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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Rights of War and Peace, by Hugo Grotius

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Title: The Rights of War and Peace
Author: Hugo Grotius
Translator: A. C. Campbell
Release Date: August 11, 2014 [EBook #46564]
Language: English
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Several chapters were omitted from the English translation of which
this is a transcription. The reasons for this are given in the
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GENERAL PREFACE
[Illustration]
Of the Library of Universal Classics and Rare Manuscripts, twenty
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to the celebrated "Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon." The scholarly
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essay that precedes the "Rights of War and Peace." The resources of the
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more complete than any we read of in English history; and in that of
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common sense which enabled him at the height of glory to retire to a
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these Documents, this study of character as revealed in them will prove
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The Magna Carta, greatest of all historical charters wrung from the
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religious liberty. The original charter was signed at a place called


Runnymede (the Council Meadow) a spot between Windsor and Staines,
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and religious rights they enjoy to-day. It dealt with testamentary
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The Second Section of the Library (ten volumes) is devoted to the
presentation of Government, Philosophy, Law and Ethics. This section
embraces such names as Grotius, Plato, Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Adam
Smith, Hamilton, Madison, Jay, Walter Bagehot, Spinoza, Schopenhauer,
Machiavelli, as well as those builders of Ideal Governments, More,
Bacon, Campanella and Rousseau.
Of all benefactors in Literature of the human race, Grotius may
perhaps rank as first among his equals. Centuries have borne witness
to the justness of his premises and the wisdom of his conclusions. The
principles of national law laid down by him are to-day accepted as the
axioms of the Science. Among the nations, perhaps the United States is
most deeply interested in the right administration of the principles
affirmed by Grotius in his gigantic work on the "Rights of War and
Peace," and it was therefore most fitting, when the recent peace
conference at The Hague completed the great structure of international
comity, the foundations of which were laid by Grotius in 1625, that a
silver wreath was laid by the representative of the United States upon
the grave of the man to whom the Conference owed its initial impulse,
although at a distance in time of nearly three centuries.
When the Publisher determined, under the advice of his Editorial
Council, to publish Grotius, he found that only two volumes of the
first edition were available in the Library of Congress. At much
expense and trouble, he instituted a search in Europe and finally
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Library, where it now is.
Sir George Cornewall Lewis's "Government of Dependencies" is
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dependencies and colonies. It is a Classic that will survive as long
as colonization remains to be done, and it is remarkable that although
it was published for the first time sixty years ago, the illustrations
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principles and the exactness of its deductions.
Adam Smith's "Essay on Colonies" presents an introductory view of
the principles governing colonial policy. It is a fitting work to go
hand in hand with the greater one of Sir George Cornewall Lewis. It
is of practical use to American Statesmen, since the United States
seems at present to be entering upon a world-wide colonial policy. Its
practical wisdom, which has made it a Classic for all times, finds a
special applicability in the conditions of to-day, for Adam Smith was
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whose breadth of view, instead of unfitting him for practical details,
enabled him to deduce from the lessons of history and experience the
right solutions for the problems of Colonial policy.

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as historical records of a by-gone philosophy, but as living, teaching
dissertations upon theories which cannot fail to awaken in studious
minds the highest ideals of life and government. Modern problems
stated in the light of Plato's philosophy, as it is expressed in
these books, will find readier solutions when examined in the light
of its principles. No student of sociology, of politics, national and
municipal, or of government in all its many-sided aspects, can afford
to be without a knowledge of these immortal discourses.
Goldwin Smith has declared that of all expositions of constitutional
Government, "The Federalist" ranks the highest. When Hamilton, Madison,
and Jay first conceived the idea of printing in the common tongue their
ideas upon the principles of free government, they unwittingly laid
the foundations of the best commentary on the principles of popular
government ever written. Political science owes to them the most
important contribution to its literature made since its birth. The
Essays are equally admirable for sagacity, simplicity, and patriotism,
and while The Federalist will never be read for pleasure, it contains a
mine of wisdom for the student and the constitutional lawyer, and as a
text book of political science is without a parallel.
When Bagehot issued his work on the English Constitution, it was hailed
by the critics as the most wonderful and philosophical dissertation on
the subject in any language or from any pen. John Stuart Mill used to
say that of all great subjects much remained to be written, and that
especially was this true of the English Constitution. Bagehot's work,
although affording the conclusion that monarchy in England exists as a
logical necessity, is so unbiased in its premises, so logical and clear
in its deductions, that this manifest fairness, although leading one to
conclusions distasteful to a republican mind, must endear him to his
readers. Dealing with a subject somewhat dry in its details, he invests
inanimate objects with so much light that they become realities. In the
highest sense he combines popularity and scholarship.
Spinoza's philosophy may be traced both to the influence of Bacon, his
predecessor, and to Descartes, his contemporary. Its combination of
positivism with the enthusiasm of piety characterizes his philosophy
as unique in itself, for while treating man from a purely mechanical
standpoint, it asserts that the mechanism itself is entirely divine.
Spinoza was a voluntary martyr in the cause of Free Thought. He was at
the same time both Pantheist and Monist, yet sincere in his devotion to
nature and the God of nature. His religion naturally made him a Monist,
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God in Nature cannot avoid. While he renounced his Judaism and entered
the ranks of the Christian philosophers, he never received baptism. He
may be ranked among the greatest of the German mystics, whose work had
such profound influence upon the dogmatic Christianity of a later day.
The epithet conferred on him, namely, "God-intoxicated," summarizes
his whole attitude and the character of his philosophy better than any
lengthy dissertation.
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of Kant, but he modifies and adapts Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason"
to such an extent that he reaches the attitude of opposition. This
attitude he manifests throughout all his writings. He is truly an
Apostle of Protest, but in spite of his positivist contradictions
and his materialistic pantheism, he opens up a mine of suggestions
to the literary and philosophical student. In spite of the apparent

tragedy due to the conflict within him, we cannot help gathering from
Schopenhauer an immensity of what is true, what is good and what is
excellent. One thing especially noticeable about his writings is that
while German