised when no
guidance is given in the Environmental Test Specification.

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Chapter 2-01

2.2.3
Controlled response tests control the vibration excitation such that the response at one
or more points on the equipment is within specified bounds. It is applicable when the specified
severities represent in-Service equipment responses. Care needs to be taken to ensure resonances
are not unreasonably suppressed or ant-resonances unrealistically enhanced. To reduce this effect
controlled response tests often use multi-point control.
2.2.4
Multi-point control may be used with either controlled input or response strategies and
may be applicable when equipment is either large or has widely spaced fixing points, or when the use
of single point control would result in severe over or under testing of parts of the equipment. For multipoint control the control parameters are either the arithmetic average of several response locations for
control on the average response, the maximum of these responses for control on maximum response,
or the minimum of these responses for control on minimum response. Control on maximum response
has application when the specified severities represent an envelope of spatial in-Service vibration
responses. When the specified severities represent spatial average of in-Service vibration responses,
or when the Environmental Test Specification gives no guidance, control on average response should
be used.
2.3

Fixing, monitor, control and reference points.

2.3.1
For the purpose of this test the definitions of the fixing, monitor, control and reference
points are as follows:

2.4

(a)

A fixing point is defined as a part of the specimen in contact with the mounting fixture or
vibration table at a point where it is normally fastened in-Service.

(b)

A monitor point is a position at which measurements are made in order to establish


knowledge of the response behaviour of the specimen.

(c)

A control point is a position at which measurements are made to allow the vibration
excitation to be controlled to within specific bounds during the course of the test.

(d)

The reference point is the point at which vibration measurements are made in order to
confirm that the requirements of the test specification are satisfied. The reference point
should be stated in the Environmental Test Specification. It may be a monitor point, a
control point or a "conceptual point" created by manual or automatic processing of the
signals from the several control points.

Specification of monitor, control and reference points

2.4.1
The specification of suitable control and reference points for a particular equipment
and mounting fixture assembly is an important aspect in ensuring a valid vibration test. It is
recommended that unless the dynamic characteristics of the equipment and mounting fixture are
already known, such that the position of the control and reference points can be selected with
confidence, then the following procedure, which is applicable for a controlled input test adopting either
single or multi-point control, should be followed.
2.4.2

The control points should be selected on the following basis:

(a)

For equipment with a single fixing point the control point should be adjacent to the fixing
point.

(b)

For equipment with more than one fixing point, and when the vibration response is similar
at each of these points, then the point which produces a response which lies closest to
the centre of the tolerance band should be selected.

(c)

For equipment with more than one fixing point and when the variation of responses
between each of the fixing points cannot be made acceptable by modification of the test
fixture then the use of multi-point control will be necessary. This control strategy is also
recommended for large structures.

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Chapter 2-01

2.4.3
For single point controlled input tests the reference point is usually the control point,
whilst for multi-point controlled input tests it is usually the average response from selected control
points.
2.4.4
Specification.
2.5

In all cases the reference point should be specified in the Environmental Test

Analyser bandwidth

2.5.1
The following comments on analyser resolution bandwidth relevant to random vibration
should be noted.
2.5.2
For this test procedure the preferred analyser resolution bandwidth should not exceed
10 Hz. However, by agreement with the Test Specifier the use of analysers with a bandwidth greater
than 10 Hz may be permissible. This decreased resolution should not exceed a bandwidth of one third
octave above 100 Hz and 20 Hz below 100 Hz. In such cases the analyser resolution bandwidth used
should be stated in the test report.
2.5.3
In those circumstances where during testing it is necessary to involve different test
houses and types of facilities, for example as part of equipment production or component procurement
acceptance, it is often essential to specify a test which ensures a high degree of reproducibility. Such
reproducibility usually implies a bandwidth resolution for the analysis which is narrower than 10 Hz,
depending upon the dynamic response of the test item, its mounting fixture and the test facility.
Guidance on test procedures suitable for differing degrees of reproducibility is given in BS EN 60068
(BS 2011) Test Fd.
2.5.4
In some cases attempting to control the equipment response using a narrow
bandwidth analyser may unreasonably suppress the natural response of the equipment. The use of a
wider bandwidth analyser for control purposes allows the equipment to respond in a manner more
representative of that experienced in-Service. For this reason, such an approach, permitting natural
responses to be developed may be preferred for equipment having complicated dynamic responses
and/or where the mass of the equipment largely influences the severity of the vibration environment. In
such cases the Environmental Test Specification should state the control bandwidth to be used.
2.6

Test Tolerances

2.6.1
In some instances the test tolerances quoted in paragraph 4.5 may be difficult to
achieve at certain frequencies in the test range. Such difficulties are most frequently encountered
when using response control strategy, multi-point control or fine analyser resolution. In such cases, at
the discretion of the test specifier, certain test tolerances may be degraded within the constraints listed
below. All other tolerances, set out in paragraph 4.5, remain unchanged.
(a)

(b)

Sine Vibration Components


(i)

Amplitudes below 500 Hz: 10% of the specified value at the reference point

(ii)

Amplitudes above 500 Hz: 20% of the specified value at the reference point

(iii)

Additionally all amplitudes outside the range 10% of the specified value should not
total more than 5% of control frequency range

Random Vibration Components


(i)

Amplitudes below 500 Hz: 3 dB of the specified value at the reference point

(ii)

Amplitudes above 500 Hz: 6 dB of the specified value at the reference point

(iii)

Additionally all amplitudes outside the range 3 dB of the specified value should not
total more than 5% of control frequency range

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Chapter 2-01

(iv)
2.7

Root Mean Square: 2 dB of the specified value at the reference point

Isolation Systems

2.7.1
A specimen intended for use with a vibration or shock isolation system should normally
be tested with its isolators in position.

2.7.2
In order to prevent unrealistic variability and damage to isolators caused by thermal
effects it may be necessary to pause the test at regular intervals. Unless specifically prohibited by the
environmental test specification this interruption is permissible provided the total period for which
vibration is applied complies with that specified.
2.7.3
In some cases it may not be practical to carry out the vibration test with the appropriate
isolator. This can arise when the dynamic characteristics of the specimen installation are very variable,
for example when they are temperature dependant. In such cases the test may, with the agreement of
the Test Specifier, be undertaken without isolators but with a suitably modified severity. The modified
severity should be set out in the Environmental Test Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival or both

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen and any necessary cables, pipes, etc. together
with the axes along which the vibration is to be applied

(d)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered

(e)

Whether transverse motion is important, and if so the acceptable limits for this motion and
the action to be taken if the limits are exceeded

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested with or without isolating mounts fitted

(g)

If the influence of stray magnetic fields is important, the acceptable limits and the action to
be taken if these limits are exceeded

(h)

The reference, control and monitoring points, or the procedure for selecting them

(j)

The type of vibration test, the severities and durations

(k)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(l)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the
test they are to be conducted

(m)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Mounting

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the specimen the following shall
apply:

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4.1.1
Where gravitational force is important, or when in doubt, the specimen shall be
mounted so that the gravitational force acts in the same direction as it would in normal use. Where
gravitational force is not important the specimen may be mounted in any attitude consistent with other
requirements.
4.1.2
The specimen shall be mechanically connected to the vibration generator or fixture by
its normal means of attachment. The use of any additional stays or straps should be avoided. Any
connections to the specimen, such as cables, pipes, wires, should be arranged so that they impose
similar dynamic restraint and mass to that when the specimen is installed in its operational position.
4.1.3
The mounting shall be such that the specimen can be vibrated along one of the
specified test axes. The fixing points of the specimen should move, as far as practicable, in phase and
in straight parallel lines with the line of motion. It may be necessary to use different test fixtures for
each test axis.
4.2

Pre-conditioning

4.2.1
If equipment vibration characterization tests are called for by the Environmental Test
Specification they shall be undertaken and recorded in accordance with the procedure stated in that
specification.
4.2.2
A finite time is required for the vibration control equipment to achieve the desired
equalization. Unless specified in the Environmental Test Specification the equalization process shall
conform to the following:

4.3

(a)

Initial equalization shall be conducted at least 6 dB less than the full test level. At this
level no duration limit is imposed for this phase of equalization.

(b)

During the subsequent phases of equalization the vibration levels can be increased to
within 3 dB of the full test level. The time spent at these higher levels shall be the
minimum possible and shall not exceed 1.5 times the test duration.

(c)

This setting up time shall not be subtracted from the specified test time.

Conditioning

4.3.1
The test specimen shall be vibrated at the severities specified in the Environmental
Test Specification. The climatic conditions shall be those specified.
4.3.2
Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.3.3.
The specimen shall be vibrated along each specified axis in turn. Where the test
programme requires the application of different types of vibration or a number of different amplitude
levels, durations or rigging conditions, it may be possible, with the agreement of the Test Specifier, to
complete the entire sequence of tests for one axis prior to changing to the next axis.
4.4

Post conditioning examination

4.4.1
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.5

Test tolerances

4.5.1
Unless stated otherwise in the Environmental Test specification, the reference signal
shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than the values quoted below.
4.5.2

For all sinusoidal vibration components of the test requirements the tolerances shall
be:

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Chapter 2-01

(a)

Amplitude - Measured at the reference point and in the required direction the amplitude
shall be within 10% of the specified value. Excitation outside the specified frequency
range should be minimised as far as possible.

(b)

Frequency - The frequency shall be within 0.5% or 0.5 Hz of the specified value,
whichever is the greater.

(c)

Sweep rate - Where applicable, the sweep rate shall be 10% of the stated rate. If not
specified, a sweep rate of 1 octave per minute shall be adopted.

4.5.3
For all broad band and fixed frequency narrow band random vibration components of
the test requirement the tolerances shall be:
(a)

Power spectral density (PSD) - Measured at the reference point the PSD shall be within
3 dB of the specified value. When using multi-point control, the responses at each
control point shall be within 5 dB of the specified value. These tolerances shall be
confirmed using an analyser having a bandwidth not greater than 10 Hz. Excitation
outside the specified frequency range should be minimised as far as possible. The
statistical random sampling error should not exceed 15%, which is equivalent to a
bandwidth/sampling time product (BT) of 50, or equivalent to 100 degrees of freedom.

(b)

Root Mean Square - Measured at the reference point, the rms level over the test
frequency range shall be within 1 dB of the required value.

(c)

Amplitude Distribution - The instantaneous values of the applied random vibration shall
have a nominal gaussian distribution. The distribution should contain all occurrences up
to 2.5 standard deviations whilst occurrences greater than 3 standard deviations should
be kept to a minimum.

4.5.4
For all swept narrow band random components of the test requirement the tolerances
on the vibration severities should wherever possible be the same as for wide band random
components. However, at some sweep rates these tolerances may not be achievable. Therefore the
tolerance requirements for these components shall be stated in the Environmental Test Specification.
4.5.5
The test duration shall be within 2% or one minute of the specified requirement
whichever is the lesser.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

General

5.1.1
The severities and other parameters for this test should be based on the purpose for
which it is being conducted and on the conditions the equipment is likely to experience in-Service.
5.1.2
The severities and other test parameters given below should be used in those cases
where a precise simulation is unnecessary and where a significant degree of overtesting can be
tolerated without prejudice. More precise simulation severities are addressed in Part 5 of this
Standard.
5.1.3
These severities may also be used where the in-Service environment has not been
established, although in these cases improved estimates for many vibration conditions can be obtained
through the use of the empirically based prediction methods contained in Part 5 of this Standard.

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5.2

Equipment installed in land vehicles

5.2.1
In tracked vehicles the vibration can be severe at frequencies associated with track
patter. Where levels in excess of the generalised levels given here are anticipated, the random
vibration test may need to be supplemented by a narrow band random or sinusoidal vibration test over
the appropriate frequencies for which the severities should be agreed with the Test Specifier.
5.2.2
The following severities do not apply to engine mounted equipment. Where equipment
is installed in both tracked and wheeled vehicles, the levels appropriate to tracked vehicles shall apply.
5.2.3
Tracked Vehicles. The preferred test severities are presented in Part 5 Chapter 6-01 of
this Standard. Two alternative vibration levels are specified below, one for wide band random and one
for sine sweep vibration testing. The wide band alternative is considered unsuitable for munitions. The
duration of vibration testing shall be 18 hours divided equally between the three mutually perpendicular
axes of the specimen.
(a)

(b)

Level 1 - Appropriate for equipment installed in racking or attached to a structure which


provides a long or complex transmission path to the vehicle frame, or for equipment
mounted on isolators.
2

(i)

Random vibration: Spectral density 0.1 gn /Hz from 20 to 500 Hz.

(ii)

Sinusoidal vibration: From 5 to 13 Hz, 6 mm peak displacement; from 13 to 141 Hz,


4 gn peak acceleration; from 141 to 200 Hz, 0.05 mm peak displacement; and from
200 to 500 Hz, 8 gn peak acceleration.

Level 2 - Appropriate for equipment mounted rigidly to vehicles, or for equipment with a
short transmission path to vehicle frame, or for equipment whose mass will not
significantly affect the high frequency vibrations induced by the vehicle.
2

(i)

Random vibration: Spectral density 0.1 gn /Hz from 20 to 500 Hz reducing at 6


dB/octave to 2000 Hz.

(ii)

Sinusoidal vibration: From 5 to 13 Hz, 6 mm peak displacement; from 13 to 141 Hz,


4 gn peak acceleration; from 141 to 200 Hz, 0.05 mm peak displacement; and from
200 to 2000 Hz, 8 gn peak acceleration.

5.2.4
Wheeled Vehicles and Trailers. The preferred test severities, particularly for munitions
are presented in Part 5 Chapter 6-02 of this Standard. Alternative vibration levels are specified below,
one for wide band random and one for sine sweep vibration testing. The duration of vibration testing
shall be 18 hours divided equally between the three mutually perpendicular axes of the specimen.

5.3

(a)

Random vibration: Spectral density of 0.02 gn /Hz from 20 to 50 Hz reducing at 3


dB/octave to 500 Hz.

(b)

Sinusoidal vibration: From 5 Hz to 500 Hz with an acceleration of 1.5 gn peak.

Equipment installed in ships

5.3.1
The vibration test is composed of a sine sweep test and a sine dwell test. Usually the
sine sweep test is conducted first as this allows the identification of the frequencies of any significant
equipment resonances. Knowledge of these frequencies is required when undertaking the sine dwell
test. Different severities are applicable for ships of mine sweeper size and above from those for ships
smaller than minesweepers. The severities set out below shall be applied to each of the equipment's
three mutually perpendicular axes.

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Chapter 2-01

5.3.2
(a)

Sine Sweep. For all ship regions except mast head; sweep over frequency range 5 to 33
Hz with a sine amplitude of 0.125 mm peak for a duration of 1 hour. For the mast head
region sweep over frequency range 5 to 14 Hz with a sine amplitude of 1.25 mm peak for
33 minutes, plus over the frequency range 14 to 23 Hz with a sine amplitude of 0.3 mm
peak for 16 minutes, plus over the frequency range 23 to 33 Hz with a sine amplitude of
0.125 mm peak for 11 minutes. If the equipment exhibits a resonance below 5 Hz
reference should be made to Part 5 Chapter 9-01 of this Standard.

(b)

Sine Dwell. The same severities are applicable to all ships regions. When no significant
resonances are identified in the frequency range 5 to 14 Hz; apply a sine dwell of 14 Hz of
amplitude 1.25 mm peak for 20 minutes; when no significant resonances are identified in
the frequency range 14 to 23 Hz apply a sine dwell at 23 Hz of amplitude 0.3 mm peak for
20 minutes; and when no significant resonances are identified in frequency range 23 to 33
Hz apply a sine dwell of 33 Hz of amplitude of 0.125 mm peak for 20 minutes. When
significant resonances are identified in frequency ranges 5 to 14 Hz; 14 to 23 Hz or 23 to
33 Hz then the test shall be conducted at the identified resonant frequencies instead of
that specified for the appropriate band. If more than one resonance exists in a particular
range then the test time should be equally divided between the resonances. A significant
resonance shall be deemed to exist if the dynamic magnification of that resonance
exceeds 3.

5.3.3

5.4

Ships of Mine Sweeper Size and Above

Ships smaller than Mine Sweepers

(a)

Sine Sweep. For all ship regions except the aft region; sweep over the frequency range 7
to 300 Hz with a sine amplitude of 30 mm/s peak or 0.2 mm peak, which ever is the
lesser, for a duration of 1 hour. For the aft region sweep over frequency range 7 to 300
Hz with a sine amplitude of 60 mm/s peak or 0.4 mm peak, which ever is the lesser, for 1
hour. For the purpose of this test the aft region is defined as the last one eighth of the
ship's overall length.

(b)

Sine Dwell. The same severities are applicable to all ship's regions. When no significant
resonances are identified in frequency range 7 to 300 Hz; apply a sine dwell at 24 Hz of
amplitude 0.4 mm peak for 30 minutes and at 50 Hz of amplitude 0.2mm peak for 30
minutes. When significant resonances are identified in the frequency ranges 7 to 300 Hz
then the test shall be conducted at the identified resonant frequencies instead of 24 to 50
Hz. The amplitude of each should be 30 mm/s peak or 0.2 mm peak, which ever is the
lesser. If more than one resonance exists then the total test time of 1 hour should be
equally divided between the resonances. A significant resonance shall be deemed to
exist if the dynamic magnification of that resonance exceeds 3.

Equipment Installed in Aircraft

5.4.1
Vibration severities for aircraft installed equipment vary significantly for different aircraft
types, locations and mission. Whilst the following test severities are generally applicable they may be
exceeded in certain circumstances. For further information refer to either Part 5 of this standard or the
aircraft manufacturer. None of the severities set out below include the vibration effects of gunfire. For
information on the effects of gunfire refer to Part 5 of this Standard.
5.4.2
For all three aircraft types addressed below, the vibration should be applied for a total
period of 50 hours split in the following ratio:
40% of test time in aircraft vertical axis
40% of test time in aircraft lateral axis
20% of test time in aircraft fore/aft axis
If orientation of the equipment is unknown then total test time should be split equally between the three
axes. In certain circumstances the test duration may be reduced by increasing the vibration amplitude;
for further information refer to Part 5 of this Standard.

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5.4.3
Fixed Wing Jet Aircraft. Random vibration of amplitude 0.04 gn /Hz should be applied
between 10 and 2000 Hz (with an rms of 8.9 gn). The above severities may not be applicable to all
high performance jet aircraft. In cases of doubt refer to either Part 5 of this Standard or the aircraft
manufacturer.
5.4.4
Fixed Wing Propeller Aircraft. The appropriate test for this aircraft type is either three
narrow band random components (preferred) or three sine waves superimposed on broad band
random vibration. The centre frequency of the random narrow bands and the frequency of the sine
waves are the propeller blade passing frequency (nR), twice the propeller blade passing frequency
(2nR) and three times the propeller blade passing frequency (3nR). The blade passing frequency
should be the appropriate value for the aircraft on which the equipment is to be installed. However, if
the aircraft type is unknown a blade passing frequency of 68 Hz should be used. For both test types
2
the broad band random vibration component should be at an amplitude of 0.01 gn /Hz from 10 to 90 Hz
reducing to 0.0005 g/Hz from 100 to 2000 Hz (see Part 5 Chapter 7-03).
(a)

Random Narrow Band Components. The acceleration power spectral density values for
each of the three bands are derived by dividing the appropriate acceleration mean square
value by the bandwidth of the narrow band. The appropriate mean square amplitudes are
2
2
2
2.0 gn , 1.5 gn and 1.0 gn for nR, 2nR and 3nR respectively. The widths of the narrow
bands used in the above computation should be a multiple of the actual analyser
bandwidth. Ideally the bandwidth of the narrow bands should be 10% of the blade
passing frequency.

(b)

Sinusoidal Components. The amplitude of the three sinusoidal components should be 2.0
gn peak, 1.7 gn peak and 1.4 gn peak for nr, 2nR and 3nR respectively.

5.4.5
Rotary Wing Aircraft. The appropriate test for this aircraft type in broad band random
vibration and suitable severities are set out below for different rotorcraft locations. The severities are
not applicable to large and heavy assemblies such as complete stores and radar scanners. Suitable
severities for such items can be obtained from Part 5 of this Standard.

5.5

(a)

Main Fuselage (including cabin, cockpit and fuselage). Acceleration power spectral
2
2
density of 0.1 gn /Hz between 10 and 30 Hz and 0.002 gn /Hz between 30 and 500 Hz.

(b)

Secondary Structure (including tail fin and sponsons). Acceleration power spectral
2
2
density of 0.25 gn /Hz between 10 and 30 Hz, 0.03 gn /Hz between 30 and 80 Hz and
2
0.002 gn /Hz between 80 and 500 Hz

(c)

Close to Engine and Gearboxes (including main, intermediate and tail gearboxes).
2
2
Acceleration power spectral density of 0.1 gn /Hz between 10 and 400 Hz and 1.0 gn /Hz
between 400 and 2500 Hz.

Equipment installed in stores carried externally on fixed wing aircraft.

5.5.1
The following test levels apply to equipment installed in stores carried externally on
fixed wing aircraft. The test levels apply equally to stores which are mounted on pylons and wing tips
or semi-buried (conformal)
5.5.2
Jet Aircraft - Wide band random vibration should be used and there are two levels
specified, one covering carriage on low performance aircraft the other high performance aircraft. For
this purpose low performance aircraft carriage are those where the maximum flight dynamic pressure
is less than 33.5 kPa (700 psf). The severities for high performance aircraft are limited to conditions
where the maximum flight dynamic pressure is 67 kPa (1400 psf) or less. They are also limited to
flight conditions where no significant store buffeting manoeuvres are experienced. For conditions
outside these limits, reference should be made to Part 5 of this Standard.
(a)

Low Performance Jet Aircraft: Spectral density of 0.01 gn /Hz from 20 to 2000 Hz for 10
hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of mission, whichever is the lesser.

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Chapter 2-01

(b)

High Performance Jet Aircraft: Spectral density of 0.04 gn /Hz from 20 to 2000 Hz for 10
hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of mission, whichever is the lesser.

5.5.3
Propeller aircraft - The test severities are specific to a particular aircraft type and
2
consist of a broad band random vibration of 0.01 gn /Hz between 10 and 2000 Hz, onto which is
superimposed three narrow bands of vibration. The centre frequencies of these narrow bands shall be
the fundamental propeller blade passing frequency and the subsequent two harmonics. The narrow
2
bands shall have a minimum bandwidth of 5 Hz and amplitudes of 0.30, 0.11 and 0.05 gn /Hz
respectively. The duration of the test shall be 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of mission,
whichever is the lesser.
5.6

Equipment installed in Stores carried on Helicopters

5.6.1
These test severities are appropriate to a specific host helicopter type. Other test
options are presented in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.6.2
The test comprises three peaks superimposed on broad band random vibration. The
three peaks correspond to the first three harmonics of the helicopter's blade passing frequency. If n is
the number of blades and R is the rotor speed in revolutions per second, then the frequencies of the
peaks are nR, 2nR and 3nR. The peaks may be applied as either sinusoids or narrow band random
components.
(a)

If sine waves are applied, the frequencies should be swept 5% of the respective centre
frequency. The levels of the three sinusoids shall be 2.5, 2.5 and 1.0 gn peak at
frequencies of nR, 2nR and 3nR, respectively.

(b)

If narrow band random components are applied then their minimum bandwidths shall be
2, 4 and 6 Hz for frequencies nR, 2nR and 3nR, respectively. The levels of the three
2
peaks shall be 1.55, 0.78 and 0.19 gn /Hz respectively.
2

5.6.3
The broadband random vibration spectrum shall comprise 0.01 g n Hz from 5 to 40Hz,
2
reducing to 0.002 g n Hz at 80 Hz, and remaining at this level to 500 Hz (see Part 5 Chapter 8-01).
5.6.4
The test duration shall be 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 2 hours of mission,
whichever is the lesser.
5.7

Equipment installed in guided weapons

5.7.1
Severities for boost, cruise and coast phases of flight are addressed. The severities
are designed to be applicable to those guided weapons that meet the following conditions:
(a)

The thrust/mass ratio is less than 25:1 (relevant to boost and cruise phases only).

(b)

The maximum flight dynamic pressure is less than 67 kPa (1400 psf) and the maximum
Mach No. is 1.2.

For conditions outside these limits reference should be made to Part 5 of this Standard.
5.7.2
Wide band random vibration should be used to represent any of the three phases of
flight. The duration of the test should be based upon operational flight times.
5.7.3

Boost phase severities

(a)

Equipment in close proximity or adjacent to the propulsion unit: Spectral density of 0.2
2
gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to 2000 Hz.

(b)

All other equipments: Spectral density of 0.04 gn /Hz over the same bandwidth.

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Chapter 2-01

5.7.4
(a)

Equipment in close proximity or adjacent to the propulsion unit: Spectral density of 0.05
2
gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to 2000 Hz.

(b)

All other equipments: Spectral density of 0.01 gn /Hz over the same bandwidth.

5.7.5
(a)
5.8

Cruise phase severities

Coast phase severities


2

For all equipments: Spectral density of 0.01 gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to 2000 Hz.

Materiel transported by vehicles

5.8.1
The test severities are generalised and are applicable to packaged materiel, when
subjected to transportation by road, rail, air and/or sea between the manufacturer, ordnance depot and
forward bases. Specific exclusions are listed in Part 5 Chapter 2-06. The full range of test methods and
associated severities for materiel transportation is given in Part 5 Section 2 of this Standard. Materiel
for deployment in forward areas is the subject of Part 5 Chapter 2-05.
5.8.2
Sinusoidal vibration should be used and the severities shall be applied to the material
prepared or packaged as it would be during transportation. A vibration severity of 2 gn peak
acceleration or 6 mm peak displacement, whichever is the lesser, shall be swept over the following
frequency range.

(a)

Up to and including 75 kg: from 5 to 350 Hz for two hours in each of the three major axes

(b)

Over 75 kg: from 5 to 150 Hz for six hours in the plane normal to the base. This test may
not be suitable for test items exceeding 200 kg. Alternatives are given in Part 5 Section 2
of this Standard.

RELATED DOCUMENTS
BS EN 60068-1:1995

General Guidance

BS.EN.60068-2-6

Test Fc - Vibration (sinusoidal)


Test Fd-Random vibration-wide band, general requirements

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-02
Part 5

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M2 - Complete store vibration test
Induced environments

DEF STAN 00-970

Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft

NES 1004

Requirements for the Design and Testing of Equipment to


meet Environmental Conditions

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is basically similar to Test Fc - 'Vibration (sinusoidal)' and Test Fd - 'Random vibration:
wide band, general requirements', given in BS EN 60068 (BS 2011). The variations from the British
Standard tests are included in this test in order to:
(a)

Permit the test tailoring concept which, for defence materiel, is essential to meet the
requirements of safety, performance and cost effectiveness.

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Chapter 2-01

(b)

Reflect recent advances in digital vibration test control systems which have been
developed for testing defence materiel, and to reflect the steps that need to be taken
when testing dynamically responsive systems.

(c)

Include information on the preferred severities for particular environmental scenarios.

(d)

Allow the judicious selection of reference and control points to enable representative
testing.

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Chapter 2-01
Annex A
ANNEX A
VIBRATION EXCITATION
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Laboratory tests are of necessity approximations to actual environmental conditions. Therefore
to ensure that the simulation is both as realistic and as cost effective as possible, a number of types of
vibration excitation have been developed. The following paragraphs describe the types of excitation
that are available and are commonly used. The applicability of each type is indicated together with the
parameters required to define each test type.
2

FIXED FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION

2.1 This type of vibration test has applications to a range of equipments where frequencies of
particular significance are known or can be predicted. It may also have applications for the rapid
accumulation of stress reversals to evaluate the effects of fatigue. In either circumstance knowledge
of the response characteristics of the equipment to be tested should be obtained in order to assess the
damage potential of the proposed test.
2.2

A fixed frequency sinusoidal vibration test is defined by the following parameters:


(a)

The amplitude of vibration

(b)

The frequency of the sinusoid

(c)

The duration of the test

SWEPT FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION

3.1 This type of vibration test has application in the representation of environments where the
equipment experiences vibration of a periodic nature, but over a range of frequencies. It may also
have applications when fatigue is to be assessed.
3.2 For swept frequency testing a single sinusoidal is varied at a defined rate and over a specified
frequency range. The amplitude of the sinusoid may also vary across the frequency range. A swept
frequency sinusoidal vibration test is defined by the following parameters:

(a)

The amplitude/frequency profile

(b)

The sweep rate

(c)

The duration of the test

SINUSOIDAL STEPPED FREQUENCY

4.1 This type of vibration test may have application where equipment experiences excitation at a
fixed frequency for long periods and where variations in frequencies may occur in-Service such as
from vehicle to vehicle.
4.2 The frequency of a single sinusoid is varied, in defined steps, across the test frequency range.
The sinusoid pauses or dwells at each frequency step for a specified period. The amplitudes of the
sinusoid may also vary across the frequency range. A sinusoidal stepped frequency vibration test is
defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The amplitude/frequency profile

(b)

The duration at each frequency

(c)

The test duration

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Chapter 2-01
Annex A
5

WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

5.1 This type of vibration test is applicable to equipment which has to function or to survive in an
environment where vibration is of a non-periodic nature. These conditions are likely to be experienced
by most defence materiel at some time in its in-Service life.
5.2 Wide band random vibration has a nominally gaussian distribution in the time domain. The
spectral level may be constant over a broad frequency range, or may vary with frequency. A wide band
random vibration test is defined by the following parameters:

(a)

The power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The duration of the test

NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

6.1 Random vibration with spectral amplitudes constrained within a narrow frequency range has
particular application. It may be suitable to represent in-Service vibratory conditions which are periodic
but not necessarily sinusoidal. Alternatively it may be of value where the in-Service excitation is
sinusoidal but experiences small variations in frequency.
6.2

A narrow band random vibration test is defined by the following parameters:


(a)

The power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The duration of the test

SWEPT NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

7.1 In this type of vibration test, narrow band random vibrations are swept over a defined frequency
range.
7.2

A swept narrow band random vibration test is defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The narrow band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The swept frequency range

(c)

The sweep rate

(d)

The duration of the test

FIXED FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATIONS ON WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

8.1

One or more fixed frequency sinusoids are superimposed on wide band random vibration.

8.2 Tests using fixed frequency sinusoidal vibration on a wide band random vibration background
are defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The amplitudes of the sinusoids

(c)

The frequency of the sinusoids

(d)

The duration of the test

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Annex A
9

SWEPT FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

9.1 One or more sinusoids are swept over a specified frequency range, and superimposed on wide
band random vibration.
9.2 Tests using a swept frequency sinusoidal vibration component on a wide band random vibration
background are defined by the following parameters:

10

(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The amplitude/frequency profiles of the sinusoids

(c)

The sweep rates

(d)

The duration of the test

FIXED FREQUENCY NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM


VIBRATION

10.1 One or more narrow bands of random vibration are superimposed on wide band random
vibration. From a practical viewpoint this test is essentially the same as for the wide band random
vibration test described earlier.
10.2 Tests using fixed centre frequency narrow band random vibration superimposed on a wide band
random vibration background are defined by the following parameters:

11

(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The narrow band power spectral density/frequency profiles

(c)

The test duration

SWEPT FREQUENCY NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM


VIBRATION

11.1 One or more narrow bands of random vibration are swept over a specified frequency range and
superimposed on a wider frequency range background of random vibration.
11.2 Tests using swept centre frequency narrow band random vibration superimposed on a wide
band random vibration background are defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The narrow band power spectral density/frequency profiles

(c)

The narrow band swept frequency ranges

(d)

The sweep rate

(e)

The test duration

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Chapter 2-01
Annex A

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 2-02

CHAPTER 2-02
TEST M2 - COMPLETE STORE VIBRATION TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is designed to simulate, by mechanical means, the vibratory excitation arising from
external carriage on aircraft. It is intended for materiel such as complete guided weapons, torpedoes,
airborne armament stores and pods. For the purpose of this test the term store encompasses all
these materiel.
1.2 The principles of this test may be applicable to the simulation of other vibrational environments
and equipments, for example large airborne radar or store carriage systems.
1.3 The purpose of this test is to demonstrate the adequacy of an equipment to resist unacceptable
degradation of its functional performance and/or structural performance when subjected to the
specified vibration.
1.4 This test differs from Test M1 - 'Basic vibration test' (see Chapter 2-01) in that it simulates the
response of large, high mass, dynamically complex equipment whose excitation may not be
mechanically transmitted to the equipment via its normal mounting arrangement.
1.5 This test may be used to augment tests using acoustic excitations such as Test M8 'Acoustic
Noise Test in a reverberation chamber' (see Chapter 2-08) or Test M9 'Acoustic Noise Test in a
Progressive Wave Tube' (see Chapter 2-09). In some cases Test M10 'Combined Acoustic,
Temperature and Vibration' (see Chapter 2-10) may be used as an alternative to this test.
1.6 Equipment vibration characterization tests, such as resonance searches, determination of
frequency response functions, and modal analyses, are not addressed in this Chapter, since published
information is readily available.
1.7

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
This vibration test has been formulated to subject a store to as close a representation
of its working environment as is practicable on mechanical excitation systems.
2.1.2
Whilst this test has been formulated to permit the use of digital computer based control
equipment, any equipment capable of satisfying the test requirements is acceptable.
2.1.3
This test has been formulated to allow a range of basic excitation types to be
encompassed. A number of commonly encountered types of excitations are described in Annex A.
This Annex also indicates their applicability and the parameters by which each type is defined.
2.1.4
When using the tailored severities of Part 5 of this standard it may be possible to limit
the applied excitation to fewer than three axes. In particular for many stores the significantly lower
severity requirement in the longitudinal axis may permit testing to be limited to the vertical and lateral
specimen axes.

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Chapter 2-02

2.1.5
Within certain constraints the use of multi-shaker systems is permissible within this
procedure. Indeed the use of multi-shaker systems can have positive advantage especially when
testing stores intended for use on high performance jet aircraft. In these cases the intent is to
reproduce vibrations arising from distributed excitations occurring over the entire surface of the store.
Clearly using multiple excitation generators is likely to produce a more realistic distribution of vibration
responses within the store than could be achieved from a single source. This specification is
constrained to multi-shaker systems where each vibration generator applies the same waveform,
although possibly at different amplitudes, and parallel directions. This is not to say the use of
independent waveforms in non-aligned axes is incorrect. In fact such an arrangement is probably
more representative of the in-Service conditions. However, the control strategy and procedures
required for such a test are outside the current scope of this specification.
2.1.6
This test procedure limits the occurrences of peaks, when undertaking Gaussian broad
band random vibration testing, to around three times the standard deviation. This requirement is
mainly specified to ensure reproducibility of testing. Although it has been applied, historically, to
alleviate limitations of test equipment. However, the occurrence of peaks during in-Service
environmental conditions arising from aerodynamic excitations can significantly exceed three times the
standard deviation. The occurrence of peaks above three times the standard deviation is permissible
but should be specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.2

Mounting and excitation

2.2.1
In general the type of carriage aircraft will influence the manner in which the store is
mounted and excited, for testing purposes, as follows:
2.2.2

Fixed wing jet aircraft

(a)

For external stores carried on jet aircraft, vibration is predominantly induced by


aerodynamic effects on the external store surface. The simulation of the environment, by
mechanical excitation, may be best achieved by the use of one of two alternative
mounting/excitation configurations. The preferred configuration is to mount the store with
its normal attachment on a low natural frequency support, whilst exciting the store through
structural points on the store surface. An alternative configuration is to mount the store
with its normal attachment on to a very stiff fixture, through which the store is excited.

(b)

The selection of the most advantageous configuration will depend upon the store
structure, test facilities available and degree of realism required. The use of the low
frequency support configuration permits the selection of excitation points to enable
tailoring of the vibration distribution to be similar to that experienced in-Service. The stiffly
supported configuration utilises existing store attachment points which do not permit
tailoring of the vibration distribution so easily.

(c)

For fixed wing jet aircraft a wide band random vibration test is the appropriate excitation
type. A description of this excitation type and other related types, is given in Annex A.

(d)

The use of acoustic excitation, at the higher frequencies, to simulate aerodynamic effects
is, in some instances, preferable. Further guidance on this aspect is given in Part 5 of this
Standard. Suitable acoustic excitation tests are given in Test M8 - 'Acoustic noise test in
a reverberation chamber' (see Chapter 2-08); Test M9 - 'Acoustic noise test in a
progressive wave tube' (see Chapter 2-09) and Test M10 - 'Combined vibration,
temperature and acoustic test' (see Chapter 2-10).

2.2.3
(a)

Fixed wing propeller aircraft


For external stores carried on propeller aircraft, vibration is mainly mechanically
transmitted from the host aircraft. Hence mechanical vibration testing to simulate this
environment is preferably undertaken by applying excitation through its normal attachment
via a relatively stiff fixture. However, care should be taken, during testing, to ensure that
unrepresentative natural frequencies of the test configuration do not occur.

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Chapter 2-02

(b)

2.2.4

2.3

For fixed wing propeller aircraft any of the five excitation types in Annex A may be
applicable in various circumstances. Advice on the selection of the appropriate excitation
type is given in Part 5 of this Standard.
Rotary wing aircraft

(a)

For external stores carried on rotary wing aircraft, vibration is predominantly mechanically
transmitted from the helicopter although some excitations do occur from aerodynamic
effects. The store may be excited through the mounting equipment via structural points
on the store surface. The latter can have particular practical advantage for long slender
stores.

(b)

The in-Service store mounting configuration on rotary wing aircraft tends to have a
significant influence on store vibratory motions. Hence, for testing purposes, the
mounting configuration should be as realistic as practicable. This is usually achieved by
mounting the store using its in-Service mounting equipment. In most instances, for
testing convenience, the mounting equipment is in turn attached to a relatively stiff fixture.
Care should be taken, during testing, to ensure that unrepresentative natural frequencies
of the test configuration do not occur.

(c)

For rotary wing aircraft any of the five excitation types in Annex A may be applicable in
various circumstances. Advice on the selection of the appropriate excitation type is given
in Part 5 of this Standard.

Control strategies

2.3.1
The vibration control parameter, for complete store assemblies and other large
equipment, is usually derived by sampling the vibratory response motions of the specimen (controlled
response testing). Moreover the vibration responses are usually measured at several locations (multipoint control).
2.3.2
Unless specified in the Environmental Test Specification the control points should be
situated at a minimum of two relatively hard points within the specimen. At least one point should be in
the nose section and at least one in the aft section of the main body of the specimen. At each point
vibration measurements should be made along the axis of excitation. Cross axis motions are also
normally monitored at the control points. Unless agreed with the Test Specifier, the existence of
significant levels of cross axis motions should not be used to justify a reduction in the specified test
durations.
2.3.3
When using multi-point control, the control parameter is usually computed from the
spectral values in each control frequency band. This can be accomplished from either the arithmetic
average of several response locations for control on the average response, or from the maximum of
these responses for control on maximum response. Control on maximum response is applicable when
the specified severities represent an envelope of spatial in-Service vibration responses. When the
specified severities represent spatial average of in-Service vibration responses, or when the
Environmental Test Specification gives no guidance, control on average response should be used. In
certain circumstances methods other than control on average or maximum may be adopted for
computing the control parameter. In such circumstances the Environmental Test Specification should
specify the method to be used.
2.4

Fixing, monitor, control and reference points

2.4.1
For the purpose of this test the definitions of the fixing, monitor, control and reference
points are as follows:
(a)

A fixing point is defined as a part of the specimen in contact with the mounting fixture or
vibration table at a point where it is normally fastened in-Service.

(b)

A monitor point is a position at which measurements are made in order to establish


knowledge of the response behaviour of the specimen.

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2.5

(c)

A control point is a position at which measurements are made to allow the vibration
excitation to be controlled to within specific bounds during the course of the test.

(d)

The reference point is the point at which vibration measurements are made in order to
confirm that the requirements of the test specification are satisfied. The reference point
should be stated in the Environmental Test Specification. This reference point may be a
"conceptual point" created by manual or automatic processing of the signals from the
several control points.

Control Analyser resolution

2.5.1
The following comments on control analyser resolution bandwidth relevant to random
vibration should be noted.
2.5.2
For this test procedure the preferred analyser resolution should be better than 10 Hz.
However, by agreement with the Test Specifier the use of an analyser resolution worse than 10 Hz
may be permissible. This decreased resolution should not exceed one third of an octave above 100
Hz and 20 Hz below 100 Hz. In such cases the analyser resolution bandwidth used should be stated in
the Test Report.
2.5.3
When undertaking tests containing narrow band components, the use of an analyser
resolution much better than 10Hz will be required. In such cases an analyser resolution better than
20% of the bandwidth of the narrowest narrow band component should be utilized. Practical limitations
may mean that the use of this analyser resolution will limit the upper frequency range of testing.
2.5.4
In those circumstances where during testing it is necessary to involve different test
houses and types of facilities, for example as part of equipment production or component procurement
acceptance, it is often essential to specify a test which ensures a high degree of reproducibility. Such
reproducibility usually implies a bandwidth resolution which is better than 10 Hz, depending upon the
dynamic response of the test specimen, its mounting fixture and the test facility. Guidance on test
procedures for degrees of reproducibility is given in BS 2011 Test Fd.
2.5.5
In some cases attempting to control the specimen response using a fine analyser
resolution may unreasonably suppress the natural response of the specimen. The use of a coarse
analyser resolution for control purposes allows the specimen to respond in a manner more
representative of that experienced in-Service. For this reason, such an approach, permitting natural
responses to be developed may be preferred for specimen having complicated dynamic responses
and/or where the mass of the specimen largely influences the severity of the vibration environment. In
such cases the Environmental Test Specification should state the control resolution to be used.
2.6

Test Tolerances

2.6.1
In some instances the test tolerances quoted in paragraph 4.5 may be difficult to
achieve at certain frequencies in the test range. Such difficulties are most frequently encountered
when using response control strategy, multi-point control and fine analyser resolution. In such cases,
at the discretion of the test specifier, certain test tolerances may be degraded within the constraints
listed below. All other tolerances, set out in paragraph 4.5, remain unchanged.
(a)

(b)

Sine Vibration Components


(i)

Amplitudes below 500 Hz: 10% at reference point

(ii)

Amplitudes above 500 Hz: 20% at reference point

(iii)

Additionally all amplitudes greater than 10% should not total more than 5% of
control frequency range

Random Vibration Components


(i)

Amplitudes below 500 Hz: 3dB at reference point

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Chapter 2-02

(ii)

Amplitudes above 500 Hz: 6dB at reference point

(iii)

Additionally all amplitudes greater than 3dB should not total more than 5% of
control frequency range

(iv)

Root mean square: 2 dB at reference point

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival or both

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(d)

The method of mounting the specimen and any necessary cables, pipes, etc. together
with the axes along which vibration is to be applied

(e)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered

(f)

The acceptable limits for the transverse motion and the action to be taken if these limits
are exceeded

(g)

Whether the influence of stray magnetic fields is important, acceptable limits and action to
be taken if these limits are exceeded

(h)

The control and monitoring points, or the procedure for selecting them

(j)

The reference point or the procedure for computing the reference point

(k)

The maximum permissible variation between responses measured at the control points
and the action to be taken if outside these limits (applicable only to multi-point control)

(l)

The type of vibration excitation, the severity and durations

(m)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(n)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(p)

The tolerances to be applied

(q)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Mounting.

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply:

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4.1.1 The specimen should be suspended by its in-Service carriage equipment, such as ERU,
MACE, launch rail. The use of additional straps or stays should be avoided. Any
connections to the specimen, that is cables, pipes, etc., should be arranged so that they
impose similar dynamical restraint and mass to that when the store is mounted in its
normal operational condition. Where practicable the suspension configuration shall be
selected from the following:
(a)

Flexible configuration. The specimen and its normal carriage equipment should be
suspended on low frequency supports from a structural frame. Vibration should be applied
to the specimen by means of a rod or other suitable device running from the vibration
sources(s) to a relatively hard, structurally supported point of the specimen. The test setup should be such that the rigid body modes (translation and rotation) of vibration for the
system (specimen/frame/suspension/vibrator) are below 20 Hz.

(b)

Stiff configuration. The specimen should be attached to the vibration source using its
normal operational carriage equipment. The stiffness of the mounting fixture, through
which the specimen is excited, should be such that its natural resonant frequencies are as
high as practicable and not coincident with any blade passing frequency and subsequent
harmonics.

4.1.2
Where gravitational force is important or when in doubt, the specimen shall be
mounted so that the gravitational force acts in the same direction as it would in normal use. Where
gravitational force is not important the specimen may be mounted in any attitude consistent with other
requirements.
4.1.3
The mounting shall be such that the specimen can be vibrated along one of the
specified test axes. The fixing points of the specimen should move, as far as practicable, in phase and
in straight lines, parallel, with the line of motion. It may be necessary to use different test fixtures for
each test axis.
4.2

Pre-conditioning

4.2.1
If equipment vibration characterization tests are called for by the Environmental Test
Specification they shall be undertaken and recorded in accordance with the procedure stated in that
specification.
4.2.2
A finite time is required for the vibration control equipment to achieve the desired
equalization. Unless specified in the Environmental Test Specification the equalization process shall
conform to the following:

4.3

(a)

Initial equalization shall be conducted at least 6 dB less than the full test level. At this
level no duration limit is imposed for this stage of equalization. However, if the duration,
at these levels, exceeds the specified test time the actual duration and levels used should
be recorded in the test report.

(b)

During the subsequent phases of equalization the vibration levels can be increased to
within 3 dB of the full test level. The time spent at these higher levels shall be the
minimum possible and shall not exceed 1.5 times the test duration. However, if the
duration, at these levels, exceeds the specified test time the actual duration and levels
used should be recorded in the test report.

(c)

This setting up time shall not be subtracted from the specified test time.

Conditioning

4.3.1
The specimen shall be vibrated at the severities stated in the Environmental Test
Specification. The climatic conditions shall be those specified.
4.3.2
Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental
Test Specification.

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4.3.3 The specimen shall be vibrated along each specified axis in turn. Where the test
programme requires the application of different types of vibration or different amplitude levels and
durations or rigging conditions, it may be possible to complete the entire sequence of tests for one axis
prior to changing to the next axis. Prior agreement shall be obtained from the Test Specifier.
4.4

Post conditioning examination

4.4.1
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.5

Test tolerances

4.5.1
Unless stated otherwise in the Environmental Test Specification, the vibration
response at the reference point shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than the
values quoted below.
4.5.2

For all sinusoidal vibration elements of the test requirements the tolerances shall be:

(a)

Amplitude - Determined at the reference point and in the required direction the amplitude
shall be within 10% of the specified value. Excitation outside the specified frequency
range should be minimised as far as possible.

(b)

Frequency - The frequency shall be within 0.5Hz of the specified value up to 100 Hz
and 0.5% at higher frequencies.

(c)

Sweep rate - Where applicable, the sweep rate shall be within 10% of the stated rate.
If not specified, a sweep rate of 1 octave/min. shall be adopted.

4.5.3
shall be:

For all broad band random vibration elements of the test requirements the tolerances

(a)

Power spectral density (PSD) - Determined at the reference point the PSD shall be within
3 dB of the specified value. When using multi-point on average response control, the
responses at each control point shall be within 5 dB of the specified value. This
tolerance shall be confirmed using an analyser having a resolution better than 10 Hz.
Excitation outside the specified frequency range should be minimised as far as possible.
The statistical random sampling error should not exceed 15%, which is equivalent to a
bandwidth/sampling time product (BT) of 50, and is also equivalent to 100 degrees of
freedom.

(b)

Root Mean Square - Measured at the reference point, the rms level over the test
frequency range shall be within 1 dB of the required value.

(c)

Amplitude Distribution - The instantaneous values of the applied random vibration shall
have a nominal gaussian distribution. The distribution should contain all occurrences up
to 2.5 standard deviations whilst occurrences greater than 3 standard deviations should
be kept to a minimum.

4.5.4
For all fixed frequency narrow band components of the test requirements the
tolerances shall be:
(a)

Power Spectral Density (PSD) - Determined at the reference point the PSD shall be within
3dB of the specified value. This tolerance shall be confirmed by using an analyser
having a resolution better than 25% of the bandwidth of the narrowest narrow band
component.

(b)

Root Mean Square - Measured at the reference point, the rms level in the test frequency
range shall be within 10% of the required value.

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4.5.5
For all swept narrow band random components of the test requirement the tolerances
on the vibration severities should wherever possible be the same as for fixed frequency narrow band
random components. However, at some sweep rates these tolerances may not be achievable.
Therefore the tolerance requirements for these components shall be stated in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.5.6
The test duration shall be within 2% or one minute of the specified requirement
whichever is the lesser.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

General

5.1.1
The severities and other parameters for this test should be based on the purpose for
which it is being conducted and on the conditions the equipment is likely to experience in-Service.
5.1.2
The severities and other test parameters given below should be used in those cases
where a precise simulation is unnecessary and where a significant degree of overtesting can be
tolerated without prejudice. More precise simulation severities are addressed in Part 5 of this
Standard.
5.1.3
These severities may also be used where the in-Service environment has not been
established, although in these cases improved estimates for many vibration conditions can be obtained
through the use of the empirically based prediction methods contained in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.2

Stores carried externally on fixed wing jet aircraft

5.2.1
The following test levels apply to stores carried externally on jet powered fixed wing
aircraft. The test levels apply equally to stores which are mounted on pylons and wing tips or semiburied (conformal).
5.2.2
Wide band random vibration should be used and there are two levels specified, one
covering carriage on low performance aircraft the other high performance aircraft. For this purpose
low performance aircraft are those where the maximum flight dynamic pressure is less than 33.5 kPa
(700 psf). The severities for high performance aircraft are limited to conditions where the maximum
flight dynamic pressure is 67 kPa (1400 psf) or less. They are also limited to flight conditions where no
significant store buffeting manoeuvres are experienced. For conditions outside these limits, and
particularly for stores with a length to diameter ratio of greater than 15:1, reference should be made to
Part 5 of this Standard.
(a)

Low Performance Jet Aircraft: In the vertical and lateral store axes a spectral density of
2
0.01 gn /Hz from 20 to 2000 Hz. In the store longitudinal axis a spectral density of 0.005
2
gn /Hz from 20 to 2000 Hz. Test duration is 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of
store mission, whichever is the lesser.

(b)

High Performance Jet Aircraft: In the vertical and lateral store axes a spectral density of
2
2
0.04 gn /Hz from 20 to 2000 Hz. In the longitudinal axis a spectral density of 0.01 gn /Hz
from 20 to 2000 Hz. Test duration is 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of store
mission, whichever is the lesser.

5.2.3
The above test severities should be assumed to be the average vibration response of
at least two spatial store locations.
5.3

Stores carried externally on fixed wing propeller aircraft

5.3.1
For stores carried on propeller aircraft the test format is of broad band random
vibration on to which are superimposed three peaks. The frequencies of the peaks are at the
fundamental propeller blade passing frequency and the two subsequent harmonics. The preferred
format of the peaks is narrow band random but sinusoids are acceptable alternatives.

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Chapter 2-02

5.3.2
The broad band random vibration spectrum shall be 0.01 gn /Hz over the frequency
range 15 to 2000 Hz.
5.3.3
The amplitude of the sinusoidal peaks shall be 1.75 gnpk, 0.9 gnpk and 0.6 gnpk
respectively. If the peaks are represented as narrow band components their maximum band width
2
shall be 10, 20 and 30 Hz respectively. The amplitude (gn /Hz) of the narrow bands can be derived as
follows:
2

1 gnpk 2
Acceleration PSD =
g / Hz
B 2 n

where B is the actual


bandwidth of the narrow band

5.3.4
If the blade passing frequency of the carriage aircraft is unknown or the store is to be
used on several aircraft types then the peaks should be swept over the frequency ranges 65 to 95 Hz,
130 to 190 Hz and 195 to 285 Hz.
5.3.5
The above test severities are to be realised as the spatial average of at least two
structural positions in the store.
5.3.6
mission.
5.4

The test duration shall be the lesser of 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 3 hours of store

Stores carried externally on helicopters

5.4.1
For stores carried on helicopters the test format is of three peaks, representing
helicopter blade passing frequencies, superimposed upon a background of broad band random
vibration. The frequencies of the three peaks are at blade passing frequency, twice blade passing
frequency and three times blade passing frequency. The preferred format of the peaks is narrowband
random but sinusoids are an acceptable alternative.
2

5.4.2
The broadband random vibration spectrum shall comprise 0.01 gn /Hz from 5 to 40 Hz,
2
reducing to 0.002 gn /Hz at 80 Hz, and remaining at this level to 200 Hz.
5.4.3
The amplitude of the sinusoidal peaks shall be 2.5, 1.0 and 0.8 gnpk, respectively. If
these peaks are represented as narrowband random components, their maximum bandwidths shall be
2
2, 4 and 6 Hz, respectively. The amplitude (gn /Hz) of the narrow band peaks are derived as follows:
2

Acceleration PSD =

1 gnpk 2
g / Hz
B 2 n

where B is the actual


bandwidth of the narrow band

5.4.4.
If the blade passing frequency of the host helicopter is unknown, or if the store is
intended to be carried on a number of different helicopter types, then the peaks should be swept over
the frequency range 15 to 25 Hz, 30 to 50 Hz and 45 to 75 Hz. It should be noted that some test
control equipment does not permit the frequency ranges of swept narrow bands to overlap. In such
cases it is permissible, with the agreement of the Test Specifier, to use the frequency ranged 16 to 24
Hz, 32 to 48 Hz and 48 to 72 Hz.
5.4.5
The above test severities are to be realised as the spatial average of at least two
structural positions in the store.
5.4.6
mission.
5.5

The test duration shall be the lesser of 10 hours per axis or 1 hour per 2 hours of store

Guided weapons during non-captive flight.

5.5.1
The following paragraph covers three phases of non-captive missile flight viz boost,
cruise and coast. The test severities for these phases are designed to be applicable to those guided
weapons that meet the following conditions:

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Chapter 2-02

(a)

The thrust/mass ratio is less than 25:1 (relevant to boost and cruise phases only)

(b)

The maximum flight dynamic pressure is less than 67 kPa (1400 psf) and the maximum
Mach No. is less than 1.2

For conditions outside these limits reference should be made to Part 5 of this Standard.
5.5.2
Wide band random vibration should be used to represent any of the three phases of
flight. The duration of the test should be based upon operational flight times.
5.5.3
During the boost and cruise phase of non-captive flight the most severe vibration
severities occur in close proximity to the propulsion unit. The severities quoted below encompass
these severities. At other locations within the store vibration severities may be significantly less than
those in close proximity to the propulsion unit. This reduction in severity can be taken into account if
the test arrangement adopted allows some control over the distribution of vibration severities within the
2
store to be achieved. However, at no location should the vibration levels fall below 0.04 gn /Hz and
2
0.01 gn /Hz for boost and cruise phases respectively.
2

5.5.4

Boost Phase Severities. Spectral density of 0.2 gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to 2000

5.5.5
2000 Hz.

Cruise Phase Severities. Spectral density of 0.05 gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to

5.5.6
2000 Hz.

Coast Phase Severities.

Hz.
2

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:

Spectral density of 0.01 gn /Hz over the bandwidth 100 to

BS 2011
Part 2.1

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures


Test Fd - Random vibration - wide band, general
requirements

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-08
Chapter 2-09
Chapter 2-10

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M1 - Basic vibration test
Test M8 - Acoustic noise test in reverberation chamber
Test M9 - Acoustic noise in a progressive wave tube
Test M10 - Combined vibration, temperature and acoustic
test

Part 5

Induced environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test

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Chapter 2-02
Annex A
ANNEX A
VIBRATION EXCITATION
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 To ensure that the simulation is as realistic as possible a number of types of vibration excitation
are available. The following paragraphs describe the types of excitation that are commonly used in the
vibration testing of complete stores.
2

WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

2.1 This type of vibration test is applicable to equipment which has to function or to survive in an
environment where vibration is of a non-periodic nature. These conditions are likely to be experienced
by most defence materiel at some time in its in-Service life.
2.2 Wide band random vibration is nominally gaussian distribution in time. The spectrum level may
be constant over a broad frequency range or shaped. Wide band random vibration tests are defined
by the following parameters:
(a)

The power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The duration of the test

FIXED FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

3.1

One or more fixed frequency sinusoids are superimposed on wide band random vibration.

3.2 Tests using fixed frequency sinusoidal vibration on a wide band random vibration background
are defined by the following parameters:

(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The amplitudes of the sinusoids

(c)

The frequency of the sinusoids

(d)

The duration of the test

SWEPT FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM VIBRATION

4.1 One or more sinusoids are swept over a specified frequency range, and superimposed on wide
band random vibration.
4.2 Tests using a swept frequency sinusoidal vibration component on a wide band random vibration
background are defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The amplitude/frequency profiles of the sinusoids

(c)

The sweep rates

(d)

The duration of the test

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Chapter 2-02
Annex A
5

FIXED FREQUENCY NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM


VIBRATION

5.1 One or more narrow bands of random vibration are superimposed on wide band random
vibration. From a practical viewpoint this test is essentially the same as for the wide band random
vibration test described earlier.
5.2 Tests using fixed centre frequency narrow band random vibration superimposed on a wide band
random vibration background are defined by the following parameters:

(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The narrow band power spectral density/frequency profiles

(c)

The test duration

SWEPT FREQUENCY NARROW BAND RANDOM VIBRATION ON WIDE BAND RANDOM


VIBRATION

6.1 One or more narrow bands of random vibration are swept over a specified frequency range and
superimposed on wider band frequency range background of random vibration.
6.2 Tests using swept centre frequency narrow band random vibration superimposed on a wide
band random vibration background are defined by the following parameters:
(a)

The wide band power spectral density/frequency profile

(b)

The narrow band power spectral density/frequency profiles

(c)

The narrow band swept frequency ranges

(d)

The sweep rate

(e)

The test spectra duration

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Chapter 2-03

CHAPTER 2-03
TEST M3 - BASIC PULSE SHOCK TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 Test is intended for unpackaged equipments and for packaged items where the simulation of the
service conditions requires that the package forms an integral part of the equipment.
1.2 The test provides a method by which responses of components and equipment comparable with
those likely to be experienced in practice in the handling, transportation and operational environment can
be reproduced in the test laboratory. The basic intention is not necessarily to reproduce the real
environment.
1.3 This test is not intended to reproduce the effects of complex shocks to which certain equipment
may be subject. Complex shocks are addressed in Test M6 - 'Operational shock' (see Chapter 2-06).
1.4 Additional information to allow this test procedure to be utilised for Shielded Impact Tests is
supplied in Annex A.
1.5 This test is technically similar to that contained in BS EN 60068-2-27 "Shock", except for the
differences detailed in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Recognising the difficulties of reproducing in the laboratory exact shock environments,
and in the interests of standardisation, this test restricts itself to three basic pulse shapes, viz half-sine,
trapezoidal and final peak sawtooth.
2.1.2
Where the real shock environment has been measured and the shock response spectra
determined this information should be considered when choosing the test pulse shape.
2.1.3
For general purpose use the final peak sawtooth pulse has the advantage over the half
sine and trapezoidal pulse shapes of having a more uniform shock response spectrum.
2.1.4
The half sine pulse has application where the test is representing shock resulting from
impact with, or retardation by, a pre-dominantly linear elastic system.
2.1.5
The trapezoidal pulse produces a response over a wider frequency range than the half
sine pulse; and is to be preferred when the test is representing shock having impulse force origin (for
example, explosive blast, gunfire, missile launch).
2.1.6
Information on the shock response spectra associated with the three pulses is given in
BS EN60068-2-27 "Shock", Appendix A.
2.2

Velocity change

2.2.1
For many purposes, specifying the severity of the test by peak acceleration, pulse shape
and duration is an adequate definition. Consequently, velocity change need not be specified except
where it is necessary either to achieve a high degree of reproducibility (for example, between repeat tests
on production batches of equipment), or where there is a need to supplement or replace one of the
normal parameters used to define the shock pulse. (For example, velocity change may be preferred to
duration for shocks of high intensity and of extremely short duration.) The Environmental Test
Specification should, in these instances, invoke the velocity change requirement and specify the method
of measurement.

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Chapter 2-03

2.2.2

Velocity change may be determined from the measured data by any of the following:

(a)

From the impact velocity for shock pulses not involving rebound motion.

(b)

By the drop and rebound height as appropriate, where free fall facilities are used.

(c)

By integrating the acceleration pulse with respect to time between the limits of 0.4D before
the start of the pulse to 0.1D beyond the pulse, where D is the duration of the ideal pulse.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival, or both

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen, and the axes which the shock is to be applied

(d)

Whether the specimen is to be tested with flexible mounts fitted

(e)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered

(f)

The control point to be used

(g)

Whether the velocity change is to be measured and, if so, the method of determining velocity
change

(h)

Whether transverse motion is to be measured

(j)

The pulse shape and test severity (peak acceleration and duration)

(k)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(l)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(m)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply:
4.1.1

Mounting

(a)

Where gravitational force is important, or when in doubt, the specimen shall be mounted so
that the gravitational force acts in the same direction as it would in normal use. Where
gravitational force is not important the specimen may be mounted in any attitude consistent
with other requirements.

(b)

The specimen shall be mechanically connected to the shock machine by its normal means
of attachment. The use of any additional stays or straps shall be avoided. Any connections
to the specimen, such as cables, pipes, wires, shall be arranged so that they impose similar
dynamic restraint and mass to that when the specimen is installed in its operational position.

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Chapter 2-03

(c)

Mounting arrangements shall be such as to enable the specimen to be subjected to shocks


along the various axes as specified in Conditioning (see paragraph 4.1.4). External
connections necessary for measuring purposes should add the minimum restraint and
mass.

(d)

Equipment intended for use with flexible mounts should normally be tested with them fitted.

4.1.2
(a)

4.1.3

Basic pulse shapes


The shock pulse shall conform to the required one of the ideal acceleration versus time
curves given by the dotted lines in Figures 1, 2 and 3. The applied pulse shall be within the
tolerance boundary shown by the solid lines in the relevant figures.
Confirmatory Measurements

(a)

The shock pulse shall be measured by an accelerometer placed at the specimen fixing point
nearest to the centre of the table surface, unless there is a specimen fixing point having a
more rigid connection to the table, in which case this shall be chosen.

(b)

The frequency response of the overall measuring system including the accelerometer
shall be between the curves shown in Figure 4. If it becomes necessary to employ filters
to reduce the effect of any high frequency resonances inherent in the accelerometer, it
may be necessary to examine the phase characteristics of the measuring system in order
to verify that the pulse is maintained.

(c)

When velocity determination is required, then the value shall be within 10% of the value
corresponding to the ideal pulse.

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Chapter 2-03

Figure 1. Final-peak sawtooth pulse

Figure 2. Half-sine pulse

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Chapter 2-03

Figure 3. Trapezoidal pulse

Key for Figures 1, 2, and 3


---

normal pulse

___

limits of tolerance

duration of nominal pulse

peak acceleration of nominal pulse

T1

minimum time during which the pulse shall be monitored for shocks
produced using a conventional shock testing machine

T2

minimum time during which the pulse shall be monitored for shocks
produced using a vibration generator

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Chapter 2-03

Duration of
pulse
(ms)

Low-frequency cutoff
(Hz)

High frequency
cut-off
(kHz)

Frequency beyond
which the response
may rise
above +1 dB
(kHz)

0.2
0.5
1
3
6
11
18 and 25

20
10
4
2
1
0.5
0.2

120
50
20
10
4
2
1

20
15
10
5
2
1
1

40
30
20
10
4
2
2

NOTE 1

For shocks of duration equal to or less than 0.5 ms, the values of 3 and 4 indicated in
this figure may be unnecessarily high. In such instances the relevant specification should
state which alternative values are to be adopted.

NOTE 2

There should be no significant phase shift over the frequency range of measurement.

Figure 4. Frequency characteristics of the measuring system

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Chapter 2-03

4.1.4

Conditioning

(a)

Three successive shocks of the required pulse shape and severity shall be applied in
each sense of three mutually perpendicular axes, so chosen that faults are most likely to
be revealed (that is, a total of 18 shocks).

(b)

Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.

4.1.5
(a)

Post Conditioning Examination


The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 A range of suitable test severities for typical service applications, including the standard
severities of BS EN 60068-2-27, is given in Table 1. It is recommended that, wherever possible one of
these severities should be selected.
TABLE 1
TEST SEVERITIES
PEAK ACCELERATION
A

DURATION OF PULSE
D
ms

TYPICAL
APPLICATION
see Note 3

m/s

equivalent
gn

147
294
294
294
366
490
490
981
981
1960
1960
4900
9810
14700
29400

15
30
30
30
37
50
50
100
100
200
200
500
1000
1500
3000

11
18
11
6
25
11
3
11
6
6
3
1
1
0.5
0.2

(i)
(i)

(ii)
(i)

(iii)(c)
(iii)(b)
(iii)(a)
(iv)
(iv)

NOTE 1

All of the test severities in the Table, except for the 37gn 25ms pulse, are also specified in
BS EN 60068-2-27.

NOTE 2

The test severities above apply to all the basic pulse shapes presented for this test.

NOTE 3

Some typical applications are, referring to column 4 of the table:

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Chapter 2-03

(i)

Half sine wave shock pulse induced in equipment from handling and transport.

(ii)

Half sine wave shock pulse as the basic ruggedness requirement for Naval
equipment.

(iii)

Trapezoidal shock pulse due to stage burn on missiles and last excited shocks, or
half sine wave pulse for AFV installed equipment of weight:
(a)
(b)
(c)

(iv)

up to 5kg (500g)
5kg to 35kg (200g)
35kg to 100kg (100g)

Trapezoidal shock pulses experienced by equipment attached to guns or explosive


devices.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS EN 60068-2-27

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures - "Shock"

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-06

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M6 - Operational shock

Part 5
7

Induced environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS EN 60068-2-27 "Shock". The variations from the British
Standard test are:
(a)

Note added regarding the checking of the measuring system

(b)

Requirement for velocity change determination made optional

(c)

Requirement for transverse motion measurement made optional

(d)

Requirement for conditioning to be non-operating unless stated in the Environmental Test


Specification

(e)

The guidance material is different

(f)

Additional severity added (Table 1)

(g)

Additional information is supplied in Annex A on Shielded Impact

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Chapter 2-03
Annex A
ANNEX A
SHIELDED IMPACT TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This annex supplies additional information to assist in undertaking the shielded impact test utilising
the Basic Pulse Shock test procedure set out in the main body of this chapter.
1.2 The shielded impact test has been used, historically, to evaluate the performance of initiating
devices when subject to very high acceleration forces. The traditional shielded impact test has made use
of a special purpose fixture known as the Standard Drop Test Apparatus (SDTA). Guidance on the use of
that apparatus is given in this annex. However, any test equipment may be utilised provided the specified
requirements are achieved.
1.3 Experience indicates that the SDTA is capable of producing axial accelerations of the same order
of magnitude as those occurring in a projectile during the firing phase. However, the duration of the
acceleration may be only one hundredth (or less) of that occurring during the firing phase of the projectile.
Consequently, the SDTA is unable to provide a complete simulation of the firing phase shock. The use
of the SDTA is unlikely to be suitable for equipment where the duration of acceleration is likely to be
significant. In such cases testing undertaken using the SDTA should be augmented with additional tests
or trials.
1.4 Whilst the SDTA has been used historically to undertake shielded impact testing, depending upon
circumstances, today it may not necessarily be the most appropriate. In particular single and two stage
gas guns may be more able to reproduce the shock conditions occurring during the firing phase of the
projectiles. Single stage gas guns can be capable of achieving, for a complete projectile, the necessary
acceleration amplitude for durations of one third or more of that occurring during the actual firing phase of
a projectile. Two stage gas guns may be able to fully reproduce both the acceleration amplitude and
duration. However, the mass of the item that can be tested may be severally limited and will usually be
significantly less than that of a complete projectile.
1.5

This test has no equivalent in British Standards.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The Standard Drop Test Apparatus (SDTA) is essentially a 30Kg block onto the top of which is
fitted the item under test. The block and test item assembly is able to be dropped from a predetermined
height. To the underside of the block is fitted a pin which is able to strike a steel anvil. The pin/anvil is
"bedded down" so as to provide a consistent rebound between a maximum of 50% and a minimum of
25%.
2.2 The performance of the SDTA varies from one test to the next depending upon the condition of the
impact pin, anvil and foundations. The alignment and lubrication of the guide rails and other details also
affect the result. The energy absorbed by the pin is considerable and necessitates periodic renewal of the
steel impact pin and anvil. At first new components give relatively small rebound heights but as work
hardening proceeds a more stable state with a 25 to 50% rebound is reached. Eventually cracking or
severe distortion will necessitate replacement of pin and anvil.
2.3 It is important that the item under test is securely attached to the block as the impact will give rise to
various transient accelerations which depend upon the security of attachment to the block.
2.4

After the impact, the block should be prevented from striking the anvil a second time.

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Chapter 2-03
Annex A
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1 The information to be specified is identical to that in the Basic Shock Pulse Test. However, the
definition of the shock severity requirement is likely to be more lenient. It is unlikely that sufficient control
of the SDTA can be achieved to allow a specific pulse shape to be attained. As such, the shock severity
requirement is likely to be defined only as acceleration amplitude along with either a duration or velocity
change. When used for production surveillance testing it may be acceptable for the severity to be defined
only in terms of the height from which the SDTA block is to be dropped. In such a case the rebound
height requirement will become a measure of the test acceptability. The use of drop height only as a
definition of test severity should be agreed by the Test Specifier.
4

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test procedure is generally identical to that of the Basic Shock Pulse Test; excepting that
conformance to a specific pulse shape is unlikely to be applicable for the reason set out above.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test severities set out in the Basic Shock Pulse Test are unlikely to be applicable. In fact there
are no preferred severities for the shielded impact test. The severities should be based on the purpose
for which the test is been conducted and on the conditions the equipment is likely to experience inservice.

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Chapter 2-04

CHAPTER 2-04
TEST M4 - DROP, TOPPLE AND ROLL TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is intended to demonstrate the ability of packaged or unpackaged equipment to
withstand the dropping, toppling and rolling effects likely to occur during its operational life, especially
during handling and servicing.
1.2 This test should be invoked where there is a distinct possibility of the equipment being
subjected to dropping, toppling and rolling. In general, equipment which is frequently handled and
serviced can be considered to be particularly at risk.
1.3 This test includes five distinct test procedures which represent typical hazards arising during
handling: drop test onto a face, drop test onto a corner, topple test onto a flat surface, topple test onto
a steel girder and roll test.
1.4 This test is technically similar to that contained in BS EN 60068-2-31 "Drop and topple" except
for the differences detailed in paragraph 7. This test is also consistent with the test in BS 4826 Part
11 for determining the resistance of filled packages to damage by rolling.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Consideration should be given for these tests to be applied to all the faces/corners of
the equipment.
2.1.2
The topple test need not be applied to particular faces when the equipment has
dimensions which make it stable in that orientation. For example:
(a)

If the ratio of the distance of the centre of gravity above the face on which the specimen
is resting to the smallest dimension of that face is less than 0.25, then the equipment can
generally be considered stable.

(b)

If the ratio of the height of the equipment to the smallest dimension of the face is less
than 0.25, then the equipment can generally be considered stable.

2.1.3
The roll test is generally only applicable to packaged equipment, but could well apply
to unpackaged cylindrical equipment.
2.2

Test surface

2.2.1
The test is normally made onto a smooth, hard, rigid surface except for packages
containing items more susceptible to damage by bending than by shock, in which case they should be
subjected to the topple test onto a girder.
2.2.2
Where a steel faced concrete surface is required, a simple wet floating may not
provide an adequate permanent bond between the concrete and the steel plate to satisfy the hard,
rigid surface requirement, particularly when repeated impact with heavy loads is involved. In such
circumstances additional fixings, for example, grouted bolts, or the use of an adhesive, for example,
epoxy resin, instead of wet floating, may be necessary.
2.2.3
A suitable girder is a cold rolled steel channel girder approximately 100mm x 50mm
and having a length exceeding, as appropriate, the length or width of the package surface which is to
be dropped onto it.

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Chapter 2-04

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival, or both

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The faces and corners, other than those of the base, on which the equipment is to be
dropped or toppled

(d)

Where rolling is required the number of faces and edges and the number of topples. In
the case of cylindrical specimens the distance to be rolled.

(e)

Where a topple test is required, whether the test is to be onto a smooth surface or a steel
girder, or both

(f)

If the test is to be carried out with covers, cables, etc, removed, or if it has to be carried
out both with and without covers, cables etc

(g)

The test procedures to be applied

(h)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(j)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the
test they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following
shall apply:
4.1.1

General

(a)

The covers and cables, etc., if required, are to be in position.

(b)

Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental test
specification.

(c)

In any drop or topple test where it is possible for the equipment to topple further onto the
next face instead of falling back onto the test face, this shall not be prevented. Further
toppling shall be prevented.

(d)

For drop tests the heights and angles shall be within 10% of the values specified in the
individual test procedures.

(e)

The tests shall be performed on a smooth, hard, rigid impact surface of concrete, or a
steel plate wet floated on concrete, or a steel girder.

(f)

If a topple test onto a girder is required then the girder shall be fixed to the test surface
with the girder web uppermost.

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Chapter 2-04

4.1.2

Drop test onto a face

(a)

The specimen, standing on its normal base, shall be tilted about one of its bottom edges
so that the distance between the opposite edge and the test surface is 50mm, or so that
the angle made by the bottom and the test surface is 30o, whichever condition is the less
severe.

(b)

The specimen shall then be allowed to fall freely onto the test surface.

(c)

The specimen shall be subjected to one drop from each of the remaining bottom edges.

4.1.3

Drop test onto a corner

(a)

The specimen, standing on its normal base, shall be raised above the test surface by
placing a spacer 10mm high under one corner and a 20mm spacer under an adjacent
corner of one of the bottom edges.

(b)

The specimen shall then be lifted above the test surface by rotating it about the edge on
the two spacers, until the other corner adjacent to the 10mm spacer is either raised
50mm or until the specimen has been rotated through 30o, whichever condition is the
less severe.

(c)

The specimen shall be allowed to fall freely onto the test surface.

(d)

The specimen shall be subjected to one drop on each remaining bottom corner by
applying the test to each underside edge in turn.

4.1.4

Topple test onto a flat surface

(a)

The specimen, standing on its specified face, shall be tilted about one bottom edge until
it reaches a position of instability.

(b)

It shall then be allowed to fall over freely from this position onto an adjacent face.

(c)

The specimen shall be subjected to one topple about each remaining bottom edge.

4.1.5

Topple test onto a steel girder

(a)

The girder shall be positioned so that the impact can occur on an edge of the girder and
parallel to the pivot edge of the package, at a distance of half the length or width of the
package from the pivot edge.

(b)

The specimen, standing on its normal base, shall be tilted about the pivot edge until it
reaches a position of instability.

(c)

It shall then be allowed to topple so that the impact occurs at the specified position on
the package.

4.1.6
(a)

4.1.7
(a)

Roll test
This is similar to the topple test onto a flat surface except that the number of topples or
distance rolled shall be as specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
Post conditioning examination
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specifications.

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Chapter 2-04

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

There are no preferred severities other than those given in the test procedure.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:

BS EN 60068-2-31

Basic Environmental Test Procedures - "Drop and topple":


primarily for equipment-type specimens.

BS 4826
Part 11

Complete, Filled Transport Packages.


Method for determination of resistance to damage by rolling.

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS EN 60068-2-31 - 'Drop and topple'. The variations from
the British Standard test are:
(a)

A roll test has been added

(b)

The clauses covering initial and final measurements have been excluded

(c)

Use of steel surface is qualified as steel plate wet floated on concrete

(d)

An option to carry out the test on faces other than the normal base if required by the
Environmental Test Specification, has been included

(e)

The guidance material recommends implicitly a more severe programme of tests.

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Chapter 2-05

CHAPTER 2-05
TEST M5 - IMPACT (VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL) TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is intended to cover vertical impacts (for example, drops) and horizontal impacts (for
example, vehicle shunting and collisions when swinging on a crane).
1.2

The test is applicable to both packaged and unpackaged equipments.

1.3 The test may be used to assess the ability of equipment to operate, survive or remain safe
when subjected to impact.
1.4 This test is not intended for the safety testing of armament stores, which are covered by Test
FX3 - 'Safety Drop Test' (see Chapter 5-03).
1.5 This test is technically similar to that contained in BS EN 60068-2-32 Procedure 1 - 'Free fall',
except for the differences detailed in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

Test procedures

2.1.1
Two alternative test procedures are given in this specification viz Drop Test
Procedure and Horizontal Impact Test Procedure. These test procedures are interchangeable except
that a particular choice may have to be made in those cases where the attitude of the test specimen
with respect to gravity is important.
2.1.2
These tests should normally be applied with the specimen impacting on a flat surface
as specified in the test procedure below, but where it is essential to apply a load concentrated over a
smaller area (for example, to simulate impacts with steel girder constructions), the Environmental
Test Specification will need to define the test surface.
2.1.3
In certain cases it may be necessary to ensure that any external battens, skid base
extensions, rims or flanges etc. will strike the test surface simultaneously.
2.1.4
The test apparatus shall be so designed that no kinetic energy is transferred from
trolley, slings, etc., to the test specimen on impact.
2.2

Selection of test severities

2.2.1
The various test severities are defined in terms of free fall height for the Drop Test
Procedure and in terms of impact velocity for the Horizontal Impact Test Procedure.
2.2.2

Preferred test severities for typical service situations are referenced below.

2.2.3
Although it is neither realistic nor economical to expect all equipments or packages to
remain serviceable after subjection to the most severe handling accidents (for example, 12 metre
drop from a crane) they must remain safe. Where the test criterion is that of serviceability, the test
severity should be selected taking into account the impact situation, the risk of occurrence, and the
tolerable degradation; all in relation to the cost and weight implications on the equipment design.

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INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of functional capability or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the attitude of the test specimen with respect to gravity is important or,
alternatively, which of the two procedures is required

(d)

The test surface, if different from that in the test procedure below

(e)

The attitude(s) in which the specimen is to impact

(f)

The number of impacts if other than two in any attitude

(g)

The test severity

(h)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(j)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the
test they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel, the test
surface for both conditioning procedures will be as follows:
4.1.1
(a)

Test Surface
For both the Drop Test Procedure and the Horizontal Impact Test Procedure the test
surface on which the specimen impacts shall be concrete, faced if necessary with a steel
plate. The surface shall be normal to the direction of the impact and nominally flat. The
mass and resilience of the impact surface shall be adequate to avoid cracking or
crumbling due to the impact. The effective mass of the foundation shall be at least 20
times the mass of the equipment under test.

4.2 Conditioning Procedures: Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for
the materiel, the following shall apply:
4.2.1

Drop test procedure

(a)

Height of fall: The height shall be measured from the part of the equipment or package
nearest to the test surface, when the specimen is suspended prior to release.

(b)

Tolerance: The height of fall shall be within +5% of the specified value.

(c)

Method of release: The method of release shall be such as to allow free falls from the
position of suspension, with minimum disturbance at the moment of release. The
method of lifting shall be such that the lifting equipment causes no interference with the
impact.

(d)

Suspension: The specimen shall be suspended, in turn, such that, when released, it will,
as far as is practicable, impact in the required attitudes.

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4.2.2

Horizontal impact test procedure

(a)

Tolerance: The impact velocity shall be within +10% of the specified value.

(b)

Attitude: The specimen shall be made to strike the test surface in the required
attitude(s).

4.2.3
operating.

Functional state: The operating/functional state of the test item shall be non-

4.2.4
attitudes.

Conditioning: The specimen shall be subjected to two impacts in each of the required

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 A range of suitable test severities for typical service applications is given in Tables 1 and 2. It
is recommended that, wherever possible these severities are used.
5.2 Where the attitude of the test specimen with respect to gravity is not important, horizontal
impacts may be substituted by vertical impacts of equal impact velocity onto the appropriate face(s).

TABLE 1
VERTICAL IMPACT TEST SEVERITIES FOR TYPICAL SERVICE APPLICATIONS

Height of Fall
(metres)

Typical Situations

Impact
Velocity
(m/s)

0.15

1.72

0.3

2.43

0.45

2.97

0.6

3.43

0.75

3.84

1.5

5.42

6.26

Light to severe manhandling of field equipment

Packaged handling and loading (see DEF STAN 8141)


Light and heavy vehicle tailboard height

Helicopter delivery

7.67

7.5

12.1

12.5

12

15.3

Top of tracked vehicle


Aircraft loading platform
Parachute drop (see note below)
Accidental crane drop

NOTE:

This test may not be suitable to simulate certain effects which can occur during parachute
drops in high wind conditions

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TABLE 2
HORIZONTAL IMPACT TEST SEVERITIES FOR TYPICAL SERVICE APPLICATIONS

Impact
Velocity
(m/s)

Equivalent
Height of Fall
(metres)

Typical Situations

2.5

0.32

Horizontal impact due to


vehicle shunting and collision
when swinging on a crane

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS EN 60068-2-32

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures - "Free fall"

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS EN 60068-2-32 - 'Free fall'. The variations from the British
Standard test are:
(a)

Horizontal Impact Test has been included

(b)

The Test Surface is more closely specified

(c)

The preferred severities are different

(d)

The guidance material is different

(e)

Additional items have been included in "Information to be specified"

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Chapter 2-06

CHAPTER 2-06
TEST M6 - OPERATIONAL SHOCK SIMULATION TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 The operational shock test is applicable when simulation is required of materiel transient responses
whose waveform is of a complicated nature. It is particularly useful for tailoring shock excitations when
measured data is available for the operational environment. The operational shock test may also be used
as an alternative to the basic shock test. The principles of this test are based on those of the vibration
test, which utilises similar test hardware.
1.2 The purpose of this test is to demonstrate the adequacy of materiel to resist unacceptable
degradation of its functional and/or structural performance when subjected to the specified shocks.
1.3 The test is intended primarily for testing unpackaged equipments and for items in their transit cases
where the latter may be considered as an integral part of the equipment.
1.4 Equipment characterisation tests, such as resonance searches, determination of frequency
response functions, and modal analyses, are not addressed in this Chapter, since published information
is readily available.
1.5

This test has no equivalent in British Standards.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Many operational shock environments produce responses of a complicated nature. In
order to assess the structural integrity and function and performance of materiel it is often necessary to
subject materiel to as close as is practicable a representation of its in-Service environment.
2.1.2
The availability of computer based control systems has made possible, in certain
circumstances, the more realistic simulation of this type of shock environment on vibration generators.
This test allows the use of such equipment to reproduce operational, or tailored shocks. However, the
procedure is applicable to any transient excitation applied to materiel with vibration generator systems.
2.1.3
The ability of vibration generator systems to apply transient waveforms to the test
specimen is, in general, limited by the force, acceleration, velocity and displacement capabilities of the
vibration generator to be used. The latter two parameters are particularly important and it is often found
necessary to superimpose on the required test waveform a compensation pulse to ensure the velocity
and displacement requirements remain within acceptable limits.
2.1.4
In order to permit the control equipment to achieve the required test waveform it may be
necessary to apply several precursor pulses at reduced amplitude. In some cases it may be possible to
use another item of equipment for this purpose, however, this will need to be dynamically very similar to
the item on which the final test is to be performed. If this is not possible then the Test Specifier will need
to state the number of precursor pulses that can be applied. Clearly the fewer the number of precursor
pulses the greater will be the possible deviation from the requirements at full level. For the majority of test
items a minimum of three precursor pulses at half level will be required.
2.2

Derivation of test waveform

2.2.1 For the purpose of this test the test waveform required is to be defined by the Test Specifier. The
manner in which a test waveform is derived from measured or environmental data is not within the scope
of this chapter which relates specifically to the application of the defined waveform to the test specimen.
However, as little information is readily available on the derivation of test waveforms, for the operational
shock test, additional guidance is given in Annex A.

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2.2.2
One method of deriving a test waveform is to utilise shock response spectra (SRS) and
recommended procedures for developing test waveforms from shock response spectra are given in
Annex A. However, it should be noted that an SRS alone does not constitute a unique method of defining
test severities for the operational shock test. For this reason any test waveform developed from an SRS
should be agreed by the Test Specifier.
2.3

Control and tolerancing strategies

2.3.1
In order for the test control system to replicate the required test waveform at the
specimen reference point the drive waveform applied to the vibration generator is adjusted by comparison
of:
(a)

The waveform measured at the reference point and comparing it directly with the required
test waveform.

(b)

The shock response spectrum computed from the waveform measured at the reference
point and by comparing it with the shock response spectrum of the required test waveform.

2.3.2
The general method used for the control of the operational shock test using both time
domain and shock response spectra parameters is shown diagrammatically in Figure 1 and schematically
in Figures 2 and 3.
2.3.3
For relatively simple waveforms the direct comparison of waveforms, in the time domain,
is the most suitable approach. Typical simple waveforms would include half sine pulses, trapezoidal
pulses and final-peak saw tooth pulses. The tolerancing of the required waveform is essentially the same
as that used in Test M3 - 'Basic pulse shock test' (see Chapter 2-03), that is a tolerance boundary is
placed above and below the required waveform. The waveform as measured at the reference point
should be within these boundaries. The methodology of a test controlled in this manner is illustrated in
Figure 2.
2.3.4
For complicated waveforms such as that shown in Figure 4 the use of shock response
spectra as the basis for comparison is more applicable. Tolerancing is achieved by placing boundaries
above and below the required shock response spectrum. The upper boundary is often the required shock
response level. The shock response spectrum derived from the waveform sampled at the reference point
should be within these boundaries. The methodology of such a test controlled in this manner is illustrated
in Figure 3.

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Figure 1 General methodology of the operational shock test

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Chapter 2-06

Test Waveform

Measure System Transfer


Function
(FRF or IRF)

Computer Drive
Waveform

Apply
Drive Waveform

Modify the
Dive Waveform

Measure Waveform at the


Reference Site

Specified
Tolerance on
Waveform

Is Error Between the Measured and


Test Waveforms within Tolerance?

No

Yes

Finish

FRF Frequency Response Function


IRF Impulse Response Function

Figure 2 Methodology for the operational shock test when controlled on time domain
parameters

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Chapter 2-06

Specify the Test


Waveform

Compute the
SRS of the Test
Waveform

Measure System Transfer


Function
(FRF or IRF)

Specified SRS
Tolerance

Computer Drive
Waveform

Modify Drive
Waveform

Apply the
Drive Waveform

Measure Waveform at the


Reference Site

Is Error Between the Computed and


Specified SRS within Tolerance?

No

Yes

Comparison
Criteria

Are the Measured and Test


Wavefroms Comparable?

No

Yes

Finish

Figure 3 Methodology for operational shock test when controlled on shock response spectra

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Figure 4 Shock Response History Distant from Source

2.3.5
When shock response spectra are used for control and tolerancing purposes additional
constraints on the time domain parameters may be considered necessary. The need for additional
constraints arise because a single specific shock response spectrum can be generated from a number of
different waveforms.
2.3.6
When selecting the type of any additional constraint needed to supplement the shock
response spectra, due cognizance should be taken of the original measured waveform. The most
common two additional constraints used are the definition of a peak amplitude requirement and/or the
definition of an effective pulse duration. In general specifying a peak amplitude requirement is applicable
when specimen failure is likely to occur due to overstress. Specifying shock duration is more likely to be
applicable when low cycle fatigue is of concern. When in doubt a peak amplitude requirement should be
quoted.
2.3.7
It should be noted that the above comments do not preclude the use of alternative
methods of ensuring that the characteristics of the test pulse are those required. Alternative constraints
may utilise Fourier spectra, energy spectral density, time domain root mean squares, or frequency
domain root mean square. When such alternative constraints are used the approach should be clearly
stated in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.4

Fixing, monitor, control and reference points

2.4.1
For the purpose of this test the definitions of the fixing, monitor, control and reference
points are as follows:
(a)

A fixing point is defined as a part of the specimen in contact with the mounting fixture or
vibration table at a point where it is normally fastened in-Service.

(b)

A monitor point is a position at which measurements are made in order to establish


knowledge of the response behaviour of the specimen.

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(c)

A control point is a position at which measurements are made to allow the transient
excitation to be controlled to within specific bounds during the course of the test.

(d)

The reference point is the point at which response measurements are made in order to
confirm that the requirements of the test specification are satisfied. The reference point
should be stated in the Environmental Test Specification. It may be a monitor point, a
control point or a "conceptual point" created by manual or automatic processing of the
signals from the several control points.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival or both.

(b)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged.

(c)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required.

(d)

The method of mounting the specimen and any necessary cables, pipes, etc.

(e)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered.

(f)

The acceptable limits for transverse motion and action to be taken if these limits are
exceeded.

(g)

Whether the specimen is to be tested with or without isolating mounts fitted.

(h)

Whether the influence of stray magnetic fields is important, the acceptable limits and the
action to be taken if these limits are exceeded.

(j)

The reference, control and monitor points to be used, or the procedure for selecting them.

(k)

The control and tolerance strategy to be applied.

(l)

The test waveform and its severity, to be achieved at the reference point and, if necessary,
the appropriate shock response spectra.

(m)

The tolerances to be applied to the test waveform or, if appropriate, the shock response
spectra.

(n)

The axes and senses of application and number of times the shock is to be applied.

(p)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions.

(q)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met.

(r)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Mounting

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the specimen the following shall
apply:

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4.1.1
Where gravitational force is important, or when in doubt, the specimen shall be mounted
so that the gravitational force acts in the same direction as it would in normal use. Where gravitational
force is not important the specimen may be mounted in any attitude consistent with other requirements.
4.1.2
The specimen shall be mechanically connected to the vibration generator or fixture by its
normal means of attachment. The use of any additional stays or straps should be avoided. Any
connections to the specimen, such as cables, pipes, wires, should be arranged so that they impose
similar dynamic restraint and mass to that when the specimen is installed in its operational position.
4.1.3
The mounting shall be such that the transient excitations can be applied to the specimen
along one of the specified test axes. The fixing points of the specimen should move, as far as practicable,
in phase and in straight lines parallel with the line of motion. It may be necessary to use different test
fixtures for each test axis.
4.1.4
Specimens intended for use with a vibration isolation system shall normally be tested with
its isolators in position. If it is not practical to carry out the test with the appropriate isolators or if the
dynamic characteristics of the specimen installation are very variable, for example temperature
dependent, then it shall be tested without isolators at a modified severity specified by the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.2

Pre-conditioning

4.2.1
If equipment characterisation tests are called for by the Environmental Test Specification
they shall be undertaken and recorded in accordance with the procedure stated in that specification.
4.2.2
A number of applications of the test pulse may be necessary before the control
equipment is able to achieve an acceptable response waveform at the reference point. Unless specified
in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:

4.3

(a)

Initial stages of the test waveform adjustment procedure shall be conducted at least 10 dB
less than the full test level. At this level no limit is imposed on the number of pulses that can
be applied.

(b)

During the subsequent stages of the test waveform adjustment procedure the test levels can
be increased to within 6 dB of the full levels. The maximum number of pulses at these
higher levels should be specified in the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The number of applications of the test pulse, applied for test waveform adjustment
purposes, shall be recorded in the test report. If the severity of the set up pulses exceeds or
approaches the required full levels then, at the discretion of the Test Specifier, the set up
pulse may count towards the test requirement.

Conditioning

4.3.1
The specified shocks shall be applied at full level to the equipment in the axes and
senses stated in the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.2
Shock testing shall be undertaken at the climatic conditions specified in the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.3
Specification.

Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test

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4.3.4
The specimen shall have shocks applied, in turn, along each axis and in each sense
specified. Where the test programme requires the application of different types of shock, or vibration, or a
number of different amplitude levels, durations or rigging conditions, it may be possible to complete the
entire sequence of tests for one axis, provided prior agreement is obtained from the Test Specifier.
4.4

Post conditioning examination

4.4.1
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.5

Test tolerances

4.5.1
Unless stated otherwise in the Environmental Test Specification the shock response
measured at the reference point shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than the
values quoted below.

(a)

For waveforms controlled principally on time domain parameters, the tolerances on


amplitude shall be, at any instant of time over the period of the test pulse, within +20% of the
maximum value of the specified waveform.

(b)

For waveforms controlled principally on shock response spectra (SRS) parameters; the
tolerances on SRS amplitude shall, over the specified frequency range, be within 3 dB of the
values computed from the test waveform. Additional constraints on time domain parameters
(viz peak amplitude, effective duration) may also be necessary to ensure that an adequate
simulation is achieved. These additional constraints shall be quoted in the Environmental
Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 There are no preferred severities for this test. The severities should be based on the purpose for
which the test is being conducted and on the conditions the materiel is likely to experience in-Service.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 2-03

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M3 - Basic shock test

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 2-06
Annex A
ANNEX A
THE DEFINITION AND DERIVATION OF TEST WAVEFORMS SUITABLE FOR THE
OPERATIONAL SHOCK TEST
1

THE DEFINITION OF THE TEST WAVEFORM

1.1 Current facilities and techniques allow the derivation of test waveforms from measured and
environmental data by several different methods. The most common approaches include the derivation
of test waveforms from:

1.2

(a)

Direct capture of measured in-Service data

(b)

A shock response spectrum

(c)

Fitting of an analytically described waveform

Test waveforms derived from analogue capture

1.2.1
The transient capture facility available on most computer based control systems may be
used to acquire a transient waveform directly. However, the use of waveforms acquired by this approach
may be limited by the following:
(a)

The requirements of the test waveform may be beyond the physical limitations of the
generator in terms of either thrust, velocity or displacement

(b)

The statistical uncertainty associated with a single measured event

1.2.2
The first limitation can sometimes be resolved by modifying the test waveform to ensure
that the generator velocity and displacement constraints are met. This is usually achieved by modulating
the measured in-Service data with a low frequency waveform to ensure the final velocity and
displacement are zero. The variability of measurement can be overcome if sufficient confidence in the
test data can be achieved.
1.3

Test waveforms derived from a shock response spectrum

1.3.1
Where measured data exist which relate to a particular shock environment, but which,
due to complexity, are not suitable as test criteria, the derivation of a test waveform from a shock
response spectrum may be appropriate. Unfortunately many test waveforms can be derived from a single
specific shock response spectrum. As such due cognisance should be taken of the nature of the original
time history. In these circumstances the derived waveform should always be agreed with the Test
Specifier.
1.3.2
A suitable method of deriving a test waveform from a shock response spectrum is
discussed below under Generation of Test Waveforms from Shock Response Spectra. The procedure is
used to create a test waveform described as an analytical function. The derivation of shock response
spectra from field data is also addressed in Determination of Shock Response Spectra from Field Data.
1.4

Test waveforms described by analytical functions

1.4.1
Where measured data exhibit a repeatable form in the time domain or are of a simplistic
nature, it may be possible to fit a mathematical or analytical function to define the shock waveform. It may
be necessary when using this approach to modulate the required waveform to ensure that the test
waveform is within the physical capabilities of the vibration generator.

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Annex A
2

GENERATION OF TEST WAVEFORMS FROM SHOCK RESPONSE SPECTRA

2.1 The use of summations of oscillatory type pulses has been recognised as a possible method for
representing certain types of shock environment. With the development of digital control techniques it is
possible, by using these techniques to reproduce very complicated time histories.
2.2 Two types of oscillatory pulse have attained fairly widespread use.
sinusoid, which has the form
A = A o e t Sin t

These are the decaying

Equation 1

and the wavelet type pulse which has the form


A = A o Sin t Sin t

Equation 2

Acceptable results may be obtained by using either of these methods. The approach, specifically
considered here, is that using decaying sinusoids. However, the comments are largely applicable to both
methods.
2.3 The basic procedure for deriving a suitable waveform from a specified shock response spectrum,
illustrated in Figure 1, is as follows.
(a)

Firstly an initial estimate is made of the characteristics of the required waveform

(b)

This estimate is then improved using an iterative procedure

2.4 Obtaining initial estimates of the test waveform may be considered to have three aspects, namely
the identification of the frequencies of the important sinusoidal components, the determination of the
decay rate for each component and the determination of the amplitude of each decaying sinusoid.
2.5 For those shock response spectra which exhibit clearly identifiable peaks, the initial choice of
frequency components is relatively straight forward. However where no obvious peaks exist reference to
the Fourier spectrum or Energy Spectral Density of the field data may provide an insight into a suitable
choice of starting frequencies.
2.6 The decay rate of each sinusoidal component may be determined from either inspection of the time
response or its associated shock response spectra. Decay rates can be obtained from the time response
using techniques such as logarithmic decrement. The shape of the SRS, as shown in Figure 2 can also
aid the choice of decay rates.

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Annex A

Specified
SRS

Initial Estimate of
Sinusoid Frequencies

Estimate Decay Rates


for Sinusoids

Estimate Amplitudes
for Sinusoids

Allocate Sign to
the Sinusoids

Review Amplitudes
of Sinusoids

Generate
Compensation

No

Is Residual Displacement
and Velocity within the
Shakers Capabilities?
Yes

Compute
SRS

Specified
SRS
Tolerance

Is Error Between
Computed and Specified
SRS within Tolerance?

No

Yes
Waveform Data

Figure 1 Generation of a test waveform from shock response spectrum

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Annex A

Figure 2 Normalised Maximum Response

2.7 The amplitudes of the sinusoids can be determined from Figure 3. Figure 3 represents the
normalised maximum response of a single degree of freedom system to a decaying sinusoidal input as a
function of the decay rate of the sinusoid. The plot is for various levels of damping in the single degree of
freedom system. Figure 4 is a plot of the inverse of Figure 3, that is the input level per unit maximum
response of a single degree of freedom system with 5% damping. The amplitude of the sinusoidal
component may therefore be determined by multiplying the value of the test shock response spectrum at
the frequency of the decaying sinusoid by the input level corresponding to the appropriate decay rate from
Figure 4.

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Annex A

Figure 3 Response per unit Input

Figure 4 Input per unit response

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Annex A
2.8 The sign of the amplitude of the sinusoidal components may be either positive or negative. The
choice of sign does have an effect on the shock response spectrum of the composite waveform. If the
spectrum contains discrete peaks then a superposition of in-phase waveforms will accentuate the peaks
and valleys in the spectrum. If, however, the spectrum is without marked peaks the synthesis of
component waveforms combined alternatively in and out of phase will tend to smooth the spectrum.
2.9 An important point to note is that the final velocity and displacement of the derived waveform may
not zero. In order to overcome potential problems with the vibrator a compensation pulse is normally
added to the synthesised time history. In some proprietary shock synthesis programs this compensation
pulse is added without user intervention. However in others compensation pulse frequency and decay
rate must be selected. Generally a compensation pulse should be applied with a frequency of
approximately one-half to one-third the minimum frequency in the shock response spectrum with a decay
rate approaching 100% of critical damping. Using suitable values of compensation pulse frequency (m)
and decay rate (m) the compensation pulse amplitude (Am) and delay time (t) can be computed (Using
Equations 3 and 4) to control residual velocity and displacement respectively. In this case the delay time
is that between initiation of the compensation pulse and the subsequent start of the decaying sinusoids.

Am

m m2

+1

= -

i=1

m
m m2 + 1

Ai

2m Am
2

m2
m

2
i

Equation 3

+1

+1

i=1

2m A

m
2
2
i +1
i

Equation 4

ai, i i are the Amplitude, cyclic frequency and decay rate of the i sinusoidal component.
th

2.10 It is important to note that the above procedure will develop a shock response spectrum based on
the assumption that the individual sinusoidal components act independently. An iteration process is then
required whereby component amplitudes and decay rates are varied to obtain a better fit to the shock
response spectrum. This procedure is, in general, built into proprietary shock synthesis computer
programs.
3
GUIDANCE ON THE DETERMINATION OF SHOCK RESPONSE SPECTRA FROM FIELD
DATA
3.1 This section gives guidelines for the generation of shock response spectra from field data. In
general each axis of the field data for a specific location will have a different shock response spectrum.
3.2 The shock response spectra required for the determination of the test shock response spectrum
will be obtained from reduction of the measured time histories of the transient event.
3.3 The duration of the shock input time history used for the response spectrum calculation should be
twice the effective pulse duration starting at a time to include the most significant data prior to and/or
following the effective duration.
3.4 The shock response spectra analysis parameters, damping, frequency interval and frequency
range, should be selected from consideration of the shock waveform and the equipment to be tested.
However, useful starting values are for a damping ratio of 5% of critical damping (Q = 10) at a sequence
of resonator frequencies at intervals of 1/6th octave or smaller to span at least 5 Hz to 2,000 Hz.

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Annex A
3.5 The spectrum used to define the test shock response spectrum should be a composite of positive
and negative directions commonly called the MAXIMAX spectrum. It should be the maximum value
obtained from both the primary and residual responses.
3.6 When a sufficient number of spectra is available an appropriate statistical basis should be
employed to determine the required test shock response spectrum. For example, if variations in the data
can be shown or assumed to fit a normal distribution, then at each resonator frequency the test shock
response spectrum level is given by Equation 5.
G = g + K.

Equation 5

where
G

is the test shock response spectrum level at a particular frequency.

is the mean of N sample spectra at a particular frequency.

is the standard deviation of the samples

is a factor which determines the probability of a value being within certain limits
(see Table 1).
TABLE 1
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION CONFIDENCE LIMITS
Range K

% Population within Limits

0.675

50.0

1.0

68.3

1.96

95.0

2.0

95.5

2.58

99.0

3.0

99.7

3.7 As a general guide for this type of test the use of 95.5% population limits (ie 2.0 ) is usually
applicable for most applications. However, for certain types of test (notably function and reliability
assessment) the use of smaller population limits (typically 68.3%) may be more appropriate. For some
safety demonstration testing population limits of 99.7% or greater may be required. For some materiel
the design requirements may specify alternative values to be adopted.
3.8 When insufficient data are available for statistical analysis (the use of the above procedure
becomes suspect for less than five samples) an increase over the maximum available spectral data
should be used to establish the required test spectrum in order to account for variability of the
environment.

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Chapter 2-06
Annex A

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 2-07

CHAPTER 2-07
TEST M7 - SHOCK TESTING FOR WARSHIP EQUIPMENT AND ARMAMENT STORES
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is intended to demonstrate the resistance of materiel to unacceptable damage as a
consequence of shock due to a non-contact underwater explosion.
1.2 This test is intended for unpackaged equipments and for packaged items where the simulation of
the service conditions requires that the package forms an integral part of the equipment.
1.3 This test is not concerned with the effects of other shocks due to external stimuli, which are
covered by Test M3 - 'Basic pulse shock test' or Test M6 - 'Operational Shock' (see Chapter 2-03).
1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard test

GUIDANCE

2.1 The effects of non-contact underwater explosions on materiel should be established by


representative shock tests, which should be agreed with the MOD Project Manager.
2.2 Explosive stores are required to be safe and serviceable following underwater shock up to a
prescribed severity, and safe for removal or disposal at a higher severity. Success criteria for each test
should be defined before testing by considering what, if any, physical damage, loss of function or
temporary malfunction would be acceptable for the equipment concerned.
2.3 Information concerning the shock severities related to the classes of RN vessels is contained in CB
5012 and simplified expected equipment response motions are considered in BR 3021(1). BR 3021(1)
considers a range of shock severities; a separate Environmental Test Specification is needed on a case
by case basis to define a suitably selected option.
2.4 Normally, special tests are necessary which can only be undertaken at particular facilities.
Specialist advice on these tests should be sought through the MOD Project Manager.
2.5 Under the in-Service shock conditions of concern, shock isolating mounts may bottom. Unless
there is a good reason for confidence that the bottoming of mounts will not occur, the equipment is to be
tested with the mounts fitted and the Environmental Test Specification formulated for a shock of an
appropriate severity, regardless of whether bottoming occurs during a test.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

The assessment criteria for the test, for example performance, survival, captivity retention,
safe for disposal, safe and jettisonable, etc.

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the specimen is to be tested with flexible mounts fitted

(d)

The method of mounting of the specimen

(e)

Whether response motion measurement is to be made, and if so the monitoring point to be


used, and the method of measurement and analysis

(f)

The test severity, for example, the shock response to be induced in the specimen under test
and the number of shock events to occur

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Chapter 2-07

(g)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(j)

The tolerances to be used

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following test procedure shall
be applied:
4.1.1
Mounting: The specimen shall be mechanically connected to the test apparatus by its
normal means of attachment. The mounting fixture shall represent, as far as possible, the adjacent inService structure on which the specimen is mounted. The use of any additional stays or straps shall be
avoided. Any connections to the specimen, such as cables, pipes, wires, shall be arranged so that they
impose similar dynamic restraint and mass to that when the specimen is installed in its operational
position.
4.1.2

The shock conditions required by the Environmental Test Specification shall be applied.

4.1.3
The specimen shall be visually examined for external damage or defects before carrying
out the appropriate checks or performance tests required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test severity to be applied for the materiel shall correspond to that stated in the Environmental
Test Specification.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 2-03

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental Testing
Test M3 - Basic Pulse Shock Test

BR 3021(1)

Shock Manual (Metric)

CB 5012

Shock Manual(Metric)

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Chapter 2-08

CHAPTER 2-08
TEST M8 - ACOUSTIC NOISE TEST USING A REVERBERATION CHAMBER
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is conducted to determine the effects on materiel of an acoustic noise field such as that
produced by aerospace vehicles, power plants and other sources of high intensity acoustic noise.
1.2 The test is also applicable where it is preferable to induce vibration into equipment by distributed
acoustic excitation rather than at fixed points by means of electro-dynamic shaker systems.
1.3 This test has been developed from the 'Acoustic Vibration' test in BS 3G 100 which is now
obsolescent. The test is technically similar to BS EN60068-2-65:1995.
1.4 This test method implements the appropriate sections of STANAG 4370, AECTP 400,
Edition 2, Method 402 - 'Acoustic Noise'.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Although most service acoustic conditions are not strictly reverberant this test usually
provides an acceptable approximation to such Service conditions.
2.1.2
Where the test is required to induce mechanical responses in internally mounted
equipment, the test provides an efficient means of inducing vibration above about 100 Hz. However, a
mechanical vibration test such as Test M1 - 'Basic vibration test' (see Chapter 2-01) or M2 - 'Complete
store vibration test' (see Chapter 2-02) should be used to supplement this test to provide the required
vibration responses below this frequency. If it is required to provide the full frequency spectrum
simultaneously, the test conditions of Test M10 -'Combined Vibration, Temperature and Acoustic Test'
(see Chapter 2-10) should be applied.
2.1.3
This test may be used to simulate the affects of aerodynamic turbulence. However, for
such applications it should be noted that the excitation mechanism of this reverberation test is different
from that of aerodynamic turbulence. Consequently it may not be suitable for proving thin shell structures
interfacing directly with such aerodynamic turbulence conditions. In such cases consideration could be
given to the use of Test M9 - 'Acoustic noise test in a progressive wave tube' (see Chapter 2-09).
2.1.4
It should be noted that this test will not normally be necessary in areas where the overall
sound pressure levels are less than 130dB, or third octave spectrum levels are less than 100 dB referred
to a sound pressure of 20 Pa.
2.2

Control of Test Conditions

2.2.1
Acoustic measurements will normally be used to control and monitor the test conditions.
However, some test items may be more effectively controlled on their vibration response in which case
the requirements of Test M1 - 'Basic vibration test' (see Chapter 2-01) or M2 - 'Complete store vibration
test' (see Chapter 2-02) should be followed as appropriate.
2.2.2
Control of the applied test conditions can utilise any sort of control equipment provided it
is capable of satisfying the test requirements. For confirmation that the test requirements have been
achieved, use should be made of analyser equipment with a bandwidth of one third octave or narrower.

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2.3

Monitor, Control and Reference points.

2.3.1
For the purpose of this test the terms monitor, control and reference points refer to
measurement locations used to control and monitor the applied test conditions. The definitions of these
locations are as follows:

2.4

(a)

A monitor point is defined as locations at which measurements are made in order to


establish knowledge of the response behaviour of the specimen. The environmental test
specification should specify the number, location and type of measurement to be made.

(b)

A control point is a position at which measurements are made to allow the noise excitation to
be controlled to within the specified bounds during the course of the test. Normally a
minimum of three control microphones will be used.

(c)

A reference point is the point at which noise measurements are made in order to confirm
that the requirements are satisfied. In this case the reference point is usually a conceptual
point created by manual or automatic processing of the signals from the microphones at the
control points. The processing utilised should consist of an arithmetic average of the sound
pressure levels, that is, a logarithmic average of the sound pressures from the control
microphones.

Test Tolerances

2.4.1
In certain instances the tolerances on the overall sound pressure level set out in
paragraph 4.7 may be impracticable to meet due to the size or shape of the test specimen. In such cases,
with the agreement of the test specifier, the tolerance may be relaxed to 6 dB of the specified value.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival or both.

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required.

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen and any necessary cables, pipes etc.

(d)

The reference, control and monitoring points, or the procedure for selecting them.

(e)

The test noise severity in terms of overall sound pressure level.

(f)

The test spectrum and the minimum frequency band for the test spectrum.

(g)

The duration of the test.

(h)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions.

(i)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the procedure set out in the
following paragraphs shall apply.
4.2

Placement of microphones

4.2.1
Control microphones should be located in proximity to each major dissimilar face of the
specimen at a distance of 0.5 metre from the face or midway between the centre of the face and the
chamber wall, whichever is the lesser. The distance between the control microphones and face of the
specimen shall not be less than half of the wave length of the lowest frequency of interest.
4.2.2
Where the chamber is provided with a single noise injection point one control microphone
shall be placed between the specimen and the chamber wall furthest from the noise source. As the noise
field is diffuse the orientation of the microphones is not critical although the microphone axes shall not be
set normal to any flat surface.
4.2.3
4.3

A minimum of three control microphones shall be utilised.

Initial noise level setting

4.3.1
The overall sound pressure level required for the specimen shall be produced in the
empty chamber and measurements made of the levels achieved by averaging the signals from the
microphones placed as for the test on the specimen.
4.4

Mounting the specimen

4.4.1
The specimen shall be suspended, or otherwise mounted, on an elastic system in such a
manner that all appropriate external surfaces are exposed to the acoustic field. The test specimen shall
be suspended in the nominal centre of the chamber, the size of which should be such that the test
specimen does not occupy more than 10% of the chamber volume. The principal surfaces of the
specimen shall not be parallel to any chamber surface.
4.4.2
Where the test specimen is provided with specific means of mounting, the support
system shall preferably be attached to these points. Where no specific means of attachment are
provided, the support system shall be connected to the specimen in such a way that it does not interfere
with the free movement of independent parts or provide additional restraint or damping to panels or other
structural parts.
4.4.3
The rigid body modes of the system shall be lower than 25 Hz or one quarter of the
lowest test frequency, whichever is the less. Care should be exercised to ensure that no spurious acoustic
or vibratory inputs are introduced by the support system or any ancillary structure.
4.4.4
Any connections to the specimen such as cableforms, pipe-work etc. shall be arranged
so they impose mass and dynamic restraint similar to that when installed in-Service.
4.5

Conditioning

4.5.1
The specimen shall be subjected to acoustic noise where the overall sound pressure
level at the reference point shall be adjusted to a value at least 10 dB less than the specified test level.
The noise spectrum shall be checked and adjusted as necessary.
4.5.2
The acoustic noise shall be increased to the specified test level and applied for the
specified period. The levels achieved shall be recorded. The finite time required to increase the acoustic
noise severity to the specified test level shall be the minimum possible and shall not exceed 1.5 times the
test duration. This time shall be recorded and shall not be subtracted from the test time.

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4.5.3
4.6

During the test period any required functional tests shall be carried out.

Post conditioning inspection

4.6.1
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.7

Test tolerances
4.7.1

Microphones shall be calibrated for random incidence noise.

4.7.2
Unless stated otherwise in the Environmental Test Specification the acoustic noise
measured at the reference point shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than the
values quoted below.
4.7.3
The overall sound pressure level at the reference point shall be within +4 to -2 dB of the
specified value. (See also paragraph 2.4.1.)
4.7.4
The band spectrum sound pressure levels, when measured at the reference points, shall
be within the limits indicated in the Environmental Test Specification. Excitation outside the specified
frequency range should be minimised as far as possible. The statistical random sampling error should
not exceed 15% which is equivalent to a bandwidth/sampling time product (BT) of 50 in the lowest
frequency band of interest or equivalent to 100 degrees of freedom. (See also paragraph 5.2.3.)
4.7.5
The amplitude distribution of instantaneous values of the applied noise shall have a
normal gaussian distribution. The distribution should contain all occurrences up to 2.5 standard
deviations whilst occurrences greater than 3 standard deviations should be kept to a minimum.
4.7.6
The test duration shall be within 2% or one minute of the specified requirement
whichever is the lesser.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

General

5.1.1
The severities and other parameters used for this test should be based on the purpose
for which it is being conducted and on the conditions that the materiel is likely to experience in-Service.
5.1.2
The severities and other test parameters given below should be used in those cases
where a precise simulation is unnecessary and where a significant degree of overtesting can be tolerated.
Severities for more precise simulations are addressed in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.1.3
These severities may also be used where the in-Service environment has not been
established, although in these cases improved estimates for many conditions can be obtained through the
use of the empirically based prediction methods contained in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.2

Test conditions

5.2.1
The test conditions are defined by the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the noise
spectrum and the test duration.
5.2.2
Overall sound pressure levels for a number of different applications are shown in
Table 1.

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Chapter 2-08

Table 1 Typical Severities and Applications


Typical severities and applications
Overall Sound Pressure level
(dB)

Typical application

130

Transport aircraft at locations not close to jet exhaust.

140

Transport aircraft in internal equipment bays close to the jet


exhaust.
High performance aircraft at locations not close to jet exhaust.

150

High performance aircraft in internal equipment bays close to the


jet exhaust.
Aircraft external stores.
Ground equipment in enclosed engine run-up areas.

160

High performance aircraft in internal equipment bays close to


reheat exhausts and gun muzzles.
High performance aircraft external stores.

165

Ground equipment on rocket launchers.

5.2.3
A one-third octave band spectrum related to the service conditions listed in Table 1 is
shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. For practical purposes this test spectrum provides an acceptable
simulation of the resultant effects on the structure when the source is either broad band jet noise or
aerodynamic flow generated pressure fluctuations. The applied test spectrum should be between the
specified limits while maintaining the overall sound pressure level within the tolerances specified in
paragraph 4.7.

Figure 1 One Third Octave Spectrum Levels

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Chapter 2-08

Table 2 Octave band spectrum one third limits


One Third Octave Sound Pressure
Level (dB)
Ref.: Specified Overall Sound
Pressure Level

Frequency (Hz)

Lower

Centre

Upper

Lower
Limit

Upper
Limit

28
35.4
44.5
56.2
70.7
89.1
112
141
177
224
282
354
445
562
707
891
1120
1410
1770
2240
2820
3540
4450
5620
7070
8910

31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1000
1250
1600
2000
2500
3150
4000
5000
6300
8000
10000

35.4
44.5
56.2
70.7
89.1
112
141
177
224
282
354
445
562
707
891
1120
1410
1770
2240
2820
3540
4450
5620
7070
8910
11200

-48
-44
-40
-36
-32
-28
-24
-21.3
-18.7
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-17.7
-19.3
-21
-25
-29
-33
-37
-41
-45
-49

-23
-21
-19
-17
-14.7
-12.3
-10
-9.7
-9.3
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9.7
-10.3
-11
-13
-15
-17
-19
-21
-23
-25

5.2.4
For most applications the 100 Hz one-third octave band will be the low frequency limit.
Large structures with low frequency modes or items with large surfaces may require a spectrum
extending to lower frequency bands. Any spectrum extension should be agreed with the test specifier and
defined in the Environmental Test Specification.
5.2.5
The required test duration will vary depending upon the application. For aircraft
applications this will not normally exceed 10 hours. For store and missile applications the test duration
can vary from a few minutes to several hours. Further advice on the derivation of test durations can be
found in Part 5 of this Standard.

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Chapter 2-08

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


STANAG 4370

AECTP400, Edition 2, Method 402 Acoustic Noise

BS 3G 100

General Requirements for Equipment for use in Aircraft

Part 2

All Equipment

Section 3
Subsection 3.14

Environmental Conditions
Acoustic Vibration

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-02
Chapter 2-09
Chapter 2-10
Part 5
7

Environmental Handbook for Defence materiel


Environmental testing
Test M1 - Basic vibration test
Test M2 - Complete store vibration test
Test M9 - Acoustic noise test in a progressive wave tube
Test M10 - Combined acoustic, temperature and vibration test
Induced environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test has been developed from the 'Acoustic Vibration' test in BS 3G 100 which is now
obsolescent. Although technically similar to Test BS EN 60068-2-65:1995 Test Fg Vibration Acoustically
Induced, this test is intended mainly for replicating the effects of aerodynamic flow.
BS EN60068-2-65 is not particularly suited to this application.
8

COMPATIBILITY WITH NATO STANAGS

8.1 This test method is technically similar to STANAG 4370, AECTP 400, Edition 2, Method 402
Acoustic Noise. The variations from STANAG 4370 are:
(a)

The test spectrum is defined only in terms of one third octave bands, whereas STANAG
4370 also includes full octave bands.

(b)

The recommended maximum control bandwidth is one third octave, whereas STANAG 4370
also permits full octave bands.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 2-09

CHAPTER 2-09
TEST M9 - ACOUSTIC NOISE TEST USING A PROGRESSIVE WAVE TUBE
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test method is to replicate the effects of convective pressure fluctuations at
grazing incidence, such as exist in aerodynamic turbulence over the surface of assembled structures.
1.2 The test method is relevant to materiel where aerodynamic turbulence will excite part or all of the
total external surface. Such applications include externally carried airborne stores and missiles. This test
method may also have application to aircraft panel assemblies where excitation will exist on one side only.
1.3 For appropriate applications this test method can be considered as an alternative to Test M8'Acoustic Noise Test in a Reverberation Chamber' (see Chapter 2-08.) It may be preferred where it is
required to generate high acoustic noise levels with limited acoustic power. It can also be considered as
complementary to Test M2 - 'Complete Store Vibration Test' (see Chapter 2-02), where acoustic
excitation is required to generate high frequency vibration responses.
1.4 This test method implements the appropriate sections of STANAG 4370 AECTP 400, Edition 2,
Method 402 - 'Acoustic Noise'. The test is technically similar to BS EN60068-2-65 Test F2 Vibration
acoustically induced.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
In the context of this test method the progressive wave tube is used only to provide a
grazing incidence pressure field over the specimen surface. It does not comply with the theoretical
requirements for a classical Progressive Wave Tube. This test method does however provide a good
approximation to in-Service vibration responses resulting from attached aerodynamic flow at grazing
incidence and a reasonable approximation to responses from detached aerodynamic flow.
2.1.2
Where the test is required to induce mechanical responses in internally mounted
equipment, the test provides an efficient means of inducing vibration above about 100 Hz. However, a
mechanical vibration test such as Test M1 - 'Basic vibration test' (see Chapter 2-01) or M2- 'Complete
store vibration test' (see Chapter 2-02) should be used to supplement this test to provide the required
vibration responses below this frequency. If it is required to provide the full frequency spectrum
simultaneously, the test conditions of Test M10 -'Combined Vibration, Temperature and Acoustic Test'
(see Chapter 2-10) may be applied. In certain circumstances it may be possible to apply low frequency
mechanical excitation simultaneously with a progressive wave tube acoustic test.
2.1.3
Where this test method is used for the simulation of aerodynamic turbulence, it is not
necessarily suitable for proving thin shell structures interfacing directly with the acoustic noise excitation.
Moreover, the test method is not necessarily suitable for replicating the acoustic noise fields from discrete
sources.
2.1.4
It should be noted that this test method is not normally applicable for materiel located in
areas where the overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) are less than 130 dB, or third octave spectrum
noise levels are less than 100 dB referred to a sound pressure of 20 Pa.
2.1.5
Where this test method is used to complement a mechanical vibration test then the test
specimen should be controlled on its vibration response. The relevant requirements of Test M1 - 'Basic
Vibration Test' (see Chapter 2-01) or Test M2 - 'Complete Store Vibration Test' (see Chapter 2-02) should
be followed as appropriate.

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Chapter 2-09

2.2

Test apparatus

2.2.1
The progressive wave tube comprises a tube of cross sectional shape to suit the test
specimen, for example, circular for most aircraft carried stores. Acoustic energy is injected into one end
of this tube via a suitable coupling horn and the other end is coupled into an acoustically absorbent
termination. All of the injected acoustic energy within the designed frequency range will then be absorbed
in the termination thus preventing the formation of standing waves. This configuration results in an
acceptable acoustic pressure flow in the working section of the tube which will travel with grazing
incidence over the exposed surfaces of the specimen.
2.2.2
The construction of the working section must include sufficient mass and damping such
that the noise spectrum is not unduly affected by vibration of the inner surfaces of, or transmission losses
through, its walls.
2.2.3
For a given acoustic noise test level, the diameter of the duct at the working section, has
to be balanced against the available sound power and the size of the test specimen. Typically, for a
nominally cylindrical test specimen the annular clearance around the specimen should be 10% to 25% of
the specimen diameter. In order to achieve an acceptable noise distribution the clearance around the
specimen should be uniform.
2.2.4
When testing panel assemblies, the wall of the duct should accommodate the test
specimen such that grazing incidence excitation is applied over the whole of the external surface.
2.3

Control of test conditions

2.3.1
Acoustic measurements will normally be used to control and monitor the test conditions.
However, some test items may be more effectively controlled on their vibration response in which case
the requirements of Test M1 - 'Basic vibration test' (see Chapter 2-01) or M2 - 'Complete store vibration
test' (see Chapter 2-02) should be followed as appropriate.
2.3.2
The applied test conditions may be controlled using any method capable of satisfying the
test requirements. Confirmation that the test requirements have been achieved should be made using
analyser equipment with a bandwidth of one third octave or narrower.
2.4

Monitor, Control and Reference points.

2.4.1
For the purpose of this test the terms monitor, control and reference points refer to
measurement locations used to control and monitor the applied test conditions. The definitions of these
locations are as follows:
(a)

A monitor point is defined as a position at which measurements are made in order to


establish knowledge of the response behaviour of the specimen. The Environmental Test
Specification should specify the number, location and type of measurements to be made.

(b)

A control point is a position at which measurements are made to allow the noise excitation to
be controlled to within the specified bounds during the course of the test. (See also para
4.2.)

(c)

A reference point is the point at which noise measurements are made in order to confirm
that the test requirements are satisfied. In this case the reference point is usually a
conceptual point created by manual or automatic processing of the signals from the
microphones at the control points. The processing utilised should consist of an arithmetic
average of the sound pressure levels, that is, a logarithmic average of the sound pressures
from the control microphones.

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Chapter 2-09

2.5

Test Tolerances

2.5.1
In certain instances the tolerances on the overall sound pressure level set out in
paragraph 4.7 may be impracticable to meet due to the size or shape of the test specimen. In such
cases, with the agreement of the test specifier, the tolerance may be relaxed to 6 dB of the specified
value.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required.

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen and any necessary cable, pipes etc.

(d)

The reference, control and monitoring points, or the procedure for selecting them.

(e)

The test noise severity in terms of overall sound pressure level.

(f)

The test spectrum and the minimum frequency band for the test spectrum.

(g)

The duration of the test.

(h)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions.

(i)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the procedures set out in the
following paragraphs shall apply.
4.2

Placement of microphones

4.2.1
When testing panel assemblies the control microphones should be preferably mounted
flush in the duct wall opposite to the test specimen. Other positions within the working section may be
selected provided that the microphone is positioned so that it responds only to grazing incidence waves
and that the necessary corrections are applied to the measured levels.
4.2.2
Control may be effected with either a single microphone or, for example with large
specimens, with microphones distributed over the surface area occupied by the specimen.
4.3

Mounting (see also para 2.3)

4.3.1
Test specimens such as air carried stores and missiles shall be mounted within the
working section, either on a soft suspension or by the aircraft attachment, such that the excitation is
applied over the whole of the external surface.
4.3.2
Where the test specimen is provided with specific means of mounting, the support
system shall be attached to these points.

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4.3.3
Where no specific means of attachment are provided, the support system shall be
connected to the specimen in such a way that it does not interfere with the free movement of independent
parts or provide additional restraint or damping to panels or other structural parts. Also, the rigid body
modes of the system shall be lower than 25 Hz or one quarter of the lowest test frequency, whichever is
the lesser.
4.3.4
Care shall be exercised to ensure that no spurious acoustic or vibratory inputs are
introduced by the test support system or ancillary structure.
4.3.5
Any connections to the specimen, such as cables or pipes shall be arranged so they
impose dynamic restraint and mass similar to that when installed in-Service.
4.3.6
Test specimens such as panels shall be mounted in the wall of the duct such that the
required test surface is exposed to the acoustic excitation. This surface shall be flush with the inner
surface of the duct so as to prevent the introduction of cavity resonance or local turbulence effects.
4.4

Initial Noise Level Setting (see also paras 2.2 and 2.4)

4.4.1
Where it is necessary to carry out a precursor test for calibration of the noise level and
spectrum, an acoustically representative model shall be substituted for the test specimen. Where a
representative model is not available, an initial demonstration of the noise spectrum can be performed
using the test specimen. In this case the overall sound pressure level at the reference point during
calibration shall be at least 10 dB less than the specified test level.
4.5

Conditioning (see also paras 2.2 and 2.4)

4.5.1
The specimen shall be subjected to acoustic noise where the overall sound pressure
level measured at the reference point shall be adjusted to a value at least 10dB less than the specified
test level. The noise spectrum shall be checked and adjusted as necessary.
4.5.2
The acoustic noise shall be increased to the specified test level and applied for the
specified period and the levels achieved be recorded. The finite time required to increase the acoustic
noise level to the specified test level shall be the minimum possible and shall not exceed 1.5 times the
test duration. This time shall be recorded and shall not be subtracted from the test time.
4.5.3
4.6

During the test period any required functional tests shall be carried out.

Post conditioning inspection:

4.6.1
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.7

Test tolerances
4.7.1

Microphones shall be calibrated for grazing incidence noise.

4.7.2
Unless stated otherwise in the Environmental Test Specification the acoustic noise
measured at the reference point shall not deviate from the specified requirements by more than the
values quoted below.
4.7.3
The overall sound pressure level at the reference point shall be within +4 to -2 dB of the
specified value. (See also para 2.5.1.)

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4.7.4
The band spectrum sound pressure levels, when measured at the reference points, shall
be within the limits indicated in the Environmental Test Specification. Excitation outside the specified
frequency range should be minimised as far as possible. The statistical random sampling error should
not exceed 15% which is equivalent to a bandwidth/sampling time product (BT) of 50 in the lowest band of
interest or equivalent to 100 degrees of freedom. (See also para 5.2.3.)
4.7.5
The amplitude distribution of instantaneous values of the applied noise shall have a
normal gaussian distribution. The distribution should contain all occurrences up to 2.5 standard
deviations whilst occurrences greater than 3 standard deviations should be kept to a minimum.
4.7.6
The test duration shall be within 2% or one minute of the specified requirement
whichever is the lesser.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

General

5.1.1
The severities and other parameters used for this test should be based on the purpose
for which it is being conducted and on the conditions that the materiel is likely to experience in-Service.
5.1.2
The severities and other test parameters given in paragraph 5.2 below should be used in
those cases where a precise simulation is unnecessary and where a significant degree of overtesting can
be tolerated. Severities for more precise simulations are addressed in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.1.3
These severities may also be used where the in-Service environment has not been
established, although in these cases improved estimates for many conditions can be obtained through the
use of the empirically based prediction methods contained in Part 5 of this Standard.
5.2

Test conditions

5.2.1
The test conditions are defined by the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the noise
spectrum and the test duration.
5.2.2
Table 1.

Overall sound pressure levels for a number of different applications are shown in

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Table 1 Typical Severities and Applications


Typical severities and applications
Overall Sound Pressure Level
(dB)

Typical application

130

Transport aircraft at locations not close to jet exhaust.

140

Transport aircraft in internal equipment bays close to the jet


exhaust.
High performance aircraft at locations not close to jet exhaust.

150

High performance aircraft in internal equipment bays close to the


jet exhaust.
Aircraft external stores.
Ground equipment in enclosed engine run-up areas.

160

High performance aircraft in internal equipment bays close to


reheat exhausts and gun muzzles.
High performance aircraft external stores.

165

Ground equipment on rocket launchers.

5.2.3
A one-third octave band spectrum related to the service conditions listed in Table 1 is
shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. For practical purposes this test spectrum provides an acceptable
simulation of the resultant effects on the structure when the source is either broad band jet noise or
aerodynamic flow generated pressure fluctuations. The applied test spectrum should be between the
specified limits while maintaining the overall sound pressure level within the tolerances specified in
paragraph 4.7.

Figure 1 One Third Octave Spectrum Levels

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Chapter 2-09

Table 2 One-third octave band spectrum test limits


Frequency (Hz)

Lower

28
35.4
44.5
56.2
70.7
89.1
112
141
177
224
282
354
445
562
707
891
1120
1410
1770
2240
2820
3540
4450
5620
7070
8910

Centre

31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1000
1250
1600
2000
2500
3150
4000
5000
6300
8000
10000

One Third Octave Sound Pressure


Level (dB)
Ref. Specified Overall Sound Pressure
Level
Upper

Lower
Limit

Upper
Limit

35.4
44.5
56.2
70.7
89.1
112
141
177
224
282
354
445
562
707
891
1120
1410
1770
2240
2820
3540
4450
5620
7070
8910
11200

-48
-44
-40
-36
-32
-28
-24
-21.3
-18.7
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-16
-17.7
-19.3
-21
-25
-29
-33
-37
-41
-45
-49

-23
-21
-19
-17
-14.7
-12.3
-10
-9.7
-9.3
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9
-9.7
-10.3
-11
-13
-15
-17
-19
-21
-23
-25

5.2.4
For most applications the 100 Hz one-third octave band will be the low frequency limit.
Large structures with low frequency modes or items with large surfaces may require a spectrum
extending to lower frequency bands. Any spectrum extension should be agreed with the test specifier and
defined in the Environmental Test Specification.
5.2.5
The required test duration will vary depending upon the application. For aircraft
applications this will not normally exceed ten hours. For store and missile applications the test duration
can vary from a few minutes to several hours. Further advice on the derivation of test durations can be
found in Part 5 of this Standard.

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Chapter 2-09

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test method refers to:


STANAG 4370

AECTP 400, Method 402, Acoustic Noise

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-02
Chapter 2-08
Chapter 2-10

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel.


Environmental Testing
Test M1 Basic Vibration Test
Test M2 Complete Store Vibration Test
Test M8 Acoustic Noise Test in a Reverberation Chamber
Test M10 Combined Acoustic Temperature and Vibration

Part 5
7

Induced Environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 Although this test is similar to BS EN60068-2-65: 1995 Test F2 Vibration Acoustically Induced, that
test does not prescribe a procedure suitable for use with progressive wave tubes. Moreover, this test is
intended mainly for reproducing the effects of aerodynamic flow.
8

COMPATIBILITY WITH NATO STANAGS

8.1 This test method is technically similar to STANAG 4370, AECTP 400, Edition 2, Method 402 'Acoustic Noise. The variations from STANAG 4370 are:
(a)

The test spectrum is defined only in terms of one third octave bands, whereas STANAG
4370 also includes full octave bands.

(b)

The recommended maximum control bandwidth is one third octave, whereas STANAG 4370
also permits full octave bands.

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CHAPTER 2-10
TEST M10 - COMBINED ACOUSTIC, TEMPERATURE AND VIBRATION
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test method is to replicate the combined effects of aerodynamic turbulence
and temperature incurred by stores, missiles and airborne weapons carried externally on fixed wing
high performance aircraft.
1.2 This test method is applicable where materiel is required to demonstrate its adequacy to
withstand the specified combinations of environmental conditions without unacceptable degradation of
its functional and structural performance.
1.3 Although this test method is intended primarily for reliability testing, it is applicable to other test
categories.
1.4 The principles of this test method may also be applicable to the simulation of other vibration
environments such as post launch free flight vibration of missiles.
1.5 This test method implements STANAG 4370, AECTP 400, Edition 2, Method 413 - 'Acoustic
noise combined with temperature and vibration'. There is no equivalent British Standard test method.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
This test method is capable of reproducing the changes in vibration and temperature
that arise during aircraft sortie profiles. It combines acoustic noise excitation from a reverberant
chamber with mechanical vibration from a shaker to induce the required vibration responses in the
internal units of materiel such as stores, missiles and other airborne weapons. The main excitation
medium is the distributed acoustic input with mechanical vibration responses at the lower frequencies.
Temperature conditions are provided by ducted air over the specimen surface. These temperature
conditions are capable of being varied, permitting similar temperatures to be induced at the specimen's
skin to those generated by kinetic heating.
2.1.2
This test may be used to simulate the effects of aerodynamic turbulence. However, for
such applications it should be noted that the excitation mechanism of this reverberation test is different
from that of aerodynamic turbulence. Consequently it may not be suitable for proving thin shell
structures interfacing directly with such aerodynamic turbulence conditions. Nevertheless, the
conditions generated by this test method provide an acceptable simulation of the responses
measured, in-Service, at the internal units.
2.1.3
Where the source noise has a significant discrete tone, such as turbine whine, cavity
resonance, etc., alternative facilities should be considered such as a standing wave tube or a
reverberation chamber using a discrete tone generator.
2.1.4
2.2

A description of the facility requirements is given in Annex A.

Mounting

2.2.1
The normal arrangement of the apparatus for this test is shown diagrammatically in
Figure 1. The specimen is suspended elastically over the vibrator such that its surfaces are not
parallel to the chamber walls.
2.2.2
Where the specimen is provided with a specific means of mounting, the support
system should preferably be attached to these points. Where no specific means of attachment are
provided, the support system should be connected to the specimen in such a way that it does not
provide additional restraint or damping to panels or other structural parts.

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Chapter 2-10

2.2.3
Temperature conditioning is applied by ducting air at the required temperatures over
the test item. The portion of ducting over the specimen should be effectively transparent to the noise.

Figure 1 Typical Facility Layout


2.3

Control of Test Conditions

2.3.1
All environmental parameters are controlled from the response of the specimen. In
particular the vibration and acoustic noise excitation are controlled to give the required vibration
responses at specific internal locations. The control and monitoring requirements of Chapter 2-01 'Basic vibration test', or Chapter 2-02 - 'Complete store vibration test', should be followed as
appropriate. These chapters also define the necessary terminology with respect to control aspects.
2.3.2
Temperature control should normally be achieved at an external thin skin section,
further information is set out in Annex A. The monitoring requirements of Chapter 3-02 - 'High
temperature, low humidity, diurnal cycling', or Chapter 3-08 - 'Kinetic heating', should be followed as
appropriate.
2.3.3
It may be necessary to control the vibration response of the store using a reference
point located on the external strong points of the structure. In this case a precursor trial is required to
establish on a representative specimen the external control characteristics from the required spectra at
the internal locations. A suitable procedure is as follows:
(a)

The representative specimen should be fitted with internal instrumentation specified in the
test specification.

(b)

Acoustic noise should be applied, with mechanical vibration to supplement the low
frequency responses, until the required internal vibration severities are obtained.

(c)

When satisfactory responses at the specified internal locations are achieved, data at the
specified external locations should be recorded. The spectra derived from these data
should be used as the basis for controlling the specimen during the formal trial.

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Chapter 2-10

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival or both

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
required to operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(c)

The method of suspension or support and orientation of the specimen

(d)

The reference control and monitoring points, or the procedure for selecting them (see
para 2.3.1)

(e)

The test severities or a procedure for establishing them (see para 2.3.3 and Annex B)

(f)

The number of cycles of each simulated sortie to be applied

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following procedure shall
apply.
4.2

Mounting

4.2.1
The specimen shall be installed in the reverberation chamber in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification and the guidance given in paragraph 2.
4.2.2
The mechanical vibrator should be coupled to the specimen by means of a rod or other
suitable device running from the vibrator to a relatively hard, structurally supported point on the test
item surface. The installation should be such that the rigid body modes (translation and rotation) of
vibration for the test specimen/suspension/vibrator system are below 20 Hz.
4.2.3
The temperature duct shall be fitted over the specimen such that a uniform annular
gap is provided and that connections to the specimen do not unduly obstruct this gap. This
temperature duct shall not provide any additional restraint to the specimen.
4.3

Conditioning

4.3.1
The chamber shall be closed and the specimen shall be conditioned and stabilised to
the specified initial temperature.

4.3.2

The test cycles shall be applied using the specified test parameters.

4.3.3

Performance and function checks shall be undertaken as specified.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test parameters are related to store type, aircraft installation, aircraft performance and sortie
conditions applicable to the particular aircraft/store combinations. The derivation of these parameters
is given in Annex A. The test cycle and severities are derived, where possible, from flight measured
data.

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Chapter 2-10

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

STANAG 4370

AECTP400 Method 413 Acoustic Noise combined with temperature


and vibration

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-02
Chapter 3-02
Chapter 3-08

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M1 - Basic Vibration Test
Test M2 - Complete Store Vibration Test
Test C2 - High temperature, low humidity, diurnal cycling
Test C8 - Kinetic Heating

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test method.

COMPATIBILITY WITH NATO STANAGS

8.1 This test method is technically similar to STANAG 4370, AECTP 400, Edition 2, Method 413 'Acoustic noise combined with temperature and vibration'. The variation from STANAG 4370 is:
(a)

Technical refinements added to Annex B to improve the process for the derivation of test
parameters.

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Chapter 2-10
Annex A
ANNEX A
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 This test is designed to provide a close approximation to the flight vibration and temperature
environment seen by the internal components of assembled materiel carried externally on fixed wing
aircraft.
2

VIBRATION CONDITIONS

2.1 The main source of in-Service vibration is aerodynamic turbulence acting over the total exposed
surface of the materiel. Under test conditions this is simulated by the diffuse field of a reverberation
chamber.
2.2 Acoustic excitation at low frequencies in a reverberation chamber is normally limited by the size
of the chamber, the low frequency cut-off of the noise generation system and the limited power
availability. Additionally, the very low frequencies that result for example from the wing and pylon
bending and torsional modes are mechanically coupled through the attachment interface. For these
reasons low frequency vibration should be applied to the specimen by means of a mechanical vibrator
operating in the nominal frequency range of 5 to 100 Hz.
2.3 Mechanical vibration is applied via a light coupling connected to a strong point preferably at the
centre of gravity of the specimen. This single point coupling should be rigid in the axis of vibration but
allow transverse and rotational motion of the specimen.
2.4 The acoustic and mechanical stimuli are adjusted to achieve the required vibration response at
the specified internal locations.
3

TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

3.1 The normal method of generating high intensity noise in a reverberation chamber involves the
use of a relatively high airflow through the chamber. In order to achieve the required temperature
conditions at the specimen skin it is therefore necessary to enclose the specimen and to control the
temperature within that enclosure. This enclosure must be effectively transparent to the acoustic
noise.
3.2 To achieve rapid changes of temperature at the specimen skin and economy of thermal energy,
it is preferred that the acoustically transparent enclosure be connected into a closed loop with the heat
exchangers.
3.3 Temperature control will normally be established with a temperature sensor attached to a
section of the external skin of the specimen. If flight measured data are available then the control
location should be that where the measurements were made. Otherwise the control location should be
selected so that thermal response of the location is able to follow the highest rate of change of
temperature specified. As this sensor position controls the conditioning temperature along the total
length of the specimen the airflow from nose to tail of the specimen must be maintained within
acceptable limits.
4

FACILITY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.1 An ideal reverberation chamber is an enclosure which, when excited by broad band noise, will
provide a diffuse sound field. The nature of the sound field is such that the major contributions to the
sound-pressure level is from the build up of resonant modes of the acoustic space within the room.
The most important requirement is that the modes should be sufficiently numerous to be distributed
uniformly in frequency to ensure the required test spectra can be achieved.

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Annex A
4.2 The reverberation chamber construction must include sufficient mass and damping such that
the noise spectrum is not unduly influenced by vibration of the chamber surfaces. This can be
achieved by ensuring that the chamber wall fundamental resonance frequencies are less than the
lowest acoustic frequency. If this is not possible high damping should be applied, for example, by the
use of a sand filled, double skin construction.
4.3 As low frequencies are applied mechanically, the low frequency acoustic response of the
chamber is not as critical as for a standard acoustic test. Hence the minimum chamber size for a
given vibration response spectrum may be selected for a cut-off frequency at or below the cross over
between mechanical and acoustic excitation. The chamber dimensions required to accommodate the
store might be the limiting factor and the ratio of the major dimensions of the chamber should provide
for adequate modal density at the lowest acoustic noise frequency.

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B
ANNEX B
DERIVATION OF TEST PARAMETERS
1

SCOPE

1.1 This annex sets out a procedure by which acoustic, vibration and thermal test cycle severities
can be established. The main application of the procedure is to derive test severities and test cycles
for the testing of stores, missiles and other airborne weapons. The procedure may also be applicable
to aircraft equipment provided the environments of prime concern are vibrations or kinetic heating
induced by aerodynamic flow.
1.2 The severities derived by the procedure of this Annex could also be used in the mechanical
vibration methods of Chapters 2-01 and 2-02 when undertaken in conjunction with thermal testing.
2

BASE DATA REQUIRED

2.1 The base data required to determine vibration and thermal test cycle severities are the
installation details on the nominated aircraft, the sortie profiles, the number of each type of sortie and
information on altitude/temperature conditions.
2.2 The sortie profiles need to be defined in terms of airspeed, altitude and time. Illustrative profiles
are shown in Figure 1. Representative sortie profiles are frequently set out in the technical
requirements specification for stores, missiles and other airborne weapons. Another source of suitable
information is the aircraft manufacturer. Additionally a number of representative sortie profiles suitable
for reliability testing are set out in Mil Hdbk 781 (Reference B1). Whatever the source conditions they
should be within the capability of the carriage aircraft with the required weapon configuration.

Figure 1. Flight profiles for six illustrative missions

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B
Table 1 Illustrative store usage
Number of
Missions
Per Year

Duration of
Longest
Mission
(mins)

Duration
of
Shortest
Mission
(mins)

Average
Mission
Duration
(mins)

Percentage
of Total
Missions
(%)

Percentage
of Total
Duration
(%)

High Level Transit

40

40

40

Low Level Ground Attack


Following Standing Air
Patrol

85

65

74

19

18

Low Low Ground Attack


with Evasion

85

60

69

19

17

Low Low Ground Attack

100

60

74

21

21

High Low High Strike with


Evasion

100

60

84

11

12

High Low High Strike

10

125

45

83

27

30

Sortie Type

2.3 The proportion of each type of sortie within the operational life of the equipment must be
established in order that this distribution can be reflected in the test conditions. Illustrative store
usage is presented in Table 1 and is derived from data supplied by RAF Logistics Command. This
information is normally included in the technical requirements specification for stores, missiles and
other airborne weapons.
2.4 Information on nominal altitude-temperature conditions can be obtained from International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) tables. This information is presented in a form more useful for
application to stores, missiles and other airborne weapon applications in TEACASE Working Note 92
(Reference B2). For extreme altitude-temperature conditions reference should be made to Part 4 of
this Standard. Part 4 of this Standard also indicates the range of sea level temperature conditions
likely to be experienced in world-wide weapon deployment.
3

TEMPERATURE PROFILE

3.1 For each phase of the sortie profile, the altitude condition will enable the ambient temperature
to be determined. Using the aircraft speed at each altitude it is possible to calculate the skin recovery
temperature from the following expression:
1 + r( - 1) M2

Tr = Ta
2

where
Tr
= adiabatic thin skin temperature
Ta
= ambient air temperature as a function of altitude
r
= recovery factor

= ratio of specific heats (1.4 for air)


M
= Mach number
(Tr and Ta must be given in Kelvin or Rankine)

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B
In the absence of other information, a recovery factor of 0.9 can usually be assumed. This reduces the
above expression to:
2

Tr = Ta [ 1 + 0.18M ]
3.2 Having established the temperature condition for each phase of the sortie it will be possible to
plot the temperature profile of the materiel skin for that sortie. Temperature profiles for six illustrative
sorties are shown in Figure 2. As small variations in skin temperature will not be directly reflected in
internal unit temperatures, it is possible to combine temperature conditions to produce a composite
temperature sortie which will include both stable temperature conditions and associated rates of
change of temperature at each stage.

Figure 2 Temperature profiles for six illustrative mission types


3.3 Where it is required to cover world-wide operating conditions the temperature cycle can be
enhanced by the introduction of deviations to the cycle to represent various sea level temperatures as
shown in Figure 2.
3.4 To maintain representative conditions, particularly for reliability testing purposes, the basic
temperature cycle would not normally comprise only the extreme positive and negative sea level
temperatures. The probability of operation away from sea level ambient temperature should be
established to determine the number of cycles at each condition. Cycles based on hot and cold sea
level temperatures should be interspersed with the ambient cycles such that each condition is evenly
distributed over the life cycle of the store.
4

VIBRATION PROFILE

4.1 For each phase of the sortie profile, the aircraft pressure altitude and airspeed can be used to
proportion flight vibration data into an appropriate profile. The vibration severities generated are
intended to represent store responses occurring in flight. For the purpose of the test combined
acoustic and mechanical excitations are used to generate the required vibration response profile. The
exact mix of acoustic and mechanical excitations required will depend upon facilities available.

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B
4.2 The vibration severities experienced by a store vary throughout a sortie with changes in flight
dynamic pressure, the variation of which may follow the profiles of Figure 3 for example. Vibration
severities are also dependent upon a number of non-sortie dependent criteria such as store geometry
and construction, measurement location and axis. Hence appropriate flight measured vibration data
are required for the store when subjected to specific flight conditions. The measured severities can
then be scaled according to the sortie profiles required for test purposes such as those shown in
Figure 4. Figure 5 shows a typical vibration spectrum that may be established from illustrative vibration
data.

Figure 3 Equivalent free stream dynamic pressure for illustrative missions

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B

Figure 4 Illustrative vibration test severity profiles

Figure 5 Illustrative vibration severity for single flight condition

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Chapter 2-10
Annex B
4.3

The approximate relationship between flight dynamic pressure and vibration severities.
Acceleration rms = Bq
Acceleration PSD = Cq

4.4
by:

where

B and C are constants for a given aircraft/store configuration

and

q is flight dynamic pressure

The relationship between flight dynamic pressure (q) with aircraft velocity and altitude is given

Dynamic pressure
where

o
V

=
=
=
=
=

q = oV = M

atmospheric density at sea level (kg/m)


-1
equivalent air speed (ms )
air pressure at specified altitude (Pa)
true Mach number of aircraft
ratio of specific heats = 1.4

For ISA conditions:


-5

q = 70.9 M(1-2.256 x 10 h)
or

-6

5.2561

q = 1480 M(1-6.875 x 10 h)

kPa, (h = altitude in metres)

5.2561

lb/ft, (h = altitude in feet)

4.5 In the absence of suitable measured flight vibration data alternative information can be derived
from procedures set out in Part 5 of this Standard.
REFERENCES
1

Mil Handbook 781 Reliability Test Methods, Plans, and Environments for Engineering
Development, Qualification and Production, July 1987

TEACASE Working Note 92. Terms and Conditions for TEACASE Studies, Hunting Engineering
Document TP28879/1 (Ref HEL/SYS/2738/PC) Produced on behalf of the TEACASE Working
Group, July 1989.

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Chapter 2-11

CHAPTER 2-11
TEST M11 - WHEELED VEHICLE TRANSPORTATION BOUNCE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test applies to packaged items, or any item in its intended state for transportation, either of
which may be carried as cargo by wheeled vehicles traversing irregular surfaces where the cargo has
some freedom, however slight, to bounce, scuff, or collide within the confines of the vehicle cargo space.
1.2 The bounce test is not intended as a replacement for the vibration test. It is intended to simulate the
repeated shock conditions which loose cargo would experience when being transported over severe
terrains.
1.3 For very large equipments and for equipments that form a high proportion of the vehicle gross
weight, Test M14 - 'Test track trial' (see Chapter 2-14) may be more suitable.
1.4

This test is technically similar to that contained in BS EN 60068-2-55 - Bounce.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
The response of a packaged item to the bounce test is significantly dependent on the
dynamic characteristics of the package. A resilient package may be subject to considerable stress by
bouncing and chattering about on the support platform, or by colliding with the side walls or other items of
cargo, whereas a non-resilient item may remain in close contact with the platform and will therefore not be
subjected to the same stresses.
2.1.2
This test is intended for packaged items where the ratio of the longest side to the shorter
does not exceed 3:1 and which do not exceed 50kg gross weight. For packaged items of greater aspect
ratio or weight the applicability of this test should be reviewed, Test M14 - "Test track trial" (see Chapter 214) may be more suitable.
2.2

Equivalent motion

2.2.1
The motion experienced by a packaged item during this test is almost comparable to the
environment during transportation in a lightly laden four wheeled truck. No exact relationship has been
determined between the duration of the bounce test and transportation time. The test durations have
been derived from experimental trials and are recommended for general purpose use.
2.3

Multi-layer tests

2.3.1
When packaged items are stacked during transportation in two or more layers in a
vehicle, there is a significant difference between the environments experienced by the top and bottom
layers. In the bottom layer it is the package which is most likely to be damaged, whereas in the top layer it
is the contents. Therefore, it is preferable to perform multi-layer tests.

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2.4

Test motion

2.4.1
Circular synchronous motion: The motion of the surface on which the test specimen is
placed can be described by a 25 1 mm orbital path; such as is obtained on a standard package tester
operating in its circular synchronous mode. This mode is preferred because it provides relatively
consistent test results.
2.4.2
Vertical non-synchronous motion: The motion of the surface on which the test specimen
is placed can be described as vertical, sinusoidal with a peak to peak displacement of 25 1 mm at each
of two points not less than 600 mm and not greater than 1700 mm apart. The frequency at one of the
points should be between 4.66 and 4.83 Hz and at the other point 0.9 0.03 times that at the first point.
The distance between these two points should be greater than the longest base of the package, where
this is impossible the Test Specifier should be consulted. The two points at which the required motion is to
be achieved should be on the centre line of the table. This motion is obtained on a standard package
tester operating in its vertical non-synchronous mode. This motion should be used only where both field
and package tester measurements can demonstrate that for the materiel in question a better simulation is
obtained than for the circular synchronous motion.
2.5

Test surface

2.5.1
The test surface should consist of a horizontal flat table and side barrier assembly faced
with a low resistance material, such as 25mm plywood.
2.6

Evaluation

2.6.1
The package should survive the test without degradation and the contents should be
undamaged. In evaluating the performance of the package, note should be made of the following:
(a)

Any loosening of screws or fastenings; the security of furniture and fittings; the strength and
location of load spreading parts; and the bedding down of any cushioning or space filling
material.

(b)

Any deterioration of any climatic protection through scuffing, loosening of boards, and
damage to protective coating.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The attitudes and orientation of the package under test

(d)

Whether the packages should be stacked

(e)

The duration of the test

(f)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met.

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
4.1.1
(a)
4.1.2

Climatic conditioning
The specimen shall be climatically conditioned to the specified conditions.
Bounce test

(a)

The specimen shall be placed with the appropriate face on the table centrally with respect to
the drive inputs.

(b)

Whenever the package dimensions and the number of specimens available for test allow,
they shall be stacked to an overall height not exceeding 600mm.

(c)

The table barriers shall be erected with an all round clearance between them and the vertical
surfaces of the test specimen of between 50mm and 75mm. The top edge of the uppermost
barrier shall be 50 25mm below the top of the test items and not more than 600mm from
the surface of the table.

(d)

The specimen shall be bounced on each of its faces; that is for a cylindrical specimen on
three faces and for a rectangular specimen on six faces.

(e)

For tests exceeding five minutes, the test duration shall be split into test periods of five
minute duration each followed by a rest period of five minutes to prevent the possibility of
excessive temperature rise within the specimen.

(f)

The test procedure shall be carried out for each of the required attitudes and orientations.

(g)

Any required functional testing or other examinations shall be carried out as specified in the
Environmental Test specification.

4.1.3
(a)

Post conditioning inspection


At the end of the test the specimen shall be visually examined for any detrimental effects.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

The severity is determined by the duration of the test and three durations are specified:
(a)

Duration A is appropriate for packages which are likely to accompany Service personnel on
routine operational duties, and shall be of 60 minutes duration.

(b)

Duration B is appropriate for packages which in the course of their delivery to the ultimate
user, may be frequently transported over surfaces ranging from normal highway to pot-holed
paving and tracks and shall be of 20 minutes duration.

(c)

Duration C is appropriate for packages which may be called upon to survive a brief journey
as loose cargo in a vehicle and shall be of 5 minutes duration.

5.2 The times given for each severity level are total times. If the Environmental Test Specification
specifies a number of test attitudes, then the total test time shall be equally divided between the specified
attitudes and orientations.

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RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS EN 60068-2-27B

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures - Bounce

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-14

Environmental handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M14 - Test track trial

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Chapter 2-12

CHAPTER 2-12
TEST M12 - BUMP TEST

SCOPE

1.1 This test is not intended as a simulation of any particular service condition. However, this test
could be useful as a general ruggedness test to provide some confidence in the suitability of equipment
for transportation in wheeled vehicles.
1.2 Where a more realistic representation of vehicle motion is required then consideration should be
given to the use of Test M1 - 'Basic Vibration Test' (see Chapter 2-01) and Test M11 - 'Wheeled Vehicle
Transportation Bounce Test' (see Chapter 2-11).
1.3 This guidance, test procedure and information on selecting severities for this test are those
specified in BS EN 60068-2-29 - 'Bump'.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

For guidance on the application of this test see the relevant paragraphs of BS EN 60068-2-29.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
be operated and assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen

(d)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered

(e)

The acceleration and duration of each bump and the number of bumps

(f)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(h)

The tolerances to be used

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test procedure given in the relevant paragraphs of BS EN 60068-2-29 shall be adopted unless
otherwise specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Since this test is not intended to simulate a specific environment there are no preferred severities.
However, when selecting severities for general ruggedness purposes, the severities adopted should be in
accordance with the standardized severities quoted in Appendix A to BS EN 60068-2-29.

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RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS EN 60068-2-29

Basic Environmental Test Procedures - "Bump"

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-11

Environmental Handbook for Defence Material


Environmental testing
Test M1 - Basic vibration test
Test M11 - Wheeled vehicle transportation bounce test

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Chapter 2-13

CHAPTER 2-13
TEST M13 - STEADY STATE ACCELERATION TEST

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of the test is to demonstrate satisfactory performance and structural integrity of both
sub-assemblies and equipments subject to forces induced by steady accelerations which can occur in
vehicles, aircraft, guided weapons, rotating parts and projectiles.
1.2 This test is intended to be applied by centrifuge. When a facility other than a centrifuge is required
this test procedure may have general applicability.
1.3 This test is technically similar to that contained in BS EN 60068-2-7 - 'Acceleration, steady state',
except for the differences given in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Equipments or sub assemblies installed in moving bodies will be subjected to forces
caused by steady acceleration. Such an environment is most pronounced in missiles, aircraft and rotating
machines, although in certain conditions significant acceleration can occur in vehicles.
2.2

Application of acceleration

2.2.1
The specified accelerations may be different values for each of the major axes of the
equipment, and may have different values in either sense of each axis.
2.2.2
If the equipment can have several installed attitudes, then the Environmental Test
Specification should state the severities having taken into account the maximum acceleration in different
directions of the equipment.
2.2.3
When increasing the speed of the centrifuge from zero to the value necessary to achieve
the specified acceleration and when decreasing back to zero, the machine should be controlled so that
the specimen is not subjected to a value of tangential acceleration greater than the specified value.
Typically, this is 10% of the specified test acceleration.
2.3

Test equipment

2.3.1
The acceleration applied by a centrifuge is directed towards the centre of the rotating
system. Where a rapid change of acceleration is required, the centrifuge may need a special attachment.
2.3.2
In certain special cases it may only be acceptable to perform the test using a facility
capable of applying a linear acceleration; for example if the equipment or sub assembly is sensitive to
gyroscopic couples. When testing other than by a centrifuge is required the Environmental Test
Specification should state the test apparatus to be used.
2.4

Test equipment limitation

2.4.1
Due to the inherent acceleration gradients in centrifuge testing account should be taken
of the degree of over-test or under-test which may occur in some parts of the equipment. If the test is
likely to result in either under-testing or an unrepresentative failure or malfunction, its use will need to be
reconsidered.

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2.5

Functional conditions

2.5.1
The Environmental Test Specification should state acceleration levels based on direct
measurement or calculations. However, in the early stages of design measurements may not be
available and typical values such as those given in Table 1 for aerospace equipment should be quoted.
2.5.2
The Environmental Test Specification should state which of the following conditions of
functioning or survival have to be satisfied and the corresponding acceleration levels:
(a)

Functioning within performance limits given in the equipment specification

(b)

Functioning but not necessarily within the performance limits, but should suffer no
permanent derangement

(c)

Need not function but must not to suffer any permanent derangement

(d)

May be permanently damaged or deranged but must not break loose

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test where the specimen is to
be operated and assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The method of mounting the specimen on the centrifuge

(d)

Whether gravitational effects are to be considered

(e)

Whether any out of axis loads or rate limits are applicable and if so the maximum values
permissible

(f)

The monitoring points to be used if other than the centre of gravity

(g)

Acceleration level and duration of acceleration if less than one minute

(h)

The axes, the senses and the number of times the acceleration is to be applied

(j)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(k)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what the phases of the
test they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(l)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
(a)

The specimen shall be mounted on the centrifuge either directly or by means of suitable
fixtures. The fixtures shall enable the specimen to be subjected to acceleration required by
the Environmental Test Specification.

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(b)

Where appropriate, or when in doubt, the specimen shall be mounted so that the
gravitational force acts in the same direction as it would in normal use. Where gravitational
force is unimportant the specimen may be mounted in any attitude consistent with other
requirements.

(c)

Any connections to the specimen, such as cables, pipes, wires, shall be arranged so that
they impose similar dynamic restraint and mass to that when the specimen is installed in its
operational position. Any additional stays or straps shall be avoided. Safety devices which
have been added to prevent the specimen from becoming detached if the mounting
attachments are broken shall not impose additional constraints during the test.

(d)

If required, the specimen shall be climatically conditioned.

(e)

The acceleration conditioning shall be imposed in both senses of the specified axes.

(f)

The required value of acceleration shall be applied within the tolerances specified, including
the limitations on tangential acceleration.

(g)

At each of the specified applications the required acceleration conditions shall be maintained
for a duration of not less than one minute.

(h)

Any required functional testing or other examinations shall be carried out as specified in the
Environmental Test Specification.

(j)

At the end of the test, the specimen shall be returned to Standard Laboratory Conditions
and, if required, visually examined for any detrimental effects.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Severities

5.1.1
A range of severities for general use is given in Table 1 of BS EN 60068-2-7. In the case
of aerospace equipment the steps may be too coarse, in such a case values should be selected from the
range given in Table 1 below.
TABLE 1
ACCELERATION
gn

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

2-15

Aircraft

4,10,25

Aircraft crash safety

30-100

Missile Launch & Flight

Notes:
1 For detailed requirements of equipment installed in Aircraft, see DEF STAN 00-970.
2 For guided weapons further information on acceleration levels is given in Part 5.
5.2

Test tolerances

5.2.1
If the linear dimensions of the sub assembly or equipment are equal to or less than
100 mm the acceleration on all parts, excluding flying leads, shall be within 10% of the specified
acceleration.

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5.2.2
Where the linear dimensions of the sub assembly or equipment exceed 100 mm the
acceleration applied at the C of G of the sub assembly or equipment, or at a point or points nominated
by the Environmental Test Specification shall be not less than the specified value. The acceleration
experienced by any other part of the sub assembly or equipment shall be within the limits -10% +30%
of the specified value.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Standard refers to:

BS EN 60068-2-7

Basic Environmental Test Procedures - "Acceleration,


Steady State".

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 5

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Induced environments

DEF STAN 00-970

Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS EN 60068-2-7 - 'Acceleration, steady state'. The variations
from the British Standard test are:
(a)

Additional levels have been included for aerospace application

(b)

A paragraph has been added referring to alternative test facilities

(c)

Additional steps in the test procedure have been added

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CHAPTER 2-14
TEST M14 - TEST TRACK TRIAL
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to very large equipments, to equipments forming a high proportion of the
vehicle gross weight, and to equipments which form an integral part of the vehicle which have to function
or survive when installed or transported in wheeled or tracked vehicles.
1.2 This test is also applicable where a laboratory test such as Test M1 - 'Basic Vibration test' (see
Chapter 2-01) or Test M11 - 'Wheeled vehicle transportation bounce test' (see Chapter 2-11) may not be
practical or cost effective.
1.3

There is no equivalent British Standard Test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Where an equipment is used with different types of vehicle, separate trials may be
necessary for each vehicle.
2.1.2
When tracked vehicles traverse hard surfaces, such as concrete roads, the track laying
components can induce severe periodic vibration levels. This excitation is known as "track patter". Other,
less hard surfaces, induce shock and vibration of a more random nature which can also induce significant
damage.
2.1.3
In formulating a trial for either tracked or wheeled vehicles, the courses and distances
selected should take account of the anticipated uses of the vehicle.
2.1.4
Equipment which is not attached rigidly to the vehicle may be subjected to additional and
severe shock from repeated impact with the vehicle structure. Repeated impact can arise when
equipment is either carried as free cargo or lightly restrained, say, by webbing straps and thus allowing
some movement relative to the vehicle.
2.1.5
It is important to reproduce during the trial the more adverse arrangements which could
arise in normal use. For example, excessive tightening of webbing straps could prevent equipment
movement during the trial and limit the damaging effects; whereas in field use relaxation of the tension in
the straps or inadequate tightening could produce the repeated shock effects described above.
2.1.6
Whenever practical or cost effective the trial should be incorporated in the reliability
distance testing of the appropriate vehicles.
2.1.7
Manager.
2.2

A number of trial facilities exist. A suitable facility should be agreed with the MOD Project

Trial conditions

2.2.1
cycles.

In formulating a trial, the type of vehicle should be taken into account when defining test

2.2.2
The test should be conducted as a series of cycles with each cycle consisting of a
standardized combination of distances, speeds and courses.

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INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the trial is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

The composition of the test cycle and associated tolerances for distance and vehicle speed

(d)

The types of vehicle, their load state and the number of cycles appropriate to each vehicle

(e)

The configuration of the equipment during the trial

(f)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than ambient

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification, the following shall apply:

4.2

Mounting

4.2.1
The specimen shall be mounted in the vehicle in the manner stated in the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.3

Conditioning
4.3.1

4.3.2
specification.
4.4

The vehicle containing the specimen shall be subjected to the specified cycles.
Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test

Post conditioning examination


4.4.1

Following the trial the performance of the specimen shall be demonstrated.

4.4.2
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

There are no preferred severity levels. Military vehicles fall into the following broad groups:
(a)

Medium mobility wheeled land vehicles spending a high proportion of their life on normal
paved roads

(b)

High mobility wheeled land vehicles spending time on both roads and cross country
conditions

(c)

Tracked vehicles

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5.2 Dependant on the type of vehicle, durations and speeds, together with any restrictions on weather
conditions, shall be formulated for the vehicle and cover each type of surface, such as sealed surface
roads, rough roads and cross country.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 2-01
Chapter 2-11

Environmental handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test M1 - Basic vibration test
Test M11 - Wheeled vehicle transportation bounce test

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 2-15

CHAPTER 2-15
TEST M15 - LIFTING TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to demonstrate that container lifting arrangements meet their
performance and safety requirements.
1.2 This test is applicable to such lifting attachments on containers as handles, eye bolts and their
attachments to the container, fork lift attachments, and provision for grabs, as well as containers which
are not provided with any specific lifting device.
1.3 This test is only applicable to strap assemblies to BS 2837 and lifting arrangements for individual
containers. When a stack of containers is to be handled as a single load, the Environmental Test
Specification must state the test requirements for the lifting arrangements.
1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

Test procedure

2.1.1
This test provides for climatically conditioning the container should this be required, and
separate test procedures for the different lifting methods.
2.2

Climatic conditioning

2.2.1
If the container is required to comply with one of the Military Packaging Levels in DEF
STAN 81-41, a test band should be selected from those given in the preferred severities for the climatic
conditioning which relates most closely to the most critical specified packaging level.
2.2.2
If the container has to be climatically conditioned in a chamber, then this test should be
carried out under those conditions.
2.3

Safety and Serviceability

2.3.1
The loaded container must be capable of being lifted safely. The package should survive
the test without significant degradation such that the contents remain safe and undamaged at the
completion of the test. Failure may not become apparent until the test package is subjected to other tests
carried out in sequence with this test.
2.3.2
Particular attention should be paid to the lifting arrangements to ensure that no screws,
rivets etc, are loosened and that there is no fraying of rope or tearing of webbing strap.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the Military Packaging Levels are appropriate and if so what level

(d)

The gross weight of the loaded container

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(e)

The methods of lifting

(f)

The test severity

(g)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory conditions

(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Each lifting sling used for these tests shall have suitable safe working load carrying capacity.

4.2

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
4.2.1
(a)

4.2.2

Climatic conditioning
The specimen shall be climatically conditioned to the chosen conditions for 16 hours or until
equilibrium is reached whichever is the shorter period.
Containers fitted with handles

(a)

The specimen shall be loaded to 3 times the gross weight of the loaded container. The test
load should be distributed to maintain the normal centre of gravity as far as possible.

(b)

The specimen shall be lifted and freely suspended from each handle in turn for a period of 5
minutes.

4.2.3

Containers fitted with lifting attachments

(a)

The specimen shall be loaded to twice the gross weight of the loaded container. The test
load should be distributed to maintain the normal centre of gravity as far as possible.

(b)

The specimen shall then be lifted by slings attached to the lifting points and held freely
suspended for a period of 5 minutes. The inclined angles between the legs of a two legged
sling and the diagonally opposite legs of a four legged sling shall not be more than 90
degrees and not less than 60 degrees.

4.2.4

Containers fitted with fork lift facilities

(a)

The specimen shall be loaded to 1.25 times the gross weight of the loaded container. The
test load should be distributed to maintain the normal centre of gravity as far as possible.

(b)

The specimen shall then be lifted clear of the ground by a fork lift truck with forks extended
to at least two thirds of the underside dimension of the base of the specimen across which
the forks are carrying out the lift and shall be held in this position for a period of 5 minutes.

4.2.5

Containers providing for the use of grabs

(a)

The specimen shall be loaded to twice the gross weight of the loaded container. The test
load should be distributed to maintain the normal centre of gravity as far as possible.

(b)

The specimen shall be lifted and suspended clear of the ground for a period of 5 minutes by
grabs applied at the designated grab points.

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4.2.6

Containers with no lifting devices

(a)

The specimen shall be loaded to 3 times the gross weight of the loaded container. The test
load should be distributed to maintain the normal centre of gravity as far as possible.

(b)

The specimen shall be lifted and held clear of the ground for a period of 5 minutes by two
slings positioned at approximately one sixth of the length of the container from each end.
The included angle between the diagonally opposite legs of the slings shall not be more than
90 degrees and not less than 60 degrees.

4.2.7
(a)

Post conditioning inspection


After each test procedure the specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as
required by the Environmental test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Load and duration

5.1.1
There are no preferred load severities or durations for these test procedures other than
those specified in the test procedure.
5.2

Temperature and humidity


5.2.1

Test bands for the Military Packaging Levels are:


o

Test Band 1

-13 C to 0 C

Test Band 2

10 C to 20 C

Test Band 3

25 C to 40 C

Test Band 4

45 C to 55 C

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:

RH not specified

45% to 75% RH

75% to 100% RH

Up to 40% RH

BS 2837

Steel link and strap assemblies for lifting attachments for


packaging cases

DEF STAN 81-41


Part 3

Packaging of Defence Materiel


Environmental testing

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Chapter 2-16

CHAPTER 2-16
TEST M16 - STACKING STATIC LOAD TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to packages which may be subjected to the compressive loads which would
be applied to the lower packages in a stack of identical packages. It is also used to simulate the side
compressive loads that are applied in a package when it is being lifted by means of a net.
1.2 There is no equivalent British Standard test in BS 2011, but this test is consistent with the static
loading test given in BS 4826.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
It is often important to simulate the load distribution at the interface between the two
lowest packages. For this reason a minimum of two packages are required for the test.
2.1.2
Where packages are stacked as palletized loads such that the lowest package is
supported by the pallet, this pallet may need to be included or its effect simulated in the test.
2.1.3
In particular cases where cargo is to be shipped, uneven compressive loads may be
applied. Under these conditions a reference should be made to the Environmental Test Specification for
specialised tests.
2.2

Load distribution

2.2.1
The load should be distributed so as to simulate the most adverse conditions which could
arise in normal service. Such distributions could include: uniform stacking, edge to edge stacking, and
staggered stacking.
2.3

Climatic conditioning

2.3.1
If the package is required to comply with one of the Military Packaging Levels in DEF
STAN 81-41, a test band should be selected from those given in the preferred severities for the climatic
conditioning which relates most closely to the most critical specified packaging level.
2.3.2
If the package requires to be climatically conditioned in a chamber, then this test should
be carried under those conditions.
2.4

Safety and serviceability

2.4.1
The package should survive the test without significant degradation and the contents
should be undamaged at the completion of the test. Failure may not become apparent until the test
package is subjected to other tests carried out in sequence with this test.
2.4.2
In evaluating the performance of the package, note should be made of any loosening of
screws or fastenings, the security of the furniture and fittings, the strength and location of low spreading
parts, the bedding down of any cushioning or space filling material, and deterioration of climatic protection
through loosening of boards and damage to protective coatings.
2.4.3
It is important to recognise that when evaluating fibre board containers that they can,
over prolonged periods, buckle or partially collapse when stacked in conditions of high relative humidity or
when wet from exposure to the weather.

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INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the Military Packaging Levels are appropriate and if so what level

(d)

The gross weight of the loaded package

(e)

The load distribution

(f)

The base, side or end on which the test is to be applied

(g)

The test surface if other than a hard level surface

(h)

The test severity

(j)

The duration of the test

(k)

The climatic conditions under which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard
Laboratory Conditions

(l)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(m)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
4.1.1
(a)

Climatic conditioning
The specimen shall be climatically conditioned to the chosen conditions for 16 hours or until
equilibrium is reached whichever is the shorter period.

4.1.2

Vertical loading

(a)

The specimen shall stand on the hard level surface with its face or the face on which it is
normally expected to be stored on the surface.

(b)

Its uppermost face shall then be subjected for the specified duration to a static load
distributed in the specified manner, for example another similar package, equivalent to that
which would be produced by stacking on it a minimum number of similar packages to a total
height not exceeding:
(i)

Two metres for packages up to 15 kg gross weight

(ii)

Six metres for packages over 15 kg gross weight

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4.1.3

Side or end loading

(a)

This test procedure is not applicable to packages which have a gross weight of 120 kg or
3
more, or a volume of 0.28 m or more.

(b)

The specimen shall stand on its side or end, that is relative to the base or face, on a hard
level surface

(c)

A uniformly distributed static load shall then be applied for the specified duration to its
uppermost face. The load shall be half of the load calculated for the vertical load and shall
normally be applied to whichever of the sides or ends is the most vulnerable in terms of
damage to the packaged item.

4.1.4
(a)

Post conditioning inspection


After testing to each procedure the package and its contents shall be examined for any
detrimental effects as required by the Environmental test specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Loads

5.1.1
There are no preferred severities for the static load other than those specified in the test
procedure. The load distribution, however, should simulate the most adverse conditions likely to be
experienced in-Service.
5.2

Durations

5.2.1
The load shall be applied for a period of 8 days. When the outer container is
manufactured of approved material only the load may be applied for a reduced time of 24 hours.
5.3

Temperature and humidity


5.3.1

Test bands for the Military Packaging Levels are:


o

Test Band 1

-13 C to 0 C

Test Band 2

10 C to 20 C

Test Band 3

25 C to 40 C

Test Band 4

45 C to 55 C

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:

RH not specified

45% to 75% RH

75% to 100% RH

Up to 40% RH

BS 4826
Part 3

Complete, Filled Transport Packages


Methods of test for stacking using static load

DEF STAN 81-41


Part 3

Packaging of Defence Materiel


Environmental testing

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CHAPTER 2-17
TEST M17 - BENDING TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 The test is used to assess the resistance of the package to bending whether caused by its own
mass or by top loading with other packages of different proportions.
1.2 This test is normally confined to packages whose length exceeds four times the smallest cross
sectional dimension and with contents vulnerable to damage, or to packages whose failure could be the
cause of unserviceability of its content.
1.3

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

Climatic conditioning

2.1.1
If the package is required to comply with one of the Military Packaging Levels specified in
DEF STAN 81-41, a test band should be selected from those given in the preferred severities for the
climatic conditions which relate most closely to the most critical specified packaging level.
2.1.2
If the package requires to be climatically conditioned in a chamber, then this test should
be carried out under those conditions.
2.2

Safety and serviceability

2.2.1
The package should survive the test without any significant degradation and the contents
should be safe and undamaged at the completion of the test. Failure may not become apparent until the
test package is subjected to other tests carried out in sequence with this test.
2.2.2
In evaluating the performance of the package, note should be made of any loosening of
screws or fastenings, the security of the furniture and fittings, the strength and location of low spreading
parts, the bedding down of any cushioning or space filling material, and deterioration of climatic protection
through loosening of boards and damage to protective coatings.
2.2.3
It is important to recognise that when evaluating fibre board containers that they can,
over prolonged periods, buckle or partially collapse when stacked in conditions of relatively high humidity
or when wet from exposure to weather.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, and if so the phases of the tests when the
specimen is to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the Military Packaging Levels are appropriate and if so what level

(d)

The gross weight of the loaded package

(e)

The method of mounting

(f)

The test severity

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(g)

The test duration

(h)

The climatic conditions at which the test is to be conducted if other than Standard Laboratory
Conditions

(j)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so at what phase of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
4.1.1
(a)

4.1.2

Climatic conditioning
The specimen shall be climatically conditioned to the chosen conditions for 16 hours or until
equilibrium is reached whichever is the shorter period.
Bending

(a)

The specimen shall be supported at each end and a static load of three times the gross
weight of the package applied over a centre span area of the package. The centre span
area shall extend the full width of the package and be equal to the cross sectional area of
the package. The ends of the specimen shall each be supported over an area equal to half
the centre span area. The specimen shall rest on the supports in the attitude normally
expected in transit.

(b)

The load shall be applied for a period of not less than five minutes.

4.1.3
(a)

Post conditioning inspection


On completion of the test the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as required
by the Environmental Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Load and duration

5.1.1
There are no preferred load severities or durations for the bending test other than those
specified in the test procedure.
5.2

Temperature and humidity


5.2.1

Test bands for the Military Packaging Levels are:


o

Test Band 1

-13 C to 0 C

Test Band 2

10 C to 20 C

Test Band 3

25 C to 40 C

Test Band 4

45 C to 55 C

RH not specified

45% to 75% RH

75% to 100% RH

Up to 40% RH

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RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 81-41
Part 3

Packaging for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing

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CHAPTER 2-18
TEST M18 - RACKING TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is used to assess the rigidity of packages which are in excess of 225 kg gross weight, and
whose design is such that the packaging and its contents are liable to become unserviceable when the
packages are lifted under conditions which would produce twisting.
1.2

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

Climatic conditioning

2.1.1
If the package is required to comply with one of the Military Packaging Levels specified in
DEF STAN 81-41, a test band should be selected from those given in the preferred severities for the
climatic conditioning which relates most closely to the most critical specified packaging level.
2.1.2
If the package has to be climatically conditioned then this test should be carried out under
those conditions.
2.2

Safety and serviceability

2.2.1
The package should survive the test without significant degradation and the contents
should be safe and undamaged at the completion of the test. Failure may not become apparent until the
test package is subjected to other tests in sequence with this test.
2.2.2
In evaluating the performance of the package, note should be made of any loosening of
screws or fastenings, the security of the furniture and fittings, the strength and location of low spreading
parts, the bedding down of any cushioning or space filling material, and deterioration of climatic protection
through loosening of boards and damage to protective coatings.
2.2.3
It is important to recognise that when evaluating fibre board containers that they can,
over prolonged periods, buckle or partially collapse when stacked in conditions of high humidity or when
wet from exposure to weather.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall include:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
be operated and assessed, and the levels of performance required

(c)

Whether the Military Packaging Levels are appropriate and if so what level

(d)

The face on which the test is to be carried out if there is no designated base

(e)

The test severity

(f)

The test duration

(g)

The climatic conditions at which the test is to be conducted if other than standard laboratory
conditions

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(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required and if so at what phases of the test
they are to be conducted, and what requirements are to be met

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification the following shall apply:
4.1.1
(a)

Climatic conditioning
The specimen shall be climatically conditioned to the chosen conditions for 16 hours or until
equilibrium is reached whichever is the shorter period.

4.1.2

Racking

(a)

With the specimen standing upon its face on a hard, level surface, a base corner shall be
lifted and supported at a height of 300 mm for a period of not less than 5 minutes.

(b)

The specimen shall then be lowered and the operation repeated on the diagonally opposite
corner.

(c)

The two remaining corners shall then be similarly treated.

4.1.3
(a)

Post conditioning inspection


On completion of the above the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Load and duration

5.1.1
There are no preferred load severities or durations for the racking test other than those
specified in the test procedure.
5.2

Temperature and humidity


5.2.1

Test bands for the Military Packaging Levels are:


o

Test Band 1

-13 C to 0 C

Test Band 2

10 C to 20 C

Test Band 3

25 C to 40 C

Test Band 4

45 C to 55 C

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 81-41
Part 3

RH not specified

45% to 75% RH

75% to 100% RH

Up to 40% RH

Packaging for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing

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Chapter 3-00

CHAPTER 3-00
FOREWORD - CLIMATIC, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TESTS
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 This Section and Section 4 includes tests which simulate or accelerate the effects of natural and
induced climatic, chemical and biological environments to which service materiel, and where appropriate
its packaging, may be exposed during transportation, storage and operational phases of its service life.
1.2 Test methods are given for thermal environments and associated humidity, air pressure above and
below standard atmospheric, icing, wind, dust and sand, precipitation and immersion (collectively referred
to as climatic and penetration environments), saline and acidic atmospheres and chemical and biological
contamination.
1.3 Climatic and penetration tests are covered by the 3-00 series chapters. Chemical and biological
tests are covered by the 4-00 series chapters.
1.4 Each test is prescribed in terms of scope, test procedure and preferred severities and includes
guidance on their application and selection.
1.5 Advice on the relationship between these tests and those of any relevant British Standard is given
in Part 1, Chapter 1-01 of this Standard.
1.6 General advice and guidance on the use of BS EN60068 (BS 2011) tests are given in Part 1 of that
Standard.
1.7 Tests in this chapter include procedures and produce conditions which may be potentially
hazardous to the health and safety of test personnel and appropriate precautions should be taken.
2

DEFINITIONS

2.1

Storage and transport conditions

2.1.1
Storage and transport conditions are the air temperature and humidity experienced inside
a temporary unventilated field shelter, for example a tarpaulin cover or railway boxcar, which is exposed
to solar radiation.
2.2

Thermal stabilization of test specimen


2.2.1
(a)

2.2.2
(a)

2.3

Heat dissipating specimen


Unless otherwise specified, thermal stabilization is deemed to have occurred when the
temperature of the operating part(s) of the test specimen known to have the longest thermal
lag, is changing at no more than 2C per hour.
Non-heat dissipating specimen
Unless otherwise specified, thermal stabilization is deemed to have occurred when the
temperature of the operating part(s) of the test specimen known to have the longest thermal
lag, is within the test tolerances of the nominal test temperature. Individual test
specifications may identify closer tolerances, for example 1C, to cater for critical
components.

Environmental test chamber

2.3.1
A device capable of simulating, with specified accuracy, natural or induced climatic
environments, either singly or in combination.

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2.4

Environmental enclosure
2.4.1

The inner volume of an environmental test chamber bounded by the walls, floor, roof and

door.
2.5

Working space

2.5.1
That part of the environmental enclosure in which the specified conditions are maintained
within the specified limits.
2.6

Enclosure temperature
2.6.1

2.7

In an empty enclosure, the temperature at the centre of the working space.

Temperature variation

2.7.1
In an empty enclosure, the difference measured simultaneously, between the
temperature at the centre of the working space and any other point in the working space.
2.8

Temperature fluctuation

2.8.1
The difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures at any one point in the
working space during a specified interval of time.
3

TEST TOLERANCES

3.1 Unless otherwise identified in the Environmental Test Specification (see paragraph 3.4 below)
overall tolerances on test conditions shall be:

3.2

Temperature

2 for temperatures <100C


3 for temperatures >100C

Rate of change
of temperature

<3C per minute

Humidity

See individual tests

Pressure

5%

Time

-0/+1% up to a maximum of 15 min

Wider tolerances may be permitted in the following situations:


(a)

3.3

For large chambers/equipments, for example volume >0.5m, temperature tolerance may be
increased to 3C up to 100C and 5C for temperatures >100C. The actual tolerance
achieved should be stated in the test report.

Further guidance on test tolerances is given in BS EN60068.

3.4 Any deviation from the specified tolerances shall be agreed with the Test Specifier and the reason
stated in the Test Report.

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STANDARD LABORATORY CONDITIONS

4.1

When Standard Laboratory Conditions are specified in this Standard the following limits shall apply:
Temperature

+15C to +35C

Relative Humidity

25% to 75%

Air Pressure

860 to 1060 mbar

4.2 These conditions are identical to the Standard Atmospheric Conditions for Testing specified in BS
EN60068-1.
4.3 Any deviation from the specified conditions shall be agreed with the Test Specifier and the reason
stated in the Test Report.
5

STANDARD REFERENCE CONDITIONS

5.1 When the performance of a specimen is known to be sensitive to temperature, pressure and/or
humidity and measurements are required for reference purposes, unless otherwise specified, the
measurements shall be made at one or more of the following conditions as appropriate:
Temperature

+24C to +26C

Relative Humidity

45% to 55%

Air Pressure

860 to 1060 mbar

5.2 Any deviation from the specified conditions shall be agreed with the Test Specifier and the reason
stated in the Test Report.
6

TEST APPARATUS

6.1 Test apparatus shall be capable of providing the conditions required within their 'working space'
which shall be of such a volume that the test specimen bulk does not adversely affect the control of the
chamber within the required tolerances. It is recommended that the volume of the working space of the
test chamber is at least six times the volume of the test specimen.
6.2 Chamber heat sources shall be located such that the specimen does not receive direct radiant heat
unless this is a requirement of the test, as for example in the Solar Radiation test.
6.3 Excessive airflow over test specimens can result in a marked reduction in the temperature rise of a
test specimen which is either:
(a)

Self heating
and/or

(b)

Being subjected to solar radiation testing.

6.3.1
Air velocity adjacent to the test specimen in the situations above shall be as low as
practicable whilst maintaining adequate temperature control.
6.4 The ability of test facilities to simulate environmental conditions within the specified tolerances and
the accuracy of associated instrumentation shall be verified periodically to the satisfaction of an
independent Quality Assurance Authority.

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CONFIGURATION AND MOUNTING OF TEST SPECIMEN

7.1 Wherever possible, materiel should be tested as complete equipments. Where for reasons of cost,
size of test facility, handling capability etc, it is necessary to test systems or sub-systems of a large
specimen separately, the breakdown shall be agreed with the Test Specifier and recorded in the test
report.
7.2 Mounting of the specimen in the test facility should simulate the installation in service as closely as
practicable. Care should be taken to minimise unrepresentative supporting structures, orientation or
attitude, thermal screening and mixing of incompatible stores which could influence the conduct of the
test.
8

SUPPLIES AND SERVICE

8.1 Supplies and services (electrical power, air, hydraulics supplies etc) required for operating the
specimen, should, where practicable, be derived from or simulated by sources identical to, or typical of,
those provided in service. Individual test specifications should state characteristics of the supplies and
services required. Preferably they should be adjusted to their tolerance limits during performance tests to
subject the specimen to its greatest operational disadvantage.
9

INITIAL MEASUREMENTS

9.1 Before any environmental test or test sequence, the specimen shall be electrically and
mechanically examined and performance measured in accordance with the relevant specification. Unless
otherwise specified these measurements should be made with the specimen in the environmental
enclosure ready for testing.
10

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

10.1 Performance evaluation may be required before, during or on completion of a test or test
sequence. Performance evaluation shall include measurement, functional demonstration and visual
examination of specimens to assess any degradation incurred as a result of environmental testing.
10.2 For one-shot devices such as munitions, which are destroyed when operated a suitable allocation
of specimens, between functioning tests and strip-down examination shall be made. The ratio between
these will vary from one munition to another and will depend on relative amounts of information expected
from the two approaches.
10.3 Test equipment and instruments used to monitor specimen performance shall, unless otherwise
specified, be quantitative and capable of providing an accurate assessment of the specimen both within
and outside the specified tolerances for operational performance.
10.4 Equipment and instrumentation used to verify accuracy shall unless otherwise agreed with the test
specifier:

11

(a)

Conform to laboratory standard.

(b)

Have a maximum error of no more than one third of the tolerance of the parameter to be
measured.

(c)

Have calibration traceable to National Standards.

FINAL MEASUREMENT

11.1 On completion of any test or sequence of tests, the test specimen shall be electrically,
mechanically and visually examined as appropriate in accordance with the relevant specification.

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12

MODELLING

12.1 Test specimens are often in short supply. For some climatic tests it may be possible to use
computer modelling, now or in the future, to assist in determining the effects of the particular environment
and where failures are likely to occur. It may also be used to determine the likely effects of changes to
input parameters (sensitivity analysis). Such modelling may be used to give added confidence to
individual test results. The use of modelling in sequential testing is more problematical. Aside from its
use in sensitivity analysis, modelling must be capable of representing adequately all the environments in
the sequence before its use can be considered in such situations.

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CHAPTER 3-01
TEST CL1 - CONSTANT HIGH TEMPERATURE - LOW HUMIDITY TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel stored or operated in locations where the ambient temperature is
high and remains at a relatively constant level. These conditions are found in enclosed spaces such as
ship's compartments, machinery spaces, and vehicle and aircraft engine compartments, where the
temperature is mainly influenced by heat from equipment and/or machinery.
1.2 Four test procedures are defined covering high temperature with sudden or gradual change of
temperature for both heat-dissipating and non-heat- dissipating items.
1.3 The preferred durations for the tests are not applicable for assessing long term effects, and
guidance should be sought on the specification of duration if such assessments are required.
1.4 This test is technically similar to BS EN60068-2-2 Part 2 Tests B Dry Heat except for the
differences detailed in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc.) given later in this chapter.
2.2

Test selection
2.2.1

The test procedures of BS EN60068-2-2 are subdivided as follows:

(a)

Test Ba - Dry heat tests for non-heat-dissipating materiel with sudden change of
temperature

(b)

Test Bb - Dry heat tests for non-heat-dissipating materiel with gradual change of
temperature

(c)

Test Bc - Dry heat tests for heat-dissipating materiel with sudden change of temperature

(d)

Test Bd - Dry heat tests for heat-dissipating materiel with gradual change of temperature

2.2.2
The procedures given below are normally intended for materiel which achieves
temperature stability during the performance of the test procedure and the duration of the test
commences at the time when temperature stability of the specimen has been reached.
2.2.3
For the exceptional cases when the specimen does not reach temperature stability
during the performance of the test procedure, the duration of the test commences at the time when the
test chamber reaches the test temperature.
2.2.4
BS 2011 Parts 3A and B contains guidance on the following parameters that should be
specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
(a)

The rate of change of temperature in the test chamber

(b)

The time at which the specimen is introduced into the test chamber

(c)

The time at which the exposure commences

(d)

The time at which the specimen is energised and for how long

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2.3

Heat-dissipating versus non-heat-dissipating materiel

2.3.1
Materiel is considered heat-dissipating, if, with power applied or when operational the
hottest point on its surface, measured in free air conditions with no forced air circulation, is more than 5C
above the ambient temperature of the surrounding atmosphere after temperature stability has been
reached. For these cases Tests Bc and Bd apply.
2.3.2
When, the Environmental Test Specification calls for a test demonstrating survival
without power applied (eg to simulate storage) then the appropriate tests are Ba and Bb.
2.4

Non-heat-dissipating materiel

2.4.1
In Test Ba (sudden change of temperature) the specimen is introduced into the test
chamber with the chamber at the temperature specified for the test. Test Ba has been introduced as a
convenient and time-saving method, and it should be used only when it is known that the effects of a
sudden change of temperature are not detrimental to the test specimen. Where a test covering a sudden
change of temperature is required then Test CL14 in Chapter 3-14 is more appropriate.
2.4.2
In Test Bb (gradual change of temperature) the specimen is introduced into the test
chamber with the latter at the laboratory ambient temperature. The temperature in the chamber is then
increased gradually so as to cause no detrimental effects on the specimen due to the temperature
change.
2.5

Heat-dissipating materiel
2.5.1

When testing heat-dissipating specimens, it is preferable not to use forced air circulation.

2.5.2
However, if the only practicable procedure is to use forced air circulation, then there are
two methods which may be employed, the detailed implementation of which is given in BS EN 60068-2-2.

2.6

(a)

Method A: This method applies where the chamber is large enough to comply with the
requirements for testing without forced air circulation, but where the homogeneous
conditions cannot be maintained without circulating the air in the chamber.

(b)

Method B: This method applies where the requirements of Method A cannot be met. With
this method pre-test measurements and calculations related to heat dissipated by the
specimen are required, to establish test conditions.

Test severities

2.6.1
The temperature severities have in general been selected to cover a wide range of user
applications but with increments compatible with a number of preferred levels. The appropriate severity
for testing should be selected from Clause 5 below. Unless it is essential that the test temperature
(severity) does not exceed the actual known environment, the chosen severity should be the nearest
value in excess of the anticipated conditions.
2.6.2
Normally the duration of the test should be such as to ensure a specified period at the
test temperature following thermal stabilization of the specimen. Two deviations are permitted to allow
completion of a test either within a working day or overnight, but consideration should be given to ensuring
compatibility of the test duration with the thermal time constant of the specimen.
2.6.3
For applications where the period at high temperature will be such that the specimen will
not reach thermal stabilization, the Environmental Test Specification should specify a duration related to
the in-service conditions. Supplement No. 1 to BS 2011 Part 3A and B gives advice on test procedures
where temperature stability is not achieved during the test.

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2.6.4
Normally the rate of change of temperature in Tests Bb and Bd should not exceed 1C
per minute but this may be increased to up to 3C per minute where it is representative of in-service
conditions and should be specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.7

Performance evaluation

2.7.1
The materiel should be operated at the appropriate phase of the test to produce the
highest internal temperature levels representative of operational and environmental use conditions. For a
non-heat-dissipating specimen a demonstration of performance is generally acceptable if carried out
immediately following the specified duration.
2.7.2
In the case of a heat-dissipating specimen, operation should be representative of the
most adverse duty cycle, or where there is no defined duty cycle, should continue for a period to allow
internal temperatures to restabilize at their highest level. In general, one or more of the following
procedures may apply:
(a)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made at significant
phases of the test, for example, immediately after operation commences and toward the end
of the operating phase.

(b)

Operation commencing only when the specimen has stabilized at the test temperature, and
performance evaluation made immediately following the start of the operating phase and/or
after internal temperatures have restabilized.

(c)

Operation as in (a) and (b) but with operation interrupted for a short period (several minutes)
after internal temperatures have attained their maximum level, to simulate a 'hot switch-on'.

2.7.3
For tests demonstrating survival or storage the specimen should be operated and a
performance evaluation made when the temperature has been returned to Standard Laboratory
Conditions or to a temperature given in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.7.4
Information'.

Further useful information is contained in BS 2011: Parts 3A and B, 'Background

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The temperature severity, rate of change of temperature and test duration

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(e)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(g)

The tolerance to be applied

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test shall be carried out in accordance with the appropriate procedure of BS EN60068-2-2 Part
2 Tests B Dry Heat unless otherwise specified in the Environmental Test Specification. The following
deviation is permitted.
4.1.1
The rate of change of temperature may be increased to up to 3C per minute if specified
by the Environmental Test Specification. (See paragraph 2.6.4).
4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the test procedure the specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Temperature
5.1.1

The preferred temperature severities are as follows:


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

30 2C
40 2C
55 2C
70 2C
85 2C

(F)
(G)
(H)
(J)
(K)

100 2C
125 2C
155 2C
175 2C
200 2C

5.1.2
In the absence of other considerations, temperatures above 200C and up to 100C
should be chosen from the following values:
(L)
(M)
(N)
(P)

250 2C
315 2C
400 2C
500 2C

(Q)
(R)
(S)

630 2C
800 2C
1000 2C

5.1.3
Where, due to the size of the chamber, it is not feasible to maintain tolerances of 2C,
the tolerance may be widened to 3C up to 100C and 5C above 100C. The test report shall declare
whenever this wider tolerance was applied.
5.2

Duration

5.2.1
After the specimen has stabilized at the test temperature, the preferred durations are a
minimum period of:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

2h
16h
72h
96h

5.2.2
To allow the test to be accommodated around normal working hours, the following
deviations from the (standard) test procedure may be used:
(a)

To complete the test within a working day, not less than 6 hours at the test temperature

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(b)

To allow overnight working not less than 16 hours at the test temperature

5.2.3
Where this test procedure is used in connection with tests associated with endurance or
reliability, guidance should be sought on the duration of the test.
5.2.4
If the only purpose of the test is to demonstrate whether the materiel functions correctly
at high temperature, the conditioning may be limited to a time such that the specimen has reached
temperature stability. In no case shall the duration be less than 30 minutes.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


BS EN60068-2-2
Part 2
BS 2011
Parts 3A and B
and Supplement No. 1

Environmental Testing
Tests B. Dry Heat
Environmental Testing
Tests A (cold) and Tests B (dry heat)

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to Tests Ba to Bd of BS EN60068-2-2 Part 2 Tests B Dry Heat. The
variations from the British Standard test are:
(a)

Increased rate of change of temperature of up 3C per minute is permitted in Tests Bb and


Bd where this is representative of in-service conditions

(b)

Duration of test: two additional durations may exceptionally be used to accommodate the
test around normal working hours

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CHAPTER 3-02
TEST CL2 - HIGH TEMPERATURE, LOW HUMIDITY AND SOLAR HEATING DIURNAL CYCLE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel located or housed in hot dry conditions where the temperature of
any part of the equipment is directly or indirectly influenced by solar radiation. This test is not suitable for
evaluation of components.
1.2 This test is only concerned with the heating effects of solar radiation. Where it is necessary to
consider other effects, such as material degradation, then the use of the Test CL3 - "Solar Radiation Test"
(See Chapter 3-03) should be considered.
1.3 In those storage or transit conditions where the diurnal variations are so small as to have
insignificant effect on the materiel, the use of the Test CL1 - "Constant High Temperature - Low Humidity
Test" (See Chapter 3-01) may be considered.
1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc.) later in this chapter.
2.2

Test selection
2.2.1

Test Procedure 'A'

(a)

Where a realistic simulation of the service conditions is required, Test Procedure 'A' should
be used. This test procedure is designed either to subject the test specimen to measured
conditions specific to the particular application, or to follow the diurnal temperature - humidity
cycles derived from meteorological data presented in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01
(A1, A2 and A3 meteorological or storage categories).

(b)

For this test procedure a chamber will be required which can provide the radiant heating
effect of solar radiation. This is usually achieved with arrays of lamps. Although, for this
test, it is not necessary to provide the same spectral distribution as natural sunlight, it may
be necessary to adjust the intensity of the radiation in order to provide the correct heating
effect. For example, if the source of radiation is high in the infra-red (IR) region and the test
piece is painted with IR reflective paint, it will be necessary to increase the radiation intensity
above the values given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4. To derive a representative temperature
cycle it may be necessary to carry out a limited number of cycles from Test CL3 - "Solar
Radiation Test" (see Chapter 3-03). In such cases it may not be necessary to use lamps
with a spectrum fully representative of solar radiation.

2.2.2
(a)

Test Procedure 'B'


Test Procedure 'B' is intended to facilitate testing in those circumstances where close
simulation is not necessary. The procedure simulates the direct heating effects of solar
radiation by artificially increasing the test temperatures above those that would occur
naturally.

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(b)

2.3

This method severely reduces the performance of heat dissipating surfaces, and other
systems reliant on a correct air temperature; for example, manpack radios, air conditioning
systems, propellants, explosives, and the majority of complete equipments. Procedure 'A'
must therefore be adopted for testing heat-dissipating materiel under meteorological
conditions.

Test severities

2.3.1
The severity of a test is dependent on the temperature/ humidity cycle chosen, and the
number of cycles used.
2.3.2

Procedure 'A'

(a)

The cycles to be used with Procedure 'A' are selected from either a measured climate, or
from the category 'A' environmental conditions given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 according to
the predicted deployment of the equipment and the requirement for either meteorological or
storage/transit conditions. Meteorological conditions are measured under standard states of
ventilation and radiation shielding (fully ventilated Stevenson Screen), whereas storage and
transit conditions occur in shelters when exposed to direct solar radiation. The category 'A'
environmental conditions given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 include both meteorological and
storage conditions, and these should be used unless measured data are available.

(b)

Heat-dissipating equipment in poorly ventilated enclosures will be subjected to higher


temperatures than those Storage/Transit conditions given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4
Chapter 1-01. Higher temperatures will also occur by the 'greenhouse effect' in, for
example, aircraft cockpits. In these conditions the magnitude of the increase in temperature
should either be measured directly, or be estimated by the Test Specifier, and added to the
appropriate temperatures of Procedure 'A'.

2.3.3

Procedure 'B'

(a)

Severity 'A' (55C) is applicable to equipment used in hot dry tropical areas of the world,
under cover in fully ventilated locations, such as open cabins and sun shaded areas, and
where the direct effects of solar heating are fully excluded.

(b)

Severity 'B' (70C) relates to similar regions of deployment, but with an allowance made for
the effect of solar heating. It is applicable to equipment housed under cover, where there is
little or no ventilation, and where the effects of solar heating of the cover cause a rise in the
air temperature adjacent to the equipment. Some examples are: enclosed vehicle bodies,
aircraft zones having surfaces exposed to the solar heating, tents, etc.; where the external
surface finish, or colour of the covers avoids excess intake of solar heating (absorptance not
exceeding 60%). Severity 'B' may also be applied with caution to tests on equipments used
in the open in hot dry tropical areas of the world.

(c)

Severity 'C' (85C) is similar to 'B', but makes a greater allowance for the effects of solar
radiation; it can be considered applicable to equipment housed in vehicles, etc., which have
a surface finish highly absorptive to solar heating, for example olive drab green, or in
enclosed compartments having glazed or transparent panels, such as aircraft cabins,
radomes, or vehicles. (Absorptance greater than or equal to 60%.)

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2.4

Test duration

2.4.1
The number of test cycles to be applied will depend upon the thermal characteristics of
the equipment, namely thermal capacity, physical size, thermal transfer etc. The important requirement is
to apply a sufficient number of cycles to produce the highest temperature within the equipment that could
result from repeated diurnal cycling. In this connection, specimens having a long thermal time constant
may require three or more diurnal cycles to achieve maximum temperature. The test can be limited to
one cycle if thermal stabilisation is achieved during the upper temperature phase.
2.4.2
For equipment containing components manufactured from plastics or rubbers and/or
containing explosive materials, it may be necessary to simulate conditions of long-term storage, that is a
large number of cycles, during which mechanical stresses and chemical degradation may cause cracking
or deformation of materials including structural components, exudation of materials, or leakage past
seals.
2.4.3
2.5

In the case of explosives, further guidance may be obtained from the Ordnance Board.

Performance evaluation

2.5.1
Equipment should be operated at the most adverse phases of the test cycle, which for
most applications would be at switch-on or start-up at the commencement of the high temperature phase.
However, excessive operation of equipment which generates heat should be avoided, since this could
mitigate both long and short-term effects of this test. For long-term tests a performance evaluation not
more frequent than every seventh cycle is recommended.
2.5.2
For tests demonstrating survival only, the equipment should be operated, and a
performance evaluation made, when the temperature and humidity have been returned to Standard
Laboratory Conditions. If required, a recovery period should be specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle, severities and durations to be used (for example A1 Storage Cycle or
Severity 'C')

(d)

The number of cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate, and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging, or unpackaged

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

The tolerances to be applied

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

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TEST PROCEDURES

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply.
4.1.1

Test Procedure 'A'

(a)

The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions,
making any connections necessary for power supplies, test signals, and performance
monitoring as required.

(b)

The test chamber shall be programmed to follow the diurnal cycle defined by the
Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The number of test cycles specified by the Environmental Test Specification shall be
applied.

4.1.2

Test Procedure 'B'

(a)

The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions,
making any connections necessary for power supplies, test signals, and performance
monitoring as required.

(b)

The chamber temperature shall be adjusted, at a rate not exceeding 3C/minute, to 30C.
This temperature shall be maintained until the specimen has stabilised at the test chamber
temperature.

(c)

The chamber temperature shall then be raised, at an approximately uniform rate, over a
period of six hours to the specified upper temperature level.

(d)

The chamber temperature shall be maintained at this upper temperature level for a period of
four hours.

(e)

At the completion of this period, the chamber temperature shall be allowed to fall at an
approximately uniform rate, over a further period of 10 hours to the lower level of 30C.

(f)

If the test cycle of 4.1.2 (c) and (d) above is to be repeated, the chamber temperature shall
first be maintained at 30C for a period of four hours.

(g)

Throughout the test, the humidity shall not exceed 75% RH, or a water vapour pressure of 3
kPa whichever is the lesser.

4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the above the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test severities for Procedure 'A' shall be selected in accordance with the guidance given earlier
in this test.

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5.2

The temperature severities for Procedure 'B' are detailed in Table 1.


TABLE 1
TEMPERATURE SEVERITIES FOR PROCEDURE B
Severity

Location

Upper Test temperature

Duration
The Number of
cycles will depend
upon the thermal
capacity of the
specimen.
See
para 2.5

Ventilated shade

55C

Unventilated absorptance <60%

70C

Unventilated absorptance >60%

85C

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 3-01

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL1 - Constant High Temperature - Low Humidity Test

Chapter 3-03

Test CL3 - Solar Radiation Test

Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Natural Environments
Worldwide Ambient Air Temperature and Humidity Conditions
and levels of direct Solar Radiation relating to the Climatic
Categories

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Chapter 3-02

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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CHAPTER 3-03
TEST CL3 - SOLAR RADIATION TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is for use only when close simulation of the spectral distribution of solar radiation is
required, such as for assessment of material degradation or a combination of degradation and thermal
response.
1.2 This test is applicable to those items of materiel which will be fully exposed, packaged or
unpackaged, to solar radiation.
1.3 Tests CL2 - "High Temperature, Low Humidity and Solar Heating - Diurnal Cycle Test" and CL6 "High Temperature, Humidity and Solar Heating - Diurnal Cycle Test" (See Chapters 3-02 and 3-06
respectively) should be considered when only the thermal response requires to be assessed. However, in
certain cases, where, for example, paint finishes with unusual characteristics have been applied, it may
be necessary to use this test to establish realistic temperature cycles for application in Tests CL2 and
CL6.
1.4 This test is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1 Sa: Test Sa Simulated solar radiation at ground
level.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 This test is of a specialised nature and expert advice should be sought before specifying the test,
however, the following guidance is provided to assist in the selection of the test procedure and test
severities to be applied. Further guidance is given in Annex A to this test and Chapter 3-01 of Part 4 to
this standard.
2.2

General

2.2.1
Solar radiation has two significant effects, viz the surface heating resulting from
absorption of the radiant energy, and degradation of materials caused mainly by the ultra violet radiation.
2.2.2
It is recommended that where possible, materiel is tested by exposure to natural solar
radiation in preference to the procedures described below. The use of test sites such as the one at
JTTRE Innisfail Queensland Australia not only provides a high level of solar radiation, but also allows
concurrent exposure to, for example, rainfall and biological attack.
2.2.3
The need for this test will depend on, among other things, assessment of the materials
and surface finishes of a potential test specimen, whether retention of a significant proportion of their
initial properties is important, and the likely degree of exposure to damaging radiation. Plastics, rubbers,
paints and natural products are materials commonly affected by solar radiation.
2.2.4
Thermal effects include mechanical stressing resulting from different coefficients of
thermal expansion. The combination of such stressing with degradation may be important in establishing
whether failure occurs.
2.3

Test Procedure

2.3.1
Four alternative procedures are specified in this test, of which Procedure 'D' is preferred.
Where thermal response of the specimen as opposed to actinic degradations is of interest, either
Procedure 'E' or 'F' may be used, which both give a total irradiation of approximately 9 kWh/m per cycle.
Procedure 'F' should only be used for those applications where thermal stabilisation would normally be
achieved within one diurnal cycle and is not generally recommended.

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2.3.2
Acceleration of the test, for degradation purposes, by increasing the irradiance above the
specified level is not recommended, as this can produce anomalous results. Exposure to Procedure 'G'
will give an acceleration factor of approximately 2.5 compared with Procedures 'D', 'E' and 'F' which
approximate to the most severe natural conditions.
2.4

Simulation of solar radiation

2.4.1
To obtain a reasonably close simulation of the spectral energy distribution of natural solar
radiation it is necessary to use Xenon or Carbon Arc lamps in combination with suitable filters.
2.4.2
The intensity of solar radiation, on a plane normal to the sun's rays, is not significantly
less in the temperate areas of the world, than in the tropics. For this reason only one level of radiation
intensity is recommended for Procedures 'E', 'F', and 'G'.
2.4.3
In most instances it should be sufficient to maintain the position of the lamps vertically
over the specimen. However, where stressing across the specimen is likely to be significant, the lamps
should be moved over the specimen during the test to represent the daily track of the sun.
2.5

Temperature severity

2.5.1
The most realistic simulation is obtained by using the meteorological diurnal temperature
and radiation cycles quoted in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01 for the applicable climatic category.
When realistic simulation is not important, temperature cycles of 25 to 40C for climatic category A3
(Severity X) or 30 to 55C for category A1 (Severity Y) may be used. (See Figures 1 and 2.)
2.6

Test duration

2.6.1
A duration of 10 cycles (Severity H) is normally applicable to materiel which is
occasionally used out of doors, such as portable items of test equipment. A duration of 56 cycles
(Severity J) would generally be appropriate for materiel frequently or continuously exposed to outdoor
conditions.
2.7

Humidity

2.7.1
Different humidity conditions can markedly affect photo chemical degradation of
materials, paints, plastics, etc., but requirements can be so varied that no attempt has been made to
specify preferred humidity levels. Individual requirements should be clearly stated in the Environmental
Test Specification, for example a four hour period of high humidity could be specified at the
commencement of Test Procedure 'G'.
2.8

Ozone and other contaminating gases

2.8.1
Ozone, generated by short wavelength ultra-violet radiation from test sources, should
normally be excluded from the test chamber by the radiation filter(s) used to correct the spectral energy
distribution. As ozone and other contaminating gases can affect significantly the degradation processes
of certain materials, it is important to exclude these gases from the test chamber, unless otherwise
specifically required by the Environmental Test Specification.
2.9

Performance evaluation

2.9.1
Test specimens should be operated at the appropriate phase of the test to produce the
highest internal temperature levels representative of operational and environmental use conditions. For
non-heat-dissipating materiel, a demonstration of performance is generally acceptable if carried out
immediately following the specified duration. In the case of heat- dissipating materiel, operation should be
representative of the most adverse duty cycle, or, where there is no defined duty cycle, should continue
for a period to allow internal temperatures to restabilise at their highest level.

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2.9.2

In general, one or more of the following procedures may apply:

(a)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made at significant
phases of the test for example immediately after operation commences and toward the end
of the operating phase.

(b)

Operation commencing only when the test specimen has stabilised at the test temperature,
and performance evaluation made immediately following the start of the operating phase
and/or after internal temperatures have restabilised.

(c)

Operation as in (a) and (b) but with operation interrupted for a short period (several minutes)
after internal temperatures have attained their maximum level, to simulate a 'hot switch-on'.

(d)

Munitions should be functioned at the maximum temperature reached during the test, either
at the end of the test itself or, preferably, at the end of a sequence of environmental tests.

2.9.3
For tests demonstrating survival only, the test specimen should be operated and a
performance evaluation made when the temperature has been returned to Standard Laboratory
Conditions or to a temperature given in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.9.4
Additionally one or more test specimens may be broken down and examined in order to
quantify the degradation caused by the test. (See paragraph 7 of Annex A).
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle and the test severities to be applied

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged and whether
any surface contamination of the specimen should be represented.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met

(h)

The method of mounting including details of any substrate and the orientation of the
specimen with respect to the source of radiation. Also whether a progressive change in the
relative position of the radiation source is required. (See Annex A).

(j)

Details of any requirements for humidity and simulation of the effects of wind

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(l)

Any additional parameters to be monitored

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber on the specified substrate or mounting, in its
normal operational attitude at Standard Laboratory Conditions.
4.2 The specimen shall then be exposed to one of the following test procedures, using carbon or
xenon arc lamps, for the specified number of test cycles:
Procedure 'D'. - a 24 hour cycle with the irradiance and temperature following the profile(s)
given DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01 for A1, A2 or A3 Climatic categories.
Procedure 'E'. - (See Figure 1) - a 24 hour cycle with the irradiance increased at an
approximately uniform rate from zero to the specified intensity in 4 hours maintained at that
intensity for 4 hours, then reduced to zero at an approximately uniform rate over a period of 4
hours followed by 12 hours of darkness.
Procedure 'F'. - (See Figure 2) - a 24 hour cycle with 8 hours irradiation at full intensity and 16
hours darkness.
Procedure 'G'. - (See Figure 3) - a 24 hour cycle with 20 hours irradiation at full intensity and 4
hours darkness.
4.3 The irradiance shall have the spectral distribution given in Table 1. For Procedure 'D' the intensity
shall be varied in accordance with that given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01 within an accuracy
of 10%. For Procedures 'E', 'F' and 'G' the maximum intensity shall be 1120 W/m within an accuracy of
10%. The radiation shall as far as is practicable, be directed on to the specimen as a collimated beam
and shall irradiate the surface(s) specified by the Environmental Test Specification. The value of 1120
W/m shall include any radiation reflected from the test chamber walls and received by the specimen but it
should not include long-wave IR radiation emitted by the chamber walls. Where it could have a significant
effect on the final heat balance, the specimen/radiation source shall be progressively adjusted to simulate
the angular movement of the sun (eg through 180 degrees in 12 hours). It should be noted that intensity
measurements in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01 refer to a flat horizontal surface and this should
be taken into account when the sun's angular movement is being simulated.
4.4 The air temperature inside the test chamber shall be controlled throughout the test in accordance
with the temperature/time relationship appropriate to the specified test procedure. (Figures 1, 2 and 3.)
4.5 Where degradation effects are to be assessed, the humidity and any other specified environmental
conditions shall be maintained at the levels required by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.6 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.7 The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as required by the Environmental Test
Specification.

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TABLE 1
SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AND PERMITTED TOLERANCES
(Derived from BS 2011 : Part 2.1 Sa, Table 1)
SPECTRAL
REGION

ULTRAVIOLET

VISIBLE

Bandwidth

0.30m0.40m

0.40m0.52m

0.52m0.64m

Irradiance

68W/m

200W/m

Tolerance

25%

10%

NOTE:

INFRARED

TOTAL
RADIATION

0.64m0.78m

0.78m3.00m

0.30m3.00m

186W/m

174W/m

492W/m

1120W/m

10%

10%

20%

10%

Radiation shorter than 0.30m reaching the earth's surface


insignificant.

may be considered as

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 For each test procedure, the test severity is defined by the radiation intensity, the temperature cycle
and the number of test cycles. The preferred severities are as follows:
(a)

(b)

Procedure

Temperature/Irradiance

D
D
D

A1 - (32 to 49C)
A2 - (30 to 44C)
A3 - (28 to 39C)

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 4
Chapter 1-01

E, F or G
E, F or G

X - (25 to 40C)
Y - (30 to 55C)

Fig.1 for Proc.'E',


Fig.2 for Proc.'F' and Fig.3 for
Proc.'G'

Duration
H
J

10 cycles
56 cycles

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


BS 2011
Part 2.1 Sa

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures


Test Sa - Simulated solar radiation at ground level

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-02

Environmental Handbook for Defence Material


Environmental Testing
Test CL2 - High temperature, low humidity and solar heating diurnal cycle test
Test CL6 - High temperature, humidity and solar heating diurnal cycle

Chapter 3-06

Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Chapter 3-01

Natural Environments
World-wide Ambient Air Temperature and Humidity Conditions
and Levels of Direct Solar Radiation Relating to the Climatic
Categories
Solar Radiation

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COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1 Sa: Test Sa - Simulated solar radiation at
ground level.

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Figure 1 Radiation/temperature cycle Procedure "E"

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Chapter 3-03

Figure 2 Radiation/temperature cycle Procedures F

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Figure 3 Radiation/temperature cycle Procedure G only

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Annex A
ANNEX A
DETAILED GUIDANCE ON SOLAR RADIATION TESTING
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 This document describes methods of simulation designed to examine the effects of solar radiation
on equipment. The main quantities to be simulated are the spectral energy distribution of the sun as
observed at the earth's surface and the intensity of received energy, in combination with controlled
temperature conditions. However it may be necessary to consider combination of solar radiation including sky radiation - with other environments, such as humidity, air velocity etc.
2

IRRADIANCE AND SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION

2.1 The effect of radiation on the equipment will depend mainly on the level of irradiance and its
spectral distribution.
2.1.1

Irradiance

The irradiance by the sun on a plane perpendicular to the incident radiation, outside the earth's
atmosphere at the mean earth-sun distance, is known as the solar constant IO [12]. The irradiance at the
surface of the earth is influenced by the solar constant and the attenuation and scattering of radiation in
the atmosphere. For test purposes a maximum intensity of 1120 W/m is specified to simulate the global
(total) radiation at the surface of the earth from sun and sky, with the sun at zenith, based on a solar
constant Io = 1350 W/m [22]. The true solar constant is thought to be about 1365-1370 W/m.
2.1.2

Spectral distribution - Sea Level v High Altitude

At high altitude solar radiation contains a greater proportion of damaging UV radiation than at sea
level. Although the internationally agreed spectrum (Table 1 of Chapter 3-03, given in more detail in
Table 2) recommended for general testing is a closer representation of the real environment at 4-5 km
above sea level, this standard spectrum is recommended for use at both sea level and high altitude (See
Chapter 3-17). In the latter case degradation may be expected to proceed at up to twice the rate at sea
level and test exposure periods should be increased accordingly.

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TABLE 2
DETAILED SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBAL RADIATION
SPECTRAL
REGION

BANDWIDTH
m

IRRADIANCE
w/m

IRRADIANCE
%

Ultra-violet*

0.30 - 0.36
0.36 - 0.40

32
36

2.9
3.2

0.40 - 0.44
0.44 - 0.48
0.48 - 0.52

56
73
71

5.0
6.5
6.3

0.52 - 0.56
0.56 - 0.64

65
121

5.8
10.8

0.64 - 0.68
0.68 - 0.72
0.72 - 0.78

55
52
67

4.9
4.6
6.0

0.78 - 1.0
1.0 - 1.2
1.2 - 1.4
1.4 - 1.6
1.6 - 1.8
1.8 - 2.0
2.0 - 2.5
2.5 - 3.0

176
108
65
44
29
20
35
15
______

15.7
9.7
5.8
3.9
2.6
1.8
3.1
1.4
_______

1120
______

100.0
_______

Visible

Infra-red

* NOTE:

Radiation shorter than 0.30 m reaching the earth's surface is insignificant.

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

3.1

Surface contamination

3.1.1
Dust and other surface contamination may significantly change the absorption
characteristics of irradiated surfaces. Unless otherwise required, test specimens should be tested in a
clean condition. However, if effects of surface contamination are to be assessed, the Environmental Test
Specification should include the necessary information on preparation of surfaces etc.

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3.2

Air velocity

3.2.1
Attention is drawn to the possible cooling effects of air flow over equipment. This can
also result in misleading errors in open-type thermopiles used to monitor radiation intensity; ventilation of
pyranometers may however be necessary to keep the glass domes cool. An airflow of as little as one
metre per second can effect a reduction in temperature rise of over 20%. In practice, high solar radiation
conditions are rarely accompanied by complete absence of wind. It may be necessary, therefore, to
assess the effect of different air velocities over an equipment under test. The equipment specification
should state any special requirements in this respect. It is essential therefore to measure and control the
rate of air flow.
3.3

Substrate, mounting attitude, etc.

3.3.1
As the thermal properties of the substrate and method of mounting can significantly affect
the temperature rise of the equipment these factors must be carefully considered, so that the heat
transfer is representative of typical use. The equipment will probably be required to be mounted either on
raised supports or on a substrate of specified properties, for example a layer of concrete of specified
thickness or a sand bed of certain conductivity, etc. Full details of the substrate, method of mounting and
attitude of the equipment should be given in the equipment specification.
4

RADIATION SOURCES

4.1

General

4.1.1
The radiation source may comprise one or more lamps and their associated optical
components, such as reflectors, filters, etc. to provide the required spectral distribution and irradiance.
The high pressure xenon arc lamp with filters can provide the best spectral match [1]. Mercury vapour
and xenon-mercury lamps have considerable deficiencies in matching which would lead to error [2]. The
carbon arc, with specially doped electrodes, has been widely used but presents difficulties of stability and
maintenance and is therefore not generally favoured. Tungsten lamps may also be used but see
paragraph 4.3.1 below. Characteristics of these sources, features of filters, optical arrangements, etc. are
covered in the following paragraphs. Further information can also be found in [2].
4.2

Xenon lamps

4.2.1
The configuration and size of the lamp(s) used will depend on the test required. The
relative spectral distribution of the xenon arc radiation has been found to be substantially independent of
lamp power [3]. However, variation of lamp power will change the temperature of the electrodes and
hence the spectral distribution of their radiation. With long arc lamps, it is relatively simple to mask off the
electrode radiation. The form of construction of the short arc lamp leads to considerably wider
manufacturing variation compared with the long arc, a point of particular importance when replacement
becomes necessary. Routine replacement of either type of lamp will be needed, since the emission will
change continuously with life and there may be quite wide variations of the life characteristic from lamp to
lamp.
4.3

Tungsten filament lamps

4.3.1
Because of their deficiency of ultra-violet radiation, tungsten lamps are unsuitable for
tests for degradation purposes. Serious discrepancies can also occur in results obtained in tests for
thermal effects, unless the considerable difference in spectral energy distribution compared with natural
solar radiation is taken into account (see also the remarks under Test Procedure in Chapter 3-03). The
major part of the radiant energy from the tungsten lamp is in the infra-red with maximum intensity at about
1.0 m, whereas approximately 50% of solar energy is in the visible and ultra-violet bands that is at
wavelengths less than 0.7 m. The quartz halogen type of tungsten lamp has an improved consistency of
performance during its life [4].

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4.4

Carbon arc

4.4.1
Under certain conditions, the carbon arc can be made to provide radiation of a spectral
distribution somewhat similar to that of the sun as observed at ground level, but correcting filters are
needed, especially in the ultra-violet region. The combustible nature of the source has the disadvantages
of lack of precise location and of impermanence. Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of the carbon arc is
its burning away. Even with a carefully arranged feed mechanism, the continuous burning time is unlikely
to exceed 13 hours.
4.5

Mercury vapour lamps

4.5.1
Mercury vapour lamp radiation is deficient in the red and infra-red portions of the
spectrum, and the spectrum has some very high energy lines. The lamps have been used in conjunction
with tungsten filament lamps in solaria [5], and a combined mercury-xenon arc source has been used for
environmental testing purposes [6]. However, the strong spectral lines make the mercury arc generally
unacceptable as a simulated solar source.
4.6

Filters

4.6.1
Liquid filters have certain disadvantages, such as the possibility of boiling, the
temperature coefficient of spectral transmission, and long-term drift in spectral character [7]. The present
preference is therefore for glass filters to be used, although fundamentally a glass is not so accurately
reproducible as a chemical solution. Some trial and error may be necessary to compensate for different
optical densities by using different plate thicknesses [8]. Glass filters are proprietary articles and
manufacturers should be consulted concerning the choice of filters suitable for particular purposes. The
choice will depend on the source and its method of use. For example, a xenon source may be best
compensated by a combination of infra-red and ultra-violet absorbing filters [8]. Some glass infra-red
filters may be prone to rapid changes in spectral characteristics when exposed to excessive ultra-violet
radiation. This deterioration may be largely prevented by interposing the ultra-violet filter between the
source and the infra-red filter. Interference type filters, which function by reflecting instead of absorbing
the unwanted radiation, thus resulting in reduced heating of the glass, are generally more stable than
absorption filters.
4.7

Uniformity of irradiance

4.7.1
Owing to the distance of the sun from the earth, solar radiation appears at the earth's
surface as an essentially parallel beam. Artificial sources are relatively close to the working surface and
means of directing and focusing the beam must be provided with the aim of achieving a uniform
2
irradiance at the measurement plane within specification limits (1120 W/m + 10%). This is difficult to
achieve with a short-arc xenon lamp with a parabolic reflector, on account of shadows from the lamp
electrodes and supports. Also, the incandescence of the anode can produce considerable radiation at a
much lower colour temperature, slightly displaced from the main beam, if only the arc itself is at the focus
of the reflector. Uniform irradiation is more readily achieved with a long arc lamp mounted in a parabolic
'trough' type reflector. However, by employing very elaborate mounting techniques it is possible to
irradiate, with some degree of uniformity, a large surface by a number of short arc xenon lamps [9]. It is
generally advisable to locate radiation sources outside the test enclosure or chamber. This avoids
possible degradation of the optical components, for example by high humidity conditions, and
contamination of test specimens by ozone generated by xenon and other types of arc lamps. Precise
collimation of the radiation beam is not normally necessary except for testing special equipment such as
solar cells, solar tracking devices, etc. However, some of the simulation techniques developed for space
research purposes could be adapted for earth-surface solar radiation studies [10].

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5

INSTRUMENTATION

5.1

Measurements of irradiance

5.1.1
The type of instrument considered most suitable for monitoring the irradiance is a
pyranometer as used for measuring global (combined solar and sky) radiation on a horizontal plane. Two
types are suitable for measuring radiation from a simulated solar source. Each depends for its operation
on thermojunctions.
(a)

Moll-Gorczinski pyranometer. The Moll-Gorczinski pyranometer consists of 14 constantanmanganin strips (10 x 1 x 0.005 mm) arranged so that their 'hot' junctions lie on a plane and
are formed into a horizontal surface by means of a black varnish of low thermal conductivity.
The 'cold' junction ends are bent down to make good thermal connections with a copper
plate of large thermal capacity. The sensitive area is surmounted by two concentric glass
hemispheres.

(b)

Eppley precision spectral pyranometer [26]. The sensor is a circular 50 junction wire-wound
plated (copper-constantan) thermopile, enclosed in concentric clear-glass hemispheres, 30
mm and 50 mm in diameter. The outer hemisphere is interchangeable with another, either
of glass absorbing in particular wavelength bands or with a deposited interference type filter,
allowing the separation of radiation into well-defined wavelength intervals.

5.1.2
Neither of these instruments is significantly affected by long-wave IR radiation emitted by
the specimen or the test enclosure. A modification of the Moll-Gorczinski pyranometer, commonly known
as the Kipp solarimeter, is the instrument used by meteorological services in many countries. The Eppley
pyranometer is the one most widely used in the United States. The glass covers used in both these
instruments will cut off radiation at wavelengths greater than about 3 m; this is only significant when
unfiltered tungsten lamps are used and a correction factor would then be necessary. A useful survey of
calibration techniques for solar pyranometers is given in Reference 11 (see also Reference 27). Further
information will also be found in References 12 and 13.
5.2

Measurement of spectral distribution

5.2.1
Total intensity checks are readily made, but detailed checks on spectral characteristics
are more difficult. Major spectral changes can be checked by inexpensive routine measurements, using a
pyranometer in conjunction with selective filters [14]. For checking the detailed spectral distribution
characteristics of the facility it would be necessary to employ sophisticated spectroradiometric
instrumentation. However, there seems to be no practical obstacle to prevent this calibration being done
either as a service by the facility manufacturer or by visit from a national calibration centre. Correlation
should be achieved between the filter/pyranometer and spectroradiometric methods at regular intervals
[15 and 21]. Changes in the spectral characteristics of lamps, reflectors, and filters may occur over a
period of time which could result in the spectral distribution being seriously outside the permitted
tolerances. Manufacturing tolerances may mean that lamp replacement could result in unacceptable
changes in both the level of irradiation and spectral distribution compared with that initially set up. Regular
monitoring is therefore essential, but monitoring of the detailed spectral distribution within the test facility
may not be possible while an equipment is undergoing test.

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5.3

Measurement of temperature

5.3.1
Because of the high level of radiation, it is essential that temperature sensors are
adequately shielded from radiant heating effects. This applies to measuring air temperatures within the
test enclosure and monitoring induced temperatures of the test specimen. For air temperature
measurements, it is obviously impracticable to use the standard 'Stevenson' screen used for
meteorological measurements of 'shade temperature' as this is too cumbersome. A suitable alternative is
a thermocouple freely mounted in a radiation shield comprising a vertical cupro-nickel tube (approx. 1.5
cm dia x 7 cm) surmounted by a spaced metal hood, polished on the inside surface and painted white on
the outside. When monitoring test specimen temperatures, sensors, for example thermocouples, should
be located on the inside surfaces of the external case and not be attached to the outside surfaces.
Temperature-indicating paints and waxes are unsuitable for monitoring the temperature of irradiated
surfaces, as their absorption characteristics will not be the same.
6

PREPARATION OF TEST FACILITY AND EQUIPMENT UNDER TEST

6.1

Test facility

6.1.1
It is essential that the optical parts of the facility, lamps, reflectors, and filters, etc, are
clean. The level of irradiation over the specified measurement plane shall be measured immediately prior
to each test. Any ancillary environmental conditions, for example ambient temperature, also air velocity
and other parameters if specified, should be monitored continuously throughout the test.
6.2

Test Specimen

6.2.1
The method of mounting and the aspect of the test specimen relative to the direction of
radiation will have marked influences on the heating effects. The specimen should be mounted on raised
supports or on a substrate of specified properties, for example a layer of concrete of specified thickness
or a sand bed of certain conductivity. These requirements and the attitude and orientation of the
specimen should be stated in the Environmental Test Specification. Special attention should be paid to
the surfaces of the specimen to ensure the finish is clean or otherwise prepared in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification. (See paragraph 3.1.1 of this Annex). The heating effect on the
equipment under test will be largely affected by the condition of its external surfaces. Care must therefore
be exercised in handling the equipment, especially in avoiding oil-films and in ensuring that the surface
finish and its underlay are fully representative of production standards. Temperature sensors should be
attached to the specimen as required (see Paragraph 5.3.1).
7

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

7.1

Compliance with specification

7.1.1
The Environmental Test Specification should indicate the permitted changes in the
external conditions and/or performance of the equipment under test after exposure to the required level of
irradiation for the specified duration. In addition to such mandatory requirements, the following aspects of
interpretation may be considered.
7.2

Comparison with field experience

7.2.1
The effects of exposing material and equipment to solar radiation are well documented
[16 and 17] see also below. Any marked differences between the expected effects and the behaviour
under test conditions should be investigated and the basic cause established, viz whether caused by the
test equipment or procedure, or by some peculiarity in the specimen.
7.3

Thermal effects

7.3.1
The maximum surface and internal temperatures attained by a specimen or equipment
will depend on:

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(a)

Temperature of ambient air

(b)

Intensity of radiation

(c)

Air velocity

(d)

Duration of exposure

(e)

The thermal properties of the object itself, for example surface reflectance, size and shape,
thermal conductance, and specific heat

7.3.2
Equipment can attain temperatures in excess of 60C, if fully exposed to solar radiation in
an ambient temperature as low as 35-40C. The surface reflectance of an object affects its temperature
rise from solar heating to a major extent; changing the finish from say a dark colour to a gloss white will
effect a considerable reduction in temperature. Conversely, a pristine finish designed to reduce
temperature can be expected to deteriorate in time resulting in an increase in temperature [18]. Most
materials are selective reflectors, i.e. their spectral reflectance changes with wavelength. For instance,
paints in general are poor infra-red reflectors although they may be very efficient in the visible region.
Furthermore, the spectral reflectance of many materials change sharply in the visible (producing a colour
sensation to the human eye) and in the near infra-red. It is important therefore that the spectral energy
distribution of the radiation sources used in any simulated test should closely duplicate that of natural
solar radiation.
7.4

Degradation of materials

7.4.1
The combined effects of solar radiation, atmospheric gases, temperature, and humidity
changes, etc., are often collectively termed 'weathering' and result in the 'ageing' and ultimate destruction
of most organic materials (for example plastics, rubbers, paints, timber, etc.). Many materials which give
satisfactory service in temperate regions have been found to be completely unsuitable for use under the
more adverse conditions of the tropics. Typical defects are the rapid deterioration and breakdown of
paints, the cracking and disintegration of cable sheathing and the fading of pigments. The breakdown of
a material under weathering usually results not from a single reaction, but from several individual
reactions of different types occurring simultaneously, often with interacting effects [19 and 25]. Although
solar radiation, principally the ultra-violet, resulting in photo-degradation is often the major factor, its
effects can seldom be separated in practice from those of other weathering factors. An example is the
effect of ultra-violet radiation on polyvinyl chloride, where the apparent effects of ultra-violet radiation
alone are small, but its susceptibility to thermal breakdown, in which oxygen probably plays a major role,
is markedly increased. Unfortunately, artificial tests occasionally produce abnormal defects, which do not
occur under weathering. This can be often attributed to one or more of the following causes:
(a)

Many laboratory sources of ultra-violet radiation differ considerably from natural solar
radiation in spectral energy distribution

(b)

When the intensity of ultra-violet radiation, temperature, humidity, etc., are increased to
obtain accelerated effects, the rate of the individual reactions, which occur under normal
exposure conditions, are not necessarily increased to the same extent

(c)

The artificial tests, in general, do not simulate all the natural weathering factors

HAZARDS AND PERSONNEL SAFETY

8.1

General

8.1.1
The complex equipment employed for solar radiation testing purposes will necessarily
call for operation and maintenance by a skilled test staff, not only to ensure the correct prescribed
performance of the test but also by reason of the various health and safety hazards that have to be taken
into account.

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8.2

Ultra-violet radiation

8.2.1
The most obvious dangers that have to be guarded against are those associated with the
harmful effects of high intensity radiation in the near ultra-violet region. In natural sunlight, the eyes are
protected in two ways; the brightness of the sun makes it almost impossible to look directly at it, and the
ultra-violet radiation is considerably attenuated by the atmosphere. These protections may not apply to
artificial sources. The eyes must be protected by filtered goggles or viewing apertures, particularly when
setting up the equipment. All testing personnel should be warned that severe eye damage can result from
only short exposure to unfiltered radiation from arc type lamps. Serious erythema (sunburn) of exposed
skin will also occur. Koller [4] states that ultra-violet radiation of sunlight is a major causal factor in cancer
of the skin in the white population of the USA (see also Reference 28). The use of suitable protective
clothing including protection of the head and hands is therefore recommended, even when working in test
enclosures irradiated by filtered sources.
8.3

Ozone and harmful fumes

8.3.1
A serious health hazard arising from the use of xenon and other arc lamps is the possible
build-up of local toxic concentrations of ozone during the testing period. However, the maximum
production of ozone occurs at the initial switching on of the lamp, and thereafter the hot envelope of the
lamp tends to degrade the ozone back to oxygen. Where forced air cooling is employed, the cooling air
should be extracted from the building and not blown into the lamp housing. Suitable detection and
measuring instrumentation should be used [20]. The combined effects of heat and ultra-violet radiation
on certain plastics (for example melamine laminates) may also produce toxic fumes. Particular care
should therefore be taken in the choice of materials used in the construction of a test facility and to avoid
breathing in fumes given off by the specimen.
8.4

Risk of lamp explosions

8.4.1
The use of high pressure xenon discharge lamps as the primary radiation source can
also result in serious accidents unless a well planned code of practice for the handling of these arc
discharge tubes has been laid down and is adhered to. All such lamps (whether hot or cold, used or new)
have a liability to explode violently by reason of the considerable internal pressure (two to three
atmospheres when cold, but up to twenty atmospheres when hot). There should be no visible dirt or oil
on the envelope, so regular cleaning with detergent and alcohol is necessary using cotton gloves and face
protection during such cleaning. When cold lamps are to be stored, the effects of explosion may be
limited by two layers of 0.25 mm thick plastic sheet. Particular care must be taken to limit the spread of
chain reaction breakdown in multi-lamp equipments. It is possible to use armour plate glass for the dual
purpose of protection against lamp explosions and as a corrective filter. Routine monitoring and records
of performance of individual lamps should be maintained in order to detect abnormal behaviour.
8.5

Electric shock

8.5.1
Normal electric shock preventive measures should be adopted, particularly in the case of
the high voltage igniter systems used with arc lamps. In some xenon lamps, the arc ignition pulse
exceeds 60 kV, and an interlock system is therefore essential.
9

REFERENCES

'Ultra-violet Spectral Energy Distribution of


Natural Sunlight and Accelerated Test Light
Sources'
Journal of the Optical Society of America
July 1960, Vol 50, pp. 706-713.

RC Hirt
RG Schmitt
ND Searle
AP Sullivan

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Annex A
2

'Studies of Spectral Energy Distribution of


Different Light Sources in Connection with
Solar Simulation'
Institute of Environmental Sciences, Illinois, USA
1962 Proceedings, p. 453.

DW Gibson
J Weinard

'The Spectral Radiant Intensity of the Light


of the DXeSh-1000B and DXeR-6000 Xenon Lamps'
Soviet Journal of Optical Technology, 1969
Iss. 3, p.11.

MN Smoklin
NB Berdikov
IG Gilevish
LF Zeytser

'Ultra-violet Radiation
Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1965.

LR Koller

'An Artificial Sunshine Solarium'


Illuminating Engineering, 1946, Vol 12, p.762

GF Prideaux

'Project Assess - a Report of a Long Term


Solar Simulation Test'
Institute of Environment Sciences 1966
Proceedings, p.271.

R Kruger

'Spectral Distribution of Typical Daylight


as a Function of Correlated Colour Temperature'
Journal of the Optical Society of America
August 1964, Vol. 54, p.1031

DB Judd
DL MacAdam
G Wyszecki

'Simulating the Solar Spectrum with a Filtered


High-pressure Xenon Lamp'
Applied Optics, 1963, Vol 2, p.105

EA Boettner
LJ Miedler

'Modular Xenon Solar Simulation of Large


Area Application'
Institute of Environmental Sciences, Illinois,
USA
1967 Proceedings, p.687

JA Castle

10

'Four-foot Solar Simulation System'


Institute of Environmental Sciences, Illinois, USA
1966 Proceedings, p.531.

RN Harmon

11

'Standardized Procedures in the North American


Continent for the Calibration of Solar Pyranometers'
Solar Energy, Oct-Dec 1966, Vol. 10, p.182

12

'Solar Radiation'
Elsevier Press, 1966

13

'Radiation Instruments and Measurements'


International Geophysical Year Manual
Part VI, 1958
Pergamon Press.

14

'Measurement of the Total Flux and its Spectral


Components in Solar Simulation Systems with
Special Reference to the Extra-terrestrial Radiation'
Solar Energy, 1967, Vol. 11, No 1, pp. 14-24

N Robinson
(Ed.)

173

AJ Drummond
JR Hickey

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15

'Correlation of Monochromator and Filter


Radiometry Determinations of the Spectral
Distribution in Large Solar Simulators'
Institute of Environmental Sciences and
American Society of Testing and Materials
International Symposium on Solar
Radiation Proceedings p.95-105.

JR Hickey

16

'Deterioration of Materials'
Reinhold - New York - 1954.

GA Greathouse
CJ Wassel

17

'Contribution a l'etude du viellissement


ides materiaux macromoleculaires
synthetiques EDF - Bulletin de la
Direction des Etudes et Recherches - Serie B,
Reseaux Electriques, Materiels
Electriques No 2 1969, p.115-152

M Folie

18

'The Simulation of Solar Radiant Energy'


Environmental Engineering Quarterly,
June 1963, p.17-19 and Sept 1963, p.14-17

PW Baker

19

'The Weathering of High Polymers'


Plastics, Jan 1960, Vol 25, p.40-45

HJM Langshaw

20

'Evaluation of a Coulometric Ozone Sensor'


Paper presented at 138th Meeting of
American Chemical Society (Sept 1960)

AF Wartburg
AW Brewer
JP Lodge Jr

21

'Measurement of Spectral Irradiance'


Handbook of Solar Simulation for Thermal
Vacuum Testing, Section 9B
Institution of Environmental Sciences Illinois - 1968.

J Arveson

22

'The Solar Constant and the Solar


Spectrum Measured from a Research Aircraft'
NASA TR R-351, Washington, DC, Oct 1970.

MP Thekaekara

23

'Current American Practice in Color


Measurements'
Applied Optics, April 1969, Vol. 8
No 4, p.737-750

FW Billmeyer Jr

24

Polymer Deg. and Stab 1982, 4, 145

A Davis
D Gardiner

25

'Weathering of Polymers'
Elsevier 1983

A Davis
D Sims

26

'Measurement of Sunshine and Solar and


Terrestrial Radiation (Met 0 919f)'
London, Meteorological Office, Handbook
of Meteorological Instruments, 2nd Edn,
Vol 6, 1982

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27

'Guide to Meteorological Instruments


and Methods of Observation'
Geneva, World Meteorological
Organisation,
WMO-No 8, 5th Edn, 1983

28

'The Biologic Effects of Ultra-Violet Radiation'


Pergamon Press, 1969.

175

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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CHAPTER 3-04
TEST CL4 - CONSTANT LOW TEMPERATURE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which may be transported, stored or used at low temperatures.
Low temperatures may occur in many areas of ground deployment as well as in ships and aircraft.
1.2 Three test procedures are described; low temperature with sudden or gradual change of
temperature for non-heat-dissipating items and gradual change of temperature for heat-dissipating items.
1.3 In many applications diurnal variation of temperature occurs but this will not normally be significant
in its effect. For materiel of large thermal mass where the variation may be considered significant, Test
CL5 - "Low Temperature Diurnal Cycle Test" (See Chapter 3-05) should be used.
1.4 Rapid change from a high temperature to a low temperature, or vice versa, is the subject of Test
CL14 - "Thermal Shock Test" (See Chapter 3-14).
1.5 The preferred durations for the tests are not applicable for assessing long-term effects and
guidance should be sought on the specification of duration if such assessments are required.
1.6 This test is technically similar to BS EN60068-2-1 Part 2 Tests A Cold except for the differences
detailed in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc.) given later in this chapter.
2.2

Test selection
2.2.1

The test procedures of BS EN60068-2-1 Part 2 Tests A Cold are sub-divided as follows:

(a)

Test Aa - Cold tests for non-heat-dissipating materiel with sudden change of temperature.

(b)

Test Ab - Cold tests for non-heat-dissipating materiel with gradual change of temperature.

(c)

Test Ad - Cold test for heat-dissipating materiel with gradual change of temperature.

2.2.2
The procedures given are normally intended for specimens which are required to achieve
temperature stability during the performance of the test procedure and the duration of the test
commences at the time when temperature stability of the specimen has been reached.
2.2.3
For exceptional cases when the specimen does not reach temperature stability during
the performance of the test procedure, the duration of the test commences at the time when the test
chamber reaches the test temperature.
2.2.4
BS 2011 Part 3A and B contains guidance on the following parameters that should be
specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
(a)

The rate of change of temperature in the test chamber

(b)

The time at which the specimen is introduced into the test chamber

(c)

The time at which the exposure commences

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(d)
2.3

The time at which the specimen is energized and for how long

Non-heat-dissipating versus heat-dissipating materiel

2.3.1
Materiel is considered heat-dissipating if with power applied or when operational, the
hottest point on its surface, measured in free air conditions, that is with no forced air circulation, is more
than 5C above the ambient temperature of the surrounding atmosphere after temperature stability has
been reached.
2.3.2
When, the Environmental Test Specification calls for a test demonstrating survival
without power applied (eg to simulate storage) then the appropriate test is Ab.
2.4

Non-heat-dissipating materiel

2.4.1
In Test Aa (sudden change of temperature) the specimen is introduced into the test
chamber with the latter at the temperature specified for the test. Test Aa has been introduced as a
convenient and time-saving method, it should be used only where it is known that the effects of a sudden
change of temperature are not detrimental to the specimen. However, sudden change from a high
temperature above Standard Ambient Conditions to, a low (cold) temperature is the subject of Test CL-14
of Chapter 3-14. Where the specimen cannot be introduced into a cold chamber without frost problems,
either because of its size or because of complex functional test connections, then Test Ab should be
used.
2.4.2
In Test Ab (gradual change of temperature) the specimen is introduced into the test
chamber with the latter at the laboratory temperature. The temperature in the chamber is then reduced
gradually so as to cause no detrimental effects on the specimen due to the temperature change.
2.5

Heat-dissipating materiel
2.5.1

When testing heat-dissipating specimens it is preferable not to use forced air circulation.

2.5.2
However, if the only practicable procedure is to use forced air circulation, then there are
two methods which may be employed, the detailed implementation of which is given in BS EN60068-2-1.

2.6

(a)

Method A: This method applies where the chamber is large enough to comply with the
requirements for testing without forced air circulation, but where the homogeneous
conditions cannot be maintained without circulating the air in the chamber.

(b)

Method B: This method applies where the chamber is too small to comply with the
requirements for testing without forced air circulation.

Test severities

2.6.1
The temperature severities have, in general, been selected to cover a wide range of user
applications but with increments compatible with a number of preferred levels. The appropriate severity
for testing should be selected from Clause 5 below. Unless it is essential that the test temperature
(severity) does not exceed the actual known environment, the chosen severity should be the nearest
value in excess of the anticipated conditions.
2.6.2
Normally the duration of the test should be such as to ensure a specified period at the
test temperature following thermal stabilization of the specimen. Two deviations are permitted to allow
completion of a test within a working day or overnight, but consideration should be given to ensuring
compatibility of the test duration with the thermal time constant of the specimen.

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2.6.3
For applications where the period at low temperature will be such that the specimen will
not reach thermal stabilization, the Environmental Test Specification should specify a duration related to
the in-service conditions. Supplement No. 1 to BS 2011 Part 3a and B gives advice on test procedures
where temperature stability is not achieved during the test.
2.6.4
Normally the rate of change of temperature in Tests Ab and Ad should not exceed 1C
per minute but this may be increased to up to 3C per minute where it is representative of in-service
conditions and should be specified in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.7

Performance evaluation

2.7.1
The specimen should be operated at the appropriate phases of the test to produce the
lowest internal temperature levels representative of operational and environmental use conditions. For a
non- heat-dissipating specimens, a demonstration of performance is generally acceptable if carried out
immediately following the specified duration.
2.7.2
In the case of a heat-dissipating specimen, operation should be representative of the
most adverse duty cycle, or where there is no defined duty cycle, should continue for a period to allow
internal temperatures to restabilize at their lowest level. In general, one or more of the following
procedures may apply:
(a)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made at significant
phases of the test, for example, immediately after operation commences and toward the end
of the operating phase.

(b)

Operation commencing only when the specimen has stabilized at the test temperature, and
performance evaluation made immediately following the start of the operating phase and/or
after internal temperatures have restabilized.

(c)

Operation as in (a) and (b) but with operation interrupted for a short period (several minutes)
after internal temperatures have attained their maximum level, to simulate a 'hot switch-on'.

2.7.3
For tests demonstrating survival or storage the specimen should be operated and a
performance evaluation made when the temperature has been returned to Standard Laboratory
Conditions or to a temperature given in the Environmental Test specification.
2.7.4
Information'.

Further useful information is contained in BS 2011 Parts 3A and 3B, 'Background

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The temperature severity, that rate of change of temperature and the test duration

(d)

If functional performance is assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(e)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

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(g)

The tolerances to be applied

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test shall be carried out in accordance with the appropriate procedure of BS EN60068-2-1 Part
2 Tests A Cold unless otherwise specified in the Environmental Test Specification. The following
deviation is permitted.
4.1.1
The rate of change of temperature may be increased to up to 3C per minute if specified
by the Environmental Test Specification. (See paragraph 2.6.4).
4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the test procedure the specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Temperature
5.1.1

The preferred temperature severities are as follows:


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5.2

-65C
-55C
-40C
-25C

(E)
(F)
(G)

-10C
- 5C
+ 5C

Duration

5.2.1
After the specimen has stabilized at the test temperature, the preferred durations are a
minimum period of:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

2h
16h
72h
96h

5.2.2
To allow the test to be accommodated around normal working hours, the following
deviations from the (standard) test procedure may be used:
(a)

To complete the test within a day not less than six hours at the test temperature.

(b)

To allow overnight working, not less than 16 hours at the test temperature.

5.2.3
Where this test procedure is used in connection with tests associated with endurance or
reliability, guidance should be sought for the duration of the test.
5.2.4
If the only purpose of the test is to demonstrate whether the materiel functions correctly
at high temperature, the conditioning may be limited to a time such that the specimen has reached
temperature stability. In no case shall the duration be less than 30 minutes.

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RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

BS EN60068-2-1
Part 2

Environmental Testing
Tests A. Cold

BS 2011
Parts 3A and B and
Supplement No. 1

Environmental Testing

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-05
Chapter 3-14

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL5 - Low temperature diurnal cycle test
Test CL14 - Thermal shock

Tests A (cold) and Tests B (dry heat)

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to Tests Aa, Ab and Ad of BS EN60068-2-1 Part 2 Tests A Cold with
the following variations:
(a)

Increased rate of change of temperature of up to 3C per minute is permitted in Tests Ab


and Ad where this is representative of in-service conditions

(b)

Duration of test: two additional durations may exceptionally be used to accommodate the
test around normal working hours

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CHAPTER 3-05
TEST CL5 - LOW TEMPERATURE DIURNAL CYCLE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is a simulation of conditions where the diurnal temperature variation is more applicable
than a constant low temperature.
1.2 For general application to materiel located or housed in low temperatures the simpler Test CL4 "Constant Low Temperature Test" (See Chapter 3-04) is sufficiently realistic for test purposes. However,
in some instances, particularly with equipment of large mass having a thermal time constant comparable
to or longer than a diurnal cycle, the closer realism of a cyclic test may be preferred for example to ensure
seals and other components are representatively stressed.
1.3

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc.) given later in this chapter.
2.2

Test selection
2.2.1

2.3

Two test procedures are described:

(a)

Test Procedure 'A' is intended where a realistic simulation of the service conditions is a
principal consideration. This test procedure is designed to subject the test specimen to
either measured conditions specific to the particular application or to follow the diurnal
temperature cycles derived from meteorological data, such as the category 'C'
environmental conditions given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01.

(b)

Test Procedure 'B' is intended to facilitate testing in those circumstances where close
simulation is not essential.

Test severities

2.3.1
Since Procedure 'A' is intended to be a close simulation of worst-case real life conditions,
the temperature severities are preferably measured values, or alternatively, selected from the diurnal
cycles for Category C environmental conditions given in Chapter 1-01, Part 4 of this Standard as specified
in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.3.2
The three preferred temperature severities for Procedure 'B' (see Figure 1) are the air
temperatures which are attained or exceeded in storage conditions on all but three or four days of the
year in the more severe parts of specific geographical areas given below. As the differences in
temperature between meteorological and storage/transit conditions are small, the same severities may be
used in Procedure 'B' to simulate both operating and storage/transit conditions.
(a)

Severity 'A' is applicable to materiel used in areas which experience mildly low temperatures
such as the coastal areas of Western Europe under prevailing maritime influence, South
East Australia and the lowlands of New Zealand. (Climatic category C0 given in DEF STAN
00-35 Part 2)

(b)

Severity 'B' is applicable to materiel used in areas which experience moderately low
temperatures such as Japan, South Eastern Canada and central Europe including Southern
Scandinavia. (Climatic category C1 given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 2)

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(c)

Severity 'C' is applicable to materiel used in areas such as Northern Norway, the prairie
provinces of Canada and parts of Siberia. (Climatic category C2 given in DEF STAN 0035 Part 2)

0C

-10

Severity A
-20

Severity B

-30

-40

Severity C

-50

50

12

15

18

21

24

Hours

Figure 1 Severity levels for Test Procedure 'B'


2.3.3
In the even colder areas of the world such as the coldest areas of North America,
Greenland and Siberia, the temperatures tend to be constant throughout the 24 hour period. (Climatic
categories C3 and C4 given in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 2).
2.4

Test duration

2.4.1
The number of test cycles to be applied will depend upon the thermal characteristics
of the specimen, such as thermal capacity, physical size and thermal transfer. The important
requirement in service use is to apply a sufficient number of cycles to produce the lowest temperature
within the specimen that could result from repeated diurnal cycling. In this connection, a test
specimen having a long thermal time constant may require three or more diurnal cycles to achieve
minimum temperature. The test can be limited to one cycle if thermal stabilization is achieved during
the lower temperature phase.
2.4.2
For specimens containing parts manufactured from plastics or rubbers or containing
explosive material, it may be necessary to simulate conditions of long-term storage. This will result in
a large number of cycles during which mechanical stresses may cause cracking or deformation of
materials, including structural parts and seals. In the case of explosives, further guidance may be
obtained from the Ordnance Board.

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2.4.3
For a test specimen of low thermal capacity which would obviously stabilize in
temperature before the end of the 12 hour period at the lower temperature specified in Test Procedure 'B',
the test may be simplified to Test CL4 - "Constant Low Temperature Test" (See Chapter 3-04).
2.5

Performance evaluation

2.5.1
Where appropriate specimen should be operated at the phase of the test which produces
the most severe stress representative of operational and environmental use conditions. For a
non-heat-dissipating specimen, a demonstration of performance is generally acceptable if carried out
immediately following the specified duration.
2.5.2
In the case of heat-dissipating specimens, operation should be representative of the
most adverse duty cycle, or where there is no defined duty cycle, should continue for a period to allow
internal temperatures to restabilize at their highest level. In general one or more of the following
procedures may apply:
(a)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made at significant
phases of the test such as immediately after operation commences and towards the end of
the operating phase.

(b)

Operation commencing only when the specimen has stabilized at the lower temperature
level, and performance evaluation made immediately following the start of the operating
phase and/or after internal temperatures have restabilized.

(c)

Operation as in (a) and (b) but with operation interrupted for a short period (several minutes)
after internal temperatures have attained their maximum level to simulate a 'hot switch-on'.

2.5.3
For tests demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated and a
performance evaluation made when the temperature has been returned to Standard Laboratory
Conditions or to a temperature given in the Environmental Test Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle, severities and durations to be used

(d)

The number of cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

The tolerances to be applied

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

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TEST PROCEDURES

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specifications for the materiel the following shall
apply.
4.1.1

Test Procedure 'A'. Using measured data or Category C environmental conditions

(a)

The specimen, while being at laboratory ambient temperature, shall be placed in the test
chamber which is at Standard Laboratory Conditions. The specimen shall be in its normal
orientation or as otherwise specified and any connections for power supplies, test signals
and performance monitoring shall be made as required.

(b)

The test chamber shall be programmed to follow the temperature cycle.

(c)

The number of test cycles specified in the Environmental Test Specification shall be applied.

4.1.2

Test Procedure 'B'

(a)

The specimen, while being at laboratory ambient temperature, shall be placed in the test
chamber which is at Standard Laboratory Conditions. The specimen shall be in its normal
orientation or as otherwise specified and any connections for power supplies, test signals
and performance monitoring shall be made as required.

(b)

The chamber temperature shall then be lowered at a rate not exceeding 3C/minute to the
upper temperature level as specified in the Environmental Test Specification. This
temperature shall be maintained until the specimen has stabilized at the test chamber
temperature.

(c)

The chamber temperature shall then be lowered at an approximately uniform rate over a
period of three hours to the specified lower temperature level.

(d)

The chamber temperature shall then be maintained at this lower temperature level for a
period of 12 hours.

(e)

At the completion of this period, the chamber temperature shall be increased at an


approximately uniform rate over a further period of three hours to the upper temperature
level as specified in the Environmental Test Specification.

(f)

If the test cycle is to be repeated, the chamber temperature shall first be maintained at the
upper level of temperature for a period of six hours.

4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the test procedure the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as required
by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test severities for Procedure 'A' shall be selected in accordance with the guidance given in
paragraph 2.3.1.

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5.2

For Test Procedure 'B' the preferred severities for the temperature levels are:
Upper level

Lower level

-10C

-21C

-25C

-33C

-37C

-46C

The number of test cycles applied shall be determined by consulting the guidance given earlier in this
chapter.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 2

Environmental Handbook for Defence materiel


Specification of Service Environments

Part 3
Chapter 3-04

Environmental testing
Test CL4 - Constant low temperature test

Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Natural environments
World-wide Ambient Air Temperature and Humidity Conditions
and Levels of Direct Solar Radiation Relating to the Climatic
Categories

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CHAPTER 3-06
TEST CL6 - HIGH TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY AND SOLAR HEATING DIURNAL CYCLE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel that may be directly exposed to a natural humid environment
typical of the wet tropical areas of the world, including certain coastal areas, during operation, transit or
long-term storage. This test is also applicable to materiel transported or stored under extreme conditions
of temperature and humidity such as may occur under unventilated tarpaulin covers, in railway boxcars or
other vehicles without air conditioning. This test is also applicable to equipment on the masts and
exposed upper decks of ships.
1.2 Three test procedures are described, Procedure 'A' where a realistic simulation of the service
conditions for either operational or storage is required, Procedures 'B' or 'C' where close simulation is not
essential.
1.3 This test is only concerned with the heating effects of solar radiation. Where it is necessary to
consider other effects, such as material degradation, then the use of Test CL3 - "Solar Radiation Test" (See Chapter 3-03) should be considered. Guidance on simulating solar radiation is given in Annex A to
Chapter 3-03.
1.4 In those storage/transit conditions where the diurnal variations are so small as to have insignificant
effect on the materiel then the use of Test CL7 "Constant High Temperature - High Humidity Test" - (See
Chapter 3-07) may be considered.
1.5 Test Procedure 'B' is technically similar to Test Db "Damp Heat, cyclic (12 + 12 hour cycle)" in BS
2011 Part 2.1 except for the differences detailed in paragraph 7. Test Procedures 'A' and 'C' have no
equivalent British Standard.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 The wet tropical regions of the world, are characterised by moderately high temperatures
accompanied by high humidity and various levels of direct solar radiation, which allows them to be
categorised into three classes of meteorological conditions. The following guidance is provided to assist
with the selection from the options (test severities, procedures etc.), given later in this Chapter.
2.2

Classification of Tropical Areas

2.2.1
In rain forests or regions where periods of continuous cloud cover occurs, the
temperatures are accompanied by constant high values of humidity. These conditions are typically found
in the Zaire and Amazon Basins, South East Asia including the East Indies, the East coast of Madagascar
and the Caribbean Islands. These are classified as B1 conditions.
2.2.2
In exposed areas of wet tropical regions, the influence of direct solar radiation becomes a
factor. Typical are the coastal regions of NE Australia and the Gulf of Mexico. These are classified as B2
conditions.
2.2.3
Areas with high levels of solar radiation during the day and radiant heat loss at night,
experience comparatively large changes in diurnal temperature and variation of relative humidity, while
the moisture content remains constant. These are classified as B3 conditions and are found near
expanses of water such as the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea.
2.2.4
To simulate these conditions a chamber humidification control system responding directly
to absolute humidity variation (for example dew point control) is desirable. However, any chamber with
programmed humidity control can be used.

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2.2.5
Although the test cycles given below in Procedures 'B' and 'C' are arbitrary and do not
necessarily simulate a particular natural humid environment, they combine in one test cycle the most
adverse features of such environments, ie high vapour pressure, condensation, temperature, solar
heating, radiation losses at night and poor ventilation.
2.3

Test selection
2.3.1
(a)

(b)

(c)

The following test procedures are available.


Test Procedure 'A'
(i)

Where a realistic simulation of the service meteorological or storage conditions is


required, Test Procedure 'A' should be used. This test procedure is designed to
subject the test specimen to either measured conditions specific to the particular
application, or to follow the appropriate diurnal temperature-humidity cycles derived
from meteorological, and storage data presented in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter
1-01 for Category B environmental conditions.

(ii)

Where a test is to be carried out under meteorological conditions, a chamber will be


required which can provide the radiant heating effect of solar radiation. See also
Chapters 3-02 and 3-03. This is usually achieved using arrays of lamps. Although for
this test it is not necessary to provide the same spectral distribution as natural
sunlight, it may be necessary to adjust the intensity of the radiation in order to provide
the correct heating effect. For example, if the source of radiation is high in the infrared (IR) region and the test specimen is painted with IR reflective paint, it will be
necessary to increase the radiation intensity above the values given in Part 4 of this
Standard. Further guidance on the simulation of solar radiation is given in Annex A to
Chapter 3-03.

Test Procedure 'B'


(i)

This procedure is an approximation to the conditions experienced by materiel


exposed directly to hot, humid environments including the effect of direct solar
heating. This procedure does not simulate the unventilated storage/transit condition
defined in DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01 but is suitable for the assessment of
performance of military level packages when transported or stored under ventilated
conditions.

(ii)

Procedure 'B' does not permit the simulation of the wet warm climates found in rain
forests and other tropical regions when under continuous cloud cover (having no
appreciable diurnal cycle or direct solar radiation). In this case either Procedure 'A'
must be adopted or consideration given to the use of Test CL7 "Constant High
Temperature - High Humidity Test" (See Chapter 3-07).

(iii)

This procedure is based on BS 2011 Part 2.1 Test Db and is intended to facilitate
testing in those circumstances where close simulation is not essential. In Procedure
'B' the injection of an aerosol mist at the end of the cooling phase/beginning of the
heating phase of the cycle to achieve saturation is applicable to material which may
be exposed to dew formation.

Test Procedure 'C'


(i)

This procedure is an approximation to the conditions experienced by materiel during


unventilated storage/transit. Test Procedure 'C' simulates the temperature/humidity
conditions that can be attained or exceeded for a total time of approximately 7.4 hours
(1% of one month) in the hottest part of the geographical areas described earlier.

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2.4

(ii)

It is considered that ground transit conditions will be no more severe than those for
storage. This test therefore covers both ground transit and storage conditions but not
air transportation.

(iii)

This test may also be used to simulate the conditions which may be expected on
board naval vessels stationed close to humid coastal regions.

Test severities

2.4.1
The severity of a test is dependent on the temperature/ humidity cycle chosen and the
number of cycles used.
2.5

Temperature/humidity

2.5.1
The severities used in Test Procedure A should be derived from specifically measured
conditions, or alternatively the cycle selected from Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 of this Standard for Category B
environmental conditions, according to the anticipated deployment of the materiel.
2.5.2
The two temperature severities given in Procedure 'B'(which are derived from Test Db in
BS 2011 Part 2) are +40C and +55C. These are combined with a nominal 93% relative humidity. The
temperatures of Procedure 'B' are more severe than those of Procedure 'A' to allow for the heating effect
of solar radiation. This method severely restricts the performance of heat dissipating surfaces and other
systems reliant on correct air temperature; for example, manpack radios, air conditioning systems,
propellants, explosives and the majority of complete equipments. For this reason Procedure 'A' should be
adopted for testing heat dissipating materiel.
2.5.3
The lower severity (40C) for Procedure 'B' can be taken to represent exposed areas of
wet tropical regions as defined by climatic category B2 given in Part 4 of this Standard. Similarly, the
higher severity (55C) can be aligned to the hot humid coastal desert regions of climatic category B3.
2.5.4
The single severity of Procedure 'C' is applicable to materiel housed under cover where
there is little or no ventilation and where the effects of solar heating on the cover causes a rise in air
temperature adjacent to the material. Such applications could be considered as enclosed vehicle bodies,
aircraft zones having surfaces exposed to solar heating, tents, or covered rail wagons.
2.6

Test duration (Number of cycles)

2.6.1
The humidity tests are conducted to determine the ability of materiel to withstand
exposure, and operate, where applicable, in a warm, highly humid environment.
2.6.2
It should be noted that the test cycle conditions are not significantly more severe than
worst natural conditions and can therefore only be considered an accelerated test when compared with
average year round conditions. In such cases acceleration factors of 2-5 are appropriate. In other
situations the test durations should be considered as arbitrary and intended merely to indicate potential
design weaknesses in an equipment. If the cumulative effects of a humid environment on materiel are to
be evaluated, the duration of the test may need to be extended to a period approaching the real life
requirements.
2.6.3
Severities 'A' and 'B' are intended to demonstrate the short term effects of a humid
environment, in particular those arising from condensed surface moisture. It is therefore applicable to
electrical/ electronic equipments which are normally protected, whether in a fully conditioned building or by
a fully desiccated handling container, but which may be subjected to occasional exposure to high
humidities outside their normal protected environment.

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2.6.4
Many insulation materials used in electrical/electronic equipment are hygroscopic and
may suffer degradation of their electrical properties. These effects are essentially long-term and severity
'C' or 'D' would apply. The test severity 'C' should be applied to equipment which is used in
semi-protected conditions but which may occasionally be exposed to a humid atmosphere for longer
periods of time. Severity 'D' should be applied to equipments which are in exposed locations or subject to
a humid atmosphere in their normal use location, such as field equipment, equipment mounted in
unconditioned cabins, armoured vehicle equipment etc.
2.6.5
Severity 'D' is also recommended as the preferred severity where long-term tropical
storage of materiel is concerned. Severity 'E' is applicable mainly to package testing or materiel prepared
for long-term storage but the test duration may be extended to a period approaching real life
requirements.
2.7

Performance evaluation

2.7.1
Materiel should be operated at the most adverse phases of the test cycle, which for most
applications would be at switch on or start up at the commencement of the high temperature phase. Long
periods of operation of specimens which generates heat, should be avoided since this could mitigate both
long-term and short-term effects of the test. For long-term tests a performance evaluation not more
frequent than every seventh cycle is recommended.
2.7.2
For tests demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated and a
performance evaluation made when the temperature and humidity has been returned to Standard
Laboratory Conditions. If required, a recovery period should be specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle, severities and durations to be used

(d)

The number of cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the equipment is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

Whether injection of aerosol mist is required

(j)

The tolerances to be applied

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply.

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4.1.1

Test Procedure 'A'

(a)

The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions,
making any connections necessary for power supplies, test signals and performance
monitoring as required.

(b)

The test chamber shall be programmed to follow the temperature and humidity test cycle
defined by the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The number of test cycles specified by the Environmental Test Specification shall be
applied.

4.1.2
(a)

4.1.3

Test Procedure 'B'


The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 2011 Part 2.1 Test Db using test cycles
of Variant 1 or 2 to the temperature severity given in the Environmental Test Specification. If
required by the Environmental Test Specification, aerosol mist of distilled or demineralised
water (at standard laboratory temperature) shall be injected into the chamber working space
3
during the last 30 minutes of the period of temperature fall at a rate between 10-20 ml/m of
chamber volume per minute. This is approximately equivalent to 0.1% of chamber volume
per hour.
Test Procedure 'C'

(a)

The specimen while being at laboratory ambient temperature shall be placed in the test
chamber which is at Standard Laboratory Conditions. The specimen shall be in its normal
orientation or as otherwise specified. Any connections for power supplies, test signals and
performance monitoring shall be made as required.

(b)

The temperature in the chamber shall then be raised at a rate not exceeding 3C per minute
to 30C. The temperature shall then be maintained until the specimen has stabilised at the
test chamber temperature. The humidity shall then be increased to not less than 95% RH
during a period not exceeding one hour.

(c)

Increase the temperature inside the chamber at an approximately uniform rate over a period
of five hours to 70C. During this period the humidity shall be maintained approximately
constant with a vapour pressure of 4 kPa (see Figure 1).

(d)

The temperature shall be maintained at 70C until 10 hours after the start of the cycle.
During this period the relative humidity shall be between 10% and 15%.

(e)

The temperature inside the chamber shall then be lowered at an approximately uniform rate,
over a period of five hours to 30C. During this period the humidity shall be maintained
approximately constant, with a minimum water vapour pressure of 4 kPa.

(f)

The temperature shall be maintained at 30C with relative humidity not less than 95% for a
period to complete a 24 hour cycle.

(g)

The 24 hour test cycle of sub-paragraphs (c) to (f) inclusive shall be repeated as required by
the Environmental Test Specification.

4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.

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4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the test procedure the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as required
by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The temperature/humidity severity for Procedure 'A' is to be selected in accordance with the
guidance section of this chapter.
5.2 The temperature/humidity severities for Procedure 'B' given in Table A approximate to B2 and B3
meteorological cycles given in Part 4 of this Standard.
TABLE A
BS 2011 Test Db

Climatic
Category

Temperature

%RH

B2

40C

93%

B3

55C

93%

The severity should be selected according to the predicted deployment of the equipment.
5.3 For Test Procedure 'C' only one severity is specified for temperature and absolute humidity
respectively (See Figure 1). The number of cycles shall be selected from Table B in accordance with the
guidance given earlier in this Chapter.
TABLE B
Severity

No of Cycles

A
B
C
D
E
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

2
6
12
21
56

BS 2011
Part 2.1Db

Basic Environmental Testing Procedures


Test Db and guidance - Damp heat, cyclic (12 + 12 hour cycle)

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-02
Chapter 3-03
Chapter 3-07

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL2 - High temperature, low humidity and solar heating diurnal cycle test
Test CL3 - Solar radiation test
Test CL7 - Constant high temperature - high humidity test

Part 4

Natural environments

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COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS TESTS

7.1 Test procedure 'B' is technically similar to Test Db - "Damp heat, cyclic (12 + 12 hour cycle)" in BS
2011. The variations from the British Standard test are:
(a)

An aerosol mist may be injected into the chamber.

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Chapter 3-06

Figure 1 Procedure 'C'

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Chapter 3-07

CHAPTER 3-07
TEST CL7 - CONSTANT HIGH TEMPERATURE - HIGH HUMIDITY TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel housed in locations where the ambient temperature and humidity
are high, and remain at a substantially constant level. Such conditions arise in certain enclosed spaces,
for example ship's engine and machinery rooms, galleys, laundries etc., where conditions are greatly
influenced by heat and water vapour from machinery and equipment. Also to materiel in wet tropical
regions under overcast conditions, or in dense jungle.
1.2 The test procedure does not allow condensation to form on the specimen. If this is required, Test
Procedure B of Chapter 3-06 should be used.
1.3 This test is technically similar to BS 2011 Part 2.1Cb "Damp heat, steady state, primarily for
equipment" except for the differences detailed in paragraph 7.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc.) later in this chapter.
2.2

Preferred severities

2.2.1
The temperature severities have, in general, been selected to cover a wide range of user
applications, but with increments compatible with a minimum number of preferred levels. Temperature
severity 'C' is only applicable to self-induced or artificially created environments.
2.2.2
Duration severity 'A' is intended as a test for the short-term effects of high humidity on
materiel; for example, it would be applicable to portable equipment which may be exposed to outdoor
conditions for short periods, but only be used inside vehicles or buildings. Duration severity 'B' is
applicable to materiel in semi-protected conditions, but which may occasionally be subjected to a humid
atmosphere.
2.2.3
If materiel will be permanently housed in locations where high humidity conditions prevail,
the long-term test, duration severity 'C', should be applied.
2.3

Performance evaluation

2.3.1
The specimen should be operated during the phase(s) of the test representative of
probable operational and environmental use conditions. For short-term tests, that is duration severity 'A',
a switch-on or start-up during the last hour of the high temperature phase would be generally applicable.
For long-term tests, a performance evaluation not more frequent than every seventh day is
recommended. However, excessive operation of the specimen which generates heat should be avoided,
since this could mitigate both long and short-term effects of this test.
2.3.2
For tests demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated, and a
performance evaluation made, when the temperature and humidity have been reduced to Standard
Laboratory Conditions.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test cycle, severities and durations to be used

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(c)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(d)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(e)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(f)

The tolerances that are to be applied

(g)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1 Test Cb. Two lower humidity
severities are omitted and one higher temperature severity is added.
4.2 Any required functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3

Post conditioning examination

On completion of the test procedure the specimen shall be examined for detrimental effects as required
by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The test severity is defined by the parameters, temperature, humidity and duration. The preferred
severities are as follows:
(a)

(b)

Temperature/humidity:
(A)

30 2C

at

93 5% RH

(B)

40 2C

at

93 5% RH

(C)

55 2C

at

93 5% RH

Duration:
(A)

2 days

(B)

10 days

(C)

21 days

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:BS 2011


Part 2.1

Environmental Testing
Test Cb - Damp heat, steady state, primarily for equipment

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-06

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL6 - High temperature, humidity and solar heating diurnal cycle test

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Chapter 3-07

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to Test Cb -"Damp heat, steady state, primarily for equipment" in BS
2011. The variations from the British Standard test are:
(a)

Additional severities added

(b)

Deletion of lower humidity severity

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-08

CHAPTER 3-08
TEST CL8 - KINETIC (AERODYNAMIC) HEATING
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which is liable to be subjected to kinetic (aerodynamic) heating
during its service life and is intended to be used where the effects of the dissipated heat cannot be
predicted satisfactorily by calculation, comparison or mathematical modelling techniques.
1.2 The test should normally be applied to complete assemblies or sections of flight platforms with
any systems or equipment representatively installed.
1.3 Design requirements relating to the effects of heat on the strength and stiffness of structures are
given in DEF STAN 08-5, Part 5.
1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard Test.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection of options (test procedures
severities etc.) later in this chapter.
2.2

General

2.2.1
Kinetic heating becomes increasingly significant for flight platforms which are deployed
or operate at or close to supersonic speeds such as high performance aircraft, guided weapons and
projectiles.
2.2.2
A considerable amount of heat is generated as a result of air flow over the external
surfaces being retarded due to viscous drag within the boundary layer.
2.2.3
The generated heat can result in the structure of the flight platform and installed
systems and equipment experiencing very high temperatures and rapid rates of change of
temperature.
2.2.4
Similarly during deceleration, rapid cooling may occur and where equipment
experiences a number of flight sorties, the thermal cycling may induce or accentuate fatigue effects
during service.
2.2.5

In some cases thermal equilibrium may not occur before completion of the flight sortie.

2.2.6
It is important, within practical limitations, that kinetic heating tests closely simulate the
anticipated service environment.
2.3

Test procedure

2.3.1
A general format for the test procedure is given in paragraph 4 below, but for reasons
already stated it is important that the test is matched directly to the sequence of events and severities
as they occur during deployment of the materiel.
2.3.2
The test procedure should include any natural or induced thermal conditioning which
the material may experience on standby before take off or launch.
2.3.3
Data on ambient temperatures and examples of temperatures induced in materiel by
solar heating are given in Chapters 1-01 and 3-02 respectively of Part 4 of this Standard.
2.3.4
Any heat generated internally on the service platform resulting from equipment or
system operation should be represented at the appropriate stages of the test.

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2.4

Test Item Configuration

2.4.1
Kinetic heating tests should be conducted using a structure closely simulating the flight
platform with any carried equipment correctly represented in terms of configuration, thermal mass, heat
dissipation and method of attachment.
2.5

Test Severities/Temperature Profile

2.5.1
Ideally test severities should be derived from data recorded during flight sorties which
simulate the worst case conditions that the materiel will experience during its service life.
2.5.2
Temperatures and heating rates will depend on the flight velocities and accelerations
in the prevailing atmospheric conditions. The following examples are given for guidance.
(a)

Aircraft
High performance aircraft with the capability of prolonged supersonic flight with a
velocity corresponding to M1.5, operating at intermediate altitudes (6000-9000m) in
Hot Design Atmospheres, may incur temperatures at the front of the fuselage or
leading edges in order of 85-90C. At M2.0, temperatures may increase to around
175C.
At high altitudes, 13000m and above, induced surface temperatures at the leading
edges normally reduce to around 30C at M1.5 and 100C at M2.0.
Downstream from the leading edges boundary layers develop and induced
temperatures depend on the 'recovery factor' and 'heat transfer coefficient' between
the boundary layer and the outside surfaces of the flight platform (See Annex A to this
chapter).
The load and configuration of weapons and stores carried by an aircraft may
significantly reduce the maximum obtainable flight velocities with a corresponding
reduction of induced temperature.

(b)

Missile Free Flight


Irrespective of launch platform the factors contributing to the heat generated during
missile free flight are similar to those for aircraft structures and equipment.
However flight accelerations and velocities will normally result in higher induced
temperatures and faster rates of temperatures increase. Thermal stresses and
differential expansion effects will be correspondingly more acute.
At intermediate altitudes, induced surface temperatures may be in the order of 3501000C. Induced temperatures at the leading edges will vary with the different stages
of flight, i.e. boost, sustained motor flight and coasting.

(c)

Internal Equipment
Consideration should be given to correctly representing heat dissipation within the
various sections of the flight platform arising from system operation, e.g. in electronic
equipment bays, from propulsion systems or thermal batteries. These sources of heat
dissipation may occur during air carriage/captive flight just before launch and/or during
missile flight. The sequence should be correctly represented during the test.

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(d)

Derivation of Test Temperature


The type of test facility available will determine which parameters will need to be
controlled when planning kinetic heating tests. For example if the test facility can
simulate the air flow at the appropriate free stream temperature and velocity for the
required test period, it will obviate the need to calculate the skin temperature.
Alternatively if a test facility with a representative air flow is not available and heat is to
be generated by other means, it will be necessary to pre-determine the temperatures
to be produced on the outer surface of the test item.
If no suitable data from pre-recorded measurements are available, the following
procedure may be used to derive the test temperature.
(i)

Establish the worst case operational profile including appropriate climatic


conditions.

(ii)

From the operational profile and data for Hot Design Atmospheres, determine
the appropriate Stagnation Temperature and Recovery Temperature using
formulae given in Appendix A.

While the value of TR can be used as the test temperature, it may need to be adjusted
to take into account the estimated Heat Transfer Coefficient for the flow of heat
between the boundary layer and the external surface of the flight platform. (See
Paragraph 4.1 of Annex A).
Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient requires the use of complex analysis
procedures. (See DEF STAN 00-35, Part 5, Chapter 12-05).
2.6

Rates of Change of Temperature

2.6.1
Rates of change of temperature experienced by the structure of the flight platform will
depend on the heat transfer coefficient between itself and the boundary layer. Preferably the profile
and rates of change of temperature to be applied to the test specimen should be derived from
specifically measured data recorded during high speed flight trials with the intended flight platform, or
from data recorded for a similar application, taking into account any differences in the design and
materials of the structure. In the absence of relevant data, rates of change of temperatures should be
selected from those given in paragraph 5.3 below. For the case of decreasing temperatures, in the
absence of measured data, it should be assumed the rate of change will be 50% of those for
temperature increase.
2.6.2
In practice the induced temperatures rise and fall exponentially and since this can
significantly affect performance and survival of deployed materiel, it is important this aspect is reflected
in tests simulating kinetic heating. The fall-back severities given in paragraph 5.3 should be applied
such that the effective average rate of change is within 10% of the specified rate.
2.7

Test Durations

2.7.1
To avoid over testing and misrepresentative failures, test durations should represent
the periods of kinetic heating likely to occur in service.
2.7.2
For materiel installed on aircraft and the case of air carried weapons during captive
flight, guidance on periods of high speed flight may be sought from the Procurement Authority.
2.8

Performance Evaluation

2.8.1
During subjection to simulated kinetic heating, it may be appropriate to measure stress
and temperatures induced in the specimen and monitor performance of any heat protection systems
using relevant sensors and instrumentation.

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2.8.2
After returning to Standard Laboratory Conditions a visual examination should be
made of the specimen for evidence of degradation incurred as a result of testing.
2.8.3
If the purpose of the test is to demonstrate survival only, functional performance of
systems installed on the structure should be checked after returning to Standard Laboratory
Conditions.
2.8.4
Installed systems and equipment required to operate while the flight vehicle is
subjected to kinetic heating should be operated at the appropriate stage of the test in accordance with
the Environmental Test Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

Detailed description of the test cycle to be applied.

(c)

The number of test cycles to be applied.

(d)

The configuration of the test specimen including details of any thermal protection
systems fitted, systems and equipment installed and simulation of any sources of
dissipated heat.

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen
is to operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required.

(f)

The orientation and mounting of the test specimen.

(g)

Positions/areas of the test specimen to be used for monitoring and controlling test
temperatures.

(h)

Whether visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification, the following shall apply:
(a)

Where possible the test shall be undertaken with a full complement of equipment in a
representative structure and with the effects of any thermal protection system correctly
represented.

(b)

The test specimen shall be placed in the test facility at Standard Laboratory Conditions
making any connections necessary for power supplies, test signals, performance
monitoring and temperature transducer signals as required.

(c)

Any sources of dissipated heat, cooling systems or other forms of heat sink carried on
the specimen when in service, shall be correctly represented and activated during the
test.

(d)

The test facility shall reproduce the environment or temperature/time profiles stated in
the Environmental Test Specification.

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(e)

On completion of simulation of kinetic heating the specimen shall be allowed to return


to Standard Laboratory Conditions.

(f)

The specimen shall be visually examined for any damage or defects. Any further
checks or performance tests required shall be undertaken as specified in the
Environmental Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Test severities for simulated aerodynamic heating shall be determined from the design
requirement of the flight platform, the profile of the flight sorties in terms of velocity, acceleration,
ambient temperature at the operational altitudes and the number of flight sorties.
5.1.1
Dependent on the flight profile, the test specimen shall be subjected to more than one
phase of heating interspersed with representative periods of cooling during the test.
5.1.2
Whenever possible, severities shall be determined from measured data.
Preconditioning due to climatic conditions including the heating effects of solar radiation shall be
representative of the geographical region of deployment.
5.2

Temperature

5.2.1
Where no measured data of aerodynamically induced temperatures are available, test
severities shall be derived in accordance with the guidance of paragraphs 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 above, using
data for worst case hot design atmospheres given in tables of international standards such as ISO
5878.
5.2.2
Severities of any preconditioning shall be determined in accordance with the guidance
given in paragraphs 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 above.
5.3

Rates of Change of Temperature

5.3.1
Severities for rates of change of temperature shall be selected using the following
order of preference.
(a)

Specifically measured data

(b)

From data recorded on a flight platform of similar design.

(c)

From data specified below.


Flight Platform
Type of Deployment

Rates of temperature increase C/s

Leading Edges

Downstream

10

100
200

50
150

Aircraft air carried stores and


weapons in captive flight
Guided weapons in free flight
Low Altitude
Mach 1
Low/Intermediate Altitude
Mach 2
Mach 4

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5.3.2
In the absence of measured data of gradients for reducing temperatures, the use of
the above specified rates factored down by 50% is recommended.
5.3.3
Fall-back severities for rates of change of temperature shall be applied in accordance
with the guidance given in paragraph 2.6.2 above.
5.4

Number of Test Cycles

Test Specimen

Conditions to be
Simulated

Number of test cycles to be applied

Section of aircraft structure

High speed flight

To be agreed with the Test Specifier


taking into account the possible
number of flight sorties that may be
experienced in service.

Air carried store

Rocket and turbojet


propelled munitions

5.5

Powered free-flight

1 cycle

Test Duration
5.5.1

5.6

Air carriage

Test durations shall represent the periods of kinetic heating likely to occur in service.

Test Tolerances

As percentage of the specified temperature in C.


Rate of temperature change
Final temperature
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Chapter 3-02
Part 5
Munitions
Chapter 12-05

25%
5%

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Natural Environments
Worldwide ambient air temperature and humidity conditions
and levels of direct solar radiation relating to the climatic
categories.
The effects of solar radiation
Induced Environments
Climatic Aspects

DEF STAN 08-5


Part 5

Design Requirements for Weapons Systems


Structures, Materiels and Processes

ISO 5878

Reference atmospheres for aerospace use

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1

There are no equivalent British Standard tests.

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Chapter 3-08
Annex A
ANNEX A
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH KINETIC
(AERODYNAMIC) HEATING

STAGNATION POINT

1.1 When a body moves through the atmosphere, the air is deflected around it except at a point
immediately in front of the body known as the 'stagnation point'.
2

STAGNATION TEMPERATURE

2.1 Due to compressive effects, the temperature of the air rises at the stagnation point. The
temperature attained is the 'stagnation temperature' and may be determined from the following
equation:

Where

Ts

(1 + 0.2M)

Ts
T
M

=
=
=

stagnation temperature )
free stream temperature )
Mach number

In degrees Kelvin

This will be the effective air temperature surrounding leading edges of the flight platform.
Figure 1 shows the variation of stagnation temperature with Mach Number for various flight altitudes.
3

RECOVERY TEMPERATURE

3.1 Downstream from the stagnation regions where boundary layers have developed, the effective
boundary layer temperature, ie 'Recovery Temperature' is given by:
TR

(1 + 0.2 r M)

Where r, the recovery factor, may be taken as 0.9 for a turbulent boundary layer.
The recovery factor results from the velocity gradient within the boundary layer.
3.2 The recovery temperature stays essentially constant along the length of the flight vehicle,
irrespective of shape, except near stagnation points.
3.3 Any temperature difference is usually a transient effect arising from the response of the
structure, i.e. its thermal time constant, and is due to a decrease downstream in the magnitude of the
heat transfer coefficient.

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Chapter 3-08
Annex A

Figure 1 Variation of Stagnation Temperature with Mach Number


4

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

4.1 The 'heat transfer coefficient' is a measure of the ability to transfer heat between the boundary
layer and the surface structure of the flight platform. This coefficient varies with atmospheric
conditions, flight speed, body size, body shape and surface structure. The direction in which heat is
transferred is determined solely by the relative magnitudes of the surface (wall) temperature, TW and
the recovery temperature, TR. If TW > TR cooling will occur.

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Annex A

Where

h (TR - TW )

Q
h
TR
TW

=
=
=
=

rate of heat flow watts/m


heat transfer coefficient
recovery temperature in Kelvin
surface temperature of flight platform in Kelvin

'h' is dependent on velocity, vehicle shape and air density.


4.2 Therefore to simulate the effects of kinetic heating, it is necessary to subject the structure to the
appropriate levels of TR and correctly represent the heat transfer coefficients.
4.3 Heat transfer coefficients in a conventional test chamber are typically 10-20 times lower than
those experienced during air carriage or free flight. They can be increased considerably by the use of
impinging air jets.
4.4 Therefore, unless 'h' values are correctly simulated, the induced rates of heating and cooling will
be unrealistic and any internally generated heat from operation of internal systems may produce
excessively high skin temperatures.

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Annex A

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Annex B
ANNEX B
SIMULATED AERODYNAMIC HEATING
1
Various methods are employed for the simulation of aerodynamic heating such as blankets,
radiant heaters, fluidised beds, ram jet test beds and rocket engines, pebble beds, arc or gas heated
air jets, rocket sled tracks, or free-flight test vehicles. The complexity of the method or combination
used can vary according to the degree of flight simulation and representation of atmospheric properties
required.
2
The complex factors in the heat transfer from the boundary layer to a missile outer skin during
flight are addressed in Part 5, Chapter 12-05 of this Standard. Advice on simulation for particular
applications should be sought from agencies with recognised expertise in conducting tests simulating
kinetic heating. Notes on simulation by hot air and radiant heaters are given in this Annex.
3
The test information will usually be given as a required skin temperature/time characteristic, but
may be in the form of aerodynamic data.
4
The most realistic but far the most complicated method of testing, is attempting to produce
realistic 'h' values, by controlling the heat flux, using for example high velocity air jets, wind tunnel or
heated/cooled water jets together with a waterproof skin.
The aerodynamic data and losses are pre-calculated for the particular flight conditions and stored in a
computer. The surface temperature of the item is measured. The computer then calculates the heat
input based on the measured surface temperature and the stored information and compares this with
the measured value to produce an error signal which adjusts the power to the heaters.
5
A simpler method is the surface temperature control system in which the heater/cooler of the
test chamber is controlled to produce a surface temperature profile which closely follows that predicted
by thermal modelling.
This has two distinct disadvantages:
(a)

It assumes the thermal modelling is accurate (the tests cannot be used to validate the
model).

(b)

Since h varies with position along the surface and skin temperature depends upon wall
thickness and internal structure, the rate of heating necessary will vary with location.

5.1 To minimize these drawbacks, differential heating/cooling is required, possibly using radiant
heaters and/or heating/cooling air jets.
Method

Disadvantage

Control chamber temperature


to TR

Wall temperature response too low.


Internal electronics could overheat.

Control skin temperature


to TR

Thick sections respond too slowly.


Thin section respond too fast.
Differential heating required.

Control skin temperature


to computed skin temperature

As above
For many applications reasonable control can be
achieved from thin skin positions where the service
temperature profile is known, provided that the heat input
over the entire conditioned area of the structure is
consistently maintained.

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Chapter 3-08
Annex B
Simulate both TR and h

Requires one of the following:


Wind tunnel.
High velocity air jets or water jets.

6
The nature of the test item surface has an important bearing on the type of heating to be used.
For example, fibreglass is relatively transparent to radiant heat and particularly where it has an
underlying metallic skin, heating by radiation can be completely erroneous both in temperature and
strain effects, and the hot air method is called for. Radiant heaters, on the other hand, may often be
employed where this type of problem is not present, eg with substantially uniform metallic sections. For
more complex structures they can be grouped in sections to provide differing intensities and patterns.
7
Surface temperature distribution may be measured by an array of temperature sensors. Care
should be taken that the sensors do not significantly affect the specimen temperatures being
measured, for example a skin element may be included in the thermocouple. For radiative heating the
temperature measurement system should produce minimum change in surface emissivity and
conductivity.
8
Heating by hot air may be necessary when the nature of the surface precludes the use of radiant
heaters or occasionally it may be more convenient in view of the high initial electrical load.

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CHAPTER 3-09
TEST CL9 - RAPID AND EXPLOSIVE DECOMPRESSION
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel installed or transported within the pressurized zone of an aircraft.
The test is intended to demonstrate whether, in the event of rapid loss of pressurization or explosive
decompression, materiel including packages will survive, or fail in a manner that does not hazard the
safety of the aircraft.
1.2 This test may also be used to demonstrate compliance of materiel with the rapid decompression
requirements of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3.
1.3

This test is of a specialized nature. Advice should be sought before specifying test requirements.

1.4

This test replaces the differential pressure tests of BS 3G 100: Part 2: Section 3: Sub-section 3.4.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
follows:

The hazards associated with rapid or explosive decompression can be categorized as

(a)

Physical break-up of materiel interfering with operation of adjacent equipment or aircraft


functions.

(b)

Failure of materiel necessary for flight safety.

(c)

Malfunction or damage of weapon systems, having implications for safety or ability to


operate on subsequent use.

2.1.2
Rapid decompression is associated with failure of aircraft pressurization systems typically
in large compartments of transport aircraft. Normally loss of pressurization would be followed by descent
of the aircraft to a lower altitude and the rapid reduction in pressure only persists for a limited period.
2.1.3
Explosive decompression is characterized by instantaneous loss of pressurization
associated with the more serious forms of failure of aircraft structures. Testing is particularly applicable to
materiel required to continue operation or remain safe when installed for example in the smaller
pressurized compartments of strike aircraft.
2.1.4
Normally, only the effects of pressure change on the test specimen need be addressed in
the decompression test. Although such events may also result in materiel being subjected to changes in
temperature, the effects of the latter are unlikely to be realized immediately and there are significant
problems involved in simulating representative simultaneous changes of temperature and pressure. If it is
considered temperature change may be a contributory factor to the subsequent performance of materiel,
the test procedure may be varied as detailed in Paragraph 4. Testing of materiel to demonstrate
compliance with the requirements of DEF STAN 00-3, Section F, for carriage or installation in cargo bays
of large and medium transport aircraft, should be conducted at laboratory ambient temperature.
2.1.5
Since for many items the difference in the effects of rapid and explosive decompression
are insignificant, and in view of considerable difference in cost, rapid decompression tests should be
applied. Explosive pressure changes may be significant where the faster rate of change could create
abnormal pressure stressing, for example, in nominally sealed compartments or materiel with restricted
venting.

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2.1.6
Where the test specimen is a weapon system in its service package an inert specimen
may be used. Alternatively, where the specimen is to be tested unpackaged, a live store should be used
in order that correct operation may be subsequently demonstrated.
2.2

Test severities
2.2.1
(a)

The test severity is defined by:


The change from pressurization level to the pressure equivalent of the flight altitude for the
particular type of aircraft in which the materiel is to be installed.

and
(b)

The rate of change of pressure

2.2.2
For those cases where operational conditions for materiel are not specifically defined,
pressure severities should be selected from Table A in paragraph 5 below, taking into account the class
of aircraft in which the materiel will be installed in service. Unless otherwise specified by the
Environmental Test Specification, severities A and D apply for rapid decompression and B, C and E for
explosive decompression. Severity F should be used for demonstrating compliance of materiel with the
conditions specified in sub-paragraph 34.8.3.1 of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 for rapid decompression
on transport aircraft.
2.2.3
Changes in pressure should be applied in periods of 1 minute and 0.1 seconds for rapid
and explosive decompression respectively.
2.2.4
Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, tests should be
conducted at laboratory ambient temperature. Where it is considered temperature changes may
contribute to failure, the test specimen should first be thermally stabilized at the temperature specified by
the Environmental Test Specification, as representative of initial conditions in service prior to
decompression, or at the appropriate severity selected from Paragraph 5.3. Preferably temperature preconditioning should be carried out in the same facility used for applying decompression. Alternatively,
appropriate precautions should be taken to maintain the temperature of the specimen when transferring it
between a separate conditioning chamber and the decompression test facility and during the subsequent
reduction to the initial pressure conditions.
2.3

Performance evaluation

2.3.1
Materiel which is required to survive rapid or explosive decompression should be
operated and have its functional performance assessed after subjection to decompression.
2.3.2
Materiel required to operate without derangement during decompression and subsequent
stages of flight should be brought into operation before decompression is applied and performance
monitored throughout the test. In the case of heat dissipating materiel, the specimen should be allowed to
stabilize thermally before applying decompression.
2.3.3
For some materiel, temporary derangement may be acceptable provided correct
operation is restored on returning to normal operating pressure.
2.3.4
Materiel not operated continuously in flight should be tested in its working or inactive
state, whichever is the more adverse condition.
2.3.5
All specimens should be examined for mechanical derangement and potential safety
hazards on returning to Standard Laboratory Conditions.

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INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance, safety or survival.

(b)

Whether the equipment is to be tested for rapid or explosive decompression.

(c)

The pressure and temperature severities to be applied.

(d)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its package or unpackaged.

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate, and the levels of performance required.

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met.

(g)

The orientation and method of mounting of the specimen.

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(j)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions, orientated in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification. Connect any power supplies and signal lines as
required to operate and monitor performance of the specimen during the test.
4.2 If applicable, the temperature inside the test chamber shall be adjusted to that specified by the
Environmental Test Specification at a rate not exceeding 3C per minute and maintained for a sufficient
period to allow the specimen to stabilize thermally.
4.3 Reduce the pressure inside the test chamber to the specified pressurization level. The pressure
shall be maintained at this level for a minimum period of 5 minutes.
4.4 If applicable start and continue operation of the specimen for the remainder of the test cycle as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.5 The pressure shall be reduced from the pressurization level to that corresponding to the maximum
flight altitude in a period not exceeding either:
(a)

1 minute, for Rapid Decompression;

or
(b)

0.1 second, for Explosive Decompression.

4.6 The pressure shall then be maintained at that level for not less than 10 minutes or as required by
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.7 The Environmental Test Specification may require the temperature to be changed to simulate
temperature levels resulting from pressurization failure and/or the pressure to be increased to simulate
descent to a more acceptable flight altitude.

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4.8 Return the pressure inside the chamber to laboratory ambient pressure over a period of not less
than 5 minutes and allow the specimen to stabilize at laboratory ambient temperature.
4.9 Examine the test specimen for evidence of structural damage and potential hazards to any flight
platform. Note details of all observations.
4.10 Conduct any functional performance tests as required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Pressure
5.1.1

The preferred pressure severities are given in Table A.


TABLE A
SEVERITIES FOR RAPID AND EXPLOSIVE DECOMPRESSION TESTS
Classification by aircraft type and grade of materiel/pressurization level

Severity

Class of aircraft

Grade of materiel
mbar(1)

Initial pressure
mbar(2)

Supersonic with
operational ceiling
of 70,000ft

700

805

Decompression
Pressure
mbar(3)
45

Supersonic with
operational ceiling
of 70,000ft

300

445

45

Transonic with
operational ceiling
of 60,000ft

300

470

70

Subsonic with
operational ceiling
of 50,000ft

700

875

115

Subsonic with
operational ceiling
of 50,000ft

300

515

115

F(4)

Medium/large
transport aircraft
with an operational
ceiling of 45,000ft

750

810

185

SEVERITIES A and D
2

Test conditions are based on a pressurization differential of 76kN/m


SEVERITIES B, C and E

Test conditions are based on a pressurization differential of 36kN/m increased to 40kN/m to allow
for suction effects.

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NOTES
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Grade of materiel is defined in terms of minimum working pressure


Initial pressure is the compartment or cabin normal working pressure (pressurization level)
Ambient air pressure at operational ceiling (See also Figure 1)
Test severities for simulation of rapid decompression on transport aircraft, Ref DEF STAN
00-3, Section F sub para.34.8.3.1

5.2

Rates of change of pressure


5.2.1

5.3

The maximum time periods for change of pressure shall be:


Rapid decompression

1 minute

Explosive decompression

0.1 second

Temperature
5.3.1

Preferred temperatures are:


Laboratory ambient temperature
45C
-20C

5.4

Number of pressure cycles


One cycle shall be applied at each specified test temperature.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-3

Design guidance for the transportability of equipment


Section F Paragraph 34.8 Altitude

BS 3G 100

Specification for general requirements for equipment used in


aircraft.
All equipment.
Environmental conditions.
Differential pressure requirements.

Part 2
Section 3
Sub Section 3.4
7

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test replaces the test procedures of BS 3G 100: Part 2: Section 3: Subsection 3.4 for rapid
and explosive decompression.

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Figure 1. Altitude/pressure conversion

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Chapter 3-10

CHAPTER 3-10
TEST CL10 - ICING
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel liable to exposure to icing conditions, to assess its
performance or survival when subjected to water, spray, fog or mist at sub-zero temperatures.
1.2 The test may be used to evaluate the performance or survival of materiel when enveloped in
specified depths of ice. A special procedure is included for evaluating the performance of de-icing
systems for vehicle windscreens.
1.3 The test does not simulate frost or icing combined with induced changes of temperature,
humidity and air pressure which is covered by Chapter 3-13, nor the immersion of materiel in water
following a period at low temperature which may result in the formation of ice which is covered by
Test Procedure E of Chapter 3-14.
1.4 This test does not simulate impact icing conditions during flight which is covered by Chapter
3-23.
1.5

Test Procedure B is technically similar to EEC Directive 78/317/EEC.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection from options (test procedures,
severities etc) given in this chapter.
2.2

Test Selection
2.2.1

General

Test Procedure A is applicable to all types of materiel liable to experience icing when deployed
on land-based service platforms, surface ships and submarines. Test Procedure B may be adapted
to assess the performance of de-icing systems associated with optical systems and all types of
transparencies, but the version given here is applicable to vehicle windscreens. Notwithstanding the
exceptions given in Paragraph 1 above, Test Procedures A and B may be used to simulate icing of
materiel deployed on parked aircraft and aircraft ground support equipment.
2.2.2

Test Procedure A

A specified depth of glazed ice is produced on the specimen at a specified rate by spraying
water (or salt water solution) onto the specimen which is previously conditioned at 02C and then at
the in-service sub-zero temperature.
2.2.3

Test Procedure B

This test procedure is based on the method of EEC Directive 78/317/EEC. The method
provides repeatable conditions for assessing performance of vehicle windscreen de-icing systems or
de-icing systems used with other optical surfaces. The procedure involves the application of a
uniform layer of glazed ice, by spraying water onto the windscreen, followed by a period of
temperature stabilization. The de-icing system is then operated, either for a prescribed period or until
a specified area of the screen is clear of ice.

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2.3

Severities
2.3.1

Test Procedure A

Preferred temperature severities are related to climatic regions defined in Chapter 1-01 of Part
4 of this standard, while depths of ice are related to deployment on land or in a marine environment.
Four depths of ice are given in Paragraph 5 below together with information regarding their
application.
(a)

A temperature of -10C is considered to be the most appropriate to give worst icing


conditions in Category C0 climatic areas with an accretion rate of 3-7 mm/hour.

(b)

-25C is considered to be the lowest temperature within the C1 to C4 climatic areas at


which ice is likely to be formed. Ice at temperatures lower than -25C lacks adhesion
and is extremely brittle. The recommended accretion rates range from 6 to 24 mm/hour
with the higher values being related to marine systems.

Fresh tap water should be used throughout the test. Alternatively, a 3.5% sodium chloride
solution may be used to simulate icing in maritime conditions. The type of water to be used should be
stated in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.3.2
Sheet 15.
2.3.3

Further information on accretion rates for marine systems is given in NES 1004 Data

Test Procedure B

As this is primarily a comparative test for vehicle windscreens, one set of severities is specified
to give a practical mass of ice within a reasonable time period. The specified temperature of -18
3C and depth of ice of 0.5mm at a density of 0.88 Mg/m3 are optimised conditions for testing
vehicle windscreen de-icing systems. Accretion rate is not important.
2.4

Test Facilities and Methods


2.4.1

Procedure A

Provided that the specified ice layer can be formed, any suitable spraying device may be used
although a spray gun or multi-head spray system that produces a fine mist is recommended. It is
important to note that the humidity should be kept as near to saturation as possible while spraying and
during steady state conditions, otherwise evaporation occurs and test times are liable to be greatly
increased. If accreted ice begins to melt, it is recommended spraying is discontinued and the
temperature of the specimen allowed to stabilise. Spraying can then be resumed. Care is required to
prevent cracking of the surface of the ice. The use of a fine spray gives some protection against
cracking.
2.4.2

Procedure B

Provided that the specified ice layer can be formed, any suitable spraying device may be used.
However, a spray gun giving a nozzle diameter of 1.7mm and a liquid flow rate of 0.395 l/min,
working at 3.5 0.2 bar operating pressure and capable of producing a fan pattern 300mm diameter
on a glazed surface has been found to be suitable.

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2.5

Performance Evaluation
2.5.1

Procedure A

Materiel which is designed to operate while covered in ice should have its performance
checked accordingly. Materiel designed to survive only, should have its performance checked after
removal of the ice using the method(s) stated in the Environmental Test Specification. All specimens
should be examined for any damage incurred resulting from operation while covered in ice or by the
de-icing procedure.
2.5.2

Procedure B

Annex A gives the basis for evaluation, and is referenced to the seated height of a 95th
percentile man positioned in the driving seat. The defrost pattern produced by the de-icing system
may be recorded by drawing an outline on the inside surface of the windscreen using a wax marker or
spirit based ink marker. The pattern can then be recorded at the end of the test by using photography
or by tracing onto drafting film. The test is deemed to be complete when either a predetermined time
has elapsed, up to a maximum of 30 minutes or when a predetermined pattern of defrosting has been
achieved.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The severity levels for temperature, depth of ice, accretion rate and type of water to be
used

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phase(s) of the test when the specimen
is to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(e)

For survival tests only, whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or
unpackaged

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(g)

For procedure B the criterion to be applied for completion of the test (See paragraph
2.5.2)

(h)

If anti-icing or de-icing systems or coatings are used, at what stage of the test they shall
be used

(j)

The orientation of the specimen in relationship to airflow and water spray

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(l)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Procedure A
(a)

Prior to the test all areas not normally oiled or greased shall be de-greased. Fit depth
gauges to the specimen as appropriate to measure the depth of ice.

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4.2

(b)

The surface temperature of the specimen shall be lowered to 0C 2C, and held at this
temperature until stabilized thermally.

(c)

Spray the area of the specimen to be coated with ice until thoroughly wetted. Stop
spraying once this is achieved and start reducing the ambient temperature inside the
chamber to the value specified in the Environmental Test Specification at the fastest rate
possible ensuring the surface remains wetted.

(d)

When glazed ice has started to form, resume spraying and continue reducing the
temperature to the specified value.

(e)

Continue spraying to produce the specified depth of ice.

(f)

The specimen shall be allowed to stabilize thermally at the test temperature.

(g)

Functional testing shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the
Environmental Test Specification.

Procedure B
(a)

Before the test, the inner and outer surfaces of the windscreen shall be thoroughly
degreased by means of a degreasing agent. After drying, a solution of ammonia of not
less than 3% and not more than 10% shall be applied. The surface shall be allowed to
dry again and then wiped with a cotton cloth.

(b)

The vehicle shall be placed in a test chamber and the chamber temperature reduced at a
rate not exceeding 3C per minute to the specified test temperature.

(c)

The vehicle with the engine stopped, shall be maintained at the test temperature for a
period of not less than 16 hours. If instruments are available to indicate that the engine
coolant and lubricant temperatures have stabilized, this period may be shortened.

(d)

Apply even layers of ice 0.5 0/+0.5mm thick over the outside surface of the windscreen
using a water spray device.

(e)

The spray nozzle, shall be held perpendicular to and at a distance of between 200 and
250mm from the glazed surface, and so directed to form an even layer of ice right across
the windscreen from one side to the other.

(f)

After the ice has been formed on the windscreen, the vehicle shall be maintained at the
test temperature for not less than 30 minutes and not more than 4 hours.

(g)

After the period described in paragraph (f) above has elapsed, start the engine. Timing
of the de-icing period shall begin when the cooling system of the vehicle has reached its
operating temperature.

(h)

During the first five minutes of the de-icing period, the engine speed may be that which
the manufacturer recommends for warming up when starting in cold climates.

(j)

During the remaining period of the test the engine shall be run at a speed not exceeding
50% of the speed corresponding to its maximum power output. The temperature of the
test chamber shall be measured at the level of the centre line of the windscreen, at a
point not significantly affected by the heat from the vehicle under test. The wind speed
over the windscreen, measured at the median plane of the vehicle at a point 300mm
away from the base of the windscreen, and at a level half-way between the base and the
top of the windscreen, must be as low as possible, and in any event not more than 2.5
m/s.

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(k)

The observer(s) shall outline the defrost pattern on the inside surface of the windscreen
at 5 minute intervals from the start of the test period.

(l)

The test shall be deemed complete when either:


(i)

A predetermined time has elapsed, maximum 30 minutes


or

(ii)

A predetermined pattern of defrosting has been achieved

(m)

On completion of the test the defrost patterns marked on the windscreen shall be
recorded.

(n)

The test chamber shall be returned to Standard Laboratory Conditions at a rate not
exceeding 3C per minute.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Procedure A
Temperature:
(a)

Materiel deployed in climatic area C0:-

102C

(b)

Materiel deployed in climatic areas C1 to C4: -

252C

TABLE 1
PREFERRED ICING CONDITIONS
Temperature

Depth of ice

Accretion rate

-10C

6mm

3-7mm/h

General conditions light


loading

-10C

13mm

3-7mm/h

General conditions
medium loading

-25C

37mm

6-24mm/h

Heavy loading - ground


and mast head
equipment

-25C

75mm

6-26mm/h

Extremely heavy loading


- ground and marine
deck equipment

For severities on marine materiel see also NES 1004 Data Sheet 15.
5.2

Procedure B
Temperature: -183C
Depth of Ice: 0.5 -0/+0.5mm

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Chapter 3-10

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

EEC DIRECTIVE 78/317/EEC

Council Directive relating to the defrosting and demisting


systems of glazed surfaces of motor vehicles

NES 1004

Requirements for the design and testing of equipment to


meet environment conditions.

Data Sheet 15

Icing

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-13
Chapter 3-14
Chapter 3-23

Environmental Handbook for Defence materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL13 - Low temperature - low pressure - high humidity
Test CL14 - Thermal shock
Impact Icing

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH AND OTHER STANDARDS

7.1 Test Procedure B is technically similar to EEC Directive 78/317/EEC. There is no similar
British Standard to Test Procedure A.

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Chapter 3-10
Annex A
ANNEX A
BASIS FOR EVALUATION OF WINDSCREEN DE-ICING SYSTEMS

95TH PERCENTILE MAN

Figure 1. Forward Vision Side Elevation

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Annex A

Figure 2. Forward Vision Plan Elevation - Left hand Drive Vehicle

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Annex A

Figure 3. Forward Vision Side Elevation - Right Hand Drive Vehicle

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Annex A

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-11

CHAPTER 3-11
TEST CL 11 - HIGH TEMPERATURE - LOW PRESSURE
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which may experience the combined environments of high
temperature and low pressure during air carriage and free flight and where it is considered the effects
may be different or more stressful than those due to high temperature or low pressure alone.
1.2 This test is applicable to materiel installed or deployed on Service aircraft, or systems and
components of guided weapons and projectiles whose speed during free flight is subsonic.
1.3 Test Procedure A invokes the procedure of BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/BM, Test Z/BM, Combined dry
heat/low air pressure tests, for those situations where the real life combined environments of high
temperature and low pressure may be reasonably represented by stabilized conditions.
1.4 Test Procedure B may be used to simulate the variation of combined high temperature and low
pressure, resulting from rapid and wide ranging changes of velocity and altitude in flight.
1.5

The conditions simulated by this test would not normally apply to materiel carried as cargo.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Materiel may be subjected to high temperatures while at altitude as a result of being
attached or in close proximity to sources of dissipated heat, e.g. aircraft power units, avionic systems,
missile electronics packages, thermal batteries or propulsion systems
2.1.2
Alternatively, high temperatures may arise indirectly as a result of kinetic
(aerodynamic) heating of the flight platform or in combination with other sources of heat referred to
above. For many missiles and projectiles the effects of kinetic heating during free flight override
those due to other sources. In these cases, mathematical modelling techniques or the test method of
Chapter 3-08 would be more appropriate.
2.1.3
factors:

Severities of combined high temperature and low pressure depends on the following

(a)

Location on the flight platform

(b)

Altitude and prevailing ambient temperature

(c)

Heat dissipated from surrounding equipment or structure of the flight platform

(d)

Heat transfer coefficient at the interface of the materiel and the flight platform

(e)

Any environmental conditioning provided on the flight platform

(f)

Induced rates of change of temperature and pressure

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2.2

Selection of Test Procedure


2.2.1

Test Procedure 'A'

(a)

Test Procedure 'A' is intended for materiel which when in service is likely to be exposed
to combined high temperature and low pressure for such a period that it may be
reasonably represented by steady state test conditions, e.g. equipment in aircraft and air
carried stores and armaments during the air carriage phase. In this case, the procedure
of BS 2011: Part 2.1, Z/BM Test Z/BM, Combined dry heat/low air pressures tests,
should be used.

(b)

Test Z/BM of BS 2011 is a combination of the procedures of BS EN60068-2-2 (formerly


BS 2011:Part 2.1B Test B Dry Heat) and BS 2011:Part 2.1 M Test M Low air pressure.

2.2.2

Test Procedure 'B'

(a)

Test procedure 'B' may be used to simulate the short term or variable conditions created
by high speed manoeuvres during air carriage or missile free flight. There is no British
Standard test for Procedure 'B'. Severities of temperature and low pressure vary during
the test to follow the flight profile being simulated and should be detailed accordingly in
the Environmental Test Specification.

(b)

Figure 1 shows a typical test profile representing the conditions which may be
experienced by an air carried armament or store during a flight sortie. Simulation of
missile free flight may justify a separate test to a different profile.

(c)

Test severities should be determined in accordance with the guidance given in


paragraphs 2.4 to 2.7 below.

(d)

The need to conduct the test as a continuous cycle, or to carry out individual steps as
separate tests, or a limited number of adjacent steps, and the rates of change in
temperature and pressure, may be determined by the availability or cost of test facilities,
as discussed in paragraph 2.3 below.

(e)

When a test to Procedure 'B' is proposed, attention to detail is required with regard to
defining the profiles of the respective test parameters and the synchronisation of events,
including the schedule of any functional tests.

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Profiles derived for the case of an air carried store subjected to a captive Flight sortie:
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:

Temperature soak at ground ambient conditions


Take off and high speed level flight
Dive, accelerating to High Speed/Low Altitude Dash
Return to high altitude and fly back to airfield
Descent to airfield and stabilisation at ground ambient conditions

Figure 1. Example of profiles of test temperature and pressure for Test Procedure
2.3

Test Facilities and Test Methods

2.3.1
Tests combining high temperature and low pressure with reasonable control of the
test parameters may be possible using a test chamber which has facilities for combining test
procedures CL1 and CL21 (see Chapters 3-01 and 3-21 respectively).
2.3.2
Close simulation of high temperature combined with low pressure, with rapid rates of
change over wide ranging severities as in Procedure 'B', may require a test chamber employing
alternative methods of conditioning and control. These may include conducted or radiated heating
with control related directly to the temperature of the specimen and measurement of heat flux to the
working volume of the test chamber.
2.3.3
Such test facilities are comparatively expensive to procure and operate and of limited
availability. Therefore consideration should be given to the significance of the synergistic effects of
the combined conditions and whether two alternative test methods for single environments could be
used, e.g. Thermal Shock or Rapid Change of Temperature of Chapter 3-14 and Rapid Change of
Pressure Test of Chapter 3-20.
2.4

Test Severities

2.4.1
Because of the number of complex factors influencing the temperatures occurring in
flight, test severities should preferably be determined from measurements made on the flight platform
on which the specimen will be installed while subjected to simulated service conditions.

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2.4.2

Aircraft Equipment and Air Carried Armaments (Captive Flight)

(a)

Materiel carried or installed on aircraft with the capability of prolonged supersonic flight,
are liable to be subjected to induced high temperatures arising from aerodynamic heating
of the surrounding structures.

(b)

Other factors to be taken into account are:


(i)

Prevailing climatic conditions on the ground prior to take-off, including solar


heating.

(ii)

Heat dissipated by surrounding equipment.

(iii)

Any air conditioning made available in the aircraft equipment bay or to the
externally carried store.

(iv)

Proximity to the aircraft or missile skin, especially for equipment installed in


equipment bays forward of the cockpit or near leading edges.

2.4.3
In the absence of measured data, Annex A to this Chapter gives guidance on
severities of high temperature combined with low pressure and fall-back levels for testing materiel
deployed on various categories of military aircraft.
2.4.4

2.5

Missile Free Flight

(a)

The factors contributing to high temperatures during missile free flight will be similar to
those referred to in paragraph 2.4.2.

(b)

The associated flight velocities and accelerations, increased packing densities and closer
proximity to propulsion units are likely to result in higher induced temperatures and rates
of change of temperature and pressure.

Derivation of Test Severities

2.5.1
Where data from measurements of real life conditions on the service platform are not
available, test severities may be derived from information given in Annex A and consideration of the
operational profile as follows:
(a)

Establish anticipated worst case induced temperature at ground level before take off or
launch.

(b)

Establish the anticipated flight altitudes, rates of change of altitude and the relevant
ambient conditions of temperature and pressure.

(c)

Determine the effects of any kinetic heating of the structure or skin of the flight platform
to which the specimen will be fitted.

(d)

Take into account any heat dissipated from adjacent equipments installed on the service
platform. The latter may be considered the dominating influence on temperature
severity.

(e)

Take into account the influence of any environmental conditioning provided at the
position on the flight platform occupied by the materiel when in service.

2.5.2
The determination of these factors can be complex, requiring the use of sophisticated
modelling and computer programmes.

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2.6

Duration
2.6.1
(a)

Normally the duration of the applied test severity shall be measured from the time that
the specimen has stabilized at the test temperature and pressure.

(b)

Generally for materiel fitted to or carried on high performance aircraft and where the
effects of aerodynamic heating may be reasonably represented by stabilized conditions,
a duration of 30 minutes or 1 hour will apply.

(c)

It is anticipated that a very limited number of applications will require durations of 3 to 6


hours.

(d)

However, in the case of materiel located in areas where it will experience high
temperature as a result of its proximity to other sources of heat, for example aircraft
power units, when durations of up to 16 hours may apply, dependent on the anticipated
length of flight sorties.

2.6.2

2.7

Test Procedure 'A'

Test Procedure 'B'

(a)

In Procedure 'B', while severities and rates of change may be comparatively more
severe, the conditioning period(s) is likely to be such that temperature stabilization of the
specimen will not occur.

(b)

Conditioning periods at the various severities throughout the cycle should be derived
from the operational profile and should take into account the degree to which initial
climatic conditions are stabilized before flight.

Number of Test cycles

2.7.1
One or more test cycles should be applied dependent upon the anticipated number of
flight sorties. Test cycles of different profiles may be required to represent air carriage and free flight
respectively.
2.7.2
For materiel deployed from, or installed on, high performance aircraft liable to
experience many flight sorties, a minimum of three cycles representing air carriage is recommended.
2.7.3
2.8

For munitions and guided weapons, one cycle simulating free flight should be applied.

Performance Evaluation

2.8.1
The test specimen shall be subjected to performance tests as required by the test
method in Procedure 'A' or as defined in Procedure 'B'.
(a)

Normally the test specimen should be operated at the phase(s) of the test simulating
operational and environmental use conditions.

(b)

For non-heat dissipating specimens, performance should be evaluated after the


specimen has stabilized at the test conditions.

(c)

In the case of heat dissipating equipment, operation should be representative of the most
adverse duty cycle.

(d)

In general one of the following procedures will apply:

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(e)

(i)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made at


specified stages, for example, immediately after operation commences, towards the
end of the operating phase or at some other intermediate stage.

(ii)

Operation commencing only when the equipment has stabilized at the test
temperature and pressure and performance evaluation made immediately following
the start of the operating phase and/or after internal temperatures have restabilized.

For tests demonstrating survival only. The specimen should be operated and performance
evaluation made when the temperature and pressure have returned to Standard Laboratory
Conditions.

INFORMATION TO BE GIVEN IN THE TEST SPECIFICATION

3.1

The equipment specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

The test procedure to be used, ie. either BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/BM (Test Procedure 'A') or
Test Procedure 'B'.

(c)

The test cycle, severities and durations to be used.

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied.

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phase(s) of the test when the test specimen
is to operate and/or be loaded and its functional performance monitored.

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(h)

The method of mounting and orientation of the specimen.

(i)

The tolerances to be applied.

(j)

Any other parameters to be recorded.

(k)

Any permitted deviation from Test Procedure 'A'.

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

Test Procedure 'A'

4.1.1
The test shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure of BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/BM
Test Z/BM. The following variations/deviations from Test Z/BM are permitted:
(a)

The rate of changes of temperature and pressure in the test chamber may be increased to
rates specified in the Environmental Test Specification.

(b)

Alternative durations at the test temperature and pressure may be used as specified by the
Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The requirement to operate and/or evaluate performance of the test specimen between
temperature stabilization and reducing pressure in the test chamber is optional and shall be
stated in the relevant environmental test specification. (Paragraph 8.2.3 of Test Z/BM).

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(d)

4.2

If appropriate the procedure of test Z/BM may be preceded by simulation of the ground
conditions anticipated during service life. (See Paragraph 2.4.2(b)(i)).

Test Procedure 'B'

4.2.1
The sequence of Test Procedure 'B' shall be defined in the relevant Environmental
Test Specification. A detailed profile of the test cycle shall be derived in a similar manner to that
shown in Figure 1.
4.2.2
The Environmental Test Specification shall include a step by step procedure giving
the sequence, severities and variations of environmental conditions, closely tailored to those
anticipated at the position occupied by the specimen when deployed on the launch or flight platform.
The timing of operation of the test specimen during subjection to environmental conditions, shall be
scheduled to represent that occurring during the flight sortie(s).
4.2.3
applied.

The Environmental Test Specification shall state the number of test cycles to be

4.2.4
The profile of the test cycle, test severities, the timing of operation and functional
performance tests on the specimen and the number of test cycles to be applied shall be agreed with
the test specifier.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Preferred severities for Test Procedures A and B should be determined from data measured on
the intended flight platform when subjected to simulated service conditions. In the absence of
measured data, severities shall be determined using the guidance given in paragraph 2 above and
the information given in Appendix A to this Chapter.
5.2 For Test Procedure 'A', if relevant, preferred severities specified in BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/BM:
Test Z/BM may be used.
5.3 For Test Procedure 'B', profile of the test cycle and severities of temperature and low pressure
shall be tailored to the anticipated service conditions and agreed with the test specifier.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 3-01
Chapter 3-08
Chapter 3-14
Chapter 3-20

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materials


Environmental testing
Test CL1 Constant high temperature-low humidity test
Test CL8 Kinetic (aerodynamic) heating
Thermal shock and rapid change of temperature
Test CL20 Rapid change of pressures test

BS EN60068-2-2
Part 2

Environmental testing
Tests B Dry heat

BS 2011
Part 2.1B
Part 2.1M
Part 2.1Z/BM
Part 3 Z/AM
and Z/BM

Environmental testing
Tests B Dry heat
Test M Low pressure
Test Z/BM Combined dry heat/low air pressure tests
Tests Z/AM & Z/BM Combined temperature/low air pressure
tests

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COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 Test Procedure A of this Chapter is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1Z/BM Test Z/BM
Combined dry heat/low air pressure tests with the following variations:

7.2

(a)

Preferred severities shall be selected in accordance with paragraph 5 of this chapter

(b)

Faster rates of temperature and pressure may be applied as specified by the


Environmental Test Specification

(c)

Alternative durations at test temperature and pressure may be applied as specified by


the Environmental Test Specification

(d)

The requirement for the test specimen to operate between stabilization at low
temperature and reducing the air pressure in the test chamber is optional

(e)

Conditioning in accordance with Test Z/BM of BS 2011 may be preceded by simulation


of the anticipated climatic conditions at ground level

There is no equivalent British Standard test for Test Procedure B of this chapter.

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Chapter 3-11
Annex A
ANNEX A
SELECTION OF TEST SEVERITIES FOR AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT
The following data is provided for the selection of test severities for aircraft equipment when data
from specific flight measurements is not available.
The specimen should first be matched as close as possible to the relevant Aircraft Classification,
Equipment Grade and Suffix presented in Clause 1 and 2 below. The test severity is then selected
from Table 1 and Table 2 accordingly.
The severities given for equipment grades in Table 1 are derived on an arbitrary basis and estimated
to be the maximum levels that could occur in semi-stagnant areas of aircraft compartments (e.g. in
an enclosed space behind an electronic unit).
The temperatures in Table 1 for High-temperature Flight include an allowance for the influence of
aerodynamic heating calculated from the following:

where

Tr
T
Tr
M

=
=
=
=

0.2TM
temperature of the atmosphere K
temperature rise of aircraft C
speed of aircraft relative to atmosphere expressed as Mach
number

For cases where equipment is to be installed in areas which are subjected to adiabatic wall (ram
recovery) temperature and not to the full temperature rise, an appropriate constant may be used in
place of 0.2 in the above equation. Since the equipment manufacturer has no control over these
conditions, the full ram temperature has been used in determining the values in Table 1.
Temperatures for equipment located within the airframe do not take into account any temperature rise
that may result from heat generated by adjacent equipment.
The following should be taken into consideration when selecting a possible range of tests:
(a)

Whether the operation of the aircraft will subject the equipment to more than one
combination of severities of temperature and pressure with the possibility of producing
different effects.

(b)

Whether the equipment is intended to be fitted to more than one type of aircraft in
various locations, providing different levels of environmental conditioning.

(c)

The initial ambient conditions at ground level.

(d)

Whether allowance needs to be made for heat generated by adjacent equipment.

Where a range of severities are selected the environmental test specification should state whether
they should be applied as discrete tests or as a complete cycle of tests.

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Annex A
1

Aircraft Classification

Class

Type of Aircraft

Comment

Rotorcraft and Low


Performance Aircraft

Includes piston engined and all unpressurized aircraft with


a nominal ceiling of 6100 m (20,000 ft). It is probable
these aircraft will use outside air for cooling and have a
simple heating system using waste engine heat.

Subsonic Aircraft

Includes passenger aircraft flying up to speeds of Mach


0.95 and altitudes of 15,220 m (50,000 ft). Certain
compartments will be pressurized and/or provided with air
conditioning.

Transonic Aircraft

Primarily for aircraft with speeds up to Mach 1.3 and


altitudes up to 18,300 m (60,000 ft) but with low altitude
speeds not greater than 1300 km/hr (700 knots) i.e. Mach
1.06 at sea level.

Supersonic or High
Performance Aircraft

Includes high performance aircraft with structures


manufactured from composite materials and aircraft with
light alloy airframes and similar performance for which a
temperature of 150C considered to provide a convenient
boundary. This limit is taken to represent speeds up to
Mach 2.2 in cool ambient conditions. Maximum lowaltitude speed will be about 1500 km/hr (800 knots) (i.e.
Mach 1.2 at sea level) with economic cruising at Mach 0.90.95 more usual. Maximum altitude is likely to be 21,300
m (70,000 ft) with minimum cruising speed of Mach 0.70.9.

NOTE. Aircraft with a performance in excess of Class 4 are likely to have airframes of heat resisting
material such as composites or titanium. However it is unlikely that temperature and pressure controlled
zones will differ from Class 4.
For unconditioned compartments the temperature severity will depend upon the degree of insulation and
flight time. For externally mounted equipment and for equipment in uninsulated compartments,
temperatures may be assumed to be of the following order:
Mach No

Temperature

2.5
3.0
3.5

185C
290C
415C

This information is offered for guidance: the aircraft manufacturer should be consulted for more details.
2

Equipment Grading

2.1

Equipment Grade

Grade A

Equipment mounted in the temperature controlled and pressurized regions of Classes 2, 3


and 4 aircraft, with pressure not lower than that corresponding to an altitude of 9100 m
(30,000 ft).

Grade B

Equipment in the temperature controlled but unpressurized regions of Class 3 aircraft.

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Annex A
Grade C

Equipment in temperature controlled but unpressurized regions of Class 4 aircraft, with


the capability of prolonged high speed flight at low or intermediate altitudes.

Grade D

Equipment in non-temperature controlled and unpressurized regions and externally


exposed locations of Class 2 aircraft, with the capability of prolonged high-speed flight at
low altitudes.

Grade E

Equipment in non-temperature controlled and unpressurized regions and externally


exposed locations of Class 3 aircraft, with the capability of prolonged high speed flight at
low and intermediate altitudes.

Grade F

Equipment in non-temperature controlled and unpressurized regions and in externally


exposed locations of Class 4 aircraft, with the capability of prolonged high-speed flight at
low and intermediate altitudes.

Grade G

Equipment located in the engine bay of Class 3 aircraft.

2.2

Grade Suffix

Grade -.1

Equipment installed in aircraft intended for worldwide use and with the equipment located
in the aircraft such that when deployed in high temperature regions the equipment would
be significantly influenced by solar radiation; i.e. equipment mounted outside the aircraft,
in small enclosed aircraft zones, under canopies, in pods not shaded from the sun.

Grade -.2

Equipment installed in aircraft intended for worldwide use and with the equipment located
in the aircraft such that when deployed in high temperature regions the equipment would
be largely protected from the direct influence of solar radiation.

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Annex A
TABLE 1
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE SEVERITIES
Ground Temperatures

High Temperature Flight

Ground
Survival

Ground
Operation
(Short Term)

Ground
Operation
(Long Term)

Low
Altitude

Intermediate
Altitude

High
Altitude

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

-.1

85C

85C

70C

-.2

85C

70C

55C

Equipment
Grade

45C
9300 m

70C (7)

60C
6100 m

45C(8)
18300 m

70C (7)

60C
9100 m

60C
21300 m

100C

10C (9)
15200 m

100C
(7)

90C
6100

45C (8)
18300 m

100C
(7)

150C
9100 m

150C
21300 m

See Note (10) re engine bays

Notes to Table 1 (as indicated by numbers in parentheses).


Note 1:
This temperature represents that likely to arise inside aircraft parked on
airfields in hot dry regions e.g. Middle East, North Africa. The temperature severity is
applicable to all equipment fitted in aircraft that are likely to operate in such regions,
irrespective of classification.
Temperatures on some surfaces exposed to solar radiation (e.g. dark coloured) may
exceed those listed in Table 1.
Note 2:
Simulates the maximum temperature conditions in which an equipment could
be operated following a soak at Ground Survival temperature and before take-off. It is
expected these conditions would be of short duration since the atmosphere inside the
aircraft would be disturbed by opening canopies, circulation of cooling air etc. When
applicable, operating time of test item should be 30 minutes or as specified in the
environmental test specification.
Note 3:
Simulates the maximum temperatures on the ground at which equipment
would be operated for long periods before take-off. It is anticipated it would immediately
follow Short Term Ground Operation. When applicable, operating time of specimen
should be 4 hours or as specified in the environmental test specification.

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Annex A
Note 4:
Simulates the conditions occurring in an aircraft having a capability of near sonic
speeds at altitudes close to ground level. The requirement for this test becomes significant
only in aircraft having this capability and should be applied selectively. In all other aircraft the
ground operating condition should cover the low-altitude flight case. When applicable, the
equipment should operate for one hour or as required by the environmental test
specification.
Note 5:
The temperature gradients within an equipment dissipating self-heat are largely
influenced by the combination of ambient temperature and air pressure. In some cases
intermediate altitudes may produce a more adverse thermal condition than that existing at
ceiling altitudes and tests should also be carried out at these severities.
The equipment should be operated for four hours or as required by the environmental test
specification.
Note 6:
Simulates the temperature/altitude conditions at the ceiling of the particular class
of aircraft.
The equipment should be operated for four hours or as required by the environmental test
specification.
Note 7:
These conditions relate to the long term flight capability of transonic aircraft. In
aircraft capable of short-term high-speed bursts, short-period temperature overshoots may
occur in which the severities are in excess of the levels given. Advice should be sought from
the aircraft manufacturer.
Note 8:
The temperature level is based on an ambient atmospheric temperature of
-37C the highest temperature on 5 days per year 1% probability basis at altitude 10,700 m
(35,000 ft) and an aircraft speed of Mach 1.3. (See Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 of this Standard).
Note 9:

These conditions are related to aircraft speeds of Mach 0.95.

Note 10:
The conditions in aircraft engine bays may vary widely depending upon the
precise location of the equipment relative to the engine shroud. Advice on the severities for
these areas should be sought from the aircraft manufacturer.
TABLE 2
ALTITUDE AND CORRESPONDING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES
Altitude

Atmospheric Pressure*

Metres +

Feet

kN/m (kPa)

millibars (h Pa)

3000
4600
6100
7600
9100
13700
15200
18300
21300

10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
45000
50000
60000
70000

70.0
57.0
46.5
37.5
30.0
15.0
11.5
7.2
4.4

700
570
465
375
300
150
115
72
44

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Annex A
*The values are rounded values from ICAO standard atmosphere.
+The values for altitude in metres are approximate values of those in feet.

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Chapter 3-12

CHAPTER 3-12
TEST CL12 - LOW TEMPERATURE - LOW PRESSURE TEST
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which when deployed or installed on Service aircraft may
experience low temperature combined with low air pressure and where the combined environment may
produce effects different to or more stressful than those resulting from low temperature or low pressure
alone.
1.2

Such conditions are experienced by materiel deployed as follows:


(a)

Attached to the external surface of an aircraft structure

(b)

Installed in partially or non-conditioned aircraft bays

(c)

As air carried stores for example guided weapons, ordnance and surveillance systems

(d)

As cargo attached directly or indirectly to the aircraft structure

1.3 This test does not normally apply to materiel carried as cargo on transport aircraft in which
conditioned cargo bays are provided. These conditions are covered by the methods of Test CL21 - "Low
air pressure (transportation)" (See Chapter 3-21).
1.4 This test invokes the procedure of BS 2011 Part 2.1 Z/AM: Test Z/AM Combined Cold/Low Air
Pressure, with the exceptions specified in Paragraph 7 below.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

Test procedure selection

2.1.1
The test method of BS 2011: Part 2.1Z/AM: Test Z/AM should be used where the real life
combined environments of low temperature and low pressure may be reasonably represented by
stabilised conditions.
2.1.2
Test Z/AM of BS 2011 invokes a combination of the procedures of Part 2.1 Test Ab or Ad
and Test M of BS 2011. Guidance on the conduct of combined low temperature and low pressure tests
and the use of test chambers is given in BS 2011, Part 3, Z/AM and Z/BM.
2.1.3
Where the additional effects of condensation, icing, ingress of moisture, induced during
the subsequent descent to ground level and the cumulative effects of successive flight sorties are of
interest, Test CL-13 of Chapter 3-13 should be used.
2.2

Test severities

2.2.1
The parameters defining test severities are temperature, pressure, rates of change of
temperature and pressure, and duration at each environmental condition. The severity of the
environmental parameters is dependant on the type of flight platform on which the materiel is deployed,
the profile of the flight sortie and the ambient conditions at operational altitude at which the materiel is
carried. The following factors should also be taken in to account:
(a)

Velocity of the flight platform and related kinetic heating effects particularly at leading edges
of carried stores and the transmission of that heat along the structure to the materiel within
the store.

(b)

Heat dissipated by the specimen or from other sources in the area of the flight platform in
which it is located.

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(c)

Whether or not the materiel is located in a conditioned bay and the level of conditioning
provided.

2.2.2
Preferably parameters should be measured at the actual location of the materiel on the
flight platform and be made during representative worst-case operational conditions and flight sorties.
Ideally flight trials should be conducted at ambient conditions commensurate with the environmental
requirement for the materiel. Where this is not possible the following action should be taken:
(a)

With reference to Table B, establish the worst-case ambient temperature conditions (1,10 or
20 percentile level) for the nearest representative cold region.

(b)

Where the value determined as described in Clause (a) above represents prevailing
conditions different from those during which measurements were made, (e.g.
measurements in 20 percentile conditions as against 10% design requirement), derive the
difference in temperature values for the respective percentiles in Table B.

(c)

Adjust the values of measured temperature by the difference(s) derived in Clause (b) above
to arrive at the test temperature.

2.2.3
As a second option test severities may be determined from previously measured data for
similar applications and regions of deployment. Where possible the following factors influencing the
severities derived from the previously measured data, should be compared with those anticipated at the
position of the test specimen on the intended flight platform. Where significant differences are found, the
previously derived values should be adjusted accordingly.
(a)

Sources of dissipated heat and the level of any environmental conditioning where the
measurements were made and those that will be present at the position occupied by the test
specimen when in service.

(b)

The prevailing ambient conditions in the cold region when the previously measured data was
recorded and those of the design requirement for the materiel to be tested. (See clauses
2.2.2(a) to (c).

(c)

In the absence of the information referred to in (a) and (b) above, the test severities may be
determined directly from the previously measured data and ideally the validity of the test
confirmed with specifically measured values obtained later in the development programme.

2.2.4
In the absence of any measured data, test severities may be determined from
consideration of the information provided in Tables A and B. Table A details aircraft types and typical
operational characteristics. Table B lists values of corresponding air temperature and pressure (altitude).
The estimate of test temperature should include allowances for the effects of kinetic heating and other
sources of heat dissipation. In many instances it is considered the ten or twenty percentile values of
Table B will represent an optimum compromise between ambient air temperature, kinetic heating and the
effects of heatflow from other parts of the flight platform.
2.2.5
Further data on low temperatures, may be obtained from tables of standard atmosphere
such as ISO 5878 - Reference atmospheres for aerospace use.
2.3

Performance evaluation

2.3.1
Performance of the test specimen should be evaluated as required by Test Z/AM of Part
2.1 of BS 2011 and the Environmental Test Specification.

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2.3.2
Normally the specimen should be operated at the phases of the test which produce the
most severe stress representative of operational and environmental use conditions. Performance of nonheat dissipating specimens should be evaluated after the specimen has stabilised at the test conditions.
In the case of heat-dissipating specimens operation should be representative of the most adverse duty
cycle. In general, one of the following procedures will apply:
(a)

The specimen should be operated continuously with performance evaluation made at


specified phases of the test such as immediately after operation commences, towards the
end of the operating phase or at some other intermediate stage.

(b)

Operation of the specimen should begin after it has stabilised at the test temperature and
pressure. Performance evaluation should be made either immediately following the start of
the operating phase and/or after internal temperatures have re-stabilised.

2.3.3
For tests demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated and performance
evaluated when the temperature and pressure have returned to Standard Laboratory Conditions.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle, severities of temperature and pressure and durations to be used

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(g)

The orientation and method of mounting the test specimen

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(j)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure of BS 2011 : Part 2.1 Z/AM unless
otherwise specified in the Environmental Test Specification. (See paragraph 2.1). The following deviations
are permitted:
(a)

The rate of change of temperature and pressure inside the test chamber may be increased
provided that they are representative of in-Service conditions and stated in the
Environmental Test Specification.

(b)

Alternative durations at the test temperature and pressure may be specified by the
Environmental Test Specification provided that they are representative of in-Service
conditions.

4.2 Functional testing shall be carried out as specified in the Environmental Test Specification. (See
paragraph 2.3).

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4.3

Post conditioning examination

The specimen shall be examined and assessed for any detrimental effects arising as a result of testing,
e.g. visual, mechanical, X-ray etc in accordance with acceptance criteria stated in the Environmental Test
Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

Test severities shall be determined using one of the following methods in descending order of
priority.
5.1 Method 1. Measure severities of temperature and pressure at the position on the flight platform
where the specimen will be installed or carried in service, while conducting representative operational
flight sorties in the cold region(s) where the materiel will be deployed during its service life. Where
applicable, simulate any heat which would always be dissipated by the specimen or any adjacent
equipment. (See paragraph 2.2.2).
5.2 Method 2. Determine test severities from previously measured data for similar applications and
regions of deployment taking into account the guidance given in Clause 2.2.3 regarding local heat
dissipation and ambient conditions for the measured data.
5.3 Method 3. Carry out a hazard analysis for the specimen based on the intended deployment in
conjunction with Tables A and B. Select the appropriate percentile severities of temperature for
anticipated worst-case conditions from Table B. Where applicable, make adjustments for the local effects
of kinetic heating and dissipated heat. (See paragraph 2.2.3 and 2.2.4).
5.4

If relevant, the preferred severities specified in BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/AM: Test Z/AM may be used.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

BS 2011
Part 1.1
Part 2.1A
Part 2.1M
Part 2.1Z/AM
Part 3 Z/AM & Z/BM

Basic environmental testing procedures


General and guidance
Tests A "Cold"
Test M "Low pressure air"
Tests Z/AM "Combined cold/low air pressure tests"
Tests Z/AM and Z/BM "Combined temperature/and
low air pressure tests"

ISO 5878

Reference atmospheres for aerospace use

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-13
Chapter 3-21

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Low temperature - low pressure - high humidity
Low air pressure (transportation)

Part 5

Induced Environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1:Test Z/AM combined cold/low air pressure test.
The variations from the British Standard test are:
(a)

Preferred severities shall be selected in accordance with paragraph 5 of this chapter

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Chapter 3-12

(b)

Where representative of Service conditions faster rates of change of temperature and


pressure may be applied

(c)

Where representative of Service conditions durations at the test temperature and pressure
may be as specified by Environmental Test Specification for the test specimen
TABLE A
AIRCRAFT TYPES AND TYPICAL OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
AIRCRAFT TYPE

TYPICAL (OR
MAXIMUM)
OPERATIONAL
ALTITUDE /1000 m
/1000 (ft)

TYPICAL AVERAGE
CLIMB RATE* SEA
LEVEL TO
OPERATIONAL
ALTITUDE metre/min
(ft/min)
300-450
(1000 - 1500)

DURATION
SORTIE OR
MISSION
Hours

Light Military transport aircraft. Low


budget surveillance and air launch
weapon platforms.

3(10)

2.55 - 4.5
(8.5 - 15)

400 - 500
(1200 - 1650)

2-4

6(20)

900(3000)

2-4

Maritime and Air Surveillance

5 - 9(18 - 30)

600(2000)

6 - 16

Medium Transport Tanker

5 - 9(18 - 30)

600(2000)

6 - 12

10.5 - 12(35 - 40)

600 - 1050 (2000 - 3500)

6 - 12

10.5 - 12
(35 - 40)

600 - 1050
(2000 - 3500)

2-4

Advanced Trainer

15(50)

1500(5000)

High Performance Fighter

21(70)

4500 - 9000
(15 - 30,000)

1-2

24 - 27
(80 - 90)

6 - 12

Helicopters

Basic Trainers

Large Transport
Basic/Advanced Trainer/
Light Attack Support

Very High Altitude Surveillance

* Note:

)
)

Initial climb rates from sea level may be up to twice the average rate shown in the table above

247

TABLE B
ALTITUDES AND CORRESPONDING MEAN VALUES AND PERCENTILES
OF TEMPERATURE IN C FOR NORTHERN LATITUDES
LATITUDE

15N

Altitude

Pressure

km (kft)

mbar(hpa)

1%

30N

10%

20%

1%

45N

10%

20%

1%

60N

10%

20%

1%

80N

10%

20%

1%

10%

20%

(10)

700

10.5

+6

+8

+9

4.8

-8

-4

-2

-5

-24

-19

-17

-13

-37

-31

-28

-17

-37

-32

-30

4.5

(15)

533

-3

-8

-6

-5

-12

-21

-17

-15

-25

-40

-34

-31

-34

-50

-43

-40

-39

-51

-46

-43

7.7

(25)

366

-20

-26

-23

-22

-28

-37

-33

-31

-40

-53

-47

-45

-45

-60

-53

-51

-49

-61

-56

-53

9.25 (30)

300

-36

-43

-40

-38

-44

-54

-50

-48

-54

-67

-61

-59

-56

-70

-64

-62

-60

-71

-66

-64

10.8 (35)

250

-43

-50

-47

-45

-48

-58

-54

-53

-55

-68

-62

-60

-56

-70

-64

-62

-61

-72

-67

-65

12.3 (40)

200

-53

-60

-56

-55

-54

-64

-60

-59

-56

-69

-63

-61

-56

-70

-64

-62

-63

-75

-69

-67

13

(42)

185

-56

-63

-60

-58

-56

-66

-62

-60

-56

-69

-63

-61

-56

-70

64

-62

-63

-75

-69

-67

15.5 (50)

125

-69

-77

-73

-72

-63

-74

-70

-70

-57

-71

-65

-62

-56

-70

-64

-61

-66

-78

-72

-70

18.5 (60)

70

-68

-76

-73

-71

-63

-73

-69

-68

-57

-71

-65

-62

-57

-71

-65

-62

-67

-87

-78

-76

21.5 (70)

44

-61

-69

-66

-64

-58

-72

-69

-66

-57

-71

-65

-62

-57

-83

-67

-64

-65

-86

-77

-75

26.2 (85)

20

-51

-58

-55

-52

-50

-60

-55

-54

-57

-73

-70

-62

-60

-85

-75

-69

-65

-89

-79

-74

For each altitude and latitude North, the mean value of temperature is given together with those temperatures
which are equal or lower than 1%, 10%, or 20% of the period of the two coldest winter months

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 3)/3


Chapter 3-13

CHAPTER 3-13
TEST CL13 - LOW TEMPERATURE - LOW PRESSURE - HIGH HUMIDITY
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel deployed or installed on Service aircraft and liable to be subjected
to the combined environments of low temperature, low pressure and high humidity during the descent
from flight altitude to ground level.
1.2

Such conditions are experienced by materiel deployed as follows:


(a)

Attached to the external surface of an aircraft structure

(b)

Installed in partially or non-conditioned aircraft bays

(c)

As air-carried stores such as guided weapons, ordnance and target tracking systems

(d)

As cargo attached directly or indirectly to the aircraft structure

1.3 Test Procedure A is technically similar to BS2011:Part 2.1 Z/AMD: with the exceptions given in
Paragraph 7.1 below.
1.4 If operational requirements in service are such that performance of materiel need only be assessed
during the combined low temperature/low pressure condition and it has been ascertained there will be no
ingress of moisture resulting from a simultaneous change of air pressure with high humidity, then the test
procedure of Chapter 3-12 Low Temperature/Low Pressure is more appropriate.
1.5 This test is not normally applicable to materiel carried as cargo in conditioned bays of transport
aircraft. Such conditions are simulated using Test Procedure B of Chapter 3-21 Low Air Pressure and Air
Transportation Test.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Materiel subjected to the sequence of environmental conditions described in paragraph
1.1 is liable to experience condensation, frost or icing, subsequent thawing and accumulations of moisture
which may result in malfunction or failure.
2.1.2
Conditions can be aggravated by ingress of moisture due to the breathing effect induced
by variations of temperature and differential pressures across seals and joints. Dependent on the design
of cases and enclosures of individual equipments, entrapped moisture may accumulate and freeze during
successive flight sorties. Penetration of porous material may also occur.
2.2

Selection of Test Procedure

2.2.1
Test Procedure "A" is applicable to materiel of closed construction located in temperature
conditioned and pressurized areas of flight platforms and which could be adversely affected by
condensation, icing and the ingress of moisture.
2.2.2
Test Procedure "B" is applicable to materiel of closed construction located in partially
temperature conditioned, but unpressurized compartments areas and non-conditioned areas of flight
platforms, where the presence of ice or frost itself could have an adverse effect during the ascent or
descent between altitude and ground level.

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2.2.3
Test procedure "C" is applicable to items of open construction, whose performance could
be immediately and adversely affected by condensation and icing, but where the pressure changes due to
altitude would be of little significance.
2.3

Test Severities

2.3.1
Test severities depend on the operational altitude of the flight platform on which the
materiel will be deployed in service. The level of any temperature conditioning or pressurization provided
at the proposed location on the flight platform should also be taken into account.
2.3.2
Preferably test severities should be derived from data measured on the intended flight
platform during simulated flight sorties made in representative Service conditions. In the absence of
measured data, test severities should be selected from the fall-back levels for aircraft temperature and air
pressure given in paragraph 5 below for deployment worldwide.
2.3.3

Temperature

(a)
Temperature severity A is applicable to materiel installed in temperature controlled zones.
Temperature severities B and C are applicable to externally carried stores, armaments and materiel
installed in unconditioned areas of flight platforms intended to be deployed worldwide. The appropriate
temperature severity should be selected to represent that which is more likely to be achieved by the
materiel when at the operational altitude of the flight platform. Guidance on aircraft temperatures should
be sought from the manufacturer of the flight platform.
2.3.4
(a)

Values of pressure given in paragraph 5.1.2 enable test severities to be selected for materiel
normally located in either pressurized or non-pressurized areas of flight platforms. They also
allow selection of appropriate test severities for materiel in pressurized areas which may or
may not be required to operate following the loss of pressurization.

(b)

Guidance regarding typical operational altitudes of various types of aircraft is given in Table
A of Chapter 3-12. A more precise assessment of atmospheric pressures related to altitude
may be obtained by reference to tables of standard atmospheres such as ISO 5878.

2.3.5
(a)

2.4

Pressure

Number of test cycles.


Materiel comprising equipment of closed construction and liable to experience a number of
consecutive flight sorties, should be subjected to at least four test cycles. The latter are
considered to be the minimum required to assess the resistance of partially sealed materiel
to ingress of moisture caused by the repeated subjection to this type of environment. One
cycle is considered sufficient for materiel of open construction, unless cumulative moisture
entrapment is suspected.

Performance evaluation

2.4.1
Materiel operated continuously during flight sorties should operate throughout the test
cycle and have its performance assessed as required by the Environmental Test Specification.
2.4.2
Materiel required to operate intermittently during flight sorties should have power applied
and have its performance assessed at the appropriate stage of the test cycle. Unless stated otherwise by
the Environmental Test Specification, operation at low temperature and pressure should be preceded by
stabilization at the specified environmental conditions. For heat-dissipating materiel, the Specification
should also state whether any subsequent warm-up period is to be allowed.

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2.4.3
Unless specified otherwise, intermittently operated materiel required to function during
the transition from low temperature-low pressure to high humidity, should begin operation after
stabilization at the initial conditions. When it is appropriate to conduct functional performance tests during
the damp heat phase, the Environmental Test Specification should state whether stabilization of the test
specimen is required.
2.4.4
Functional performance tests should continue for a period representative of operation in
Service or until all specified parameters have been measured, whichever is the longer. In the case of the
latter, consideration should be given to possible significant effects which would limit the duration of the
performance test. The prevailing climatic conditions should be maintained until functional tests are
complete.
2.4.5
Where appropriate, materiel transported by air in unconditioned regions of transport
aircraft should be operated during the damp heat phase of the last test cycle or after re-stabilization at
Standard Laboratory Conditions.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

The test procedure to be applied.

(c)

The test cycle, and severities to be applied.

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied.

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required.

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its packaging or unpackaged.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(h)

The orientation and method of mounting of the test specimen.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(k)

Any other parameters to be recorded.

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

Test Procedure "A"

The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS2011: Part 2.1 Z/AMD: Test Z/AMD with the following
amendments:
4.1.1

Test severities shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 5.1 below.

4.1.2
The temperature inside the chamber shall be reduced to the specified value at a rate not
exceeding 3C per minute.

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4.2

Test Procedure "B"

4.2.1
Place the specimen in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions. Make any
connections through the chamber wall for power supplies, services and signal lines as required, for
operating and monitoring specimen performance, ensuring that the connections do not significantly affect
the specimen response to the test environment.
4.2.2
Specification.

Conduct any initial functional performance tests as required by the Environmental Test

4.2.3
Maintain the power supplies and operation of any specimen required to function
throughout the test cycle.
4.2.4
Reduce the temperature inside the chamber to the specified severity, at a rate not
exceeding 3C per minute. Maintain the conditions until the temperature of the specimen has stabilized.
4.2.5

Reduce pressure inside the chamber to the specified value over a period of 15 minutes.

4.2.6
Maintain the conditions for a minimum period of 30 minutes. If applicable, conduct a
functional performance test on the specimen.
4.2.7
Adjust the relative humidity inside the chamber to not less than 95% to cause frost and
ice to form on the specimen. Simultaneously increase the temperature and pressure inside the chamber
to +2 to 5C and laboratory ambient pressure respectively, at approximately linear rates over a period of
30 minutes.
4.2.8
When all ice and frost on the specimen has melted and with the relative humidity
maintained at not less than 95%, raise the temperature inside the chamber to 30C at an approximately
linear rate over a period of 30 minutes.
4.2.9
Maintain the conditions inside the chamber for a minimum period of 1 hour. If applicable,
conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test
Specification. (See paragraph 2.4.4. above)
4.2.10
Repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.2.4 to 4.2.9 inclusive as required to complete the
specified number of test cycles.
4.2.11
On completion of the specified number of test cycles, allow conditions inside the test
chamber to return to Standard Laboratory Conditions at a rate not exceeding 3C/minute.
4.2.12
Conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.3

Test Procedure "C"

Two alternative procedures are provided for specimens of open construction where pressure changes
due to altitude are of little significance. Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test
Specification, one test cycle shall be applied. If the specimen is required to operate during the descent
phase when in Service then Procedure C1 is preferred.
4.3.1
(a)

Procedure "C1" (Single chamber method)


Place the specimen in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions. Make any
connections through the chamber wall for power supplies, services and signal lines as
required, for operation and monitoring performance of the specimen. Ensure that the
connections do not significantly affect the specimen response to the test environment.

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(b)

Conduct any initial functional performance tests as required by the Environmental Test
Specification.

(c)

Continue to supply power and maintain operation of any specimen required to function
throughout the test cycle.

(d)

Reduce the temperature inside the test chamber to the specified severity at a rate not
exceeding 3C per minute. Allow the temperature of the specimen to stabilize.

(e)

If applicable, conduct a functional performance test on the specimen.

(f)

Increase the relative humidity inside the chamber to saturation. Raise the temperature to
+30C at an approximately uniform rate over a period of one hour, maintaining the relative
humidity at not less than 95%RH.

(g)

Maintain the conditions inside the chamber for a minimum period of one hour or until all ice
has melted whichever is the longer conducting any functional performance tests in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification. (See paragraph 2.4.4 above).

(h)

Allow conditions inside the chamber to return to laboratory ambient conditions at a rate not
exceeding 3C per minute.

(j)

Conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the


Environmental Test Specification.

4.3.2

Procedure "C2" (Two chamber method)

This alternative procedure for specimens of open construction, employing separate low temperature and
humidity chambers, may be used in those cases where one test chamber providing both high and low
temperature combined with high humidity is not available. Also where any thermal shock experienced
during the transfer between test chambers and an interruption in specimen operation is acceptable.
(a)

Place the specimen in the low temperature chamber while at Standard Laboratory
Conditions. Make any connections for power supplies, services and signal lines as required,
for operation and monitoring performance of the specimen.

(b)

Conduct any functional performance tests as required by the Environmental Test


Specification.

(c)

Continue to supply power and maintain operation of any specimen required to operate
throughout the test cycle.

(d)

Reduce the temperature inside the low temperature chamber to the specified severity at a
rate not exceeding 3C per minute. Allow the temperature of the specimen to stabilize.
Also, adjust and allow the conditions inside the humidity chamber to stabilize at +30C with a
relative humidity of not less than 95%.

(e)

If applicable, conduct a functional performance test on the specimen.

(f)

Transfer the specimen to the humidity chamber in a period not exceeding 5 minutes, taking
precautions to restore the damp heat conditions inside the humidity chamber as soon as
possible. For large specimens or specimens presenting handling difficulties, the transfer
time may be extended to 15 minutes, paying similar regard to restoring the damp heat
conditions inside the humidity chamber. Restore any power supplies and services required
for operation and monitoring performance of the specimen.

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(g)

Maintain the conditions inside the humidity chamber for a minimum period of one hour and
until all ice is melted, conducting any functional performance tests as required.

(h)

Allow conditions inside the humidity chamber to return to Standard Laboratory Conditions at
a rate not exceeding 3C per minute.

(j)

Conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the


Environmental Test Specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Preferably test severities should be derived from data measured on the flight platform on which the
test specimen will be deployed in Service. Alternatively test severities shall be selected from the following:
5.1.1

Temperature

Severity

Temperature

Application

-202C

Materiel
installed
in
temperature
conditioned areas of flight platforms
deployed worldwide

-402C

Materiel
carried
or
installed
in
unconditioned areas of flight platforms
deployed worldwide up to altitudes of
4500m (14,764ft)

-552C

Materiel
carried
or
installed
in
unconditioned areas of flight platforms
deployed worldwide above altitudes of
4500m (14,764ft)

5.1.2

Air Pressure
Severity

5.1.3

Pressure

Equivalent Altitude

701 millibars

3,000m (9,842 ft)

578 millibars

4,500m (14,764 ft)

472 millibars

6,000m (19,685 ft)

383 millibars

7,500m (24,606 ft)

308 millibars

9,000m (29,527 ft)

194 millibars

12,000m (39,370 ft)

121 millibars

15,000m (49,213 ft)

76 millibars

18,000m (59,054 ft)

47 millibars

21,000m (68,897 ft)

Number of test cycles.


Equipment of open construction:
Equipment of closed construction:

1 cycle
a minimum of 4 cycles

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Chapter 3-13

5.2

Control of Test Parameters

5.2.1
The prime purpose of these tests is to subject materiel to the aggravated conditions
which occur during the transition from altitude to ground level and which would not be properly
demonstrated by tests representing individual environments. Condensation, frost, icing and the deposits
from subsequent thawing and the induced ingress of moisture are the essential features of this test.
5.2.2
Whilst it is important to maintain control of test parameters within specified tolerances,
some degree of relaxation may be required during the transition from low temperature/low pressure to the
damp heat conditions at laboratory ambient pressure.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS2011: Part 2.1 Z/AMD:
Test Z/AMD

Combined sequential cold, low air pressure


and damp heat test.

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-12

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Low Temperature - Low Pressure Test
Table A and Table B
Low Air Pressure and Air Transportation Test
Test Procedure B

Chapter 3-21

International Standard
ISO 5878
7

Reference atmospheres for aerospace use

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 Test procedure A is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1 Z/AMD: Test Z/AMD with the exception
that preferred severities are selected in accordance with paragraph 5.1 of this chapter and temperature
inside the test chamber is adjusted at a rate not exceeding 3C/minute.

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Chapter 3-13

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-14

CHAPTER 3-14
TEST CL14 - THERMAL SHOCK AND RAPID RATE OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which may experience thermal shock or rapid rates of change
of temperature during handling or as a result of operational requirements during its service life.
1.2 Test procedures are presented to simulate conditioning of materiel, subjected to stepped or
rapid rates of change of temperature in air and stepped changes of temperature when transferred from
air to water. Also included is a procedure specifically applicable to secondary batteries deployed on
land based military vehicles.
1.3 Test procedures A and B incorporates the test methods of BS 2011: Part 2.1N, Test Na and Nb
respectively, with differences detailed in paragraph 7 below.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1.1
Thermal shock, or rapid rates of change of temperature, induce high rates of
expansion and contraction, resulting in thermal stress and fracture of materials, deformation of
structural components, failure of bonded joints, degraded performance of seals and malfunction of
equipment.
2.1.2
Materiel may experience thermal shock or rapid rates of change of temperature as a
consequence of the following:
-

Handling or transfer between areas with wide ranging extremes of temperature

Subjection to kinetic (aerodynamic) heating while deployed on high performance aircraft, or


during launch and free flight of guided weapons and projectiles
Transfer from air to water, for example, when fitted on external surfaces of submarines,
following exposure to solar radiation in the tropics or extreme low ambient air temperatures in polar
regions
2.1.3
Where appropriate, for individual equipments, Test Procedures A and B may be used
to simulate temperature shock or rapid rates of change of temperature resulting from aerodynamic
heating. However, consideration should also be given to using the alternative procedure of Chapter 308 as a closer simulation of real life conditions.
2.2

Test procedures

2.2.1
Test Procedure A is applicable to materiel which may be required to survive a stepped
change in ambient temperature during handling or as a result of operational requirements.
2.2.2
Test Procedure B may be used as an alternative to Test Procedure A for those cases
where real life conditions may be reasonably represented by changing the extremes of temperature at
a specified uniform rate. It also provides a more convenient method of testing for materiel required to
operate and have its performance monitored while subjected to rapid rates of change of temperature.
2.2.3
BS 2011: Part 2.2N: provides guidance on the use of Test Procedures A and B, with
regard to choice of test method, duration of conditioning at the specified temperatures and transfer
times in relation to the thermal time constant of the test item.
2.2.4
Test Procedure C is specifically applicable to secondary batteries for land based
military vehicles, not covered by a Supplement to DEF STAN 61-9 Part 1.
2.2.5
Test Procedures D & E are applicable to materiel which may be transferred from air to
water, simulating decreasing and increasing temperature thermal shock respectively.

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Chapter 3-14

2.2.6
Selection of the appropriate test procedure should be determined from a review of the
anticipated deployment of the materiel, to establish if and when it will experience thermal shock or
rapid rates of change of temperature during the stockpile to target sequence. The review should
consider whether the materiel will be subjected to more than one form of thermal shock, the respective
worse case conditions and the number of thermal cycles. In those cases where materiel is liable to
experience more than one form of this type of environment, dependent on the respective severities and
the possible individual and cumulative effects, consideration should be given to subjecting the materiel
to one or more of the test procedures in Paragraph 4 below. Alternatively, one test procedure
encompassing the worst severities of the different environments may provide a suitable compromise.
2.3

Temperature Severities, Transfer Times and Rates of Change of Temperature

2.3.1
Preferably temperature severities for Test Procedures A and B should be derived from
specifically measured data. In the absence of measured data, the preferred severities and methods of
derivation given in Paragraph 5.1.1 should be used for various types of deployment of materiel, which
for the purposes of this Chapter are classified as follows:
(a)

Class 1 - Transfer of materiel in cold regions between air conditioned buildings or cargo
bays of transport aircraft (including air drop) and ground ambient temperatures and vice
versa

(b)

Class 2 - Transfer of materiel in hot regions between air conditioned buildings or cargo
bays of transport aircraft (including air drop) and ground ambient temperatures and vice
versa
The preferred temperature severities for Classes 1 and 2 are based on data given in
Chapters 1-01 of Part 4 of this Standard. The low temperatures, Tl, for Class 1
deployment, are the meteorological temperatures for Cat. C climatic areas at ground level.
The high temperature severity, Th, for Class 2 deployment includes an allowance for the
effects of solar heating, before the materiel is transferred to the lower temperature
conditions. (See Chapter 3-02 of Part 4 of this standard).
In practice, the time taken to move materiel between the temperature extremes will vary
dependent on ease of access and portability. For the purposes of testing, specimens
should be subjected to Test Procedure A using the transfer times, ts, given in Table A of
Paragraph 5.1.1. below. The transfer times are aligned with those of Allied Environmental
Conditions and Test Publications (AECTP 300) Method 304 of STANAG 4370 which allow
for the case where the test specimen is a bulky or heavy item. However, where the
specimen is intended to be man-portable in service, the transfer time of 2 to 3 minutes
specified in BS 2011 Test Na is preferred.

(c)

Class 3 - Materiel carried externally or in unconditioned areas of military aircraft between


prevailing temperature extremes at ground level and flight altitude such as materiel
carried from an airfield in a hot-dry (Cat A1) region to 12km above sea level at 15N and
vice versa.
Temperature severities for Class 3 conditions will depend on the prevailing temperatures
at ground level and flight altitude at the geographical location, the preferred severities
given in Table A are derived from data given in Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 for Cat A1
conditions and ISO 5878 respectively for the example given above. The high temperature
includes an allowance for solar heating while on stand-by.
Preferably, transfer times, ts and rates of change of temperature should be matched to the
rates of climb and descent of the flight platform. Guidance on typical climb rates of
service aircraft is given in Table A of Chapter 3-12 of Part 3 of this Standard.

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(d)

Class 4 - Aerodynamic heating and cooling.


Materiel fitted at or close to leading edges of high performance aircraft and similar areas
of air carried stores are liable to experience thermal shock during air carriage and free
flight.
(i)

Class 4a Air Carriage

(ii)

Class 4b Missile Free Flight


(1)

Ground, ship or air launched in cold ambient conditions

(2)

Ground or ship launched in hot ambient conditions

(3)

Air launch immediately following high speed captive flight

Factors determining the temperature severities experienced in service are the initial
prevailing conditions while on the launch platform and subsequent velocity of the flight
vehicle. Preferably, test severities should be determined from data measured at the
appropriate location on the flight platform during flight trials representative of service
conditions. In the absence of measured data, Tl may be determined by reference to the
data in Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 for initial conditions at ground and sea level, including
where appropriate an allowance for solar radiation, and recognized tables of standard
atmospheres such as ISO 5878, for ambient temperatures at flight altitude. The
temperature rise due to aerodynamic heating may be estimated (and added to Tl to give
Th) using the following formula:
TR

where

0.18TM
TR
T
M

=
=
=

temperature in Kelvin
ambient temperature at flight altitude in Kelvin
speed of flight platform relative to atmosphere
expressed as Mach number

It may be appropriate for the calculated value of TR to be reduced by 10 to 25% to take


account of the flow of heat into the structure along the thermal path between the external
skin and the area of interest on the flight platform.
It is anticipated the performance of many test facilities will dictate Procedure A is used in
order to simulate the rate of change of temperature associated with aerodynamic heating.
Advice on rates of temperature increase likely to be incurred should be sought from the
manufacturer of the flight platform otherwise a maximum transfer period, ts, of 2 minutes
is recommended.
2.3.2
The temperature severities and rates of change of temperature for Test Procedure C
are as stated in DEF STAN 61-9, Part 1.
2.3.3
The severities for Test procedures D and E have been adjusted with respect to those
typically occurring in service to induce the required thermal shock and allow water to be used at a
practical temperature of 25 2C. The volume of the immersion tank should be not less than ten times
the volume of the test specimen.
2.3.4
The temperature severities given in paragraph 5.3 for Procedure D relate to tropical
conditions at maritime locations as follows:
(a)

Severity A - Externally fitted equipments on surfaced submarines and surface vessels


which are shielded from direct solar radiation

(b)

Severity B - Equipment on surfaced submarines and surface vessels exposed directly to


solar radiation

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2.3.5
The temperatures severities given in paragraph 5.4 for Procedure E relate to arctic
conditions at maritime locations as follows:
(a)

Severity A - Externally fitted equipments on surfaced submarines and surface vessels on


open seas

(b)

Severity B - Exposed equipments on surfaced submarines and surface vessels in harbour


or in coastal waters

2.3.6
For procedures D and E, unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test
Specification, the specimen should be transferred from air to water in a period of 2 to 3 minutes.
2.4

Duration at temperature extremes.

2.4.1
For materiel tested for Class 1, 2 and 3 conditions, (Test Procedures A and B), the test
specimen should be allowed to stabilize thermally at the temperature extremes, (Th or Tl), before
subjection to each temperature change. For materiel tested for Class 4 conditions, the specimen
should be thermally stabilized at low temperature. However for most cases, manoeuvres and
performance of the flight platform will be such that thermal stabilization will not occur at high
temperature. Preferably the duration at high temperature should be derived from data measured
during flight trials. Alternatively, for materiel subjected to Class 4 conditions, a maximum period of 10
minutes at the high temperature extreme is recommended.
2.4.2
When for Procedure A, it is anticipated practical difficulties may be experienced in
transferring heavy and large test items between test chambers, any necessary deviations from the
standard transfer times should be agreed with the Test Specifier. BS 2011: Part 2.2N: gives guidance
on increasing change-over times without appreciably influencing test results.
2.4.3
For secondary batteries, (Test Procedure C), specimens should be soaked at each
temperature extreme for 24 hours.
2.4.4
For materiel subjected to air to water thermal shock, (Test Procedures D and E), initial
conditioning in air should continue until the specimen is stabilized thermally as specified in Paragraphs
5.3.2 and 5.4.2 respectively below. The specified durations in water are shorter on the basis that
thermal stabilization will be obtained quicker in liquid than in air.
2.5

Number of Test Cycles

2.5.1
The profile of an individual test cycle for each class of conditioning is defined in
Figures 1 to 12 inclusive below.
2.5.2
For materiel tested for Class 1 and 2 conditions, 5 test cycles should be applied to
cover the service life of the specimen. For materiel tested for Class 3 and 4a conditions, the number
of test cycles should be related to the anticipated number of flight sorties in accordance with Note 7 of
Table A of Paragraph 5.1.1 below, In the case of materiel tested for all Class 4b conditions, one test
cycle should be applied.
2.5.3
The number of test cycles applied to secondary batteries should be as specified in
Test Procedure C.
2.5.4
The number of test cycles applied in tests transferring from air to water, (Procedures D
and E), should be related to the number of excursions anticipated in service and agreed with the Test
Specifier. (See Paragraphs 4.4.6 and 4.5.6 below).

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2.6

Performance evaluation

2.6.1
For tests demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated and its
performance evaluated when it has re-stabilized at Standard Laboratory Conditions. Materiel required
to operate during subjection to rapid rates of change of temperature should have the performance
assessed at the appropriate phase(s) of the test cycle(s). All specimens should be examined for
evidence of detrimental effects resulting from subjection to stepped or rapid rates of change of
temperature.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of survival or functional performance

(b)

The test procedure(s) to be applied

(c)

The temperature severities, transfer times or rates of change of temperature and the
duration at the temperature extremes to be applied

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its packaging or unpackaged

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, at which phases of the test they
are to be carried out and the requirements to be met

(h)

The orientation and method of mounting of the specimen

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

Test Procedure A - Air to air thermal shock with stepped change of temperature.

4.1.1
BS 2011: Part 2.1N: Test Na, Rapid change of temperature with prescribed time of
transition, shall be applied with the exceptions detailed in paragraph 7 below and following the
appropriate profile selected from Figures 1 to 12.
4.2

Test Procedure B - Air to air thermal shock with controlled rapid rate of change of temperature.

4.2.1
BS 2011: Part 2.1N: Test Nb, Change of temperature with specified rate of change,
shall be applied with the exceptions detailed in paragraph 7 and following the appropriate profile
selected from Figures 1 to 12.
4.3 Test Procedure C - Secondary batteries for land based vehicles not covered by a supplement of
DEF STAN 61-9.
4.3.1
Normally thermal shock tests on secondary batteries shall be conducted in accordance
with the appropriate supplement of DEF STAN 61-9.
4.3.2
For secondary batteries not covered by a supplement to DEF STAN 61-9 the following
procedure shall apply.

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4.4

(a)

The battery shall be charged in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

(b)

With appropriate venting arrangements in place, the battery shall first be tested
for efficiency of sealing, by applying to each cell in turn an internal pressure of
70 kPa above ambient pressure. The pressure shall be maintained for 15
seconds. There shall be no pressure drop indicative of leakage.

(c)

The battery shall be placed in an ambient temperature of -40 2 C for a period


of 24 hours.

(d)

The battery shall be removed from the cold environment and immediately placed
in an ambient air temperature of 65 2 C for 24 hours.

(e)

The battery shall be removed from the hot environment, allowed to cool to room
temperature over a period of 24 hours and then re-tested for the efficiency of
sealing.

(f)

If necessary, electrolyte levels shall be adjusted and the battery brought to the
fully charged condition.

(g)

The procedure of sub-paragraphs (c) to (f) inclusive shall be repeated to give a


total of two thermal cycles.

(h)

The battery shall then be examined for any structural defects and the
performance evaluated.

Test Procedure D Thermal shock - High temperature air to water

4.4.1
The test specimen shall be placed in a test chamber at Standard Laboratory
Conditions and the temperature inside the chamber raised to the specified high temperature at a rate
not exceeding 3 C per minute.
4.4.2
The test item shall be conditioned at the high temperature for the specified duration.
Throughout this period the water vapour pressure of the atmosphere inside the chamber shall not
exceed 3 kPa.
4.4.3
The specimen shall be removed from the chamber and immersed in water at a
temperature of 25 2 C, in a period of 2 to 3 minutes. The depth of immersion in water shall be such
that the topmost surface of the specimen is at least 150 mm below the surface of the water.
4.4.4
The specimen shall remain immersed for a minimum period of 10 minutes. If
appropriate, operate and monitor performance of the specimen while immersed in water in accordance
with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.4.5
The specimen shall be removed from the water and allowed to stabilize thermally at
Standard Laboratory Conditions.
4.4.6
The procedure of paragraphs 4.4.1 to 4.4.5 inclusive, constitutes one cycle and shall
be repeated as required, to complete the number of cycles specified by the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.4.7
Conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification. Examine the specimen for evidence of any detrimental effects
including ingress of water, resulting from subjection to thermal shock.
4.5

Test Procedure E Thermal Shock - Low temperature air to water

4.5.1
The specimen shall be placed in a test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions
and the temperature inside the chamber reduced to the specified low temperature at a rate not
exceeding 3 C per minute.

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4.5.2

The specimen shall be conditioned at the low temperature for the specified duration.

4.5.3
The specimen shall be removed from the chamber and immersed in water at a
temperature of 25 2 C, in a period of 2 to 3 minutes. The depth of immersion in water shall be such
that the topmost surface of the specimen is at least 150 mm below the surface of the water.
4.5.4
The specimen shall remain immersed for a minimum period of 10 minutes. If
appropriate operate and monitor performance of the specimen while immersed in water in accordance
with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.5.5
The specimen shall be removed from the water and allowed to stabilize thermally at
Standard Laboratory Conditions.
4.5.6
The procedure of paragraphs 4.5.1 to 4.5.5 constitutes one cycle and shall be
repeated as required to complete the number of cycles specified by the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.5.7 Conduct a functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification. Examine the specimen for evidence of any detrimental effects,
including ingress of water, resulting from subjection to thermal shock.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Procedures A and B

5.1.1
In the absence of specifically measured data the preferred severities of high and low
temperature, transfer times, rates of change of temperature and number of test cycles for Test
Procedures A and B are given in Table A and the associated Notes below. All temperatures in
corresponding Figures 1 to 12 refer to air temperatures inside the test chamber.

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TABLE A
Temperature severities, transfer times, rates of change of temperature and number of test cycles for
Procedures A and B
Deployment
Conditions

Test
Procedure

High
Temp
Th
C

Low
Temp
Tl
C

Procedure A
Transfer
Time ts
Minutes

Procedure B
Rate of
Change
of
Temperature
C/minute

Number of
Test Cycles
to be
applied

Class 1
(Fig 1)

+21

See Note 1

5 max
(See Note 2)

Class 2
(Fig 2)

+70
(See Note
3)

+21

5 max
(See Note 2)

Class 3
(Figs 3 and 4)

A or B

+70
(See Note
3)

-55
(See Note 4)

3-5

See Note 6

See Note 7

Class 4a
(Figs 5 and 6)

A or B

See Note 5

See Note 4

To be agreed
with Test
specifier

See Note 7

Class 4b(1)
(Figs 7 and 8)

A or B

See Note 5

See Notes 1
and 4

To be agreed
with Test
Specifier

Class 4b(2)
(Figs 9 and
10)

A or B

See Note 5

+70
(See Note 3)

To be agreed
with Test
Specifier

Class 4b(3)
(Figs 11
and 12)

A or B

See Note 5

See Note 5

To be agreed
with Test
Specifier

Note 1: Classes 1 and 4b(1) conditions


The severity for low temperature at ground level shall be selected from the following and based on the
Climatic (C) category of the intended area of deployment (See Fig 1C of Chapter 1-01 of Part 2 of this
Standard)
Category C Climatic
Region

Low temperature
severity (Tl) C

C0
C1
C2
C3
C4

-19
-33
-46
-51
-57

Note 2: Class 1 and Class 2 conditions


Where the specimen is intended to be man-portable when in service, the transfer time of 2 to 3
minutes specified in BS 2011 Test Na shall be used.

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Note 3: Class 2, Class 3 and Class 4b(2) conditions


The severity is intended to represent that of Climatic category A1 regions at ground level with an
allowance for solar heating.
Notes 4: Class 3, Class 4(a) and Class 4b(1) conditions
The severity for Low temperature is the 10% occurrence value for the altitude given in the example of
Paragraph 2.3.1(c) above, based on data given in ISO 5878. See also Table B of Chapter 3-12 of Part
3 of this Standard.
Note 5: All Class 4 conditions
In the absence of measured data, high temperatures arising from aerodynamic heating shall be
derived using the formula given in Paragraph 2.3.1(d)(ii) above.
Note 6: Class 3 conditions
Rates of change of temperature shall be matched to rates of climb and descent rate of the flight
platform.
Note 7: Class 3 and 4(a) conditions

Types of Specimen

5.1.2

Number of
Test Cycles

Air carried materiel liable to


be subjected
to many flight sorties

10

Air carried materiel subjected up to a


maximum of 5 flight sorties

Durations of conditioning for Procedures A and B

Unless specified otherwise by the Environmental Test Specification, the duration of conditioning th and
tl at temperatures Th and Tl shall be as follows:
Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 conditions
Either:
(a)

Not less than one hour after the temperature of the specimen has stabilized
or

(b)

Not less than three hours for material of low thermal capacity

Class 4a and Class 4b(1), Class 4b(2) and Class 4b(3) conditions

5.2

(a)

Low temperature (Tl):

As for Materiel Classes 1, 2 and 3

(b)

High temperature (Th):

10 minutes

Procedure C

5.2.1
Temperature severities, duration of conditioning at the temperature extremes and
transfer times shall be stated in Procedure C. Deviations shall be agreed with the Test Specifier and
stated in the Environmental Test Specification.

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5.3

Procedure D
5.3.1

The temperature severities shall be:


Severity A,
Severity B,

40 C
60 C

5.3.2
The duration of temperature conditioning in air shall be selected from the following
dependent on the thermal capacity of the specimen:
Either:
(a)

Not less than one hour after the temperature of the specimen has stabilized
or

(b)
5.4

Not less than three hours for material of low thermal capacity

Procedure E
5.4.1

The temperature severities shall be:


Severity A,
Severity B,

-10 C
-20 C

5.4.2
The duration of conditioning in air shall be selected from the following dependent on
the thermal capacity of the specimen:
Either:
(a)

Not less than one hour after the temperature of the test specimen has stabilized
or

(b)

Not less than three hours for materiel of low thermal capacity

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


BS 2011
Part 2.1N
Part 2.2N Guidance
DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 3-08
Chapter 3-12
Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Chapter 3-02

Environmental Testing
Test Na Rapid change of temperature test
Test Nb Change of temperature with specified rate of change
Test N - Guidance on change of temperature tests
Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel
Environmental Testing
Kinetic (Aerodynamic) heating
Low Temperature - Low Pressure
Natural Environments
Worldwide ambient air temperature and humidity conditions
and levels of direct solar radiation relating to climatic
categories
The effects of solar radiation

DEF STAN 61-9


Part 1

Batteries, secondary
Batteries, secondary - portable lead-acid type

NATO STANAG 4370

Environmental Testing

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Chapter 3-14

Allied Environmental
Conditions and Test
Publications

AECTP 300 Climatic Environmental Test

Method 304 Air to air thermal shock


ISO 5878
7

Reference atmospheres for aerospace use

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 Test Procedure A invokes Test Na of BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test N, Rapid change of temperature
with prescribed time of transition. Unless specified otherwise by the Environmental Test Specification
the following exceptions apply:
(a)

Temperature severities are tailored to the anticipated real life conditions as opposed to
selection from the preferred severities listed in BS 2011: Part 2.1: Tests A and B

(b)

Thermal cycling for Classes 1 and 3 conditions begins with exposure to the upper
temperature severity. Figures 1, 3 and 5 refer

(c)

For Class 3 and Class 4 conditions the test begins and finishes at Standard Laboratory
Conditions by raising and lowering the temperature to and from the initial and final test
temperatures at a rate not exceeding 3C/min. Figures 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 refer.

(d)

The transfer times are as specified in Table A of paragraph 5.1.1 of this chapter.

(e)

The duration of conditioning at the test temperatures is as given in Paragraph 5.1.2 of this
chapter.

(f)

For Class 3 and Class 4 conditions the number of thermal cycles are as given in Table A
and the accompanying Note 7 to Table A.

7.2 Test Procedure B invokes Test Nb of BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test N, Change of temperature with
specified rate of change. Unless specified otherwise by the Environmental Test Specification, the
following exceptions apply:
(a)

The exception detailed in paragraph 7.1(a) applies

(b)

Thermal cycling for Class 3 conditions begins with exposure to the upper temperature
severity. Figure 4 refers.

(c)

For Class 4 and 5 conditions the rates of change of temperature are as specified in Table
A of paragraph 5.1.1 and the guidance given in the accompanying Note 6 to Table A

(d)

For Class 3 and Class 4 conditions, the test begins and finishes at Laboratory Ambient
Temperature, by raising or lowering the temperature to and from the initial and final test
temperatures respectively at a rate not exceeding 3C/min. Figures 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12
refer.

(e)

The exceptions detailed in paragraphs 7.1(e) and (f) apply

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Fig 1 Class 1 Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 2 Class 2 Conditions (Procedure A)

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Chapter 3-14

Figure 3 Class 3 Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 4 Class 3 Conditions (Procedure B)

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Figure 5 Class 4a Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 6 Class 4a Conditions (Procedure B)

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Figure 7 Class 4b(1) Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 8 Class 4b(1) Conditions (Procedure B)

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Figure 9 Class 4b(2) Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 10 Class 4b(2) Conditions (Procedure B)

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Figure 11 Class 4b(3) Conditions (Procedure A)

Figure 12 Class 4b(3) Conditions (Procedure B)

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-15

CHAPTER 3-15
TEST CL15 - AIR PRESSURE (ABOVE STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC)
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which is required to remain installed in compartments of aircraft,
surface ships or submarines when such areas are subjected to internal atmospheres above standard
atmospheric pressure.
1.2 Materiel may experience above standard atmospheric pressure conditions in the following
circumstances:
(a)

In gas tight citadels of surface ships where an over-pressure above the local ambient may
be applied for sustained periods

(b)

In submarine compartments experiencing prolonged over-pressure due to use of


compressed air whilst submerged

(c)

In submarine escape compartments which are subjected to a leak test

(d)

During escape and rescue procedures from submarines

(e)

In aircraft compartments subject to ground pressure tests

1.3 This test may also be used to demonstrate compliance of materiel and packages transported by
air, with the requirements for overpressure given in Section F of DEF STAN 00-3, relating to ground
pressure tests on transport aircraft.
1.4 This test does not simulate cyclic atmospheric conditions occurring on submarines which are
covered by tests defined in Data Sheet 14 of NES 1004 nor overpressure from air blasts produced by
nuclear explosions, which are covered by tests defined in Chapters 3-05 and 3-10 of Part 3 of DEF STAN
08-4.
1.5 There is no equivalent British Standard test. This test replaces that contained in BS 3G 100 Part 2:
Section 3 Subsection 3.4.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
The test is applicable to materiel with sealed enclosures or partially sealed enclosures
having low leakage rates, which may be liable to exposure to atmospheres above standard atmospheric
pressure. More than one test cycle may be considered if appropriate. High air pressure testing is of a
specialised nature with stringent safety procedures. Before specifying a test requirement, advice should
be sought from an authority having recognised experience in the safe conduct of such tests. Materiel
which is normally pressurised or evacuated should have its internal pressure adjusted to the most
adverse design limit that can be experienced at sea level.
2.2

Temperature severity

2.2.1
The test should normally be conducted at Standard Laboratory Conditions. However,
where temperature extremes are liable to be a factor in service and could contribute to failure, the test
should be applied at the relevant temperature(s) specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
Ground and sea level temperatures for worldwide locations are given in Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 of this
standard.

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2.3

Pressure severities
(a)

Pressure severity A is applicable to materiel installed in gas tight citadels of surface ships

(b)

Pressure severity B is applicable to materiel installed in submarine compartments


experiencing prolonged overpressure

(c)

Pressure severity C is applicable to materiel located in compartments of subsonic, transonic,


supersonic or high performance aircraft which are pressurised to not less than an equivalent
altitude of 9100m (30,000ft) and that may be subjected to relevant ground pressure tests

(d)

Pressure severity D is applicable to materiel located in compartments of subsonic,


supersonic or high performance aircraft which are pressurised to not less than an equivalent
altitude of 3000m (10000ft) and that may be subjected to relevant ground pressure tests.
Pressure severity D is also applicable to demonstrating compliance with the overpressure
requirements of paragraph 34.8 of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 for materiel and packages
carried on transport aircraft.

NOTE: Severities C and D are derived as being the maximum pressure differential occurring in
flight for the particular class of aircraft factored by 1.125. (See paragraph 11 of Chapter 716 of
Volume 1 of DEF STAN 00-970).

2.4

(e)

Pressure severity E is applicable to materiel located in escape compartments of submarines

(f)

Pressure severity F is applicable to materiel used during escape and rescue operations from
submarines

Number of test cycles

2.4.1
Factors contributing to the number of occasions materiel will be subjected to above
standard atmospheric pressure during its service life will depend on the service platform and the purpose
of over-pressurisation. For naval materiel deployed on naval vessels this will include operational
procedures and training requirements simulating emergency procedures, e.g. NBC attack of surface
vessels or escape from submarines. For materiel deployed on aircraft, it may depend on the procedure
adopted following maintenance and repair of structural components or sealing of pressurised cabins.
Preferably the guidance on the number of test cycles should be sought from the end user or the Design
Authority for the service platform. Alternatively a minimum of 5 pressure cycles should be applied.
2.5

Performance evaluation

2.5.1
Materiel required to operate while experiencing above standard atmospheric pressure
conditions, should be operated at the relevant stage of the test. When the latter is not practicable or the
test specimen would not normally be required to operate while subjected to above standard atmospheric
conditions, performance should be evaluated on returning to compartment pressure (i.e. not necessarily
laboratory or local ambient pressure). The Environmental Test Specification should state at which stage
of the test performance is to be assessed.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle, pressures and temperatures to be applied

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(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged and the
internal pressure of the specimen

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

The orientation and method of mounting of the test specimen

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions and
orientated as required by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2 If required by the Environmental Test Specification, the chamber temperature shall be adjusted to
the specified level at a rate not exceeding 3C per minute.
4.3 When the specimen has stabilised thermally, increase the pressure inside the chamber to the
specified severity over a period of between 5 and 15 minutes and maintain this pressure for not less than
30 minutes. When the specimen is being tested using pressure severity D to demonstrate compliance
with Section F of DEF STAN 00-3, the pressure shall be increased to the specified level over a period of 5
minutes.
4.4 The pressure within the chamber shall then be reduced to ambient laboratory pressure over a
period of 5 minutes and maintained at this pressure for a period of not less than 30 minutes.
4.5 Repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.3 and 4.4 as required, to complete the number of high
pressure cycles specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.6

The chamber shall then be restored to Standard Laboratory Conditions.

4.7 The test item shall be operated and monitored during subjection to the pressure cycles and/or after
returning to Standard Laboratory Conditions, as required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Pressure

5.1.1
Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, the following
severities shall apply in accordance with the materiel classification given in paragraph 2.3 above.
Severity

Pressure (kPa)

A
B
C
D
E
F

114
131
141
191
216
506

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NOTE: In practice overpressure is applied with respect to local ambient pressure. Therefore to avoid
undertesting, test severities are specified in terms of absolute pressure and take into account the high
extremes of ambient air pressure (up to 106 kPa) which may occur on land and at sea level worldwide.
(See DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 10-01).
5.2

Temperature

5.2.1
Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification the test shall be
conducted at laboratory ambient temperature. (See paragraph 2.2 above).
5.3

Number of test cycles

5.3.1
Preferably the number of over-pressure cycles should be specified by the Environmental
Test Specification (See paragraph 2.4 above). Alternatively a minimum of 5 cycles shall be applied.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to:


DEF STAN 00-3
Section F

Design guidance for the transportability of equipment


Paragraph 34.8 Altitude

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 4

Environmental handbook for defence materiel


Natural environments
Chapter 1-01
Chapter 10-01

DEF STAN 00-970


Volume 1

Design requirements for service aircraft


Chapter 706

DEF STAN 08-4


Part 3

Nuclear weapons explosions effects and hardening


Nuclear weapons explosions: simulation of environments
Chapters 3-05 and 3-10

NES 1004

Requirements for the design and testing of equipment to meet


environmental conditions

Data Sheet 13

Air pressure (above atmospheric)

Data Sheet 14

Air pressure variation

BS 3G100
Part 2
Section 3
Subsection 3.4

General requirements for equipment in aircraft


All equipment
Environmental conditions
Differential pressure requirements

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS AND OTHER DEFENCE STANDARDS

7.1

This test is technically similar to NES 1004 Date Sheet 13.

7.2

This test replaces that contained in BS 3G100: Part 2: Section 3: Sub-section 3.4, Paragraph 3.

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CHAPTER 3-16
TEST CL 16 - HIGH WINDS
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to determine the ability of materiel to survive, maintain its orientation or
stability and function correctly as appropriate when exposed to high winds, other than those originating
from chemical explosion or nuclear blast.
1.2 This test is applicable to materiel deployed at ground locations or on naval platforms such as
towers, masts, ships superstructures, aerial arrays optical sights and surveillance sensors, weapon
launchers, ground support equipment, temporary and permanent covers. This test may be used when
satisfactory structures cannot be designed using a recognised code of practice or when relevant data is
not available.
1.3 This test does not simulate wind loading or the effects of dynamic pressure on air carried stores
and guided weapons during captive or free flight.
1.4
10.

Testing for the effects of nuclear blast is covered by DEF STAN 08-4, Part 3, Chapters 3-05 and 3-

1.5 This test may also be used to determine the effect of high winds on the efficiency of cooling
systems.
1.6

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Materiel in the field may be subjected to forces imposed by high winds, modified by gust
conditions. The speed of the wind is dependent on geographic location, terrain and ground altitude. The
resultant forces imposed will be related to the geometry of the materiel.
2.1.2
Significant variation in dynamic forces may occur due to height above ground, proximity
to other structures, ship manoeuvres, etc. These should be taken into consideration and simulated where
practicable.
2.1.3
The test requirements vary from those for uniform static structures - for which tests are of
marginal value and in respect of which previous experience provides the designer with sufficient
information - to those for complex three-axis structures, where it may be necessary to confirm that the
required degree of stability exists or that the angular velocity of the rotating structure is maintained. Some
structures may require additional or alternative tests or methods of assessment, such as computer
modelling, to determine the effects of wind loading, for example excitation of structural resonances.
2.1.4
For large complex structures and where test facilities with appropriate capacity are
unavailable, scale model testing should be used to support analysis and computer modelling.
2.1.5
Agencies with recognised expertise in assessing and testing materiel for the effects of
wind should be consulted with regard to such aspects as representative simulation, cost effectiveness of
proposed tests, capacity of test facilities and preparation of test specifications.
2.1.6
Further data regarding wind speeds is contained in Chapter 5-01 of Part 4 of this
Standard and MIL STD 210. Chapter V of British Code of Practice BS CP3, (to be replaced by BS 6399
Part 2), and BS 8100 give information regarding wind loads on buildings and lattice towers respectively.
The last two references also provide guidance on determining wind speeds and allowances for the effects
of the local topography.

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2.1.7
In the case of ground support equipment for which performance relies on the efficiency of
a cooling system, for example generators or air conditioning systems, the orientation with respect to wind
direction may be critical. High winds may counteract the flow of cooling air and cause overheating.
2.2

Test procedure

2.2.1
The four test procedures given in Paragraph 4 below expose the test specimens to
cycles of steady windspeed and gusting. Test Procedures A and B relate to performance testing; Test
Procedure A is the preferred procedure. Test Procedure C should be used when a demonstration of
survival only is required. Test Procedure D should be used to determine the effects of wind on the
efficiency of cooling systems.
2.2.2
Where the facility employed is a wind tunnel, blockage by test specimens should be
limited to 30%. Test specimens with rotating structures should be operated at their normal operating
speed and reproduce any turbulence effects on the structure which would occur in service. All specimens
should be tested to the maximum dynamic pressure produced by the wind speed. Rotating structures
which are not required to be driven in severe wind conditions should be allowed to swing freely or be
locked in position in accordance with in-service operating procedures.
2.2.3
Where the wind speed cannot be increased or reduced at the specified rate, it may be
permissible to simulate gusting by moving the specimen in and out of the airflow (see Test Procedure B).
Where neither of the above options are possible, reduced rates of change and increased durations at the
gust speed may be acceptable at the discretion of the test specifier.
2.3

Test severities

2.3.1
Where materiel is to be deployed permanently at one location, test severities of steady
windspeed and gusting should be derived from data measured at the site and specified in the
Environmental Test Specification.
2.3.2
For all other materiel the following conditions should apply unless stated otherwise in the
Environmental Test Specification.
(a)

Severity A is the steady wind speed together with the gust speed Severity B, at which
materiel should continue to operate within acceptable performance criteria.

(b)

Severity C is the wind speed which should be used to demonstrate survival.

(c)

The duration at Severity A should not be less than one minute.

(d)

The duration at Severity B and Severity C should not be less than two seconds and not more
than three seconds.

2.3.3
For test procedures A & B, a test cycle is defined as the period at Severity A followed by
three gusts at Severity B. Normally one test cycle should be applied for each specified orientation of the
specimen with respect to the wind, but when the response of the specimen indicates resonances are
likely to be sustained and the possibility of fatigue is indicated, duration of the test should be revised to
represent the estimated total time of in-service exposure to high winds. In those cases where it is known
materiel is liable to be deployed for long periods in an area noted for regular occurrence of severe wind, a
minimum of 30 cycles is recommended. In this case the total number of cycles may be divided equally
between the specified directions or biased according to the direction of the prevailing wind(s) at the site
where the materiel will be deployed. Normally one cycle should be applied in Test Procedure C for each
specified orientation of the specimen.

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2.3.4
For assessment of the performance of cooling systems, the combination(s) of
windspeed, in-service configuration and orientation with respect to the wind should be that which will tend
to produce stagnation through the heat exchanger, for example when operating at either the minimum or
maximum duty cycle. Alternatively the test specifier may prefer to repeat the test using two or more wind
speeds and/or other orientations of the specimen. The maximum wind speed should not exceed Severity
A given in Paragraph 5.1 below.
2.4

Performance evaluation

2.4.1
Functional performance and/or dynamic response and structural integrity of materiel
should be monitored during subjection to simulated high winds. The specimen should be operated during
Severity A and Severity B conditions as appropriate, in a manner representative of operation in service.
On completion of the test the specimen should be examined for evidence of structural damage. Where
the efficiency of cooling systems is to be assessed, airflow through the system and the temperature of the
coolant and components essential for correct operation of the materiel should be monitored and recorded.
Details of all responses and parameters to be monitored should be clearly stated in the Environmental
Test Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

The test procedure to be applied.

(c)

The test severities to be applied.

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied.

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required.

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged. Also the
operating configuration for cooling systems.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(h)

The method of mounting and orientation(s) of the specimen with respect to the airflow.

(j)

Whether scale models are to be used.

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(l)

Any additional parameters to be monitored.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Test Procedure A - Operational Performance (Preferred Procedure).

4.1.1
The specimen shall be placed in the wind tunnel or other test facility at Standard
Laboratory Conditions and orientated relative to the airflow as stated in the Environmental Test
Specification.

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4.1.2
Begin operating the specimen in accordance with the procedure given in the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.3
The wind speed shall be increased to Severity A at an approximately uniform rate over a
period of not less than 30 seconds and not more than 120 seconds, monitoring the dynamic response of
the structure and if appropriate, functional performance of the specimen.
4.1.4

The wind speed shall be maintained at Severity A for 1 minute.

4.1.5
The wind speed shall be increased to Severity B over a maximum period of five seconds,
maintained for 2-3 seconds then reduced to Severity A over a maximum period of five seconds, while
continuing to monitor response and performance of the specimen.
4.1.6

The procedure of Paragraph 4.1.5 shall be repeated twice at ten second intervals.

4.1.7
The wind speed shall be reduced to zero from Severity A at an approximately uniform
rate over a period of 30 seconds to complete one cycle.
4.1.8
Repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.1.2 to 4.1.7 inclusive as required to complete the
specified number of cycles.
4.1.9
Visually examine the specimen noting any structural damage incurred. Conduct a
functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.10
Re-orientate the specimen and repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.1.2 to 4.1.9
inclusive as required to simulate exposure to wind from all other directions specified in the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.2

Test Procedure B - Operational Performance (Alternative Procedure)

4.2.1
The specimen shall be placed in the wind tunnel, or other test facility at Standard
Laboratory Conditions and orientated relative to the airflow as stated in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.2.2
Begin operating the specimen in accordance with the procedure given in the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.3
The wind speed shall be increased to Severity A at an approximately uniform rate over a
period of not less than 30 seconds and not more than 120 seconds, monitoring the dynamic response of
the structure and if appropriate, functional performance of the specimen.
4.2.4
The wind speed shall be maintained at Severity A for one minute continuing to monitor
the response and performance of the specimen.
4.2.5
The wind speed shall be reduced to zero at an approximately uniform rate over a period
of 30 seconds continuing to monitor response and performance of the specimen.
4.2.6
The wind speed at the test item shall be increased to Severity B over a maximum period
of five seconds, maintained for a period of 2-3 seconds and reduced to zero over a maximum period of
five seconds, while monitoring response and performance of the specimen. Where practicable simulation
of gusting may also be achieved by first adjusting the wind speed to the specified severity with the
specimen removed from the airflow. The specimen shall then be moved into and out of the airflow for the
duration stated above. See also paragraph 5.2.2
4.2.7

The procedure of Paragraph 4.2.6 shall be repeated twice at ten second intervals.

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4.2.8
The procedure of Paragraphs 4.2.3 to 4.2.7 inclusive constitutes one cycle and should be
repeated as required to complete the number of cycles specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.9
Visually examine the specimen noting any structural damage incurred. Conduct a
functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.10
Re-orientate the specimen and repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.2.2 to 4.2.9
inclusive as required, to simulate exposure to wind from all other directions specified in the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.3

Test Procedure C - Survival

4.3.1
The specimen shall be placed in a wind tunnel or other test facility at Standard
Laboratory Conditions and orientated relative to the airflow as stated in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.3.2
The wind speed shall be increased to Severity A over a maximum period of five seconds
maintained for 2-3 seconds and reduced to zero over a maximum period of five seconds. Where
practicable, the test may also be carried out by first adjusting the windspeed to the specified severity with
the specimen removed from the airflow. The specimen shall then be moved into and out of the airflow for
the duration specified above.
4.3.3
Visually examine the specimen noting any structural damage incurred. Conduct a
functional performance test on the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.4
Re-orientate the specimen and repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.3.2 to 4.3.3 as
required, to simulate exposure to wind for all other directions specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.4

Test Procedure D - Cooling systems

4.4.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test facility at Standard Laboratory Conditions and
orientated relative to the airflow in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification. Connect any
power supplies and sensors required to operate and monitor airflow through the specimen and
performance of the cooling system.
4.4.2

The specimen shall be operated for a suitable period to allow thermal stabilisation to

occur.
4.4.3
With operation of the specimen maintained, increase the windspeed at an approximately
uniform rate to the specified severity over a period of not more than 2 minutes.
4.4.4
Maintain conditions until the specimen has stabilised thermally or for a maximum period
of 30 minutes as stated by the Environmental Test Specification, monitoring airflows, temperatures and
performance of the cooling system. Adverse effects of the simulated wind as indicated by the monitored
parameters, may determine that the test should be terminated before the specified period has elapsed.
4.4.5
Reduce the wind speed to zero over a period of not more than two minutes continuing to
monitor performance of the cooling system.
4.4.6
Repeat the procedure of paragraphs 4.4.1 to 4.4.5 inclusive for other wind speeds and/or
orientations of the specimen stated in the Environmental Test Specification.

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Chapter 3-16

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Wind speeds

5.1.1
Unless wind speeds derived from measured data are available, the severities given in
Table A shall apply.
TABLE A
PREFERRED WIND SPEEDS
Wind speed (m/s)
Type of deployment

Operational
Steady wind
(Severity A)

Survival

Gusting
(Severity B)

(Severity C)

Land based

22

30

50

Exposed positions on naval platforms,


on open seas or permanently located at
coastal areas noted for exceptionally
high winds

36

54

54

5.2

Test durations

5.2.1
The wind severities shall be applied for the durations specified in Test Procedures A, B
and C respectively. See also paragraph 5.3.1 below.
5.3

Rate of change of windspeed

5.3.1
Preferably wind speed shall be increased and reduced over a maximum period of five
seconds and maintained at the specified value for 2-3 seconds. When this is not practicable a longer
period may be acceptable at the discretion of the test specifier.
5.4

Number of test cycles


Procedure
A and B

5.5

Area of deployment

Number of test cycles

Materiel deployed in areas not noted


for regular occurrence of high winds

On cycle per orientation of the


specimen

Materiel noted for regular occurrence


of high winds

Up to 30 cycles applied in
accordance with guidance in
Paragraph 2.3.3

All areas of deployment

One cycle per orientation of the


specimen

Cooling systems - Procedure D

5.5.1
Cooling systems shall be tested using one or more wind speeds up to a maximum value
of Severity A given in Paragraph 5.1 above. The test duration shall be as stated in Procedure D.

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RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


BS CP 3
Basic Data for the Design of Buildings
Chapter V
Loading
Part 2
Wind loads
(To be replaced by BS 6399 Part 2)
BS 8100
Part 1
Part 2

Lattice Towers and Masts


Code of practice for loading
Guide to the background and use of Part 1

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 4
Chapter 5-01

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Natural environments
Wind

DEF STAN 08-4


Part 3
Chapter 3-05
Chapter 3-10

Nuclear Weapons Explosions Effects and Hardening


Nuclear weapons explosions: simulation of environments
Blast simulator considerations
Blast pulse simulators

MIL-STD-210

Climatic Requirements and Guidelines for Developing Military


Equipment

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standards test.

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Chapter 3-17

CHAPTER 3-17
TEST CL17 - ELEVATED GROUND-TEMPERATURE/HUMIDITY DIURNAL CYCLES
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel operating, in storage or in transit on the ground at elevated
positions. The materiel will be subjected to reduced air pressure, depressed temperatures and
increased levels of solar radiation.
1.2 This test does not specify absolute values of pressure, temperature, humidity or solar radiation,
but derives the moderating or multiplying factors to be applied to the climatic severities given in Part
4 of this Standard, when simulating elevated ground conditions.
1.3 The factors defined in this test are applicable to the severities of the following tests in this
Standard:
CHAPTER

TEST

PROCEDURE

3-02

CL2

HIGH TEMPERATURE, LOW HUMIDITY


AND SOLAR HEATING - DIURNAL CYCLE

3-04

CL3

HIGH TEMPERATURE - SOLAR RADIATION

3-06

CL6

HIGH TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY AND


SOLAR HEATING-DIURNAL CYCLE

1.4 These tests are not applicable to the simulation of flight conditions experienced by materiel
deployed on aircraft nor materiel undergoing air transportation.
1.5 These tests can only be carried out in a test chamber that combines simulated solar radiation
heating with absolute humidity control.
1.6

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

Test Selection

2.1.1
The Test Procedure should be selected from the relevant tests of this Standard listed
in paragraph 1.3 above. The moderating or multiplying factors specified are only applicable to
meteorological or storage conditions and should not be applied to test severities used in simulating
other forms of climatic conditioning.
2.1.2
As an alternative to factoring the diurnal cycles given in Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 of this
Standard, the test specimen may be subjected to measured conditions specific to the particular
application.
2.2

Test Severities

2.2.1
A worked example demonstrating the application of the following methods to the
derivation of a diurnal cycle at 1500 m is shown in the Annex to this Chapter.
2.2.2

Temperature

The moderating factors for temperature are defined in Chapter 1-01 of Part 4 of this Standard
and are reproduced below:

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CLIMATIC
CATEGORY

GROUND
ELEVATION
AMSL

MODERATING
FACTOR

A1, A2, A3

ABOVE 900 M

minus 1C per 100m


above 900 m

B1

ABOVE 1200 m

minus 2C per 300m


above 1200 m

B2

ABOVE 1200 m

minus 1C per 100m


above 1200 m

The temperatures for "C" climatic categories are not modified for the effects of altitude - the altitude
effects are taken into account in the definitions of the areas.
Since climatic category "B3" applies to hot areas near large expanses of water no moderating factor
is reproduced.
2.2.3

Relative humidity

The relationship between relative humidity and altitude is complex. However, a number of
empirical formulae have been derived from meteorological data to relate sea level and altitude
conditions. The method described here uses one such formula, as derived by Hann, based on vapour
pressures.
The formula relates vapour pressure at sea level to that at any altitude above sea level. Hence,
reference to psychrometric tables will be necessary in order to derive any other control parameter,
such as dew point or relative humidity, which may be required for the operation of test chambers.
The formula is presented below:
eh = 10 -(h/6300)
eo
where eh and eo are the vapour pressures at height h (where h is in metres) and sea level
respectively.
The table below gives some values of eh/eo for various values of h.
h
(metres)

eh
eo

h
(metres)

eh
eo

400

0.86

2400

0.42

800

0.75

2800

0.36

1200

0.64

3200

0.33

1600

0.56

3600

0.27

2000

0.48

4000

0.23

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The formula is used to calculate the actual vapour pressure at the new altitude, from the known value
at sea level. Then, using the Saturation Vapour Pressure at the moderated temperature derived
previously in paragraph 2.2.2, relative humidity may be calculated. When using psychrometric tables
to derive dew points or relative humidities care should be taken to ensure that the modified value of
dry bulb temperature is used.
NOTE:

The foregoing method is valid for A1, A2 and B1 diurnal cycles at all altitudes. Above
3050m it ceases to be valid for the A3 cycle and above 2850m it ceases to be valid for the
B2 cycle. In these cases, the RH values derived for the limiting condition should be used.

2.2.4

Solar heating

(a)

This factor only applies to the heating effects of solar radiation. For chemical effects of
solar radiation, the test of Chapter 3-03 of Part 3 should be used. Guidance on
simulating solar radiation and altitude effects on spectral distribution is given in Chapter
3-03 of Part 3 and Chapter 3-01 of Part 4 respectively.

(b)

The variation of solar radiation with elevation of ground temperature under clear skies,
depends simply on air density and for the required maximum intensity of solar radiation
for each cycle:

I h = 1375 -

(1375 - I max )
1078
.

Where is the density of air at height h, and Imax is the maximum intensity of solar
radiation defined in Part 4 of this Standard. From this equation, the maximum intensity
of solar radiation Ih at altitude h, may be calculated.
The variation of the 1% surface air density, with altitude is shown in the table below
(extracted from Mil Std 210C).
h METRES

h FEET

kg/m3

lb/ft3

1.078

0.0673

305

1000

1.047

0.0657

914

3000

0.986

0.0616

1524

5000

0.929

0.0580

2134

7000

0.878

0.0548

2743

9000

0.833

0.0520

3353

11000

0.790

0.0493

3962

13000

0.748

0.0467

4573

15000

0.707

0.0441

Intermediate values may be derived by interpolation or by reference to the graph


given in Annex A.

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The intensity of solar radiation Iht at any time other than that of maximum intensity
may be calculated from:
(I )
I ht = I t h
( I max )

Where It is the intensity at time t derived from Chapter 3-01 of Part 4 of this Standard.
2.2.5

Storage conditions

Despite the reduction in ambient air temperatures, the increased solar intensity at elevated
ground levels has a counter-balancing effect on storage conditions.
For a given temperature differential at sea level, dT, between storage and meteorological conditions,
the differential at altitude, dTh is directly proportional to the increase in solar radiation intensity.
Th = T

(I h )
( I max )

The value of Th so calculated is then added to the moderated temperature derived previously in
paragraph 2.2.2.
2.2.6

Test duration

The guidance for the relevant test (Chapters 3-02(CL2), 3-03(CL3) and 3-06(CL6)) of this
Standard should be followed.
2.3

Performance Evaluation

The guidance for the relevant test (Chapters 3-02(CL2), 3-03(CL3) and 3-06(CL6)) of this Standard
should be followed.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environment Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied eg Test CL2

(c)

The altitude for which conditions are to be derived and simulated (See paragraph 2.2).

(d)

The number of test cycles

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phase(s) of the test when the equipment
is to operate, and/or when its functional performance is to be assessed.

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(h)

The orientation and method of mounting of the test specimen

(j)

Any permitted deviation from the test procedure.

(k)

Any other parameters to be monitored

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following
shall apply:
4.1.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions
making any connections necessary for power supplies, test signals and performance monitoring as in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.2
Procedure 'A' of Chapter 3-02, Procedure 'D' of Chapter 3-03, or Procedure 'A' of
Chapter 3-06 shall be applied in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.3

The number of test cycles shall be as specified.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

The temperature/humidity severity shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph 2.2.

5.2

The number of cycles shall be selected in accordance with Paragraph 2.2.6.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 3-02
Chapter 3-03
Chapter 3-06
Part 4

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Test CL2 - High temperature diurnal cycle -low humidity
Test CL3 - High temperature - solar radiation
Test CL6 - High temperature, humidity and solar heating diurnal cycle
Natural environments

MIL STD 210C


CIBSE Guide Volume C
7

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
ANNEX A
EXAMPLE OF A DERIVED DIURNAL CYCLE
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 This example illustrates the processes involved in deriving diurnal cycles of meteorological and
storage conditions for the A1 category at an altitude of 1500m (4921 feet).
2

TEMPERATURE DERIVATION (METEOROLOGICAL)

2.1

The moderating factor is calculated as follows:

ie

Factor

= -(Alt - 900) 100

Factor

= -(1500 - 900) 100


= -6C

Applying the moderating factor to the defined cycle gives the following:
TABLE 1
MODERATED TEMPERATURE AT 1500 m ALTITUDE

TIME

AIR TEMP
(MSL) C

AIR TEMP
(ALT) C

TIME

AIR TEMP
(MSL) C

AIR TEMP
(ALT) C

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

35
34
34
33
33
32
33
35
38
41
43
44

29
28
28
27
27
26
27
29
32
35
37
38

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

47
48
48
49
48
48
46
42
41
39
38
37

41
42
42
43
42
42
40
36
35
33
32
31

RELATIVE HUMIDITY DERIVATION


The derivation of relative humidity follows these steps:

(1)

Calculate vapour pressures for the sea level condition

(2)

Calculate vapour pressures for the altitude condition

(3)

Recalculate RH for new altitude based on values from Step (2) and the Saturation
Vapour Pressures corresponding to the dry bulb temperatures in Table 1.

STEP (1)

From Part 4 Chapter 1-01 Table 7 the vapour pressure for each of the tabulated values of RH may be
calculated using:

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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
x es
100

eo =
where:

and

eo

is the actual vapour pressure at sea level

es

is the saturated vapour pressure at sea level

is the relative humidity at sea level


TABLE 2
VAPOUR PRESSURE AT SEA LEVEL

TIME

es
kPa

eo
kPa

TIME

es
kPa

eo
kPa

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

6
7
7
8
8
8
8
6
6
5
4
4

5.622
5.319
5.319
5.029
5.029
4.754
5.029
5.622
6.624
7.778
8.640
9.100

0.337
0.372
0.372
0.402
0.402
0.380
0.402
0.337
0.397
0.389
0.346
0.364

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
5
6
6
6

10.612
11.162
11.162
11.736
11.162
11.162
10.086
8.199
7.778
6.991
6.624
6.274

0.318
0.335
0.335
0.352
0.335
0.335
0.303
0.328
0.389
0.419
0.397
0.376

STEP (2)

Calculating the correction factor for vapour pressure:


eh = eo x 10(-1500/6300)
eh = 0.577 eo

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Annex A
TABLE 3
VAPOUR PRESSURE AT 1550 m ALTITUDE

TIME

eo
kPa

eh
kPa

TIME

eo
kPa

eh
kPa

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

0.337
0.372
0.372
0.402
0.402
0.380
0.402
0.337
0.397
0.389
0.346
0.364

0.194
0.214
0.214
0.231
0.231
0.219
0.231
0.194
0.228
0.224
0.199
0.210

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

0.318
0.335
0.335
0.352
0.335
0.335
0.303
0.328
0.389
0.419
0.397
0.376

0.183
0.193
0.193
0.203
0.193
0.193
0.175
0.189
0.224
0.241
0.229
0.216

STEP (3)

From this derived vapour pressure, RH may be calculated:


= 100eh
es
TABLE 4
RH AT 1500 m ALTITUDE
TIME

eh
kPa

es
kPa

TIME

eh
kPa

es
kPa

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

0.194
0.214
0.214
0.231
0.231
0.219
0.231
0.194
0.228
0.224
0.199
0.210

4.005
3.779
3.779
3.564
3.564
3.360
3.564
4.005
4.754
5.622
6.274
6.624

4.8
5.7
5.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
4.8
4.8
4.0
3.2
3.2

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

0.183
0.193
0.193
0.203
0.193
0.193
0.175
0.189
0.224
0.241
0.229
0.216

7.778
8.199
8.199
8.640
8.199
8.199
7.375
5.940
5.622
5.029
4.754
4.492

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.2
4.0
4.8
4.8
4.8

NOTE:

Values of es are given in Table 8

(Saturated vapour pressures taken from CIBSE Guide Volume C)


The resultant derived diurnal temperature/relative humidity cycle at 1500 m altitude is shown below in
Table 5.

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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
TABLE 5
DERIVED A1 METEOROLOGICAL TEMPERATURE/RH DIURNAL CYCLE

TIME

TEMP
C

RH
%

TIME

TEMP
C

RH
%

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

29
28
28
27
27
26
27
29
32
35
37
38

4.8
5.7
5.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
4.8
4.8
4.0
3.2
3.2

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

41
42
42
43
42
42
40
36
35
33
32
31

2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.2
4.0
4.8
4.8
4.8

SOLAR RADIATION (HEATING) DERIVATION


From Part 4 Chapter 1-01 Table 7, Imax = 1120 W/m2
Using the equation
Ih = 1375 -

(1375 - Imax
1.078

and substituting for at 1500m from table in Paragraph 2.4.4(b).


Ih = 1375 -

0.929
(1375 - 1120)
1.078

Ih = 1155 W / m 2
Substitution in the equation
Iht = I t
Gives

(Ih )

(Imax )

Iht = It ( 1155 )
( 1120 )
= 1.03 It

This scaling factor is then applied to the A1 cycle values.


The derived intensities are shown in Table 6.

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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
TABLE 6
SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY AT 1500 m ALTITUDE

TIME

I(MSL)
W/m2

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200

0
0
0
0
0
55
270
505
730
915
1040
1120

I(ALT)
W/m2

TIME

I(MSL)
W/m2

I(ALT)
W/m2

0
0
0
0
0
57
278
521
753
944
1072
1155

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

1120
1040
915
730
505
270
55
0
0
0
0
0

1155
1072
944
753
521
278
57
0
0
0
0
0

STORAGE CONDITIONS

The scaling factor for increasing the temperature differential is given by


T h = T ( Ih )
( Imax )
Th = 1.0312 T
The new derived temperature differentials can thus be calculated. The derived storage cycle is
shown in Table 7.

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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
TABLE 7
DERIVED A1 STORAGE CYCLE AT 1500 m ALTITUDE
TIME

DERIVED
TEMP

0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

29
28
28
27
27
26
27
29
32
35
37
38
41
42
42
43
42
42
40
36
35
33
32
31

T
C
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
5
6
10
13
19
22
22
23
21
19
15
9
6
0
0
0
0

298

T
C
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
5
6
10
13
20
23
23
24
22
20
15
9
6
0
0
0
0

INDUCED
TEMP
29
28
28
27
27
27
30
34
38
45
50
58
64
65
66
65
62
57
49
42
35
33
32
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Chapter 3-17
Annex A
TABLE 8
VALUES OF SATURATION VAPOUR PRESSURE (es)
TEMP
C

es WATER
(kPa)

TEMP
C

es WATER
(kPa)

TEMP
C

es WATER
(kPa)

-20

0.1254

1.1470

30

4.2420

-15

0.1911

10

1.2270

31

4.4920

-10

0.2862

11

1.3120

32

4.7540

-9

0.3097

12

1.4020

33

5.0290

-8

0.3348

13

1.4970

34

5.3190

-7

0.3617

14

1.5980

35

5.6220

-6

0.3905

15

1.7040

36

5.9400

-5

0.4214

16

1.8170

37

6.2740

-4

0.4544

17

1.9360

38

6.6240

-3

0.4897

18

2.0630

39

6.9910

-2

0.5275

19

2.1960

40

7.3750

-1

0.5677

20

2.3370

41

7.7780

0.6107

21

2.4860

42

8.1990

0.6566

22

2.6430

43

8.6400

0.7055

23

2.8080

44

9.1000

0.7575

24

2.9830

45

9.5820

0.8129

25

3.1660

46

10.0900

0.8719

26

3.3600

47

10.6100

0.9346

27

3.5640

48

11.1600

1.0010

28

3.7790

49

11.7400

1.0720

29

4.0050

50

12.3400

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Annex A

Fig 1. Variation of the 1% surface air density metric units

HUNDREDTHS

Fig 2. Variation of the 1% surface air density imperial units

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Chapter 3-18

CHAPTER 3-18
TEST CL18 - DRIVING SNOW
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test may be used to determine the ability of materiel to survive or operate satisfactorily when
exposed to driving snow. It may be used to determine the resistance to snow penetration and the
susceptibility and survival of the build up of electrostatic charges.
1.2 This test is not intended to simulate the effects of dripping water caused by melting snow which
may be simulated using Chapter 3-28 Dripproofness.
1.3

This test does not simulate snow loading which is covered by Chapter 3-22 Snow Load.

1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Apertures, air intakes and ventilators are susceptible to blockage by wind-blown snow.
Corrosion and degraded performance of materiel may result from accumulations of water after thawing.
Wind-blown fine snow is liable to penetrate through small apertures and may cause a build-up in
electrostatic charge.
2.1.2
Particular attention should be paid to heat dissipating specimens when snow that has
penetrated is liable to melt. Any accumulations of water can become a safety hazard.
2.2

Simulation of snow conditions

2.2.1
Simulation of natural snow is difficult to achieve both in size of individual particles and the
direction of fall. Individual particles formed in a test chamber are generally soft and fine and in the order
of 20 - 80m diameter. In practice the effective diameter of snow particles ranges from 20 - 400m, the
largest occurring at ground level. The intensity of wind blown snow, known as the mass flux rate, varies
with height above the ground. (See Paragraph 5.1 below). Chapter 7-01 of Part 4 of this standard gives
further details on the characteristics of snow particles. The required conditions are achieved by balancing
a combination of:
(a)

The distance between the snow nozzle(s) and the specimen

(b)

Wind speed at the specimen

(c)

Flow rates of air and water to the snow nozzle(s)

(d)

Temperature of the water supplied to the snow nozzle(s)

(e)

The temperature of the test chamber

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Chapter 3-18

2.3

Test apparatus

2.3.1
The size of test chamber required is reflected by the need to create a throw of
approximately 7-10m between the snow nozzle(s) and the test specimen in order to produce a suitable
simulation. Optimum temperatures for generating artificial snow have been found to be -8C to -10C.
However air temperatures of -32C to -40C may be required inside the chamber if the distance of throw
is shortened to ensure the water droplets are frozen rapidly and do not coalesce to form hailstones.
Higher temperatures may be appropriate dependent on the air supply to the nozzle being kept sufficiently
dry. Details of a suitable spray nozzle are given in Figure 1. This provides an 8m throw at the
aforementioned temperatures with the following rates of consumption of pressurised air and water:
Air at 480 - 550kPa
Water at 160 kPa

1.73 m /min (28.8 l/s)


3.4 litre/min (0.057 l/s)

2.3.2
As the air nozzles are prone to blocking with ice, it is recommended that the air be turned
on before the water and the water supply be kept to a minimum commensurate with producing the
specified mass flux rate of snow. Some form of anti-icing device such as a tape heater may be required
for the nozzle(s) to maintain the flow of snow. Suitable precautions may be required to prevent icing of
any test chamber cooling coils by impingement with the snow.
2.3.3
More than one snow nozzle may be required dependent on the area to be sprayed and
the spread of snow obtainable at the specified rate.
2.4

Test Severities
2.4.1

Snow intensity

The mass flux rate of snow to be applied is determined by the height of the particular area of
interest on the specimen above ground level, in accordance with Table A of Paragraph 5.1 below. The
rates are based on the one percent occurrence values for snow driven by wind at a speed of 13m/s
measured at 3m above ground level (the one percent wind speed in central Canada in January).
2.4.2

Wind Speed

Unless otherwise specified the intensities should be achieved using a separate supply of blown air
with a velocity of 13m/s. Where it is known materiel is likely to be deployed for a significant proportion of
its service life where high winds regularly occur, the wind speed to be used during the test should be
derived from specifically measured data. Alternatively reference may be made to BS 8100 which gives
guidance on determining wind speeds and allowances for the effects of local topography. If wind speeds
are varied during the test the quality of simulated snow is liable to vary.
2.4.3

Test temperature

Preferably the test should be conducted with the specimen conditioned at the temperature
representative of the Cold region of deployment. (See DEF STAN 00-35 Part 4 Chapter 1-01). However
some compromise may be required during the test, between the relevant specified air temperature and
the air temperature required in the test chamber to produce artificial snow.
2.4.4

Test duration

Material can experience driving snow of varying intensity for periods of days when deployed in cold
regions of the world. It is assumed accumulations will be monitored and cleared at intervals but some
minimum period of trouble free operation will be required when subjected to the more severe conditions.
A minimum period of 30 minutes at the intensities stated in the Environmental Test Specification is
recommended for all vulnerable areas of the specimen. Where operational performance is to be
assessed, more than one period of exposure on each relevant surface may be required. See paragraph
2.5.2(c) below.

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Chapter 3-18

2.5

Performance evaluation

2.5.1
Preferably specimens tested while operational should have all areas vulnerable to driving
snow sprayed simultaneously at the specified rate(s) for the recommended period. Alternatively the
location of the vulnerable areas may be such that the test is repeated for each relevant surface of the
specimen.
2.5.2

In general one or more of the following will apply:

(a)

Visual inspection for ingress of snow.

(b)

Continuous operation and performance assessed during subjection to driving snow for the
specified period. In this case the specimen should be brought into operation and stabilised
thermally at its operating temperature before applying driving snow.

(c)

Monitor operational performance after switch-on immediately following subjection to driving


snow for the specified period and during a further similar period of conditioning.

2.5.3
Performance assessment should include monitoring airflow through the equipment and
temperatures of systems or components essential for correct operation as appropriate.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental test specification shall state:

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The mass flux of snow, air velocity and test temperature

(c)

The duration of the test

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the stage of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(e)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the stages of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(g)

The method of mounting, orientation and attitude(s) of the specimen

(h)

Any permitted deviation from the test procedure

(j)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions in the
orientation and attitude with respect to the flow of snow stated in the Environmental Test Specification.
Any apertures in the case of the specimen shall be covered or remain open in accordance with normal
service use. Any pre-test performance checks and visual inspections shall be carried out as appropriate
in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2 Lower the temperature inside the chamber to the specified value (see paragraph 5.2.1 below) and
allow the specimen to stabilise thermally.

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Chapter 3-18

4.3 If appropriate, operate the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification and
allow the specimen to re-stabilise thermally.
4.4 Apply driving snow to the specimen at the specified intensity for the specified period(s). (See
Paragraph 2.4.4 above). If applicable, conduct performance tests on the specimen in accordance with
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.5 On completion of conditioning, where possible carry out a visual inspection for ingress of snow.
Where applicable the specimen shall be operated and performance assessed in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.6 The specimen shall be allowed to regain Standard Laboratory Conditions and examined for
evidence of snow penetration, eg accumulations of water, and consequential or potential effects. All
observations shall be documented. The specimen shall be subjected to functional performance tests in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.7 If applicable, repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.1 to 4.6 inclusive for all other specified
orientations or attitudes of the specimen.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Intensities of driving snow

5.1.1
Intensities of driving snow at the specimen shall be determined by its height (or that of
the area of interest) in accordance with Table A below.
TABLE A
Mass Flux Rates of Snow

5.1.2

Height of Specimen
m

Mass Flux Rate


2
kg/m /s

10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
1.0
0.7
0.5
0.25
0.10
0.05

0.0022
0.0033
0.0040
0.0069
0.016
0.0220
0.0320
0.0660
0.20
0.530

Wind speed

Unless otherwise specified, the above intensities shall be achieved with a simulated wind speed of
13m/s (See paragraph 2.4.2 above).
5.2

Test temperatures

5.2.1
In the absence of specifically measured data, test temperatures are recommended
based on the optimum temperatures for snow occurring in climatic Category 'C' cold regions.

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Chapter 3-18

5.3

Cold region

Temperature C

C0
C1
C2, C3 and C4

-6
-21
-31

Test duration

5.3.1
Snow shall be applied for a minimum period of 30 minutes for each attitude or orientation
of the specimen.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 3
Chapter 3-22
Chapter 3-28
Part 4
Chapter 1-01

Chapter 7-01

Environmental Handbook for Defence Material


Environmental Testing
Snow load
Dripproofness
Natural Environments
Worldwide ambient air temperature and humidity conditions
and levels of direct solar radiation relating to the climatic
categories
Hail, snow and ice

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TEST

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

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Chapter 3-18

Figure 1 Nozzle and nozzle block for snow test

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Chapter 3-19

CHAPTER 3-19
TEST CL19 - EROSION AND STRUCTURAL DAMAGE IN FLIGHT
BY RAIN, HAIL, DUST OR SAND
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to determine the resistance to erosion and damage of material when
subjected to high velocity impact with rain, hail, dust or sand. Examples of such materiel are the
forward facing surfaces of aircraft, aircraft radomes, airborne stores and weapons (both in air carriage
and free flight) and helicopter rotor blades.
1.2 Tests on complete systems are often impractical but evaluation tests using small samples of the
material may be carried out.
1.3

There is no equivalent British Standard Test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General:

2.1.1
High velocity impact with particles such as raindrops, hail, dust or sand can cause
erosion and structural damage to materials and finishes used in the construction of materiel. Materials
which possess excellent mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elasticity may have poor
resistance to solid particle erosion. For each material there is a threshold velocity below which no
damage occurs for a particular drop or particle size and many materials, such as composites, have an
incubation period after impact during which little or no damage is clearly evident.
2.1.2
Different effects result from high velocity impact with rain, hail and sand dependent on
drop or particle size. Small particles tend to be abrasive, eroding materials, resulting for example in the
degradation of the performance of optical windows and the removal of surface finishes and protective
coatings. Impact with large particles tends to cause structural damage, such as indentation,
penetration, fracture and induced higher shock levels. Further information on the damage mechanisms
resulting from high velocity impact with rain, hail, dust and sand is given in Def Stan 08-5, Chapter
5-203 and its associated leaflets.
2.2

Rain:

2.2.1
Generally few materials incur damage arising from impact with water droplets at
velocities of around 100 m/s and below. Rain may be regarded as solid particles at impact velocities of
around 300 m/s and above. Erosion damage is intensified by the water jetting out across the surface
material after impact. Chapter 6-02 of Part 4 of this Standard gives information on the mechanism and
factors affecting the rate and extent of erosion resulting from impingement with raindrops, also on the
results of tests subjecting metallic and non-metallic materials and typical structures of aerospace
vehicles to impact with simulated rain.
2.2.2
Rain is normally only found below the freezing altitude (4.5 km in the tropics). An
intensity of 25 mm/hr with a predominant droplet diameter of 2 mm is widely accepted as being
representative of heavy rain. Rainclouds are rarely more than 15 km across but can link together to
form rainbelts of some 150 to 250 km in length. The duration of exposure can be determined from the
size of rainbelt to be simulated, the frequency of exposure and the velocity of the flight vehicle.
2.2.3
Chapter 6-01 of Part 4 of this Standard gives information on the characteristics of rain
including intensities (rainfall rates), the size of rainfields and estimates of the distribution of drop sizes
with intensity.
2.2.4
Test facilities currently available can achieve impact velocities of up to 600 m/s for
simulation of impact with rain, and up to 1000 m/s for impact with single water droplets.

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Chapter 3-19

2.3

Hail:

2.3.1
Hailstones of up to around 20 mm in diameter do not cause significant damage at
impact velocities up to around 90 m/s. Hailstones of around 50 mm in diameter cause extensive
damage to the structure of flight platforms at velocities in the order of 135 m/s and above. Hail erosion
can cause deterioration in the performance of optical windows and other transparencies in missile
systems and in the effectiveness of corrosion protection. Chapter 7-02 of Part 4 of this Standard gives
examples of damage which has been incurred by structures of flight platforms subjected to high
velocity impact with hailstones.
2.3.2
Hail may be encountered at any altitude up to around 20 km. Some hail is encountered
at higher altitudes although the size and frequency decrease significantly. Hail cells are frequently 2 to
3 km in diameter. Chapter 7-01 of Part 4 of this Standard gives information on the characteristics of
hail. Chapter 7-01 and Chapter 7-02 of Part 4 give information on the risk of encountering hail during
flight and the size of the hail cells. References 1 and 2 in Paragraph 8 below also give information on
the size of large hailstones and the probability of encounters.
2.3.3
Two types of test may be required to determine the effects of high velocity impact of
materiel with hail, ie: one using clusters of small hailstones to determine resistance to erosion and one
using single large hailstones to determine structural integrity.
2.3.4
For the erosion test an equivalent rainfall intensity of 25 mm/h with a predominant
3
stone diameter of 5 mm and density of 0.9 g/cm is recommended. The duration of the test and/or
number of test cycles may be determined from the size of the hail cell to be simulated, the possible
number of encounters with hail cells and the velocity of the flight vehicle.
2.3.5
The hail impact test may be used to determine the structural performance of materiel
when impacted at high velocity with single large hailstones. This test is intended to provide a one-off
or limited impact structural integrity test. No standard test can be defined as the test conditions are
specified on a case by case basis. Information on design cases is given in Def Stan 08-5, Part 5,
Chapter 5-203. Data on the extreme sizes of hailstones are given in Chapter 7-01 of Part 4 of this
Standard and References 1 and 2. Where actual data are not available, hailstones of 19 mm diameter,
considered to represent a 1% risk of being encountered during flight through 160 km (100 miles) of hail
cells, should be used.
2.4

Dust and Sand:

2.4.1
External, forward facing surfaces of radomes, windscreens and other types of
transparency carried or flown at high sub-sonic speeds and above, are liable to incur damage or
degraded performance as a result of impact with airborne particles of dust and sand. While the higher
concentrations of sand and dust occur over desert regions, the atmosphere over any land area with
non-cohesive particulate matter is liable to be contaminated to some extent, especially during periods
of moisture deficiency.
2.4.2
The atmosphere over vast areas can be affected during sand and dust storms, also
when airborne accumulations generated by military operations are carried away on the wind.
Dependent on size, dust and sand may be found up to altitudes of around 3000 m. The smaller
particulate can remain in the atmosphere indefinitely while without continuous disturbance, larger sizes
(above 150 m) found at much lower altitudes (up to around 150 m) quickly return to the ground.
Chapter 9-01 of Part 4 of this Standard gives information on the causes and factors responsible for
dust and sand-laden atmospheres, the likelihood of encountering and the possible extent of such
conditions; also examples of levels of concentration and distribution of particle size with altitude.
2.4.3
Chapter 9-02 of Part 4 gives information on the primary and secondary effects on
materiel resulting from high velocity impact with dust and sand.

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2.4.4
Tests to determine the erosion resistance of materiel should use dust and sand with a
size distribution similar to that given in Paragraph 5.2.4 below. In the absence of measured data the
3
rate of application should be 1 g/m of blown air. Currently test facilities providing impact velocities of
up to 220 m/s are available. Test durations should be based on the number and duration of flight
sorties materiel is liable to incur, especially those involving flight at speeds and altitudes referred to in
Paragraphs 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 above, in regions where the atmosphere is likely to be contaminated with dust
and sand.
2.5

Test Parameters

2.5.1
Test parameters should be representative of real-life conditions taking into account the
profile of the specimen, its orientation with respect to the flow of the impact material (angle of attack),
the temperature of the specimen when impact occurs, impact velocity, rate of application of impact
material and duration of exposure. The latter should be based on the length and number of flight
sorties likely to be incurred.
2.6

Test Facilities:

2.6.1
There are several methods of simulating high velocity impact with rain, hail, dust and
sand. One method utilises a whirling arm type test rig where the specimen is passed through the
simulated rainfield or a cluster (or flux) of small hailstones or sand particles. Another method is to
accelerate individual water droplets, hailstones or sand particles, or clusters of the same, to impact
with a static specimen using a gas gun or an acceleration barrel. The latter method is used for tests
using large diameter hailstones or higher velocity water droplets and sand particles.
2.6.2
Disclaimer. Few test houses in the UK have the facilities for performing a test of this
nature. A list of current (Spring 1997) possible test facilities is given at clause 2.6.3. The list is for
guidance only and does not imply any ability or otherwise to carry out the test. The list is not
necessarily complete and no liability is accepted following the choice of any of these facilities.
2.6.3

The following test facilities are those currently known to conduct testing of this nature.

(a)

Whirling arm test rig for rain impact erosion: facilities available at Air Systems Sector,
DERA Farnborough, England and SAAB Military Aircraft, Linkoping, Sweden.

(b)

Single Impact Jet Apparatus (SIJA) and Multiple Impact Jet Apparatus (MIJA) for hail,
sand and rain impact erosion: facility available at PCS Fracture Group, Cavendish
Laboratory, University of Cambridge. (See also Reference 3.)

Other facilities, eg: using rocket sleds, may be able to simulate these types of conditions but their
availability was unknown at the time this test procedure was compiled.
2.7

Performance Evaluation

2.7.1
Test specimens should be examined for any damage incurred as a result of subjection
to erosion and particle impact tests. The level of damage should be determined, measured and
recorded in accordance with methods and procedures specified in the Environmental Test
Specification.
3.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

The type of test to be applied, e.g. rain, hail or dust and sand, impact or erosion test.

(b)

The number of specimens to be tested.

(c)

Description of the specimens to be tested, including all relevant identification and drawing
references.

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(d)

Type, size (or size distribution) and density of erosion material.

(e)

Any required pre-conditioning of the test specimen(s).

(f)

The rate of application of the erosion material (or number of impacts with single particles)
and impact velocity with the test specimen.

(g)

The duration of exposure and the number of test cycles to be applied.

(h)

The method of mounting and the orientation of the specimen(s) with respect to the
direction of flow of the erosion material.

(i)

Whether any visual or other examinations of the specimen(s) are required and the phases
of the test at which they are to be conducted.

(j)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Pre-condition the test sample(s) if required, as specified by the Environmental Test
Specification.
4.2 Attach the test specimen to the test apparatus such that its orientation with respect to the flow of
erosion material is as specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3 Subject the specimen to impact with the erosion material at the specified velocity and intensity
(or flux rate) for the specified duration.
4.4 Conduct a visual inspection or other examination of the specimen to determine the level and
form of any damage incurred in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.5 Repeat the procedure of Paragraphs 4.1 to 4.4 inclusive to complete the specified number of
test cycles or testing of other test specimens as required by the Environmental Test Specification.
5.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES.

5.1

Impact velocities

5.1.1
Impact velocities of erosion materiel with the test specimen shall be representative of
that when impact is liable to occur during the flight sortie.
5.2

Intensities (Flux Rates) and Particle Sizes of Erosion Materiel

5.2.1
For rain erosion testing a rain field of 25 mm/h intensity having a predominant droplet
diameter of 2 mm shall be used.
5.2.2
For tests using single water droplets one or more impacts shall be applied using
droplets of the diameter specified by the Environmental Test Specification (see Paragraph 2.2.3 and
Part 4 Chapter 6-01)
5.2.3
For the hail erosion test, in the absence of measured data, an intensity of 25 mm/h
3
with a predominant particle diameter of 5 mm and a stone density of 0.9 g/cm shall be used.
5.2.4
For the large hailstone structural impact test, one or more impacts shall be applied. In
the absence of actual data, one hailstone of 19 mm diameter shall be applied for every 160 km (100
3
miles) of flight through hail cells. Hailstone density shall be 0.9 g/cm .

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5.2.5
For tests simulating erosion by dust and sand, the impact materiel shall be Red China
Clay and Silica Flour with the size distribution given in the table below. The rate of application shall be
3
1 g/m of blown air at the specimen.

5.3

Particle size

Proportion

Smaller than 150 m


Smaller than 105 m

100% to 99% by weight


86% to 76% by weight

Smaller than 75 m

70% to 60% by weight

Smaller than 40 m

46% to 35% by weight

Smaller than 20 m

30% to 20% by weight

Smaller than 10 m

19% to 11% by weight

Smaller than 5 m

11% to 5% by weight

Smaller than 2 m

5% to 1.5% by weight

Test Duration/Number of Impacts

5.3.1
The duration of exposure to rain and small hailstones shall be determined in
accordance with the guidance given in Paragraphs 2.2.2 and 2.3.3 respectively.
5.3.2
For tests to determine structural integrity using single high velocity water drops or large
hailstones, the number of impacts shall be determined in accordance with the guidance given in
Paragraphs 2.2.3, and 2.3.5 and 5.2.4 respectively.
5.3.3
The duration of exposure to dust and sand shall be determined in accordance with the
guidance given in Paragraph 2.4.4. In the absence of the relevant information, for materiel which may
see up to a maximum five flight sorties, the duration of exposure shall be five minutes. For more than
five flight sorties the duration shall be extended pro rata up to a maximum of fifteen minutes.
6.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

Def Stan 00-35 Part 4


Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel - Natural Environments
Chapter 6-01 Rain
Chapter 6-02 The Effect of Rain
Chapter 7-01 Hail, Snow and Ice
Chapter 7-02 The Effects of Hail, Snow and Ice
Chapter 9-01 Dust and Sand
Chapter 9-02 The Effects of Dust and Sand
Def Stan 08-5 Part 5
Design requirements for weapon systems
(Guided weapons, torpedoes and airborne armament stores)
Chapter 5-203 Impact and Erosion

7.

COMPARISON WITH RELEVANT BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard.

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8.

REFERENCES
1.

Hailstone Extremes for Design - Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories - Irving I
Gringorten, dated 27 December 1971.

2.

Probability of Aircraft Encounters with Hail - Meteorological Magazine, Vol. 101, 1972, pp
33-38 - J Briggs.

3.

Liquid and solid Particle Erosion Testing - Cavendish Laboratory - Dr C S J Pickles, E J


Coad, G H Jilbert, C F Kennedy, Dr J E Field, dated November 1994.

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Chapter 3-20

CHAPTER 3-20
TEST CL20 - RAPID CHANGE OF PRESSURE
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to demonstrate the ability of materiel to function or survive when
subjected to rates of change of air pressure associated with rapid climb and descent of guided weapons
and high performance aircraft.
1.2 This test is applicable to materiel deployed or installed in unpressurized areas of guided weapons
and high performance aircraft which experience rapid changes of altitude resulting from deployment.
1.3 This test is not concerned with sudden loss of pressure in the pressurized areas of aircraft which is
covered by Chapter 3-09 - Rapid or Explosive Decompression test, nor with rates of change of pressure
which may be experienced by materiel when transported as cargo by air which is covered by Low Air
Pressure and Air Transportation tests of Chapter 3-21.
1.4 Test Procedure A is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1M Test M Low Pressure with the
exceptions given in paragraph 7 below.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Materiel of closed construction carried or installed in unpressurised areas of guided
weapons and high performance aircraft are liable to structural loading caused by differential pressures
induced during rapid changes in altitude, during flight. Pressure sensitive devices and protective covers
of partially sealed materiel with comparatively low leakage rates, may experience temporary or permanent
derangement, possibly interfering with internally fitted systems and components.
2.2

Test selection

2.2.1
Three test procedures are provided to simulate the rates of change of pressure
associated with the rapid climb and descent during flight manoeuvres of aircraft and guided weapons.
More than one test procedure may need to be specified to simulate different phases of deployment, for
example aircraft carriage and free flight of an air launched weapon.
2.2.2
Test Procedures A and B may be used to simulate rates of change of pressure
associated with rapid climb and descent respectively. Test Procedure C, the Ballistic Climb test,
simulates increasing and decreasing rates of change of pressure in those cases where rapid climb is
immediately preceded by a dive.
2.2.3
Where it is anticipated that the effects of changes in pressure combined with extremes of
temperature may be different or are likely to be more stressful than those due to the separate
environments, consideration should be given to using Test Procedure B of Chapter 3-11 High
Temperature-Low Pressure or adapting the procedure of Chapter 3-12 Low Temperature-Low Pressure
accordingly.

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2.3

Test severities

2.3.1
The parameters defining test severities are the initial, intermediate and/or final pressures,
rates of change of pressure and the duration at each pressure severity. Preferably parameters should be
measured at the location of the materiel on the Service platform during simulated flight sorties.
Alternatively advice should be sought from the manufacturer of the Service platform. Otherwise test
severities for materiel deployed on aircraft may be derived from the information given in Table A below. In
the case of the latter similar rates of change of pressure should be assumed to apply during climb and
descent. For Test Procedure C, in the absence of measured data, descent and climb rates should be
assumed to be 1.5 times those for a typical fast rate of climb.
TABLE A
TYPICAL FAST CLIMB RATES FOR AIRCRAFT
AIRCRAFT TYPE

AIR PRESSURE
mbar

Advanced trainer/
Light attack aircraft

OPERATIONAL
ALTITUDE
m(ft)
13000-15000
(42651-49213)

Multi-role
fighter

16000-20000
(52493-65617)

103-55

NOTE:

165-121

AVERAGE CLIMB RATE


m/s
mbar/
(ft/minute)
minute
21.8
102
(4300)
101
(19850)

360

Initial climb rates at ground level may be up to twice the rates given above

2.3.2
For materiel carried on guided weapons, in the absence of measured data or advice
from the weapon manufacturer, a rate of change of pressure of 40 mbar/s for both climb and descent
should be assumed.
2.3.3
Rates of change of pressure should be applied in accordance with the guidance given
in Paragraph 2.4.2 below.
2.3.4
Normally tests should be conducted with the temperature in the test chamber
conforming to Standard Laboratory Conditions.
2.3.5
The number of test cycles to be applied should be related to the number of rapid
pressure changes likely to occur during Service life, dependent on the type of air carried store or
equipment, the possible number of flight sorties and pressure excursions likely to occur during each
sortie.
Guidance should be sought from the Operational Requirements documents or the
manufacturer of the flight platform. In the absence of specific information, the number of test cycles of
the appropriate test procedure(s) should be as specified in Paragraph 5.3 below. For the purposes of
this chapter, a flight sortie may be a period of air carriage or in the case of air launched weapons, the
free flight to target.
2.4

Performance evaluation

2.4.1
Materiel to be tested to demonstrate survival should be subjected to the test in its
inactive state although any relevant conditioning systems should be activated.
2.4.2
For materiel where performance is to be assessed while subjected to changes in
pressure, the specimen should be operated and performance measured at the stage of the test
representative of operation in Service.

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2.4.3
In the case of munitions, ideally, specimens should be live stores in order that
operational performance may be subsequently demonstrated. In this case, testing should only be
conducted at sites designed and approved for handling and testing materiel containing explosive
materials. Consideration should also be given to the validity of tests using inert explosives where
available.
2.4.4
Materiel required to operate throughout the rapid change of pressure should be
brought into operation before applying the change in pressure and monitored throughout the test. In
the case of heat-dissipating materiel, the Environmental Test Specification should state whether a
suitable period is to be allowed for the specimen to re-stabilize thermally before applying the change of
pressure.
2.4.5
Materiel not operated continuously in flight, should be subjected to the change in
pressure with the specimen operating or inactive, whichever is considered to induce worst-case stress
conditions.
2.4.6
In all cases specimens should be examined for evidence of temporary or permanent
structural derangement resulting from subjection to rapid change of pressure.
2.5

Test facilities

2.5.1
The test procedures in this chapter require test chambers which can produce rates of
change of pressure far in excess of those normally required for more conventional low pressure tests.
Since the specified rates of change of pressure approach those associated with the rapid
decompression tests of Chapter 3-09, the test facilities used in those cases may also be suitable for
conducting the test procedures contained in this chapter.
2.5.2
Most low pressure test chambers apply changes in air pressure exponentially.
Changes in pressure should be applied such that the effective average rate of change is within 10%
of the specified rate. Otherwise test severities (initial, intermediate and final pressure as appropriate)
should not exceed 5% of the specified value.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure(s) to be applied

(c)

The pressure(s) and duration at the specified severities, and rates of change of pressure.

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether operational specimens are to be allowed to stabilize thermally following switchon and before applying rapid change of pressure

(g)

Any conditioning system activation required

(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(j)

The orientation and method of mounting of the specimen

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(k)

Any deviations from the test procedure

(l)

Any additional parameters to be monitored

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

Test Procedure A - Decreasing pressure

4.1.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions,
making any connections necessary for power supplies, control and signal lines and performance
monitoring as required.
4.1.2
If the specified initial pressure does not correspond with the prevailing laboratory
ambient pressure, adjust the air pressure inside the test chamber accordingly over a period of 10 to 15
minutes and allow conditions to stabilize.
4.1.3
If applicable, begin operation of the specimen in accordance with the Environmental
Test Specification and allow the specimen to stabilize thermally.
4.1.4
Reduce the air pressure inside the chamber to the specified low pressure at the
specified effective average rate of change of pressure.
4.1.5
Maintain conditions for a minimum period of five minutes or as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.6
Performance of the specimen shall be assessed during the test as required by the
Environmental Test Specification
4.1.7
Restore the pressure inside the chamber to laboratory ambient pressure over a period
of 10 to 15 minutes. Alternatively, if testing for a rapid increase in pressure is also required, the
pressure inside the chamber may be adjusted to the initial pressure conditions of Test Procedure B
and testing continued in accordance with paragraph 4.2 starting at paragraph 4.2.3.
4.1.8
If applicable repeat the procedure of paragraphs 4.1.2 to 4.1.7 inclusive to complete
the specified number of test cycles.
4.1.9
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects resulting from subjection
to rapid change of pressure and subjected to a functional performance test in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.2

Test Procedure B - Increasing pressure

4.2.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions,
making any connections necessary for power supplies, control and signal lines and performance
monitoring as required.
4.2.2
Reduce the air pressure inside the chamber to the specified initial (low) pressure over
a period of 10 to 15 minutes. Alternatively, the pressure may be adjusted from that attained following
completion of the climb phase simulated by Test Procedure A. Allow conditions inside the chamber to
stabilize.
4.2.3
If applicable, begin operation of the specimen in accordance with the Environmental
Test Specification and allow the specimen to stabilize thermally.
4.2.4
Increase the air pressure to the specified higher value of pressure at the specified
effective average rate of change.

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4.2.5
Maintain conditions for a minimum period of five minutes or as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.6
Performance of the specimen shall be assessed during the test as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.7
If not already at laboratory ambient pressure, reduce the pressure inside the test
chamber accordingly over a period of not less than five minutes.
4.2.8
If applicable, repeat the procedure of paragraphs 4.2.2 to 4.2.7 inclusive as required to
complete the specified number of test cycles.
4.2.9
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects resulting from subjection
to rapid change of pressure and subjected to a functional performance test in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.3

Test Procedure C - Ballistic climb test

4.3.1
Place the specimen in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions, making
any connections necessary for power supplies, control and signal lines and performance monitoring as
required.
4.3.2
Reduce the air pressure inside the chamber to the specified initial pressure over a
period of 10 to 15 minutes and allow conditions to stabilize.
4.3.3
If applicable, begin operation of the specimen in accordance with the Environmental
Test Specification and allow the specimen to stabilize thermally.
4.3.4
Increase the air pressure to the specified intermediate (higher) value of pressure,
maintain conditions for 2 to 3 seconds and follow immediately with a reduction to the specified final low
pressure. Changes in pressure shall be made at the specified effective average rates.
4.3.5
Maintain the final pressure for a minimum period of five minutes or as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.6
Performance of the specimen shall be assessed during the test as required by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.7
The pressure inside the chamber shall be returned to laboratory ambient conditions
over a period of 10 to 15 minutes.
4.3.8
If applicable, repeat the procedure of paragraphs 4.3.2 to 4.3.7 inclusive as required to
complete the specified number of test cycles.
4.3.9
The specimen shall be examined for any detrimental effects resulting from subjection
to rapid change of pressure and subjected to a functional performance test in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Pressure severities shall be determined in accordance with the guidance and order of
preference given in paragraphs 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 above.
5.2 Rates of change of pressure shall be made in accordance with the guidance and tolerances
given in paragraph 2.5.2.

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5.3

The following number of cycles of the appropriate test procedure shall be applied:
Type of Specimen

Number of Test Cycles

Materiel subjected up to 5 rapid changes of air pressure

Materiel subjected up to 10 rapid changes of air pressure

Materiel liable to be subjected to more than 10 rapid


changes of pressure

10

Only one cycle of the appropriate test procedure need be applied where it is known the specimen will
be subjected to only one rapid change of pressure during its Service life.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-09
Chapter 3-11
Chapter 3-12
Chapter 3-21

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental Testing
Test CL-09 - Rapid or explosive decompression
Test CL-11 - High temperature-low pressure
Test CL-12 - Low temperature-low pressure
Test CL-21 - Low air pressure and air transportation tests

BS 2011
Part 2.1M

Environmental Testing
Test M Low pressure

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 Test Procedure A is technically similar to BS 2011:Part 2.1M Test M Low Pressure with the
exception that the initial conditions may differ from laboratory ambient pressure and low pressure
severities are preferably measured on the intended Service platform. There is no equivalent British
Standard test to Test Procedure B or Test Procedure C.

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Chapter 3-21

CHAPTER 3-21
TEST CL21 - LOW AIR PRESSURE AND AIR TRANSPORTATION TESTS
1

SCOPE

1.1

This test is applicable to:

1.2

(a)

Materiel carried or installed in pressurised or unpressurised regions of service aircraft and


other types of flight platform

(b)

Materiel stored and operated at high ground elevations

(c)

Materiel including systems or components contained in enclosures with internal


atmospheres below standard atmospheric pressure

(d)

Demonstrating compliance of materiel including packages, with the low pressure


requirements of Paragraph 34.8 of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 for carriage or installation
on transport aircraft

This test does not simulate:


(a)

Rapid rates of change of pressure associated with manoeuvres of guided weapons and high
performance aircraft which is covered by Chapter 3-20, Rapid Pressure Change Test

(b)

Rapid or explosive decompression of aircraft compartments which is covered by Chapter 309 Rapid or Explosive Decompression Test

1.3 Test Procedure A is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1M: Test M Low Air Pressure with the
exceptions given in paragraph 7 below.
1.4 Where materiel may be subjected to the combined environments of low pressure and high or low
temperature, consideration should be given to using the High Temperature-Low Pressure Test of Chapter
3-11 or the Low Temperature-Low Pressure Test of Chapter 3-12.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Service materiel is liable to be subjected to pressures below standard atmospheric
pressure either at some stage of manufacture or during deployment from manufacture to target.
Circumstances may range from installation as a component or system in a depressurised container to
methods of transport to forward areas and final free flight.
2.2

Test Procedures

2.2.1
Test Procedure A uses BS 2011: Part 2.1M: Test M Low Air Pressure as a basic test
method for demonstrating the ability of materiel to survive or operate in a range of low pressure
environments.
2.2.2
Test Procedure B simulates the low pressure conditions experienced by materiel carried
or installed in pressurised areas of transport aircraft. It may be used to demonstrate that materiel
complies with the safety requirements of Paragraph 34.8 of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 for normal
conditions of flight, gradual loss of pressurisation and subsequent flight at a safe altitude. (See paragraph
2.3.2 below)
2.2.3
Test Procedure C may be used to demonstrate materiel survives and remains safe or its
operation is unimpaired when carried or installed in unpressurised areas of fixed wing transport aircraft.

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2.3

Low Pressure Severities

2.3.1
Low pressure severities for Test Procedure A depend on the circumstances of the test
specimen ranging from its design and manufacture, such as installation in a depressurised container, to
its method of deployment such as high ground elevations or installation on a flight platform including any
pressurisation provided. Ambient pressures representative of altitudes above sea level may be
determined by reference to Figure 1 of Chapter 3-09 or from tables of standard atmospheres such as ISO
5878. Guidance on the derivation of ambient pressures at high ground elevations are given in Chapter 317 Elevated Ground-Temperature/Humidity Diurnal Cycles.
2.3.2
Chapter 716 of DEF STAN 00-970 specifies two levels of cabin pressure for fixed wing
transport aircraft equivalent to nominal altitudes of 1800m and 2500m. Test Procedure B simulates worst
case conditions. It is assumed that in the event of failure of the pressurised air supply a back-up system
would operate while the aircraft descends to a safe altitude defined in DEF STAN 00-970 as 4600m. In
Test Procedure C it is assumed the maximum operational altitude does not exceed 14000m.
2.3.3
For materiel installed or transported on rotary winged aircraft, Test Procedure A and the
ambient atmospheric pressure associated with the flight altitude applies.
2.4

Rates of change of pressure

2.4.1
For Test Procedure A, rates of change of pressure should be specified by the
Environmental Test Specification. Alternatively the rates recommended in Test M of BS 2011 should
apply. Rates of change of pressure associated with manoeuvres of guided weapons and high
performance aircraft are covered by the Rapid Pressure Change Test of Chapter 3-20.
2.4.2
For Test Procedures B and C it is assumed normal rates of climb and descent for
medium and large transport aircraft apply. Materiel should be able to withstand a maximum rate of
pressure increase of 36 kPa/minute and a maximum rate of decrease of 13 kPa/minute.
2.5

Test duration

2.5.1
In many cases failure or malfunction occurs after only a short period at the low pressure
conditions. A minimum period of 15 minutes is used in Test Procedures A, B and C to verify mechanical
integrity of the specimen. Longer periods may be appropriate to allow functional performance of the
specimen to be assessed.
2.5.2
In those cases where it is considered the test specimen may be more susceptible to
longer real life exposure to low pressure, the period should be extended for Test Procedure A as specified
by the Environmental Test Specification. For Test Procedures B and C a maximum duration of 12 hours
applies for normal flight conditions. In Test Procedure B, it is assumed the maximum flight time at the
safe altitude following loss of pressurisation would be 6 hours.
2.6

Packaged materiel

2.6.1
Unless otherwise specified, materiel being tested to confirm its suitability for
transportation by air, should be prepared and packed in accordance with Service and/or manufacturers
instructions.
2.7

Number of test cycles

2.7.1
Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, one test cycle should
be applied for Test Procedures A, B and C.

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2.8

Performance evaluation

2.8.1
Materiel tested to demonstrate survival when exposed to low atmospheric pressure,
should be examined for mechanical integrity and checked for correct functional performance after
pressure has been restored to Standard Laboratory Conditions.
2.8.2
Materiel intended to be operated while at low pressure should have its performance
assessed at the stage of the test that induces the severest stress representative of service use. The
specimen shall be examined for structural integrity and the performance test repeated after returning to
Standard Laboratory Conditions.
2.8.3
The Environmental Test Specification should state whether a period of recovery is to be
allowed after returning to Standard Laboratory Conditions and before conducting any subsequent
assessment of performance of the test specimen.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle severities and durations to be used

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested packaged or unpackaged

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of test at which they are
to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

The orientation and method of mounting of the specimen

(j)

Whether any recovery period is to be allowed after returning to standard ambient conditions
and before conducting any subsequent assessment of performance

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(l)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1

General

4.1.1
Unless otherwise stated by the Environmental Test Specification, materiel being tested
for transportation by air shall be prepared and packed in accordance with manufacturers or Service
packaging instructions.
4.1.2
Materiel intended for installation on transport aircraft or other types of service platform
shall be operated during the test as required by the Environmental Test Specification.

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4.2

Test Procedure A. Basic Low Pressure Test

4.2.1
The test shall be conducted in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1 M Test M Low Air
Pressure. The following variations are permitted:

4.3

(a)

The specimen may be tested packaged or unpackaged

(b)

Pressure increase and decrease rates tailored to real-life conditions

Test Procedure B. Materiel carried or installed in pressurised areas of Transport aircraft.

4.3.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions and
where appropriate power supplies and signal lines connected for operation and monitoring performance
of the specimen.
4.3.2
minutes

The air pressure inside the chamber shall be reduced to 75 kPa over a period of 2

4.3.3
Maintain the pressure for a minimum period of 15 minutes or if it is considered the
specimen may be affected by prolonged exposure to low pressure, for a period of 12 hours or as specified
by the Environmental Test Specification
4.3.4
The air pressure inside the chamber shall be increased to 81 kPa over a period of two
minutes and maintained for a minimum period of 15 minutes to allow pressure inside the specimen to
stabilise.
4.3.5

The pressure inside the chamber shall be reduced to 57 kPa over a period of 5 minutes

4.3.6
The pressure shall be maintained for a minimum period of 15 minutes or where it is
considered the specimen may be affected by prolonged exposure to low pressure, for a period of 6 hours
or as specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.7
The pressure shall be increased to 65 kPa over a period of 30 seconds and then to
Standard Laboratory Conditions over a further period of 60 - 90 seconds.
4.3.8
After allowing a recovery period of 1-2 hours examine the specimen for evidence of any
mechanical degradation and conduct a performance test on the specimen in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.4

Test Procedure C. Materiel carried or installed in unpressurised areas of transport aircraft

4.4.1
The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions and
where appropriate power supplies and signal lines connected for operation and monitoring performance
of the specimen.
4.4.2

Reduce the pressure inside the test chamber to 13 kPa over a period of 10 minutes.

4.4.3
Maintain the pressure for a minimum period of 15 minutes or where it is considered the
specimen may be susceptible to prolonged exposure to low pressure, for a period of 12 hours or as
specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.4.4
Increase pressure inside the test chamber to 65 kPa over a period of 4 minutes and then
to Standard Laboratory Conditions over a further period of 60 - 90 seconds.
4.4.5
After allowing a recovery of 1-2 hours examine the specimen for evidence of any
mechanical degradation and conduct a performance test on the specimen in accordance with the
Environmental Test Specification.

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PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Pressure

5.1.1
For Test Procedure A, low pressure severities shall be tailored to the particular
application. For Test Procedure B, unless otherwise specified, the pressures stated in the test procedure
shall apply and are equivalent to those given in Paragraph 34.8 of Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 for
normal flight conditions and following rapid decompression in pressurised areas of large transport aircraft.
For Test Procedure C the pressure representative of the maximum flight altitude of transport aircraft
given in Section F of DEF STAN 00-3 shall apply.
5.2

Rates of change of pressure

5.2.1
For Test Procedure A, apart from the exception given in paragraph 2.4.1 rates of change
of pressure shall be tailored to the particular application. For Test Procedures B and C, rates of change
of pressure shall be as stated in the procedures which are equivalent to rates of climb and descent of
large transport aircraft given in DEF STAN 00-3.
5.3

Test Temperature
5.3.1

5.4

Tests shall be conducted at laboratory ambient temperature. (See paragraph 1.4 above).

Test duration
5.4.1
Test
Procedure

Minimum period

Prolonged Exposure

15 minutes

As specified by the Environmental


Test Specification

15 minutes

Normal flight conditions: 12 hours


Following decompression: 6 hours

C
5.5

15 minutes

12 hours

Number of test cycles

5.5.1
Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, one test cycle shall
be applied for Test Procedures A, B and C.
6

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to:


DEF STAN 00-3

Design Guidance for Transportability of Equipment

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-09

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Environmental testing
Rapid or explosive decompression
Figure 1 Altitude/Pressure conversion
High temperature-low pressure
Low temperature-low pressure
Elevated ground temperature/humidity diurnal cycles
Rapid change of pressure test

Chapter 3-11
Chapter 3-12
Chapter 3-17
Chapter 3-20

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Chapter 3-21

DEF STAN 00-970


Volume 1, Book 2
Chapter 716

Design and Airworthiness Requirements for


Service Aircraft
Pressure cabins

BS 2011:
Part 2.1M

Environmental Testing
Test M - Low air pressure

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 The Procedures A & C are technically similar to BS 2011:Part 2.1M Test M with the exception that
the specimen may be tested in its Service package and preferred pressure severities shall be selected in
accordance with paragraph 5.1.1 above. Neither Test M of BS 2011:Part 2.1M nor any other British
Standard test simulates the pressure variations simulated in Test Procedure B.

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Chapter 3-22

CHAPTER 3-22
TEST CL22 - SNOW LOAD
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to such materiel as buildings, shelters, vehicles and other relatively large
items where the effects of structural load imposed by accumulations of snow as defined in Table A should
be taken into account. Surfaces whose angle from the horizontal is greater than 60 generally are
designed not to support a snow load. Snowloads on materiel at sea are not generally sufficient to present
a hazard.
1.2

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
For the purpose of this test, snowload is defined as the mass per unit area of snow
accumulation on the ground and items of materiel are considered to experience the same snowload as
the adjacent ground although in practice, it is usually somewhat less.
2.1.2
The snowload test is applicable to materiel which is exposed to snow when deployed in
regions that fall within all category "C" climatic areas, as defined in Chapter 1-01 of Part 2 of this
Standard.
2.1.3
As it is not practicable to produce the quantities of snow associated with the specified test
severities, snowloads may be simulated using other technically acceptable methods such as the use of
sand or lead shot.
2.2

Test selection

2.2.1
The frequency of snow clearance determines snowload and for this purpose materiel
may be divided into 3 categories.
(a)

Semi-permanently installed materiel

(b)

Temporarily installed materiel

(c)

Portable materiel

2.2.2
Semi-permanently installed materiel is defined as demountable but not very mobile. It is
assumed that snow is not removed between snowfalls and the snowload is based on the maximum yearly
snow depth on the ground.
2.2.3
Temporary materiel is that materiel from which snow can be removed between snow
storms. Thus the snowload is a function of the maximum mass of snow anticipated in one snow fall in
any geographical area. See Para 2.3.1 below.
2.2.4
Portable materiel requires that the removal of snow is carried out daily or distortion of the
materiel may occur. The snowload will not therefore exceed that which would accumulate on the ground
in 24 hours.
2.3

Test Severities

2.3.1
The following table of specified limit and highest recorded snowloads are produced from
the above criteria:

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Chapter 3-22

TABLE A

Type of Materiel

Period of Snow
Accumulation

Specified Limit of
2
Snowload kg/m

Highest Recorded
2
Snowload kg/m

Semi-permanently installed

Whole season

240

586

Single snowstorm

100

191

24 hours

50

113

Temporarily installed
Portable

2.3.2
The snowloads given in the third column of the above table are those which, on average,
are equalled or exceeded once in any 10 consecutive years and should be used for general testing
purposes. However because of the complications due to variation in temperature with height, snow
occurrence is very much dependent on the elevation of land. Expert advice should be sought for
severities in particular geographical areas. Further guidance is given in Chapter 7-01 and 7-02 of Part 4
of DEF STAN 00-35.
2.3.3
To cover the situation where loading is not uniformly distributed e.g. as a result of wind,
the structure should be loaded asymmetrically with the overall average loadings as given in column 3 of
Table A but not exceeding locally the loading given in column 4.
2.3.4
The occurrence of snow on the ground is usually associated with temperatures of 2C or
below, the largest flakes occurring when the air temperature is just below freezing point, and the smaller
sizes of median range 0.1 - 1.0mm occurring at temperatures lower than -33C. The test temperature
may be any temperature at which snow may fall but a temperature of - 15 5C is recommended.
2.4

Test Duration

2.4.1
The conditions of test should be maintained for at least 24 hours after the chamber
temperature has stabilised or such time as agreed with the Test Specifer. For instance, if semipermanently installed materiel is being tested then 5 days is recommended by which time some trend
should be apparent.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The snow clearance category of the materiel see paragraph 2.2

(c)

The severities, durations and temperatures to be used

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(e)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(f)

The method of mounting the specimen and its orientation

(g)

The tolerances to be applied

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Chapter 3-22

(h)
4

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply:

(a)

The specimen shall be placed in the chamber at standard laboratory conditions and the
simulated snow load placed alongside it. The test chamber controls shall then be adjusted
to reach the specified temperature in not less than 3 hours.

(b)

The simulated snow load shall then be evenly applied to the horizontal surface of the
specimen. At the end of the specified test period, the specimen shall be examined in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The simulated snow load shall then be removed and the specimen allowed to return to
standard laboratory conditions.

(d)

A further examination shall then be made for external damage or defects prior to any
performance tests that may be required by the environmental test specification.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, the preferred severity shall be
the limit of snowload for the intended deployment of the materiel given in paragraph 2.3 and guidance on
test duration is given in paragraph 2.4.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 2
Part 4

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Specification of Service Environments
Natural Environments

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-23

CHAPTER 3-23
TEST CL23 - IMPACT ICING
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which when installed in exposed positions on Service aircraft,
may impact with super-cooled water droplets, ice crystals, water or sea spray, mist or air with a high
water vapour content at sub zero temperatures, during low speed flight. Erosion by hail is covered by
Test CL19 "Rain, hail or sand damage in flight" (see Chapter 3-19).
1.2 BS 2G 135 contains an Impact Icing Test for Pitot Heads. Otherwise there is no equivalent
British Standard.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 This test is of a specialized nature. Expert advice should be sought before specifying test
requirements.
2.1.1

The purpose of the test is:

(a)

To demonstrate the performance of exposed forward facing materiel during flight through
ice forming conditions.

(b)

To demonstrate the performance of an anti-icing or de-icing system.

(c)

To ensure ice accretion or subsequent shedding of ice will not present a hazard to safe
operation of the aircraft or other deployed materiel.

2.1.2
This procedure requires a test facility having a sophisticated water droplet/ice crystal
cloud spray system and accurate airspeed and temperature control. Additional guidance on the
operation of such facilities is given in Annex A to this test.
Since the available icing tunnels are of limited capacity it may be permissible to use Test CL10 "Icing"
(see Chapter 3-10) in certain applications.
2.1.3
The tunnel free stream temperature, (see Annex A to this Chapter), air speed and
where altitude is to be simulated the equivalent air pressure, should be adjusted to the values
required for the test. These values are maintained until the specimen temperature has stabilised.
2.1.4
The test involves the exposure of the specimen to a uniform spray of super-cooled
water droplets or ice crystals of 20 m volume median diameter for the duration(s) specified.
2.1.5
The anti-icing system of the specimen, when fitted, should be activated as specified
in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.2

Severities

2.2.1
Guidance on the choice of test severities is given in Annex B. These severities are
defined in terms of altitude, air temperature, air speed, water or ice crystal concentrations and
durations.
2.3

Performance Evaluation
2.3.1
(a)

The test may be either to evaluate the performance of:An anti-icing or de-icing system

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Chapter 3-23

(b)

Both the system and the materiel

The object(s) of the test should be clearly stated in the Environmental Test Specification. The
specimen should be operated at the most adverse phase of the test, which for most applications
would be at switch-on or start-up under icing conditions. Excessive operation of materiel which
generates heat should be avoided since this would negate the effects of the test. Where the test is
for demonstrating survival only, the specimen should be operated and a performance evaluation
made when test conditions have been returned to standard laboratory conditions.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:-

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

The test procedure to be applied.

(c)

The test severities to be applied, ie airspeed, altitude and icing conditions.


guidance in Annexes A and B).

(d)

Duration of test (see Annex B).

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phase(s) of the test when the test item is
to operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required.

(f)

If anti-icing/de-icing systems or coatings are used, at what phase(s) of the test they shall
be employed.

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met.

(h)

The method of mounting and the orientation of the specimen to the airflow and/or water
spray.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(k)

Any additional parameters recorded.

(See

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test procedure and test severities shall be defined in the Environmental Test Specification
in accordance with Paragraph 3.1 and the guidance given in Annexes A, B and C and agreed with the
test specifier.
4.2 The specimen shall be mounted in an icing tunnel at the angles of incidence and yaw specified
in the relevant Environmental Test Specification. Unrepresentative coatings and contaminates such
as oils, grease and dirt, which could affect the adhesion of ice to the surface of the specimen shall be
removed.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 Test severities shall be derived in accordance with the guidance given in Paragraph 2 above
and Annex B.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to BS 2G 135.

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Chapter 3-23

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 Annex C is an extract from BS 2G 135 giving a test method for simulating impact icing of pitot
and pitot static heads. Otherwise there is no equivalent British Standard.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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Chapter 3-23
Annex A
ANNEX A
GUIDANCE ON ICING - TEST PROCEDURE
1

ICING TUNNELS

A sophisticated test facility is required for accurate simulation of flight through cloud. The
construction, and especially the calibration, of an icing tunnel requires both considerable expertise
and expense; recourse should be made, where possible, to established icing wind tunnels for tests of
this nature.
Essentially, an icing wind tunnel consists of a working section within which a velocity controlled low
temperature airstream is supplied with a homogeneous spray of supercooled water droplets, ice
crystals or water droplet/ice crystal mixture of controlled size and concentration. A free stream
temperature (see paragraph 6 below) in the range 0 to -30C is required and is usually achieved using
heat exchangers situated in a low velocity section of the tunnel or by the injection of liquid nitrogen.
Closed or open circuit tunnels can be used but precautions should be taken to ensure that frost or
liquid water condensation on the heat exchangers does not affect the flow or the temperature during
long runs, or enhance the supercooled water concentration in the working section. A free stream
tunnel temperature range of 0 to - 30C is usually adequate to cover worst case situations.
2

DROPLET SIZE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION

The size of the droplets in the spray is defined in terms of a volume median diameter (vmd) of
20 m. In a droplet spectrum 50% of the volume of water is contained in droplets of diameter smaller
than the volume median diameter and 50% in droplets of diameter larger than the vmd. The size
distribution should be reasonably similar to that in natural cloud given below.

Droplet Dia Ratio


dF/dV

% by weight of total
water content contained
in droplets of dia dF

0.27

0.55

0.83

1.1

1.39

1.67

1.95

2.22

20

30

20

10

dF is particular droplet diameter under consideration


dV is volume median droplet diameter
3

DROPLET PRODUCTION

Various methods can be used to produce liquid droplet sprays but gas atomisation spray
nozzles have proved to be the most successful for icing test and can be made to provide a close
approximation to the required droplet size distribution. Care must be taken to avoid static
temperatures below -40C in the spray or spontaneous formation of ice crystals may result. This is
usually achieved by pre-heating the air, water, or both, which also reduces the risk of freezing up the
nozzles.
4

SPRAY CALIBRATION

Periodic calibration of the droplet spray is required to ensure the required droplet distribution is
obtained. Various methods may be used, some of which are listed below.

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Chapter 3-23
Annex A

Heated intake
and hygrometer

Samples of the cloud are heated to evaporate the droplets, the


dewpoint determined by hygrometer and the water content calculated.

Proprietary water
content or icing
rate meters

Various instruments are available which indicate liquid water content in


g/m.

Rotating
cylinders

The collection efficiency of cylinders moving in icing cloud has been


calculated. By exposing several sizes of cylinder simultaneously and
rotating them so that each builds up a uniform coating of ice, it is
possible to evaluate the water content and droplet size from the weights
of ice collected.

Photographic
techniques

Photographic techniques may be used to obtain photographs of cloud


samples from which droplet spectrum can be evaluated.

Oil slide

A transparent slide is coated on one surface with a suitable oil,


exposed for a short period to the cloud and then photographed at
suitable magnification. Droplet spectrum can be evaluated.

ICE CRYSTAL CONDITIONS

Ice crystal spray may be generated by specially designed nozzles or by injection of previously
ground and sized ice particles into the airstream. Precautions may be required to ensure that the ice
particles do not melt during injection at high airspeeds, where the dry kinetic temperature rise can
raise the injector temperature above 0C.
6

TEMPERATURE

The temperature of the surface of a body travelling through air is increased because heat is
generated in the boundary layer by the action of viscous flow. In clear air the increase in temperature
above t1 the temperature at the end of the boundary layer where velocity is V1 is:1

V12 Pr 2
t =
2g J Cp
where

V1
Pr
J
Cp

=
=
=
=

Velocity at the edge of the boundary layer


Prandtl number
Joules equivalent
Specific heat of air at constant pressure

for the case of laminar flow; for turbulent flow the exponent of Pr is 1/3.
The change in velocity from the free stream condition Voto to V1t1 is an isentropic condition so that
t1 = t o +

(V

2
o

- V 21

2g J Cp

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Chapter 3-23
Annex A
The surface temperature t s' is therefore

t s' = t 1 + t = t o

1 - Pr 21

V 2o 1 - V 21
V 2o

+
2g J C p

for laminar flow; for turbulent flow the exponent of Pr is 1/3.


At stagnation point V1 is zero and
V 2o
2g J C p

t s' = t o +

Free stream temperature to can be obtained from the reading ts of the dry air stream of an icing tunnel
from the relationship.
t o = t s' -

V 2o
2g J C p

Considering now the conditions of surface within the cloud spray, although the air may be saturated at
free stream conditions it will not be saturated at the surface due to the temperature rise from to to t s'
and if the surface is wetted some water will be evaporated thus decreasing the surface temperature to
t "s , the wet kinetic temperature. It can now be shown that

t s" = t 's -

where

0.622L s' e s" - e'

P1 Cp

L s'

latent heat of evaporation at temperature t s'

es"

saturation water vapour pressure at temperature t s"

e'
P1

=
=

water vapour pressure at temperature t s'


atmospheric pressure at the edge of the boundary layer

Carpets of wet kinetic temperature, in terms of free stream velocity and temperature, are presented in
Fig 1 for sea level and 6100 m (20, 000ft) altitudes and tunnel free stream velocities up to 240 m/s
(800 ft/s).
7

EFFECTS OF SPEED OR ALTITUDE MISMATCH

Icing tunnels, except the most sophisticated and hence most expensive to operate have no altitude
facilities and many are speed restricted. It is often necessary to make tests at conditions not precisely
those experienced in flight and compromise test conditions are required to ensure acceptable results.
Various methods are used depending on the object of the test and type of de-icing and anti-icing
system fitted. Test duration or water content can be factored by the inverse of the tunnel velocity/true
velocity ratio. Tests can be made at the equivalent wet kinetic temperature with either duration or
water concentration factored. Tests can also be made at the equivalent aerodynamic loading with
time or water concentration factored. The acceptability of the compromise adopted will require
discussion with the Design Authority for the equipment.

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Chapter 3-23
Annex A

Figure 1. Free stream temperature

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Chapter 3-23
Annex B
ANNEX B
CHOICE OF TEST SEVERITIES
1

INTRODUCTION

Although icing atmospheres have been derived for design purposes relating liquid water and
ice crystal content to ambient air temperature, it is clearly unnecessary to test an equipment at all
temperatures, altitudes and airspeeds within the performance envelope of the aircraft to which it is
fitted. It is therefore necessary to select the minimum number of test conditions which will satisfy the
Approving Authority * that adequate performance has been demonstrated. This requires that a review
is made of the performance of the materiel over the entire operating envelope within the icing
atmospheres to determine the most adverse operational conditions. Guidance in the transposition of
these conditions into sets of test severities compatible with the limits of the test equipment defined in
terms of altitude, air temperature, air speed, water or ice crystal concentrations and duration is given
in Annex A to this test.
2

ICING ATMOSPHERES

For design purposes four icing atmospheres, that is, continuous icing conditions, intermittent
icing conditions for supercoooled water droplet cloud, ice crystal conditions, and mixed conditions, are
stated below:
(a)

Continuous icing conditions

The continuous icing conditions are as defined in Table 1, except at altitudes less than 1200 m
(4000 ft) it is assumed that there is linear variation of liquid water content with altitude to zero
content at sea level. However, below 300 m (1000 ft) the content for 300 m (1000 ft) is
assumed. Higher amounts of liquid water content may be used if preferred for example up to
1.2 g/m2 at -10C for simulating very severe conditions.
TABLE 1
CONTINUOUS ICING CONDITIONS
AIR TEMPERATURE
deg. C

ALTITUDE RANGE

m
0
-10
-20
-30

0-6,100
1,200-7,600
1,200-9,100
1,200-9,100

LIQUID
WATER CONTENT
g/m3
ft

0-20,000
4,000-25,000
4,000-30,000
4,000-30,000

0.8
0.6
0.3
0.2

*
The Approving Authorities for aircraft equipment are the Procurement Executive, Ministry of
Defence, for military aircraft, or a design authority approved by them.
(b)

Intermittent icing conditions

The intermittent icing conditions for altitudes above 9100 m (30 000 ft) shall be 2.5 nautical
miles of the appropriate condition of Table 2 alternating with 2.5 nautical miles of the
appropriate continuous icing condition, except that at altitudes less than 4600 m (15000 ft) the
liquid water content of Table 2 may be assumed to decrease linearly with altitude to zero at sea
level.

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Annex B
TABLE 2
INTERMITTENT ICING CONDITIONS

AIR TEMPERATURE

ALTITUDE RANGE

LIQUID WATER CONTENT


g/m3

deg. C
m
1,500- 6,100
1,500- 7,600
3,000- 9,100
4,600-10,700
6,100-12,200

0
-10
-20
-30
-40
(c)

ft
5,000-20,000
5,000-25,000
10,000-30,000
15,000-35,000
20,000-40,000

2.5
2.2
1.7
1.0
0.2

Ice crystal conditions

The ice crystal conditions are defined in Table 3.


TABLE 3
ICE CRYSTAL CONDITIONS
AIR

ALTITUDE RANGE

ICE CONTENT

NAUTICAL

TEMPERATURE
deg. C

g/m
m

MILES

MEAN
CRYSTAL
SIZE
mm

ft

0 to -20

3,0009,100

10,00030,000

-20 to -40

4,60012,200

15,00040,000

(d)

EXTENT

8.0
5.0
2.0
1.0
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5

Mixed Conditions

The mixed conditions are as defined in Table 4.

338

0.5
2.5
50
300
2.5
10
50
300

1.0

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Chapter 3-23
Annex B
TABLE 4
MIXED CONDITIONS
AIR
TEMPERATURE
deg. C

0 to -10

(e)

ALTITUDE
RANGE

ft

3,0009,100

10,00030,000

ICE
CONTENT
g/m

WATER
CONTENT
g/m

7
4
1
0.5

1
1
1
0.5

EXTENT
NAUTICAL
MILES

0.5
2.5
5.0
300

MEAN
CRYSTAL
SIZE mm

MAX
WATER
DROPLET
SIZE mm

Duration

The assumed duration of an icing encounter should be:

(1)

Continuous icing conditions; 30 minutes.

(2)

Intermittent icing conditions; a total duration of 10 minutes with the duration of alternative
liquid water concentrations appropriate to the airspeed and horizontal extents.

(3)

Ice crystals and mixed condition, a total time of 30 minutes with the durations of the
different contents appropriate to the airspeed and horizontal extents. The durations at
the lower contents shall be equally divided about the times at higher concentrations.

SELECTION OF TEST SEVERITIES

The derived test severities will depend on a number of features but the type of ice protection
system employed will probably have the largest influence. For example, in the case of a thermal antiicing system, increase in speed increases the kinetic temperature of the surface but it also increases
the catch efficiency and the rate of liquid water catch. The effect is such that a speed results at which
the thermal requirements are at a maximum. If the heating is by hot air, as opposed to electric
heating, the air supply may be affected by engine setting, which is a function of speed and altitude
and therefore may result in an additional adverse speed condition. As a guide, proposed test
severities required for electrically heated pitot and pitotstatic pressure heads, extracted from a
revision of British Standard 2G 135, are reproduced in Annex C to this test.

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Chapter 3-23
Annex C
ANNEX C
EXTRACT FROM BRITISH STANDARD 2G 135
ELECTRICALLY HEATED PITOT AND PITOSTATIC PRESSURE HEADS
IMPACT ICING TEST FOR GRADE 'A' HEADS
The temperatures quoted represent free stream temperatures of the air in the tunnel at near sea level
altitude conditions.
1

SUPERCOOLED LIQUID WATER TESTS


(a)

The head shall be subjected to the test conditions stated in the following table. The
tunnel speed shall be 90 m/s (300 ft/s) and the water droplet size 20 m volume
median diameter.

TEMPERATURE
deg C.

LIQUID WATER
CONCENTRATION
g/m3
1.2
4.4 and 1.2

-10

10.0
Alternating at 50s cycles for a total of
10.5 minutes
9.5

1.2
Note:

TIME
minutes

Where a tunnel speed of 90 m/s (300 ft/s) is not attainable the water concentration shall be
factored by 90/V (300/V), where V is the tunnel speed in m/s (ft/s).
(b)

The head shall be subjected to the test conditions stated in the following table. The
tunnel speed shall be 150 m/s (480 ft/s) and the water droplet size 20 m volume
median diameter.

TEMPERATURE
deg C.

-30

LIQUID WATER
CONCENTRATION
g/m3
0.25
1.25 and 0.25

TIME
minutes
10.0
Alternating at 30s cycles for a total of
10.5 minutes
9.5

0.25
Note:

Where a tunnel speed of 150 m/s (480 ft/s) is not attainable the water concentration shall be
factored by 150/V (480/V), where V is the tunnel speed in m/s (ft/s).

(a)

The head shall be subjected to the test conditions stated in the following table. The
ice crystal size shall be approximately 1mm.

TEMPERATURE
deg C.

-10

ICE CRYSTAL
CONCENTRATION
g/m3

TIME
minutes

1.0
2.0
5.0
2.0
1.0

11.5
3.5
0.5
3.5
11.5

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Note:

If the speed of the tunnel is less than 240 m/s (800 ft/s) the crystal concentration shall be
factored by 240/V (800/V), where V is the speed of the tunnel in m/s (ft/s).
(b)

The head shall be subjected to the test conditions stated in the following table. The ice
crystal size shall be approximately 1mm.

TEMPERATURE
deg C.

ICE CRYSTAL
CONCENTRATION
3
g/m

TIME
minutes

0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
2.0
1.0
0.5

12.5
2.0
0.5
0.5
0.5
2.0
12.0

-30

Note:

If the tunnel speed is less than 240 m/s (800 ft/s) the crystal concentration shall be factored by
240/V (800/V), where V is the speed of the tunnel in m/s (ft/s).
MIXED WATER AND ICE CRYSTAL TEST

The head shall be subjected to the test conditions stated in the following table. The water droplet size
shall be 100 m and the ice crystal size approximately 1 mm.

TEMPERATURE
deg C.

-30

Note:

LIQUID WATER
CONCENTRATION
3
g/m

ICE CRYSTAL
CONCENTRATION
3
g/m

TIME
minutes

0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5

0.5
1.0
4.0
1.0
0.5

12.0
3.5
0.5
3.5
11.5

If the speed of the tunnel is less than 180 m/s (600 ft/s) the water and crystal concentrations
shall be factored 180/V (600/V) where V is the speed of the tunnel in m/s (ft/s).
WATER INTAKE AND SUBSEQUENT FREEZING TEST

The head shall be mounted in the wind tunnel in the declared mounting attitude, filled with water and
allowed to drain for five minutes. For this purpose the head shall be connected to simulate a typical
aircraft installation. The temperature of the ambient air shall be reduced to -30C for 10 minutes. The
tunnel shall then be run to establish whether any blockage has occurred. With the tunnel running at
representative speed V, the heater shall be switched on and any blockage which may be present shall
disappear within five minutes.

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Chapter 3-24

CHAPTER 3-24
TEST CL24 - FREEZE - THAW
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which may experience temperature cycling through 0C
combined with high humidity, producing a mixture of ice and water and where alternate freezing and
melting, may induce stress or cause interference between components and moving parts.
1.2

There is no equivalent British Standard Test.

GUIDANCE

2.1 This test requires the use of a test chamber capable of providing closely controlled temperatures
around 0C with relative humidity approaching 100%.
2.2

Severities

2.2.1
Preferably, test conditions should be derived from data measured at the proposed
location of deployment of the specimen. Alternatively the diurnal cycle given in Table A, represents
temperature/ humidity conditions occurring in Western and Central Europe, the Central and Northern
United States, Southern Canada, North Eastern Asia and many other areas. Since it is the effects of the
formation of ice that is of concern slight variation in timing across the Northern Hemisphere may be
ignored. For the purposes of this test, the recommended depth of clear ice to be applied is 3 to 6mm as
greater depths can make thawing difficult to achieve during the diurnal cycle. At least two test cycles
should be applied, to ensure stabilisation of the test specimen. (See also paragraph 2.4.2 below).
2.3

Test Facilities and Methods

2.3.1
Before subjection to the freeze-thaw test, specimens should be cleaned to remove any
unspecified coatings or contamination on the surfaces of the specimen. Care should be taken to select a
cleaning agent that itself does not leave deposits which hinder the adhesion of ice.
2.3.2
Provided the specified depth of clear ice can be achieved, any suitable method of forming
ice may be used. A spray gun or multi-head spray system is recommended for producing an accretion
rate of 3 to 6 mm/hour at -4C. It is important that relative humidity inside the test chamber is maintained
close to saturation at all times during the test cycle to prevent evaporation and maintain the specified
depth of ice.
2.4

Performance Evaluation

2.4.1
The Environmental Test Specification should state whether operation and performance
testing of the test specimen is required during the sub zero or above zero temperature zones of the test
cycle.
2.4.2
Where the test includes demonstrating the performance of a built-in de-icing or anti-icing
system, dependent on the stage of the test when operation of the latter is to be initiated, variations in the
test procedure may be required with regard to maintaining icing conditions but not specified depth of ice.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test cycle if different from that given in Table A

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Chapter 3-24

(c)

The number of cycles to be applied if different from that recommended in paragraph 2.2

(d)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phase(s) of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met

(g)

The method of mounting and/or orientation of the test specimen

(h)

If anti-icing or de-icing systems or coatings are used, at what stage of the test they shall be
applied

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Coatings and contaminants such as oil, grease and dirt which would not normally be present and
could affect the adhesion of ice to the surface of the specimen, shall be removed before the specimen is
placed in the test chamber. (See paragraph 2.3.1 above).
4.2 Install the test specimen in the test chamber making any connections necessary for power
supplies.
4.3 Anti-icing or de-icing systems fitted to the specimen, shall be activated during the test cycle as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.
4.4 Reduce the temperature inside the test chamber to -4C (or a temperature specified by the
Environmental Test Specification) at a rate not exceeding 3C/minute. Maintain conditions inside the
chamber until the temperature of the specimen has stabilised.
4.5

The specimen shall then be sprayed with water to produce an ice accretion of 3 to 6mm deep.

4.6 Vary the conditions inside the chamber, following the diurnal cycle given in Table A, starting at 0300
hours, or to a profile defined by the Environmental Test Specification. The humidity, depth of ice and/or
icing conditions shall be maintained during the cycle as appropriate using the water spray as required.
(See paragraph 2.4.2 above). Unless specified otherwise by the Environmental Test Specification, a
minimum of two diurnal cycles shall be applied.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Table A gives the diurnal test cycle. Preferred depth of ice is 3 - 6mm.

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Chapter 3-24

TABLE A
COLD-WET DIURNAL CYCLE

Diurnal
Time

2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400

Ambient
Air
Deg.C

Dewpoint

- 3.0
- 3.0
- 3.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 3.0
- 2.0
- 1.0
0.0
+ 1.0
+ 1.0
+ 2.0
+ 2.0
+ 2.0
+ 1.0
+ 1.0
0.0
- 1.0
- 2.0
- 2.0
- 3.0
- 3.0
- 3.0

- 3.0
- 3.0
- 3.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 4.0
- 3.0
- 2.0
- 1.0
0.0
+ 1.0
+ 1.0
+ 2.0
+ 2.0
+ 2.0
+ 1.0
+ 1.0
0.0
- 1.0
- 2.0
- 2.0
- 3.0
- 3.0
- 3.0

Deg.C

Wind speed: less than 5 m/s


NOTE: Solar radiation effects at the above climatic conditions are negligible and are therefore not
included.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1 There are no related documents for this chapter. Table A is derived, for the purpose of this test
method, from records of meteorological data for various regions of the world and considered to be an
acceptable representation of conditions which produce the freeze-thaw environments.
7

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1

There is no relevant British standard.

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Chapter 3-25

CHAPTER 3-25
TEST CL25 - DUST AND SAND
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to assess the effects of dust and sand laden atmospheres on the
performance and safety of materiel.
1.2 The test is sub-divided into procedures for settling dust, for turbulent dust and for wind-blown dust
and sand conditions.
1.3 The settling dust procedure is intended to be applied to materiel which is protected from or is not
intended for service in, the more severe conditions described in the following paragraph. Such materiel
may still be affected by the fall out of dust from the surrounding air.
1.4 The other procedures are for unprotected or partially protected materiel transported, stored or used
in geographical areas where aridity and wind combine to produce dust or sand storms, or where it is liable
to be subjected to high concentrations of dust or sand caused by the operation of machinery or the
movement of military vehicles.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 Chapter 9-01 of Part 4 of this Standard gives information on the characteristics of dust and sand
including concentrations, particle size and distribution for natural and induced environments.
2.1.1
The types of dust and sand, grades and concentrations used in the procedures of this
chapter are based on the information given in Chapter 9-01 of Part 4 with factorisation to ensure the tests
reproduce worst case conditions for the different environments. The test procedures and test severities
of this chapter are normally sufficient to demonstrate the ability of materiel to survive and operate correctly
when subjected to naturally occurring and mechanically induced dust and sand laden atmospheres.
2.1.2
2.2

Chapter 9-02 gives information on the effects of dust and sand on materiel.

Choice of test procedure


2.2.1

Settling Dust

(a)

This test procedure should be used for material which when in service will be stored
unpackaged or only operated inside buildings where dust concentrations may be high.

(b)

Dust may settle on the surfaces of materiel, clog filters or may be drawn in through apertures
if the materiel is in the form of operating equipment.

2.2.2

Turbulent Dust

(a)

This test procedure is intended to establish the degree of protection given by cases and
covers from ingress of dust. The amount of dust suspended in the air during the test
exceeds most, if not all of the possible concentrations found in service use. This test is
relatively simple and of low cost but does not apply to materiel which is liable to be exposed
to severe blown dust conditions.

(b)

Test specimens are divided into two categories:


(i)

Category 1 specimens are those which, when operating, are liable to experience
variations in internal temperature caused by heat dissipated during the duty cycle.
Induced differential pressures can result in dust-laden air being drawn into unsealed
specimens.

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Chapter 3-25

(ii)

NOTE:

The definition of a heat-dissipating specimen given in Chapter 3-01 of Part 3 of DEF


STAN 00-35 may be helpful in defining the category of the test specimen.

2.2.3

Blowing Dust

(a)

This test procedure should be used to assess the ability of materiel to operate following
exposure to conditions of wind-blown dust. Under these conditions dust particles are more
likely to enter through small holes and into the seals of bearings, shafts, etc which cannot be
adequately demonstrated by the Turbulent Dust test.

2.2.4
(a)

2.3

Category 2 specimens are those which do not operate but have to survive in a dust
laden atmosphere.

Blowing Sand
This test procedure should be used to assess the ability of materiel to be stored and
operated under conditions of blowing sand without degradation of performance, reliability
and maintainability due to the abrasion (erosion) or clogging effect of the larger, sharp edged
particles.

Choice of severities
2.3.1

Settling Dust

(a)

The dust to be used for this test should normally be talc as specified in Paragraph 5.2(a)(i).

(b)

One dust deposition rate and one test temperature are used.

(c)

Severity is determined by the duration of the test. Comparing the deposition rate used in this
test with documented values of dust settlement for three types of location, the following
acceleration factors are given as a guide for determining the duration of the test.
Rural and Suburban
Urban
Industrial

17 to 600
6 to 17
3 to 6

for example a three day test equates to between 51 days and 1800 days (5 years) for Rural
and Suburban environments, and between 9 days and 18 days for an Industrial
environment.
2.3.2

Turbulent Dust

(a)

The dust chosen for this test is that specified in the International Standard IEC 529, (BS EN
60529), usually talc but may be fire extinguisher powder (FE Powder) (see Paragraphs
5.2(a)(i) and (ii) below).

(b)

The concentration is specified as 2 kg/m of the working volume of the test chamber
although not all the dust is in suspension at any one time.

(c)

The test duration is dependant on the category of the test specimen as follows (in
accordance with paragraphs 4.2.1(a), (v) and (vi).

(i)

Category 1 specimens should be subjected to dust for a period of between 2 hours


and 8 hours dependent on the rate at which air is drawn through the specimen with an
internal depression of up to 2kPa below the surrounding ambient pressure.

(ii)

Category 2 specimens should be subjected to dust for a period of 8 hours.

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Chapter 3-25

2.3.3

2.4

Wind Blown Dust and Sand

(a)

The dust used in this test, specified in Paragraph 5.2(a)(iii) - Red China Clay or Silica Flour
is considered to be a suitable representation of commonly found dust in the air caused by
natural movement due to wind and by artificially induced local disturbances.

(b)

The least severe concentration of dust (0.18 g/m ) is representative of natural conditions in
locations remote from normal military activities.

(c)

1.1 g/m represents dust and sand concentration due to severe dust storms and vehicles in
convoy

(d)

2.2 g/m . This concentration of dust and sand can be found in the vicinity of helicopter,
VTOL aircraft and hovercraft take off and landing.

(e)

10 g/m . Although not given in the Table of Concentrations in Chapter 9-01 of Part 4 of this
Standard, this value for dust only is specified in AECTP 300 Method 313 as being
representative of conditions close to vehicle tracks and wheels and in unprotected trailers.

(f)

The velocity severities are applicable to wind speeds or vehicle speeds for materiel attached
to or carried by moving vehicles.

(g)

If the service environment of the materiel is known specific severities may be used,
otherwise the highest concentration and velocity shall be applied.

(h)

In general, experience has shown that very little extra information or effect is achieved by
extending the test duration beyond 3 hours. Service operational requirements may be
satisfied by shorter durations otherwise 3 hours shall be applied.

Test Chambers
2.4.1

Settling Dust

(a)

The chamber should incorporate the principles shown in Figure 1.

(b)

The horizontal area of the working volume of the chamber should be such that uniformity of
dust settlement on the specimen is maintained.

(c)

The internal height of the working volume should be such that velocity of the air around the
specimen is close to zero during the test.

(d)

The inner surface of the chamber should be electrically conductive and should be earthed in
order to avoid static charge build-up.

(e)

The test dust should be injected into the upper part of the chamber by means of a horizontal
air flow which should be sufficient to diffuse the dust and produce a dust deposit of the
specified uniformity. The air flow when injecting dust should not raise the air velocity around
-1
the specimen to more than 0.2ms .

(f)

The chamber should be capable of providing a test temperature of 40 2C.

2.4.2
(a)

Turbulent Dust
The chamber should incorporate the principles shown in Figure 2.

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(b)

The means of dust circulation may be as shown or by internally mounted fan blades. A
vibration device is incorporated to disturb the powder which tends to settle on the walls of the
chamber. A vacuum system is included for connection to Category 1 test specimens. It
should consist of a vacuum pump and bleed, a means of measuring air flow and pressure
and a dust filter to protect the system.

(c)

The volume of the test specimen should be no more than 25% of the working volume of the
test chamber and its greatest horizontal cross sectional area should be no more than 50% of
the horizontal working area of the test chamber.

2.4.3

Wind Blown Dust and Sand

(a)

The chamber should incorporate the principles shown in Figure 3.

(b)

The test chamber should be capable of maintaining the dust or sand in the air at the
specified concentration and velocity in the region of the specimen. The velocity should be
monitored and controlled by suitable means. The concentration may be monitored by such
devices as a calibrated smoke meter and light source or may be fed into the air stream at a
rate calculated from the duct cross sectional area, air velocity and required concentration.
Ideally the dust or sand should not be recirculated as passing it through the fan will change
the composition of the particle sizes and the heavier particles will tend to fall out. However,
due to high cost of calibrated dust, it is permissible to recirculate the dust throughout the
duration of one test period. Fresh, calibrated dust shall otherwise be used.

(c)

The dust or sand should be collected by separation from the air downstream of the test
chamber.

(d)

Most Wind Blown Dust or Sand chambers are only able to produce the specified flow from a
small, typically 500 mm diameter, orifice. Large items can only be tested by either moving
the test item relative to the orifice or by widening the mouth of the orifice into a funnel. In
either case the tolerances on the flow of dust or sand are liable to be exceeded and such
practices should be declared. Consideration should be given to the distance between the
orifice and the specimen to ensure the air flow is laminar and the heavier particles reach the
specimen. Otherwise the volume of the test specimen should be no more than 25% of the
test chamber volume and its greatest cross sectional area should be no more than 50% of
the horizontal working area of the test chamber.

(e)

Chambers for this test are unlikely to be available for items larger than 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.5m.
For such items the Turbulent Dust test is recommended as an alternative.

2.4.4
(a)

Humidity
It is necessary, especially when using dust, to keep the conditions in the test chambers at a
low humidity in order to keep the dust dry. Chambers do not normally have a humidity
control and/or dehumidification plants. It is normally sufficient to meet the requirement by
pre-heating the dust at 60 5C for 24 hours minimum immediately prior to testing, and/or by
raising the test temperature if this does not affect the test specimen.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

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(c)

The test cycle, grade and concentration of dust or sand, the test temperature and air velocity
to be used

(d)

The duration of the test

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged and any
requirements for fitting covers or blanking plates

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(h)

The method of mounting and orientation of the specimen. Also for Category 1 specimens to
be subjected to turbulent dust, details regarding connection of the vacuum system to the
specimen.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

Settling Dust

4.1.1
The specimen shall be introduced into the test chamber at Standard Laboratory
Conditions. The mounting and orientation of the specimen shall be in accordance with the Environmental
Test Specification. If appropriate the specimen shall have power applied and be operating in accordance
with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.1.2
The temperature shall be raised to 40 2C. The rate of change of temperature shall not
exceed 0.1C per minute and the chamber shall be allowed to stabilise thermally.
4.1.3
The specified dust shall be injected into the chamber for one minute followed by a period
of 59 minutes of no injection. The ratio of injection period to no injection period shall be adjusted to give
2
the specified deposition rate of 6 1 g/m per 24 hours.
4.1.4
On completion of the specified duration, the temperature of the chamber shall be
reduced to Standard Laboratory Conditions at a rate not exceeding 1C per minute averaged over a
period of not more than five minutes. The chamber shall remain closed for a period sufficient to allow the
dust to settle.
4.1.5
The specimen shall be subjected to a functional performance test and examined for
ingress of dust in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2

Turbulent Dust

4.2.1
2 kg of talc or FE powder per cubic metre of test chamber working volume, which has
been pre-heated at 60 5C for at least 24 hours, shall be placed in the test chamber.

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(a)

(b)

Category 1 Specimens
(i)

The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions
and connected to the vacuum system. The connection shall be made at a hole
specially provided for the test. Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test
Specification the hole shall be located in the vicinity of parts which may be vulnerable
to dust.

(ii)

If it is impracticable to make a special hole, the suction connection shall be made to


the cable inlet hole. If there are other holes (e.g. more cable inlet holes or drainholes) these shall be covered or remain open as in normal service use. Establish an
airflow through the specimen within the values of the relevant parameters given in sub
paragraph (iv) below.

(iii)

The dust shall be circulated or agitated to produce a turbulent cloud within the
chamber space for the specified duration of the test.

(iv)

The duration of the test is dependent upon the volume of air drawn through the
specimen. In no event shall either the depression exceed 2kPa (20mbar), or the
volume of air drawn through over a period of one hour exceed 60 times the volume of
the free space within the specimen.

(v)

If an extraction rate of 40 to 60 volumes per hour is obtained the duration of the test
shall be 2 hours.

(vi)

If, with a maximum depression of 2kPa (20 mbar), the extraction rate is less than 40
volumes per hour, the test shall continue until 80 volumes have been drawn through,
or a period of 8 hours has elapsed, whichever occurs first.

Category 2 Specimens
(i)

The specimen shall be placed in the test chamber at Standard Laboratory Conditions
in the orientation and attitude stated in Environmental Test Specification. Any
apertures or drain holes shall be covered or remain open as in normal service use.

(ii)

The specimen shall be subjected to turbulent dust for 8 hours.

4.2.2
The specimen shall be removed from the chamber and the external surfaces cleaned of
dust by brushing or wiping. The specimen shall be subjected to a functional performance test and
examined for ingress of dust in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3

Wind Blown Dust and Sand

4.3.1
The test item shall be placed in the chamber and stabilised at the specified temperature.
If no temperature is specified it shall be 25 5C.
4.3.2
The air velocity shall be adjusted to the specified value and the dust/sand shall be
introduced into the duct up-stream of the test item in such a way as to ensure the specified concentration
in the vicinity of the test item.
4.3.3

These conditions shall be maintained for the specified duration or for 3 hours.

4.3.4

The dust/sand feed shall be shut off.

4.3.5
The air velocity shall be reduced to zero for the end of test or adjusted to a specified
value if a further test period is required. In this case the test is repeated for specified temperature
velocity, concentration and duration.

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4.3.6
If applicable, the specimen shall be operated while subjected to dust in accordance with
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3.7
The specimen shall be removed from the chamber and the external surfaces cleaned of
dust by brushing or wiping. The specimen shall be subjected to a functional performance test and
examined for ingress of dust in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

The severity of the test is dependent upon:


Dust or Sand grade
Dust or Sand concentration
Velocity of the air - for the Blowing Dust or Blowing Sand test only
Duration of test
Test Temperature. The preferred test temperatures are given in the respective test procedures.
The Environmental Test Specification may exceptionally prescribe an alternative temperature
severity.

5.2

Grade
(a)

Dust
The dust shall be one of the following:
(i)
Talc (Settling and Turbulent Dust tests) - hydrated magnesium silicate

(ii)

Particle Size

Proportion

Smaller than 63 m
Smaller than 40 m
Smaller than 20 m
Smaller than 10 m
Smaller than 5 m

100% by weight
45% by weight
9% by weight
0.9% by weight
<0.2% by weight

FE powder (alternative to Talc for Turbulent Dust test) fire extinguisher powder
composed mainly of sodium or potassium hydrogen carbonate with a small amount of
magnesium stearate bonded to the surface of the particles in order to assist freerunning and prevent clogging.
Particle Size

Proportion

Smaller than 85 m
Smaller than 40 m
Smaller than 20 m
Smaller than 10 m
Smaller than 5 m

100% by weight
26% by weight
5% by weight
0.7% by weight
<0.2% by weight

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(iii)

(b)

Red China Clay and Silica Flour (Wind-blown dust and Sand tests)
Particle Size

Proportion

Smaller than 150 m


Smaller than 105 m
Smaller than 75 m
Smaller than 40 m
Smaller than 20 m
Smaller than 10 m
Smaller than 5 m
Smaller than 2 m

100% to 99% by weight


86% to 76% by weight
70% to 60% by weight
46% to 35% by weight
30% to 20% by weight
19% to 11% by weight
11% to 5% by weight
5% to 1.5% by weight

Sand
The sand shall be silica sand (at least 95% by weight Si02) and shall have the following size
distribution.

5.3

Proportion

Smaller than 850 m


Smaller than 590 m
Smaller than 420 m
Smaller than 297 m
Smaller than 210 m
Smaller than 149 m

100% to 94.5% by weight


98.3% to 93.3% by weight
83.5% to 74.5% by weight
46.5% to 43.5% by weight
17.9% to 15.9% by weight
5.2% to 4.2% by weight

Concentration (g/m ) - Wind blown dust and sand


(a)

(b)

5.4

Particle Size

Dust
10 7
2.2 0.5
1.1 0.3
0.18 0.05

)
) For applications see paragraphs
) 2.3.3(b) to (c) above
)

2.2 0.5
1.1 0.3

) For applications see paragraphs


) 2.3.3(b) to (e) above

Sand

-1

Velocity (ms ) - Wind blown dust and sand


1.5
9.0
18
30

5.5

)
) See paragraph 2.3.3(g) above
)
)

Duration
5.5.1

Settling Dust
1 day
3 days
10 days
30 days

) The applicable duration shall be


) determined in accordance with
) guidance given in paragraph
) 2.3.1(c) above

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5.5.2

Turbulent Dust
Category 1 specimens - 2 to 8 hours in accordance paragraphs 4.2.1(a)(v) and (vi) above
Category 2 specimens - 8 hours

5.5.3

Wind Blown Dust and Sand


1 hour
2 hours
3 hours

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:

)
) See paragraph 2.3.3 (g) above
)

DEF STAN 00-35 (Part 4) Natural environments - Chapters 9-01 and 9-02.
AECTP 300 Method 313 Sand and dust
BS EN 60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures
7

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 The Turbulent Dust Test is identical to the Dust Test for IP5X classification in BS EN 60529 (IEC
529). No current British Standard contains a Settling Dust, Blowing Dust or Blowing Sand Test.
8

HEALTH AND SAFETY WARNING

8.1 The dust and sand tests create an environment which could be severely injurious to health and
precautions in accordance with relevant Health and Safety regulations shall be applied.
8.2

Dust

8.2.1
Some or all of the dusts used are known to be capable of causing lung cancer or silicosis
if inhaled in sufficient quantity over a period of time.
8.2.2
Sufficient time shall be allowed for dust to settle in the chambers before opening the
door. Operators and cleaners should always wear masks to filter the air they breathe when working in or
near the chamber.
8.3

Static Electricity

The relatively dry test atmosphere combined with moving air and dust/sand particles may cause a
build up of electrostatic energy. Necessary earthing precautions shall always be taken.

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Figure 1 Example of a Settling Dust test facility

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Figure 2 Example of a Turbulent Dust test chamber

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Figure 3 Example of a Blowing Dust/Sand test chamber

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Chapter 3-26

CHAPTER 3-26
TEST CL26 - MIST, FOG AND LOW CLOUD
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is to determine satisfactory protection against ingress of, or operation in the presence of,
mist, fog or low cloud.
1.2 It applies to materiel which has to operate in the open, or in partially protected enclosures which
nevertheless will be liable to exposure to mist, fog or low cloud which may collect as moisture on exposed
surfaces or enter such enclosures.
1.3 This test does not simulate the possible corrosive or materiel malfunction effects caused by any
contaminants carried by the mist, fog or low cloud, only the effect of moisture and moisture penetration.
1.4

There is no equivalent British Standard test.

GUIDANCE

2.1 The following guidance is provided to assist in the selection of options (test procedures, severities
etc) later in this chapter.
2.2

General

Mist and fog are formed by the condensation of water vapour on dust particles in the atmosphere.
They are particularly liable to occur where a large body of the atmosphere is cooled slowly to the
saturation point. Moisture drop diameters in mist, fog and low cloud are of the order of 0.01 mm, most
ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mm. Fog and mist are defined in terms of visibility, fog being 1 km or less,
and mist being greater than 1 km but less than 2 km. The water content of fog near the ground is typically
3
0.2 g/m .
2.3

Test severities

2.3.1
Severity of testing is related simply to the duration of exposure and the achievement of a
dense mist throughout the working space with the specified water injection rate.
2.3.2
The one hour duration specified is adequate for testing most types of materiel, but the
Environmental Test Specification for the materiel may require a different duration if appropriate.
2.4

Performance evaluation

2.4.1
If survival only is to be demonstrated, a performance test and visual inspection may be
required either immediately after testing or after a specified recovery time. Visual inspection should
normally be carried out after the performance check to avoid disturbing any liquid water which may have
collected on or in the specimen.
2.4.2
If the specimen is required to function in mist or fog, or where low cloud is prevalent, it
should normally be operated and tested during the final 30 minutes of the test period.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival

(b)

The size of the chamber, if other than that specified in BS 2011 Test Kb Appendix A

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(c)

The duration of the test

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required

(e)

Whether the specimen is to be tested in its normal packaging or unpackaged

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted, and the requirements that are to be met

(g)

The required attitude of the specimen during test

(h)

The tolerances to be applied

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(k)

Any additional parameters including failure criteria to be recorded

(l)

For survival tests only and when critical, the permitted methods of water removal prior to the
performance check shall be stated

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the Environmental Test Specification for the materiel the following shall
apply:
4.1.1

General

(a)

For small specimens the test chamber specified in BS 2011 Test Kb Appendix A, but using
distilled or demineralised water, is suitable. The chamber volume should be not less than
eight times the test specimen volume. If the chamber has previously been used for the Salt
Mist test, all traces of salt and any resulting contaminants shall be removed.

(b)

If the test specimen is too large for the BS 2011 type of chamber, the enclosure in which it is
to be tested shall be equipped with a sufficient number of atomisers to maintain a dense
mist in all parts of the exposure zone, such that a clean collecting receptacle with a
horizontal collecting area of 80 cm, placed at any point in the exposure zone, will collect
between 1.0 ml and 2.0 ml of water per hour, averaged over the collecting period.

(c)

A minimum of two receptacles shall be used during testing and placed such that they are not
shielded by the specimen under test and do not collect droplets from any source.

(d)

When calibrating the spray rate of the chamber a minimum spraying period of 8 hours shall
be used, for accurate measurement purposes.

(e)

The atomisers shall be located with due regard to the geometry of the test specimen and
directed into the surrounding air. Where necessary, shielding shall be interposed, to avoid
direct spraying of the test specimen. Water droplets shall not be allowed to fall onto the test
specimen.

(f)

The chamber may need to be vented to prevent pressure increase arising from the water
(and air if used) from the atomizer. The vent may be fitted with a filter to prevent the mist
escaping from the chamber.

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4.1.2

Test procedure

(a)

Prior to mist, fog and low cloud conditioning the specimen shall be subjected to a visual
mechanical and/or electrical inspection, then operated to ensure it is functioning correctly.

(b)

If the test is a demonstration of survival only, then any deviation from the above inspection
shall be stated.

(c)

If the test is a demonstration of performance, the specimen is to be prepared for normal


operation. Entries not used during the test shall be protected by suitable sealing blanks.

(d)

The specimen, so prepared, shall be mounted in the test chamber in the attitude specified
with all external surfaces exposed to the mist generated during testing and in such a way
that it does not stand in accumulated water.

(e)

The specimen, at laboratory temperature, shall be subjected to a fine mist of distilled or


demineralised water from atomisers for a period of one hour.

(f)

If required by the Environmental Test Specification, the specimen shall be operated during
the test period.

(g)

If the test is a demonstration of survival only and unless otherwise specified, the equipment
may be dried by placing it in a ventilated climatic chamber at 50C for 24 hours.

(h)

The specimen shall be examined for penetration of water if appropriate and such functional
tests, as required by the Environmental Test Specification, shall be carried out in the
specified order.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

There are no preferred severities other than those given in the test procedure.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS 2011
Part 2.1 Kb

Environmental Testing
Test Kb - Salt mist, cyclic (sodium chloride solution)

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Chapter 3-27

CHAPTER 3-27
TEST CL27 - DRIVING RAIN
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to assess the effect on materiel, including packages, of exposure to
driving rain and to demonstrate:
(a)

The ability of materiel to remain operational during or following exposure to driving rain.

(b)

The level of protection provided by packages and the effects on their stability and structural
integrity during or following exposure to driving rain.

1.2 This test is applicable to materiel which is liable to be directly exposed to driving rain, UK Military
Level packages J & N (NATO equivalent levels 2 & 3) and ammunition packages. This test is also
applicable to UK Military Packaging Levels K, M, Q & S now obsolescent.
1.3

This test is not intended to:


(a)

Prove the erosion resistance of materiel to driving rain which is covered by Chapter 3-19.

(b)

Assess the effects of rainfields on radar and electro-optical systems. Information related to
these effects can be found in Chapter 6-02 of Part 4 of this Standard.

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Operational materiel in the field and packages during transportation and storage are
liable to direct exposure to rainfall. The intensity and direction of rain may be modified by the prevailing
wind and become driving rain.
2.1.2
The term 'materiel' in this chapter includes operational equipment and ammunition
packages and their contents. The term 'packages' refers to Military Level Packages as defined by DEF
STAN 81-41 Part 1 (under revision to accord with NATO standardization agreement STANAG 4280) and
ammunition packages as defined by DEF STAN 08-8. In the case of the latter, driving rain tests must
only be conducted at sites designed and approved for handling and testing materiel containing explosives.
2.1.3
For the purposes of this standard, driving rain is simulated using nozzle(s) connected to a
supply of pressurized water. Guidance on an acceptable alternative test method using blown air in
conjunction with falling water droplets to simulate driving rain is given in Method 310 of AECTP 300 of
STANAG 4370.
2.1.4
Any supply of water which is free of contamination when generally compared with natural
rain may be used for Driving Rain tests. Water from the local mains supply is usually suitable; other
sources may need to be filtered.
2.2

Test selection

2.2.1 One test procedure is given in paragraph 4 below for both packages and unpackaged
materiel. Where appropriate, alternative procedural steps are included.
2.3

Test severities

2.3.1
Severities for driving rain tests are defined by intensity of water spray (rate of
precipitation) and duration of exposure:

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2.3.2

Test intensities are:

(a)

Deployment in Europe: 10020 mm per hour

(b)

Deployment world-wide: 20050 mm per hour

2.3.3
Unless it is known that materiel will only be used or exposed in Europe, the intensity for
world-wide exposure should be used.
2.3.4

For tests on packages, the intensity for world-wide exposure should be used.

2.3.5
Three durations of spraying are specified and should be selected dependent on the
intended deployment of the specimen as follows:
One hour duration is applicable to unpackaged materiel liable to spend considerable periods of its
service life exposed to driving rain.
15 minutes duration at each position for Military Level packages J (Nato level 2) and ammunition
packages. Also Military Level packages M and Q (but see Paragraph 1.2 above).
5 minutes for unpackaged materiel liable to accidental exposure and for Military Level packages N
(Nato level 3). Also Military Level packages K and S (but see Paragraph 1.2 above).
2.3.6
standard.
2.4

Further information on rainfall intensities may be found in Chapter 6-01 of Part 4 of this

Test nozzles

2.4.1
Each nozzle should deliver a homogeneous cone of water droplets at the specified
intensity. The distance of the nozzle(s) and the direction(s) of spray in relation to the specimen should be
such as to provide the specified intensity on the test specimen.
2.4.2
Nozzle(s) with an internal swirl core and a single orifice are believed to be most suitable
for giving the specified characteristics and intensity of spray. Nozzles giving a square based solid cone or
a round based solid cone may be used, but in the case of the latter, extra nozzles may be required to give
uniformity of the intensity over the same surface area.
2.4.3
The spraying equipment should include methods of measuring and controlling the flow of
water to provide the specified intensity with the chosen nozzle(s). The uniformity of intensity of spray
should first be confirmed over the horizontal area of the test facility to be occupied by the specimen.
2.4.4
Unless specified otherwise, the nozzles are directed downwards at the specimen at an
angle of 45 degrees. For unpackaged materiel the Environmental Test Specification may specify other
directions at which the spray is to be applied.
2.5

Temperature
2.5.1

Driving rain tests are conducted with the rain test facility at local ambient temperature.

2.5.2
The temperature of the test specimen should be between 5 and 15C above the
temperature of the water at the start of spraying.
2.5.3
For the one hour duration test the higher temperature difference (15C) should be used
to ensure a pressure differential continues throughout the spray period.

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2.6

Preparation for testing

2.6.1
Unpackaged specimens should have all apertures covered or uncovered and all power
supplies and signal lines connected to simulate the configuration when operated in service. Packages
(including contents) should be prepared as for storage and transport in service.
2.7

Performance evaluation

2.7.1
Materiel required to operate during subjection to rain should be operated at the
appropriate stage(s) of the test. Packages should be observed during the test and subsequently
examined for stability and structural integrity.
2.7.2
Where functional performance is to be assessed after subjection to rain this could be
carried out after a suitable recovery period consistent with in-Service requirements.
2.7.3
All specimens should be examined for ingress of water having first dried the external
surfaces if specified.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:

3.1.1
For unpackaged materiel including operational equipment and ammunition containers
and their contents.
(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

The intensity and direction of spray, the temperature of the specimen in relation to that of the
water and the nozzle(s) to be used.

(c)

Any special requirements regarding the fitting of covers, blanking plates, power supplies or
signal lines to the test specimen.

(d)

Any special requirements regarding spray water purity

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
be operated and be assessed and the levels of performance required.

(f)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(g)

The method of mounting and the attitude of the specimen.

(h)

Where appropriate, the area of the specimen most vulnerable to driving rain.

(j)

Whether external surfaces are to be dried and the duration of any recovery period before
final visual inspection or assessment of performance.

(k)

Whether in the case of re-useable containers, any further tests are required to confirm
suitability for subsequent service.

(l)

Any permitted deviation from the test procedure.

(m)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

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3.1.2

For packages

(a)

The Military Packaging level of the test specimen.

(b)

The spray intensity, the temperature of the specimen in relation to that of the water and the
nozzle(s) to be used.

(c)

Any special requirements regarding spray water purity.

(d)

Whether any visual examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they are to be
conducted, and the requirements to be met.

(e)

The method of mounting and attitude of the specimen.

(f)

For Military Packaging levels K, N & S, the area of the package most vulnerable to driving
rain.

(g)

Whether further tests are required to confirm stability and structural integrity of the specimen
after subjection to driving rain.

(h)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(j)

Any additional parameters to be monitored.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The following test shall be conducted at local ambient temperature using any supply of water which
is free of contamination when generally compared with natural rain.
4.2 The specimen shall be visually examined and where applicable performance measured in
accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
4.3 For unpackaged materiel, fit any covers or blanking plates which would normally be in position over
sockets, terminal boxes, pipe entries etc when in service. Where demonstration of performance is
required connect any power supply and signal lines necessary for operation and assessment of
performance of the specimen.
4.4

Raise the temperature of the specimen to between 5 and 15C above the temperature of the water.

4.5 For unpackaged materiel, place the specimen on a drained surface in the rain test facility and in the
specified attitude so that the nozzles spray all exposed surfaces evenly at the specified intensity with
minimum overlap. Unless otherwise specified, the nozzle shall be directed downwards at the specimen at
an angle of 45 degrees.
4.6 For packages, the specimen shall stand on a drained surface on the face on which it is normally
transported or stored. For rectangular packages a spray nozzle(s) shall be directed downwards at each
top corner of the specimen at an angle of 45 degrees as shown in Figure 1. For cylindrical packages the
spray shall be applied in a similar manner but from four positions spaced at intervals of 90 degrees
around the specimen as shown in Figure 2.
4.7 If the purpose of the test is to determine penetration at the area most vulnerable to driving rain
(such as packaging levels K, N and S), the attitude of the specimen and the alignment of the nozzle shall
be such that the centre of spray impacts on the most vulnerable area.
4.8 Where appropriate, open and close all doors or remove and replace all easily removed covers on
the specimen three times, to equalize pressure and exercise any seals immediately before spraying.

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4.9 Spray the specimen for the appropriate duration. This shall be one hour for unpackaged materiel,
(if appropriate operating in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification), 15 minutes at each
position for packages (packaging levels J, M & Q), or 5 minutes for penetration at the most vulnerable
area (packaging levels K, N and S).
4.10 For unpackaged materiel allow for any specified recovery period to elapse after spraying and
conduct a performance test on the specimen in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
Examine the specimen for ingress of water. If specified, first dry the specimen by wiping.
4.11 For packages, remove the specimen from the spray chamber and allow it to dry for 24 hours at
Standard Laboratory Conditions. Any water remaining on the surface of the specimen shall be removed
and the package opened to check for ingress of water. Conduct any other tests necessary to confirm
stability and structural integrity of the package in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The preferred severities for the intensity of spraying shall be as stated in paragraph 2.3.2. The
durations of spraying shall be those stated in paragraph 2.3.5 and summarised in the test procedure in
paragraph 4.
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This chapter refers to:


DEF STAN 00-35
Part 4
Chapter 6-01

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel


Natural environments
Rain

DEF STAN 08-8

Packaging of ammunition and explosives

DEF STAN 81-41


Part 1

Packaging of Defence Materiel


General requirements

STANAG 4280

Nato level requirements for packaging

STANAG 4370

Environmental testing

AECTP 300

Climatic Environmental Tests


Method 310 Rain and Watertightness

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1

There are no technically similar British Standard Tests.

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Figure 1a

Figure 1b

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Chapter 3-27

Figure 2a

Figure 2b

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Chapter 3-28

CHAPTER 3-28
TEST CL28 - DRIPPROOFNESS
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test is applicable to materiel which may be subject to dripping water from overhead surfaces,
resulting for example, from condensation in unconditioned avionics bays of aircraft or ships
compartments. Normally, this test is not necessary for materiel which is required to satisfy the tests of
Chapter 3-27 Driving Rain or Chapter 3-29 Immersion.
1.2 This test is not intended to determine the effect of materiel of soluble impurities which in practice
may contaminate dripping condensed water.
1.3 This test is technically similar to BS2011:Part 2.1R, Water, Test Ra Method 2 Dripbox, except for
differences detailed in paragraph 7 below.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

Test Apparatus

2.1.1
A suitable drip dispenser is shown in Figure 1, fitted with nozzles of the type shown in
Figure 2, arranged on a 25 mm square pattern. Alternative types of nozzle may be used, providing
individual drips are produced that fall freely without coalescing with those from other points and give the
specified total flow. The flow rate should be established and maintained using a head of clean tap water
and any suitable method such as constant overflow.
2.1.2
The test specimen should be supported 1 metre 5 mm below the nozzles on a suitable
platform. Drainage of the platform shall be arranged to prevent any accumulation of water around the test
specimen.
2.1.3
The apparatus should be kept clean and free from corrosion and contaminants.
Particular attention should be paid to maintenance of the nozzles, to ensure the water droplets form
correctly and the specified flowrate is maintained.
2.2

Test Severities
2.2.1

The total flow of water from the drip points should be not less than 280 litre/m /hour.

2.2.2
Normally dripping water should be applied to the whole area of the specified surface of
the test specimen at any one time. However in certain cases such as large items, it may be restricted to
specified critical areas as defined in the Environmental Test Specification.
2.2.3
Consideration should be given to allowing a specified period of time to elapse between
the completion of application of drips and starting any functional performance tests or visual inspection, to
allow any water which may have entered the test specimen to pass across any seals and find its final
resting place. Any such period should be defined by the Environmental Test Specification.
2.2.4
More than one test may be required if it is intended that the test specimen can be
orientated in more than one attitude in service. If it is intended to use this test to simulate dripping water
arising from other causes, the Environmental Test Specification should state the severity and any required
deviations from the test procedure.

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2.3

Performance Evaluation
2.3.1

The effectiveness of protection will be assessed by:

(a)

Operational performance evaluation and/or

(b)

Visual inspection for water ingress.

2.3.2
For safety reasons, consideration should be given to the order of performance testing
and visual inspection. Preferably visual examination should be carried out after evaluation of operational
performance, before any un-representative movement of the test specimen and of any contained water.
However, especially in the case of less well protected materiel, where ingress of water may produce
unsafe conditions for applying electrical power, it may be appropriate to first carry out a test to determine
the course, amount and final resting place any water which may enter the test specimen. In general, one
of the following procedures with a subsequent visual inspection for ingress of water, should apply:
(a)

Continuous operation throughout the test with performance evaluation made during, and at a
prescribed time after the drip period.

(b)

Operation and evaluation towards the end of the drip period, and at a prescribed time
afterwards, to demonstrate switch-on capability.

(c)

Operation and evaluation at a prescribed time after the drip period.

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

Test severities and durations to be used.

(c)

The surface of the test specimen to which dripping water is to be applied, indicating where
appropriate any critical areas.

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required.

(e)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(f)

The elapsed time between the completion of conditioning and the start of any visual
inspection.

(g)

The method of mounting, the attitude(s) and orientations of the specimen.

(h)

Any special requirements regarding the fitting of covers, blanking plates, connectors for
power supplies, input and output signal etc.

(j)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

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TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test specimen shall be visually examined and functional performance checked as required by
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.2 The test specimen shall be mounted on the platform of the drip test facility in the specified attitude,
with the nozzles of the drip dispenser(s) positioned at a height of 1 metre 5 mm above the test
specimen.
4.3 The number of dispenser units employed shall be sufficient to cover the surface of the test item to
be conditioned at any one time.
4.4 Unless otherwise specified by the Environmental Test Specification, any removable covers shall be
fitted and any sockets, terminal boxes or other entries shall be protected with the connectors, pipes and
blanking plates etc. normally fitted in service.
4.5 Condition the test specimen with dripping water at the specified flow rate for the specified duration.
If required by the Environmental Test Specification, the test specimen shall be operated during the
conditioning period.
4.6 After conditioning with drips, and before any functional performance test a period of time shall be
allowed to elapse, as defined by the Environmental Test Specification, to allow for tracking of any water
which may have entered the test specimen.
4.7 Conduct a functional performance test on the test specimen in accordance with the Environmental
Test Specification.
4.8 Carry out a visual examination of the test specimen noting, if possible, the point of entry and the
subsequent course and final resting place of any water. Before carrying out the examination, external
surfaces may be dried, taking care to limit the movement of any water inside specimen.
4.9 Repeat the procedure of paragraphs 4.2 to 4.8 inclusive as required for all other attitudes and
orientations specified by the Environmental Test Specification.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES
(a)

Temperature

Normal laboratory conditions

(b)

Flow Rate.

Not less than 280 litres/m /hour

(c)

Duration.

15 minutes

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This refers to:


BS2011
Part 2.1R

Test R and guidance Water

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COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARD TESTS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS2011: Part 2.1R Water, Test R and guidance Water, Test Ra
Method 2 Dripbox, with the following variations:
- Higher total minimum flowrate
- Only one specified drop height
- Only one specified duration
- Distance between nozzles and diameter of the bore

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Figure 1 Drip dispenser

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Figure 2 Nozzle for dripproofness test

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CHAPTER 3-29
TEST CL29 - IMMERSION
1

SCOPE

1.1 The purpose of this test is to determine the capability of materiel to operate whilst submerged or to
survive accidental immersion in water. The test is applicable to materiel which is to be classified as
immersion resistant in accordance with DEF STAN 00-7. It is also applicable to military level packages
designed to provide protection during partial immersion and operational containers to assess their
effectiveness during partial and total immersion.
1.2

Test Procedures are included for packaged and unpackaged materiel.

1.3 This test is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1Q Test Q Sealing; Test Qf Immersion except for
the differences detailed in paragraph 7 below.
1.4 This test is not intended to simulate the long term effects of immersion in water such as corrosion.
The simulation of corrosion effects of long term immersion in seawater is covered by Chapter 4-05 of Part
3 of this Standard.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
The test is applicable to unpackaged materiel which is required to survive or operate
when subjected to partial or total immersion in water, particularly materiel with sealed enclosures. It is
also applicable to all types of package and container required to protect the contents during partial or total
immersion.
2.1.2
In the majority of cases clean tapwater may be used but during developmental testing of
unpainted test items, it may be desirable to use distilled or de-mineralised water to minimise possible
corrosion effects. Salt water may be specified if the specimen is intended to be deployed in seawater,
(see Note to Table A of paragraph 5.1.1(b) below).
2.1.3
Test Procedure A is applicable to unpackaged items. Test Procedure B is applicable to
packaged materiel.
2.2

Temperature

2.2.1
The temperature of the water should not exceed 35C. The temperature of the specimen
should first be stabilized between 5C and 15C above that of the water at the time of immersion, to
ensure a negative air pressure is generated inside the specimen.
2.3

Depth of immersion

2.3.1
Partial immersion. Depth of partial immersion is measured from the face of the
specimen on which it stands to the surface of water. A depth of 150mm is recommended unless
otherwise specified (see DEF STAN 81-41 Part 3 Test T paragraph T4).
2.3.2 Complete immersion. Depth of complete immersion is measured from the highest point on
the specimen to the surface of the water. The choice of severities is dependent on the operational
requirements. For normal purposes a depth of 1 m is recommended. Other depths, particularly those in
Table A, may be chosen if appropriate.

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Water pressure is related to the depth of immersion by the following formula:


P = 9.8 d
where

2.4

'P' is the applied pressure (above atmospheric) in KPa


'd' is the depth of immersion in metres
Duration of immersion

2.4.1
Unless a substantially longer period of immersion is anticipated in service, a duration of
twenty minutes is recommended for items weighing up to and including 40 kg and unlikely to require
Mechanical Handling Equipment (MHE) for recovery. See paragraph 4.2(d) below.
2.4.2
For items weighing more than 40 kg and where MHE is likely to be required for recovery
a duration of 2 hours is recommended. A minimum period of 2 hours is considered to represent a likely
real-life situation of accidental immersion where appropriate MHE is not readily available for recovery.
2.5

Attitude or orientation of the specimen

2.5.1
For items weighing up to and including 40 kg the test should be performed with the
specimen arranged in each of the attitudes/orientations in which it is more likely to become immersed in
service. In the case of partial immersion of packages, a separate specimen may be required for each
attitude/orientation. See paragraphs 4.3.2(a) and 4.3.3(a)below.
2.5.2
For items weighing more than 40 kg, the specimen should be tested standing on the face
on which it would normally be transported or stored.
2.6

Performance evaluation

2.6.1.
Materiel required to operate in service while submerged, should be operated and
performance monitored at the appropriate stage of the test as stated by the Environmental Test
Specification.
2.6.2
If the materiel is not required to operate while submerged, a functional performance test
should be carried out after removal from the water and following a specified recovery period. See
paragraph 3.1.1(f).
2.6.3
All specimens should be inspected for ingress noting the location of any accumulations of
water. Packages should be examined for degradation of packing materials and structural members of the
packages
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


3.1.1

For unpackaged specimens

(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of performance or survival.

(b)

Weight of the specimen.

(c)

The test procedure to be applied and the type of water and test facility to
be used.

(d)

The depth of total or partial immersion or water pressure to be applied.

(e)

The duration of immersion.

(f)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
be operated and assessed and the performance required.

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(g)

The orientation of the test specimen during immersion and the method of securing or
restraint to prevent flotation and maintain orientation.

(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(j)

Any special requirements regarding the fitting of covers, blanking plates etc.

(k)

Permissible maintenance to be carried out before final assessment including, where


appropriate, the method of drying and any recovery period.

(l)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(m)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

3.1.2

For packaged specimens

(a)

The test procedure to be applied and type of water and test facility to be used.

(b)

Weight of the specimen.

(c)

The depth of partial or total immersion or water pressure to be applied.

(d)

The duration of immersion.

(e)

Any special sequence or restriction of the faces to be immersed.

(f)

Whether functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the
specimen is to be operated and assessed and the performance required.

(g)

The method of securing to maintain orientation or prevent flotation.

(h)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met.

(j)

Permissible maintenance to be carried out before final assessment, including, where


appropriate, the method of drying and any recovery period.

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure

(l)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1 The test may be conducted using a water tank or a pressurized water chamber. The temperature
of the water shall not exceed 35C.
4.2

Test Procedure A. Unpackaged test specimens.


(a)

The test specimen shall be visually examined and checked as required by the Environmental
Test Specification.

(b)

The test item shall be prepared for immersion testing in accordance with the requirements of
the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

Condition and stabilize the test specimen at a temperature of 5C to 15C above the
temperature of the water or as specified by the Environmental Test Specification.

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4.3

(d)

The test specimen shall be immersed in the water at the specified depth or equivalent
pressure for the required duration. For total immersion of specimens weighing up to and
including 40 Kg, the duration shall be divided equally between the specified number of
attitudes/orientations.

(e)

If necessary, when immersed, the test specimen shall be secured to maintain its orientation
or prevent flotation.

(f)

If required, operate the test specimen and conduct any functional performance tests.

(g)

Remove the test specimen from the water. Dry the test specimen and allow it to recover as
required by the Environmental Test Specification.

(h)

Visually examine the test specimen for water penetration and conduct any functional
performance tests required by the Environmental Test Specification.

Test Procedure B. Packaged materiel

4.3.1
Packaged material shall be subjected to the immersion test in accordance with the
procedure of paragraphs 4.2(a) to (h) inclusive and the respective requirements of paragraphs 4.3.2 and
4.3.3 respectively.
4.3.2

Rectangular packages

(a)

Packages up to and including 40 kg shall be immersed to the specified depth and for the
required duration whilst standing on each face in turn. The duration shall be divided equally
between the specified number of faces. For partial immersion, sufficient test packages shall
be provided in order that no part of a surface is subject to more than one period of
immersion.

(b)

Packages over 40 kg shall be immersed to the specified depth and for the required duration
standing on the face on which they will normally to be transported or stored.

4.3.3
(a)

Cylindrical packages
The inverted package whilst standing on its originally designated top face shall be immersed
to the specified depth for the required duration. If the surface of the package includes
joints, sufficient packages shall be provided such that each joint is subjected to immersion
and no package receives more than one period of immersion on any surface. For vertical
side joints the package shall be laid on its side accordingly.

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Depth of immersion
5.1.1

Complete immersion

(a)

The depth of complete immersion is measured from the highest point on the specimen to
the surface of the water.

(b)

The depth of immersion shall be selected from Table A.

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TABLE A
Depth of Complete Immersion

NOTE:

Severity

Depth of water
(metres)

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

0.15
1.0
1.5
4.0
6.0
10.0
275.0

1.47
9.8
14.7
39.2
58.8
98.0
2700

The pressure differences given in Table A apply to fresh clean tap water. When salt water is
specified, pressure differences may be derived by factoring the values in Table A by 1.025.
This is practically significant for severity G.

5.1.2
(a)

5.2

Pressure difference
at 25C (kPa)

Partial immersion
The depth for partial immersion shall be 150 mm measured from the face on which the
specimen stands to the surface of the water.

Duration
5.2.1

The following minimum periods of immersion shall apply:

Type of Specimen

Type of
immersion

Duration

Items weighing up to and including 40


kg and not requiring MHE for recovery

Partial

20 minutes per face, attitude


or orientation

Total

20 minutes divided equally by


the specified number of
faces, attitudes or
orientations

Partial and Total

2 hours standing on the


specified face

Items weighing more than 40 kg and/or


requiring MHE for recovery
6

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This test refers to:


BS 2011
Part 2.1Q

Environmental Testing
Test Q Sealing; Test Qf - Immersion

DEF STAN 00-7

Immersion Requirements for Ground Role Service Equipment

DEF STAN 81-41


Part 3

Packaging of Defence Materiel


Environmental testing

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COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 This test is technically similar to BS2011: Part 2.1Q Test Q Sealing; Test Qf Immersion. The
variations from the British Standard test are:
(a)

This test includes partial immersion and distinguishes between small and larger items of
materiel.

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CHAPTER 3-30
TEST CL30 - SEALING (PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL)
1

SCOPE

1.1 This test may be used to evaluate the integrity of sealing of materiel including sub-systems and
components.
1.2 Where applicable, this chapter invokes test methods of BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q, Sealing
and BS 3636 Methods for Proving the Gas Tightness of Vacuum or Pressurized plant.
1.3 The tests detailed in this chapter are not intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of sealing
of materiel against the ingress of water, which is covered by Tests CL-27 Driving Rain, CL-28
Dripproofness and CL-29 Immersion of Chapters 3-27, 3-28 and 3-29 respectively.
1.4 Materiel tested to the procedures of this chapter is liable to be subjected to atmospheric
pressures that will not be experienced during service life.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1 The primary purpose of sealing is to prevent the ingress of moisture and other vectors/agents
likely to cause deterioration and eventual malfunction or failure of Service materiel. Alternatively it
may be used to retain gases or fluids within the materiel.
2.2 The effectiveness of any sealing method may be checked in many ways. This chapter gives
examples of test procedures that may be used to locate the position of leaks and to determine the
rate of leakage. Also included are non quantitative indirect methods which may be used to indicate
any deterioration of sealing of individual items of equipment.
2.3 Generally, the simpler the test procedure the lower its sensitivity, but being easier to apply it
should be less expensive. It is therefore necessary to examine all test procedures critically to ensure
sealing of the specimen is evaluated in the most effective manner.
2.4 The range of test procedures includes, but is not limited to, the following which for convenience
are classified by type of test specimen and in ascending order of sensitivity.
2.4.1
(a)

Gas filled systems (pressurized):


Immersion tests:
(BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q Sealing, Test Qa Types A and B and Test Qc Method 1)
(i)

Test Procedures A1 and A2 are recommended for testing seals for shafts or
spindles in either one specified direction or both directions respectively. Test
Procedure A3 is recommended for evaluating sealing of containers and cases
whose structural integrity will not be impaired as a result of pressure differential
produced during the test.

(ii)

The test specimen is immersed below the surface of a suitable transparent liquid
and observed for streams or an intermittent flow of bubbles rising to the surface.
Leaks may be quantified by collecting bubbles and measuring the volume of
entrapped gas. Appendix A to Test Q gives an example of a suitable pressure
vessel for mounting test specimens for Test Procedures A1 and A2. Guidance on
methods of varying the sensitivity and the required characteristics of the liquid for
Test Procedure A3 is given in Appendix B to Test Q.

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(b)

Foaming agents
(No applicable British Standard test)
When the test item is too large to immerse, Test Procedure B may be used, in which a
suitable foaming agent is employed to reveal the position of quite small leaks. However,
this method only gives an indication of the severity and large leaks may prevent the
formation of a foam cluster. The foaming agent should be compatible with any materials
on which it is applied.

(c)

(d)

Pressure rise and drop methods


(BS 3636 Methods V2, P.2A and P.2B)
(i)

Test Procedures C1, C2, C3 and C4 are based on the increase (C1) or decrease
(C2, C3 and C4) in pressure with time when a leak is present. The test specimen
is evacuated or pressurized as in normal service or as required for the purposes of
the test. For procedure C1 (BS 3636 Method V2), C2 and C3 (both BS 3636
Method P.2A), the leak rate may be determined knowing the volume of the test
specimen. Caution should be exercised to ensure that variations of ambient
temperature and pressure do not give rise to errors and therefore the method is
not adequately sensitive for the measurement of very small leaks. There is also
the disadvantage of having to adapt the test specimen for pressurisation or
evacuation and the fitting of a pressure measuring device. Generally the pressure
drop methods are not so sensitive as the pressure rise methods.

(ii)

Procedures C2 and C3 are identical with the measured data used to quantify the
leak in terms of the (exponential) Leakage Time Constant and the Leakage Rate
respectively.

(iii)

Procedure C4 (BS 3636 Method P.2B) may be used for large items of materiel,
where the test has to be conducted directly under the influence of meteorological
conditions and the leak rate is determined by a statistical analysis of sets of
measured data. This method requires the use of sensors able to respond to and
indicate small changes in temperature (0.02C) and pressure (7Pa).

(iv)

The Environmental Test Specification should specify the test temperature and the
pressurisation level required.

Flow method
(BS 3636 Method P.1)
Test Procedure D1 uses a variation of the previous methods to measure the flow of gas
required to maintain a specified pressure inside the specimen. This method is generally
applicable to large items and requires two penetrations of the test specimen. Sensitivity
depends on the range of the flowmeter. The smallest detectable leak is in the order of 1
kPa litre/s.

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(e)

Tracer gas methods (slight overpressure)


(i)

Measurement of leak rates


(BS 3636 Methods PS.1A and PS.2A)
Test Procedures E1 and E2 depend on the incorporation of a known concentration
of an easily detectable search gas into the normal pressurising gas, (usually air),
during manufacture or subsequently, from an external pressurized source. The
test specimen is placed in a sealed vessel through which is passed a supply of
clean air. Any gas leaked from the specimen is carried through to the detector by
the flow of external air. To be effective, life expectancy of the tracer gas must be
taken into consideration. Methods PS.1A and PS.2A of BS 3636 used for the
measurement of leaks on industrial plant may be adapted for use on other types of
materiel. Nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide are used as the tracer gas in conjunction
with an infra-red detector to give a measurable response in a reasonable period of
time. Test procedures E1 and E2 give maximum sensitivities of the order of 65
and 1 x 10-5Pa litre/s respectively. Further guidance on the precautions to be
observed with regard to pressurisation levels, flow rates and setting up of the
detector are given in Methods PS.1A and PS.2A of BS 3636.

(ii)

Leak Detection (BS 3636 Appendix 0)


Tracer gas methods with slight overpressure used for leak measurement are
adaptable for the location of leaks. They have advantages over vacuum methods
in that sensitivity is independent of the volume concerned. Test Procedure E3 (BS
3636 Appendix 0), adapted from the methods used in paragraph 2.4.1(e)(i) above,
has a sensitivity in the order of 50 x 10-5Pa litre/s with a sampling flow rate of 0.02
litre/s. While it is possible to evaluate leakage rates from small specified areas, it
should not be confused with the overall leakage rate when leak proving of
materiel.

(f)

Tracer gas methods into vacuum


(BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q Sealing, Test Qk Method 2)
This method depends on the incorporation of a light gas (usually helium), into the test
specimen during the manufacture or subsequently from an external source. In Test
Procedure F1, the test specimen is placed in the vacuum vessel of a mass spectrometer
and the pressure reduced until it is possible to detect the tracer gas. As the method is
very sensitive it is only suitable for measuring very fine leaks. However, the leaks may
be difficult if not impossible to locate.

2.4.2
Ionisation Methods - Gas filled Devices (Low Pressure and High Pressure Fill) (Including BS 3636 Appendix 0)
(a)

Test G gives methods for locating and measuring leaks in materiel using a tracer gas
such as sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and gas ionisation. Test Procedure G1 may be
applied to materiel for which the internal atmosphere is at either high or low pressure.
The test specimen may be pressurized entirely with search gas or may be a proportion of
the gas making up the internal atmosphere. Leakage from the specimen may be
measured with a proprietary gas ionisation detector sensitive to the search gas. The
Environmental Test Specification should state the level of pressurisation or proportion of
gas to be included and whether any temperature conditioning of the specimen is
required.

(b)

Test Procedure G2 (BS 3636 Appendix 0), gives a simple method of detecting leaks or
potential leaks in systems or components whose internal atmosphere is at a high vacuum
and the sealed walls of the case or container are transparent. However, should a leak be
located at a glass/metal seal, it may not be detected.

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2.4.3
Fluid filled/wax filled devices
(BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q Sealing, Test Qd)
Tests on devices of this type normally involve inspection for seepage of the filling following
heating of the test specimen to a specified temperature, (1 to 5 C), above its maximum ambient
temperature of operation in service. Normally, leaks may be detected down to an equivalent air leak
rate of approximately 10-5 bar.cm3/s. However if extremely effective sealing is required, a variation of
the mass spectrometer method may be used but searching for molecules of the filling as opposed to
helium. The Environmental Test Specification should state the temperature to which the specimen is
to be heated, the period of conditioning and the method of detecting leakage. Further guidance on
these aspects is given in Appendix C to Test Q.
2.4.4
Refrigeration Systems
(No applicable British Standard test)
Special techniques have been developed in the refrigeration and air conditioning industries to
locate leaks from refrigeration systems. These range from a butane lamp flame to sophisticated
electronic leak detectors. Dependent on the type of refrigerant, foaming agents may also be used
according to the manufacturers instructions. Normally, leak tests should be carried out with the
refrigeration system in the quiescent state. However, for certain types of air conditioning system,
pressures in the refrigeration circuit may also exceed local atmospheric pressure when in the
operational mode. In these cases, the search for leaks should be carried out in both the quiescent
and operational states. The Environmental Test Specification should state whether leak tests are
required with the specimen in the operational mode. Test J applies.
WARNING: Health and Safety Warning
Appropriate precautions should be taken and attention paid to manufacturers advice, regarding health
and safety aspects, associated with exposure to refrigerants and emissions produced while using a
butane flame to locate leaks.
2.5

Indirect methods
(No applicable British Standard test)

2.5.1
Where it is possible to incorporate a moisture sensor/indicator in an item of materiel,
then it may be used to monitor the moisture content of the contained atmosphere and hence provide
an indirect indication of any deterioration of sealing. Similarly, measurement of insulation resistance
of internal electrical circuits via case mounted pins or terminals, at regular intervals, can provide an
indirect indication of any changes which may be attributable to sealing performance. Test K gives
three indirect methods of leak detection.
2.5.2
Specialist advice should be sought when selecting the humidity sensors and
indicators to be used in Test Methods K1 and K3.
2.5.3
Since no attempt is made to control pressure and the level of moisture in the
atmosphere external to the specimen, such methods cannot be used to quantify leakage rates.

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INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

The test procedure to be applied

(b)

The severities of the test parameters to be applied


for example

value of positive or negative pressure


rate of change of pressure
depth of immersion in liquid
temperature of the test specimen or of the liquid used for
immersion
duration at the specified pressure or of submersion in liquid

(c)

Any special requirements regarding the fitting of covers, blanking plates and the sealing
of apertures or interfaces

(d)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is
to be operated and be assessed and levels of performance required

(e)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, the phases of the test at which
they are to be conducted and the requirements that are to be met

(f)

Method of mounting and orientation of the specimen

(g)

The acceptable leakage rate

(h)

If in the case of refrigeration systems, the search for leaks is to be carried out in both the
quiescent and operational modes

(j)

Any permitted deviation from the test procedure

(k)

Any additional parameters to be recorded

TEST PROCEDURES

4.1 Safety Note: Testing personnel are advised that some of the test methods may create toxic
gases and where applicable appropriate safety precautions are required.
4.2

Test procedures for gas filled (pressurized) systems


4.2.1

Test A Immersion

4.2.1.1

Test Procedure A1 Sealing of shafts - one specified direction.

The test shall be conducted in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q Sealing, Test
Qa, Type A and Appendix A of Test Q as detailed below.
(a)

Mount the shaft or spindle and seal assembly in the lid or wall of a pressure vessel.
(See Appendix A of Test Q for an example of a suitable test facility).

(b)

Pressurise the vessel to produce a pressure differential of 100 kPa across the seal (or
group of seals), or to the differential specified by the Environmental Test
Specification.

(c)

With the differential maintained, submerge the complete assembly in a liquid which
has been thermally stabilised at a specified temperature.

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(d)

Observe the submerged specimen for leakage signified by the formation of bubbles
emanating from the area of the seal.

(e)

If the leak is to be quantified, submerge the mouth of the funnel in the liquid with the
tap open, draw liquid to the top of the tube and close the tap.

(f)

Immerse the mouth of the funnel in the liquid over the stream of rising bubbles.
Measure the depression at the top of the liquid column against the calibrated scale
mounted alongside the tube of the funnel over a measured period of time.

(g)

Determine the leak rate as the volume of air collected per unit time.

4.2.1.2

Test Procedure A2 Sealing of shafts - two directions

The test shall be carried out in accordance with Test Procedure A1 but with seal tested for
leakage in both directions in turn. (BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q, Test Qa, Type B). In addition, the
seal shall be monitored and the leakage rate determined while the shaft or spindle is rotated in the
seal.
4.2.1.3

Test Procedure A3 Sealing of cases and containers

The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q Sealing, Test
Qc, Method 1. Where a specimen sealed at ambient atmospheric pressure cannot be tested at a
pressure differential of 1 bar as stated in Test Qc, then halving the differential to 500 mbar will
decrease the sensitivity by a factor of 4. Increasing the test time by a similar factor equates the
severity of both pressure levels. The Environmental Test Specification shall state the pressure to
which the test chamber is to be evacuated, the rate of change of pressure, the duration at low
pressure and the liquid into which the specimen is to be immersed. The liquid used shall be in
accordance with the requirements of Appendix B of Test Q.
4.2.2

Test B Foaming agents

4.2.2.1

Test Procedure B1

The test specimen shall be pressurized sufficiently to produce a pressure differential such
that any leaks will be visible when foaming agent is applied. Apply foaming agent to the area of
interest in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. The position of any leaks as signified by
the formation of a foam cluster shall be noted.
Note 1: This method only gives an indication of the severity
Note 2: Large leaks may not form a foam cluster
4.2.3

Test C Pressure rise and drop methods

4.2.3.1

Test Procedure C1 Vacuum and Pressure Rise (Figure 1)

The test shall be conducted in accordance with BS 3636 Method V2 as detailed below. The
test procedure takes into account the possibility of outgassing due to the presence of water vapour, by
monitoring the pressure rise over successive intervals until the pressure increases obtained are those
resulting from leakage of the test specimen alone. The test procedure may be expedited by the
inclusion of a refrigerated trap between the test specimen and the pressure gauge. Appendix E of BS
3636 gives guidance on time saving techniques which may be incorporated as required by the
Environmental Test Specification to overcome the effects of outgassing.
(a)

The test specimen shall be fitted with a suitable union or nipple, if this is not normally
provided, for connection to a vacuum source.

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(b)

The pressure gauge or manometer used for the measurement of pressure inside the
test specimen, shall be sufficiently sensitive to indicate or record a pressure rise of
0.7kPa (7 mbar).

(c)

The sealing test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 5C. The
ambient temperature shall remain constant during the measurement period.
Alternatively, pressure correction shall be applied in accordance with the guidance
given in Method V.2 of BS 3636.

(d)

The test specimen shall be evacuated to one of the preferred severities given below
or as specified by the Equipment or Environmental Test Specification.
Severity A: 75 kPa absolute
Severity B: 50 kPa absolute

(e)

With the vacuum pump isolated from the test specimen, record values of pressure
inside the specimen at successive intervals. From the differences in pressure at the
beginning and end of each interval determine the leakage rate. Continue to take
readings until consecutive leakage rates differ by no more than 10%. The leakage
rate is taken as the mean of the last two values.

(f)

The leakage rate may be interpreted in kPa litres/s using the following formula:
Leakage rate = observed rate of pressure rise x (volume of specimen + dead volume)
where the dead volume is the volume of the pipework between the specimen and the
isolation valve in the line to the vacuum pump.

4.2.3.2

Test Procedure C2 Leakage time constant (Figure 2)

The test shall be conducted in accordance with Method P.2A of BS 3636 as detailed below
but with the leak rate expressed as the Leakage Time Constant defined in paragraph (f) below.
(a)

The test specimen shall be fitted with a suitable union or nipple, for connection to a
source of positive pressure (Figure 2).

(b)

Dry air or nitrogen (in accordance with BS 4366) shall be used for pressurisation. The
gauge or manometer used to measure positive pressure differential shall be
sufficiently sensitive to record a change of 0.7 kPa.

(c)

The sealing test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 5C or at the


temperature stated in the Environmental Test Specification. Before measuring
leakage, the test specimen shall be stabilised at the specified conditions. The
temperature shall remain constant during the measurement period otherwise
appropriate corrections to the pressure readings shall be made.

(d)

When the specimen has stabilised at the specified temperature, the pressurized
source shall be sealed off, the time at "seal off" being recorded as the start of the
measurement period.

(e)

The pressure differential shall be recorded at measured intervals of time for a period
of not less than half the time constant unless some other period is specified. The
time constant may be determined graphically by extrapolation.

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(f)

The leakage rate is considered to be exponential and the Leakage Time constant is
defined as the time taken for the internal pressure to change from its initial value of P
Pascals (N/m2) to P/e Pascals where e = 2.718.

4.2.3.3

Test Procedure C3 Leakage Rate-Pressure Fall

The test shall be conducted in accordance with Method P.2A of BS 3636 as detailed in
paragraph 4.2.3.2 above. The leak rate shall be measured and expressed as the time taken after
"seal off" for the pressure inside the specimen to fall by 1.5 kPa or by an amount specified by the
Environmental Test Specification.
4.2.3.4

Test Procedure C4 Pressure drop with varying-temperature

This test is applicable to large items of materiel and where the leakage rate is to be
determined while directly exposed to meteorological conditions. The test shall be conducted in
accordance with method P.2B of BS 3636 as detailed below. The level of pressurisation at paragraph
(c) should take into account the structural integrity of the specimen and allows for any additional rise
in pressure resulting from the effects of solar heating.
(a)

The test specimen shall be fitted with suitable adaptors for connection to a source of
positive pressure and a pressure gauge. Thermometers readable to 0.02C and a
barometer readable to 7 Pa shall be used for measuring ambient atmospheric
conditions.

(b)

Dry air or nitrogen shall be used for pressurisation. The gauge or manometer used
for measurement of positive pressure differential shall be sufficiently sensitive to
record a change in pressure of 7 Pa (0.055 mm Hg).

(c)

The test specimen shall be pressurized to a safe pressure with regard to the structural
integrity and the effects of solar heating, as specified by the Environmental Test
Specification.

(d)

The test specimen shall be sealed off from the pressurized gas supply and values of
atmospheric temperature and pressure, and internal pressure of the test specimen,
shall be recorded at 15 minute intervals over a period of 4 hours. The 4 hour period
shall be one during which the ambient temperature may be expected to rise or fall
steadily, e.g. 08.00 to 12.00 hrs or 16.00 to 20.00 hrs respectively.

(e)

The procedure of paragraph (d) shall be repeated on successive days until two sets of
observations with similar sets of temperature rise (or fall) are obtained for 4 hour
periods.

(f)

The leakage rate shall be interpreted using the measured data in accordance with the
procedure given in Method P2.B.

4.2.4

Test D Flow method

4.2.4.1

Test Procedure D1 (Leakage flow rate-Figure 3)

The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 3636 Method P.1 as follows:
(a)

The test specimen shall be fitted with a suitable union or nipple, if this is not normally
provided, for connection to a supply of pressurized dry air or nitrogen (in accordance
with BS 4366). For breather desiccator equipment, the connection to the supply of
pressurized gas may be made by removing the breather desiccator and using the
threaded or sealed hole to make the connection. If the connection is made at some
other point on the specimen, the breather tube shall be sealed off. The pressure
inside the specimen shall be measured by a manometer or a sensitive pressure
gauge fitted in the supply line adjacent to the connection with the specimen.

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(b)

The test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 20 5C or at the


temperature specified by the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

The test specimen shall be pressurized internally to 0.25 kPa 10% (25mm water
gauge) above local atmospheric pressure through a suitable flow meter.

(d)

When the test specimen has stabilised at the specified temperature, the internal
atmospheric pressure shall be maintained at the specified value and the leakage rate
determined directly from the flow meter and recorded.

(e)

The ambient temperature shall remain constant during the measurement period or
pressure correction made accordingly.

4.2.5

Test E Tracer Gas (Slight Overpressure) for internally pressurized systems

Test Procedures E1 and E2 require the internal atmosphere of the specimen and the
detector to be above local ambient pressure. Therefore precautions need to be observed regarding
the suitability of the detector and structural integrity of the specimen where these methods are to be
employed for the determination of leak rates. Care is required to establish the optimum flow rate for
the air supply carrying the search gas to prevent incorrect evaluation of the leak rate. The air flow
should be sufficient to ensure all internal areas of the specimen are scavenged. Conversely the flow
should not be so great as to dilute the search gas leading to an under-estimate of the leakage rate.
Further guidance on these aspects is given in Methods PS.1A and PS.2A of BS 3636.
4.2.5.1

Test Procedure E1 Infra-red Absorption Flow Measurement (Maximum


sensitivity 65 x 10-5Pa litre/s)

The test shall be conducted and the leak rate interpreted in accordance with the procedure
of BS 3636, Method PS.1A as detailed below.
(a)

The test shall be conducted using a test facility similar to that shown in Figure 4.

(b)

Install the test specimen inside the chamber or hood in order that it may be enveloped
in a supply of clean air. Make a sealed connection between the specimen and a
supply of search gas.

(c)

Purge and pressurise the test specimen with search gas and seal it off from the
supply.

(d)

Apply a flow of clean air to the inlet of the sealed chamber or hood. When
pressurized air is used, adjust the flow rate to achieve the optimum balance between
the allowable pressurisation of the chamber or hood and the detector and the flow
required, to ensure a correct evaluation of any leak is recorded. (See paragraph 4.2.5
above). Adjust the zero of the detector to nullify the effects of any background
gasses in the search gas.

(e)

When the appropriate flow is obtained, record the flow rate and absolute pressure at
the detector and the level of search gas detected.

(f)

Interpret the leak rate from the test specimen using the following formula:
Leakage = pqn Pa litre/s
where

4.2.5.2

p
q
n

=
=
=

absolute pressure at the detector in Pascals


flow through the detector in litres/s
parts per million of search gas recorded by the detector

Test Procedure E2 Infra-red Absorption accumulation (Maximum sensitivity


approx 1 x 10-5Pa litre/s)

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The test shall be conducted and the leak rate interpreted in accordance with the procedure
of BS 3636, Method PS.2A as detailed below.
(a)

The test shall be conducted using a test facility similar to that shown in Figure 5.

(b)

Install the test specimen in the chamber or hood in order that it may be enveloped in
a supply of clean air. Make a sealed connection between the test specimen and the
supply of search gas.

(c)

Establish the total volume of the space surrounding the specimen in the test chamber,
the circulating line and the detector. (See NOTE below).

(d)

Purge and pressurise the specimen and seal it off from the supply.

(e)

Circulate air around the circuit including the loaded chamber or hood and detector. (A
typical rate is 0.5 l/s). Adjust the zero of the detector to nullify the effects of any
background gases contained in the search gas.

(f)

Record the level of search gas measured by the detector and interpret the leakage
rate of the specimen using the following formula:
Leakage rate = pVn/t Pa litre/s
where

p
V
n
t

=
=
=
=

absolute pressure at the detector in Pascals


Volume of air circulation circuit in litres
recorded parts per million of search gas
period of circulation in seconds

NOTE: The volume of the air circulation circuit may be determined by inserting a
known volume of search gas and observing the reading on the detector.
Volume = Volume of search gas injected (millilitres) x 10-3
Parts per million of search gas
4.2.5.3

Test Procedure E3 Leak location using tracer gas and infra-red absorption

Leak location shall be carried out generally in accordance with the method given in
Appendix 0 of BS 3636 - Leak Location in Plant Pressurized With Search Gas Using Infra-Red
Absorption as detailed below. It is anticipated that the analysis tube of the detector will, by necessity,
be remote from the test specimen. In such cases, the sample probe shall be connected to the
detector via a suitable flexible hose. Gas samples may be drawn via a flowmeter using a pump.
(a)

If a quantitative assessment is required, first calibrate the detector using a known


quantity of gas.

(b)

Pressurise the specimen with search gas (either nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide).

(c)

Sweep the detector over all areas of the test specimen incorporating interfaces, joints
and seals noting response of the detector. Note the position of any leak and
determine rate of leakage as required.

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4.2.6

Test F Tracer gas into vacuum

4.2.6.1

Test Procedure F1 Helium fill with mass spectrometer

This test is applicable to materiel with a gaseous atmosphere containing a minimum


concentration of 25% of helium. The test shall be conducted in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1Q:
Test Q Sealing, Test Qk, Method 2 as detailed below.
(a)

Place the gas filled specimen in the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer.

(b)

Reduce the pressure in the sealed chamber and detector to the level required for
operation of the mass spectrometer.

(c)

Measure the leak rate of helium from the specimen and convert the measured value
to the leakage time constant using the following formula:
=
where

V
n
P
R

=
=
=
=
=

2.7 n V P
R

internal volume of the specimen in mm3


concentration of helium in the gaseous mixture
atmospheric pressure (1 bar)
measured leak rate of helium (bar mm3/s)
time constant in seconds

The Environmental Test Specification shall state the minimum time constant required.
See Appendix E of Test Q.
4.3

Test G Ionisation Detection Methods


4.3.1

Test G1 Ionisation with search gas

This test is applicable to materiel for which the tracer gas, sulphur hexaflouride (SF6), may be
used as the pressurisation gas or as a component of the gas mixture forming the internal atmosphere.
Leakage is detected using an ionisation detector calibrated for use with the search gas.
(a)

The area in which the test is conducted shall be free or protected from draughts, and of a
volume which precludes the build up of search gas to a level which may trigger the
detector, and/or cause it to produce a false reading of leakage rate for the specimen.

(b)

The test shall be conducted at standard laboratory conditions or at the temperature


specified by the Environmental Test Specification.

(c)

Purge the specimen and fill with search gas to the specified pressure or to the proportion
stated by the Environmental Test or Manufacturing Specification.

(d)

Sweep all areas of the test specimen with the ionisation detector paying special attention
to any interfaces, joints and seals. Record any levels of leakage measured.

(e)

In the event of the measurements indicating an unacceptable level of leakage, the test
shall be stopped and the specimen examined to establish the location of the leak.

4.3.2

Test Procedure G2 Leak location using Tesla coil

Appendix 0 of BS 3636 includes a technique based on the ionisation of gases for the location of
leaks or revealing potential leaks in evacuated systems or components with sealed glass or quartz
walls. This procedure involves the use of a tesla coil for location of leaks by direct observation as
detailed below.

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(a)

Apply power to the tesla coil and search for leaks by sweeping the probe over the
transparent wall of the test specimen.

(b)

Entry of a bright spark into the wall will signify the position of an existing or potential
leak.

NOTE:
4.4

Should the leak be located at the joint of a glass/metal seal, it may not be detected.

Test H Fluid filled/wax filled devices


4.4.1

Test Procedure H1 Leakage of wax or fluid filling

The test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q, Test Qd. The
Environmental Test Specification shall state the temperature and period of conditioning and the
method of detecting any leaking fluid or wax. Guidance on the temperature and period of
conditioning, sensitivity and methods of detection are given in Appendix C to Test Q of BS 2011 and
paragraph 2.4.3 of this chapter.
4.5

Test J Refrigeration Systems


4.5.1

4.6

Test Procedure J1 Detection of leaks in refrigeration systems

(a)

With the refrigeration system in the quiescent state, the foaming agent, search flame or
probe of the gas detector system shall be applied or swept over all parts of the
refrigeration circuit, noting the response with regard to the presence of refrigerant and
the location of any leaks.

(b)

Particular attention should be paid to seals, frangible and permanent joints. Also, to any
components or parts of the circuit operating above local atmospheric pressure and where
corrosion or attack by contaminants is apparent.

(c)

If required by the Environmental Test Specification, the test shall be repeated with the
refrigeration system in the operating mode (see paragraph 2.4.4 of this chapter).

Test K Indirect Methods


4.6.1

Test Procedure K1 Dewpoint/hygrometric sensor

4.6.1.1 Install a calibrated dewpoint/hygrometric sensor in/through the wall or enclosure of


the test specimen, sealed at the interface in accordance with the sensor supplier's instructions.
4.6.1.2 Purge the assembled/sealed test specimen and fill with gas to the specified
pressure and moisture content, in accordance with the relevant manufacturing specification.

4.6.1.3 When conditions have stabilised, record


dewpoint/moisture content of the atmosphere inside the specimen.

the

initial

reading

of

the

4.6.1.4 The test specimen shall be stored or placed in ambient conditions as specified by
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.6.1.5 Record readings of dewpoint/moisture content at regular intervals to establish the
trend of any changes of the atmosphere inside the specimen until one of the following conditions has
occurred:
(a)

The indicated level of moisture of the atmosphere inside the test specimen has
reached an unacceptable level.

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(b)

The duration representative of service life or other period as stated in the relevant
specification has expired.

4.6.1.6 In the event of the measurements indicating an unacceptable level of leakage has
occurred, the test shall be stopped and the test specimen examined to establish the location of the
leak.
4.6.1.7 When the test is to be repeated, operation/ calibration of the sensor shall be
checked before re-assembly of the specimen.
4.6.2

Test Procedure K2 Insulation resistance measurements

This test method assumes the test specimen is fitted with circuitry and cableforms to enable
insulation resistance measurements to be made between specified points on the test specimen. Also
that precautions are taken to ensure that such items are themselves suitably insulated to prevent
false readings.
4.6.2.1 Purge the specimen and fill with gas to the specified pressure and moisture
content in accordance with the manufacturing/test specification.
4.6.2.2 When the conditions have stabilised, record the initial reading(s) of insulation
resistance between the specified points inside the specimen.
4.6.2.3 The test specimen shall be stored or placed in ambient conditions as specified by
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.6.2.4 Record readings of insulation resistance at regular intervals to establish the trend
of any changes of moisture content of the internal atmosphere of the specimen until one of the
following conditions has occurred:
(a)

The value of insulation resistance indicates the moisture content of the atmosphere
inside the test specimen has reached an unacceptable level.

(b)

The duration representative of service life or other period stated in the relevant
specification has expired.

4.6.2.5 In the event of the moisture content reaching an unacceptable level, the test
specimen shall be examined to establish the location of the leak.
4.6.2.6 When the test is to be repeated, the specimen should first be examined for any
corrosion which may have occurred on or around areas between which insulation resistance is to be
measured and any remedial action taken as necessary before re-sealing the test specimen.
4.6.3

Test Procedure K3 Humidity Indicator

This test assumes the test specimen incorporates a window through which changes in colour of
the enclosed indicator can be observed. It is anticipated test items may also incorporate some form
of dessicator. Control of the moisture of the sealed-in atmosphere therefore, depends on a
combination of sealing and adsorption by the included dessicant. However, this method is not
applicable to materiel fitted with breather dessicators. A refinement in the indication available, is the
use of side-by-side split level indicators which react to different levels or bands of relative humidity,
each band covering a range of 15 - 20%RH. Thus the trend in any change in the moisture content of
the enclosed atmosphere can be observed and support the decision regarding the need or otherwise
to re-seal the equipment.
4.6.3.1 Place the humidity indicator inside the test specimen so that it may be readily seen
through the window in the case.

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4.6.3.2 Purge the sealed test specimen and fill with gas to the specified pressure and
moisture content in accordance with the relevant manufacturing specification.
4.6.3.3

Note the moisture content as shown by the humidity indicator.

4.6.3.4 The test specimen shall be placed or stored in ambient conditions as defined by
the Environmental Test Specification.
4.6.3.5 Record the moisture content as shown by the humidity indicator at regular
intervals, until one of the following has occurred:
(a)

The indicated moisture of the atmosphere inside the test specimen has reached an
unacceptable level.

(b)

The duration representative of service life or other period as stated in the relevant
specification has expired.

4.6.3.6 In the event of the moisture content reaching an unacceptable level, the test
specimen shall be examined to establish the location of the leak and/or whether the capacity of any
included dessicant is suitable for the application.
4.6.3.7 Where the test is to be repeated, install a new humidity indicator, a new desiccator
or re-fill of dessicant, or re-activate the previously used dessicator in accordance with the supplier's
instructions.
5

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1 The preferred severities are specified by the individual test procedures consistent with the
required sensitivity for determining leak rates.
6

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

6.1

DEF STAN 00-35


Part 3
Chapter 3-27
Chapter 3-28
Chapter 3-29
BS 2011
Part 2.1Q

BS 3636

Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiels


Environmental testing
Test CL-27 Driving rain
Test CL-28 Dripproofness
Test CL-29 Immersion

Test Q Sealing
Test Qa Types A & B
Test Qc Method 1
Test Qd
Test Qk Method 2
Methods of Proving the Gas Tightness of Vacuum or
Pressurized Plant
Method P.1
Methods P2.A and P2.B
Methods PS.1A and PS.2A
Method V.2
Methods VS.5 and VS.6
Appendix 0
Leak location by Tesla coil

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BS 3636 (contd)

Leak location in plant pressurized with search gas using


infra-red absorption

BS 4366

Specification for industrial nitrogen

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1 The following test procedures of this chapter are technically similar to British Standard tests as
detailed below, with the values of test parameters amended as required by the Environmental Test
Specification for the test specimen.
CL-30 Test

British Standard Test

BS 2011: Part 2.1Q: Test Q, Sealing


Test A1
Test A2
Test A3
Test F1
Test H1

Test Qa, Type A


Test Qa, Type B
Test Qc, Method 1
Test Qk, Method 2
Test Qd

BS 3636
Test C1
Test C2
and
Test C3

Method V.2

Test C4
Test D1
Test E1
Test E2

Method P.2B
Method P.1
Method PS.1A
Method PS.2A

Method P.2A

BS 3636 Appendix 0
Test E3

Leak location in plant pressurized with search gas using


infra-red absorption

Test G2

Leak location by tesla coil

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Figure 1 Apparatus for Test C1 - Vacuum and pressure rise

Figure 2 Apparatus for Test C3 Leakage rate - Pressure drop

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Figure 3 Apparatus for Test D1 Leakage rate - Flow

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Figure 4 Apparatus for Test E1 - Infra-red absorption flow measurement

Figure 5 Apparatus for Test E2 - Infra-red absorption accumulation

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CHAPTER 4-01
TEST CN1 - MOULD GROWTH
1

SCOPE

1.1

The purpose of the test is to assess the effects on materiel of exposure to mould growth.

1.2 The moulds to be applied are those specified in BS 2011: Part 2.1J Test J and guidance - Mould
growth.
1.3 This test is applicable to materiel which is used or stored in temperature and humidity conditions
likely to encourage mould growth.
1.4 The procedure in this Test is identical to that of BS2011: Part 2.1J Test J and guidance - Mould
growth.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Examples of how mould growth can pose a threat to the safety and functional
performance of materiel are:
(a)

Mould lowering the insulation resistance between electrical conductors or modify electromagnetic fields.

(b)

Changes to the physical properties of materials causing a decrease in strength generally, or


in the case of certain plastic materials enhancing the migration of plasticisers.

(c)

Metabolic products of mould spores attacking the materials and surface finishes of optical
components causing loss of transparency and degraded performance of surveillance and
guidance systems.

2.1.2
growth.
2.2

QSTAG 361 gives guidance on the effects and methods of limiting and preventing mould

Health and safety

2.2.1
Conducting mould growth tests can constitute a health hazard unless special precautions
are taken. Guidance is given in BS 2011: Part 2.1J, Appendix A, 'Danger to personnel', Appendix C,
'Recommended safety precautions' and Appendix D 'Decontamination Procedures'.
2.2.2
No person should participate in mould growth testing unless cleared to do so by a
suitably qualified Medical Officer.
2.3

Test selection

2.3.1
The test procedure to be applied depends on the degree of surface contamination by
nutritive deposits expected to occur in service.
2.3.2
Test Procedure A should be used for testing materials, components or complete
equipments that are protected from direct contamination by nutritive substances when in service.
Specimens for Test Procedure A are normally tested as received by the customer from the manufacturer.
Where any special cleaning of the specimen is required, this should be agreed with the test agency and
specified in the Environmental Test Specification. Further guidance on cleaning of specimens is given in
Test J of BS2011.

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2.3.3
Test Procedure B should be used for testing materials, components or equipments on
which nutritive contaminants in the form of dirt, condensed volatiles, grease, etc., are likely to be
deposited when in service.
2.3.4
If testing is to be conducted to determine the effects of mould growth on functional
performance two test specimens are required for either Test Procedure A and B. One specimen is
inoculated with spores and the other (the negative control specimen) with distilled water. Two test
specimens are required to differentiate between the effects on functional performance of wet mycelium
and exposure to the humid atmosphere of incubation alone.
2.4

Inoculation

2.4.1
External surfaces and internal areas of the specimen (unless permanently or hermetically
sealed) should be sprayed with the mixed spore suspension. All external surfaces and internal surfaces
which are exposed during use, maintenance or servicing should be inoculated. Covers and protective
cases should be replaced without tightening the fasteners in order to allow air to penetrate. It may be
appropriate for personnel with knowledge and experience of handling the specimen to be available to
assist in exposing the interior surfaces for inoculation.
2.5

Test severities
2.5.1

The test severity is determined by the period of incubation.

2.5.2

Two severities are used in this test:

(a)

28 days exposure. Applicable to both Test Procedure A and Test Procedure B to assess
degradation of materials.

(b)

84 days exposure. Applicable to Test Procedure A only. To be used when the effects of
mould growth on the functional performance of the specimen is to be assessed. Other
incubation periods for functional specimens may be agreed with the test agency and should
be specified in the Environmental Test Specification.

2.5.3
Further guidance on the duration to be used in Test Procedure A may be found in BS
2011: Part 2.1J: Test J and guidance - Mould growth.
2.6

Performance evaluation

2.6.1
The test specimen should be examined and assessed for the extent to which mould
growth has been supported, any physical damage caused and, where applicable, the effects on functional
performance.
2.6.2
The degree to which the specimen has supported mould growth should be assessed
against the scale 0 to 4 defined in Test J of BS2011. The Test Specifier may specify the degree of mould
growth to be tolerated. The effected areas of the specimen should be identified in the test report.
2.6.3
The Environmental Test Specification should state the aspects of performance
evaluation to be addressed and whether functional performance is to be assessed before or following any
recovery procedure. The latter should reflect in-service operational requirements. Unless otherwise
specified the recovery period should consist of 24 hours storage at Standard Laboratory Conditions.
2.6.4

The 'Final examination' procedure outlined in BS 2011: Part 2.1J should be used.

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Chapter 4-01

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of resistance to mould growth or effects of mould on


functional performance.

(b)

The test procedure to be applied and the number of specimens required. See paragraph
2.3.4 above.

(c)

The incubation period.

(d)

For Test Procedure A, any special cleaning procedures for the specimen(s).

(e)

For Test Procedure B, the surfaces of the specimen to which nutrients are to be applied and
the method of application, i.e. dipping, painting (brushing) or spray.

(f)

The method of mounting the specimen(s).

(g)

Whether any visual or other examinations are required, and if so the phases of the test they
are to be conducted and the requirements to be met. See paragraph 2.6.2 above.

(h)

The characteristics of any recovery period.

(j)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed, and the levels of performance required. See paragraph 2.6.3
above.

(k)

Any permitted deviations from the test procedure.

(l)

Any additional parameters to be recorded.

(m)

Decontamination procedure and disposal instructions for the specimen(s) on completion of


the mould growth test. See paragraph 2.2.1 above.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

General

4.1.1
The mould spores for Test Procedures A and B shall be prepared and applied to the
specimen(s) as specified in BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test J.
4.2

Test Procedure A

4.2.1
Test Procedure A shall be carried out in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1J: Test J:
Variant 1 with the incubation period selected from the severities given in Paragraph 5.2.1 dependent on
the purpose of the test.
4.3

Test Procedure B

4.3.1
Test Procedure B shall be conducted in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1J: Test J:
Variant 2 with nutrients applied to the specified surfaces of the specimen.

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Chapter 4-01

PREFERRED SEVERITIES

5.1

Mould Spores

5.1.1
Test specimens shall be inoculated with spore suspension prepared from samples of the
cultures specified in BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test J.
5.2

Incubation Period
5.2.1

The incubation period of inoculated specimens shall be as follows:

Test Procedure

Incubation Period

Test for material degradation only: 28 days Test for functional


performance: 84 days or as specified. See paragraph 2.5.2(b)
above.

28 days

RELATED DOCUMENTS

6.1

This Test refers to:


BS 2011
Part 2.1J:
Test J and guidance

Environmental Testing

QSTAG 361

Fungal contaminants affecting the design of military materiel

Mould Growth

COMPATIBILITY WITH BRITISH STANDARDS

7.1

This test is technically similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1J; Test J and guidance - Mould growth.

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Chapter 4-02

CHAPTER 4-02
TEST CN2 - SALT (CORROSIVE) ATMOSPHERES
1

SCOPE

1.1

The purpose of this test is to determine the resistance of materiel to salt-laden atmospheres.

1.2 The Salt Mist and Salt Corrosion test procedures contained within this chapter are technically
similar to BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test Ka and BS EN 60068-2-52 Test Kb respectively.
2

GUIDANCE

2.1

General

2.1.1
Materiel is liable to be subjected to salt atmospheres and subsequent salt corrosion when
deployed on exposed areas of surface ships and submarines, on or near inland salt lakes and sea coasts
and near road surfaces in winter.
2.1.2
The two test procedures of this chapter are accelerated tests designed to provide
repeatable salt atmosphere and salt corrosion tests to determine the resistance of materiel to saline
environments.
2.1.3
Information on the corrosive effects of saline environments is given in QSTAG 362
"Chemical environmental contaminants affecting the design of military materiel".
2.1.4
The two test procedures of this chapter should be used recognizing that they have
limitations regarding simulation of real life conditions and successful compliance does not guarantee
particular items of materiel will satisfactorily resist all saline conditions to which they may be subjected in
Service, such as wind and rain which may influence the rate of any corrosion.
2.1.5
The salt solution used to create the saline environments simulated in this chapter is that
defined in paragraph 5 of BS EN 60068-2-52. The Environmental Test Specification may specify other
salt solutions, for example to simulate the special effects of a marine environment, for which the
composition and characteristics (density, pH value etc.) should be stated clearly in the specification.
2.2

Health and safety hazards

2.2.1
The solution to be sprayed in salt corrosion tests can be harmful to human beings and
clothing. Operators carrying out the tests should take precautions to avoid splashing and spillage when
preparing the test solution and avoid breathing in the salt mist atmosphere when spraying. Also,
particularly in the case of walk-in spray chambers, to purge the chamber with clean air after spraying. If
necessary a suitable respirator and eye protection should be worn.
2.3

Test procedures

2.3.1
The two test procedures, given in Paragraph 4 below, may be used to determine
resistance of protective coatings and whether interactive contact between materials or fabrication
methods promote corrosion in salt atmospheres or saltwater deposits.
2.3.2
The Salt Mist Test, based on BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test Ka, may be used to determine the
ability of materiel to operate while or after being enveloped in a salt mist atmosphere.
2.3.3
The Salt Corrosion Test, identical to BS EN 60068-2-52: Test Kb Severity 1 and Severity
2, is designed to investigate the corrosion resistance of materiel following exposure to salt mist and
includes periods of storage in damp-heat conditions.

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Chapter 4-02

2.4

Test severities
2.4.1
(a)

2.4.2
(a)

2.5

Salt Mist Test


The Salt Mist Test consists of one continuous period of exposure in a salt mist atmosphere
at an ambient temperature of 352C followed by recovery at controlled laboratory
conditions in accordance with BS 2011: Part 2.1: Test Ka. For evaluation of short term
effects specimens should be exposed to 24 hours of salt mist. For simulation of long term
exposure 672 hours (28 days) is recommended.
Salt Corrosion Test
The Salt Corrosion Test consists of four cycles of salt mist sprayed at an ambient
temperature of 15 - 35C and 93% (+2%/-3%)RH in accordance with test BS EN 60068-252: Test Kb. For simulation of long term exposure, four 7-day cycles (Severity 1) should be
used. For occasional exposure, three 24 hour cycles (Severity 2) are recommended.

Test facilities and spray rates

2.5.1
Characteristics of the test apparatus and the method of producing the salt atmospheres
shall be in accordance with Test Ka of BS 2011 and Test Kb of BS EN 60068-2-52. The salt solution
should be sprayed at a rate that is commensurate with the deposition rates as measured and specified in
Tests Ka and Kb.
2.6

Performance evaluation

2.6.1
External surfaces and where appropriate internal areas of the test specimen should be
examined for primary corrosion of materials and deterioration of protective coatings. The examination
should include observations for salt deposits which may result in binding or interference of moving parts
or provide conductive paths and short circuits in electrical and electronic assemblies. Where appropriate
functional performance should be assessed in accordance with the Environmental Test Specification.
3

INFORMATION TO BE SPECIFIED

3.1

The Environmental Test Specification shall state:


(a)

Whether the test is a demonstration of corrosion resistance, functional performance or


survival

(b)

The test procedure to be applied

(c)

The test cycle and the severities to be applied

(d)

The number of test cycles to be applied

(e)

If functional performance is to be assessed, the phases of the test when the specimen is to
operate and be assessed and the levels of performance required

(f)

Whe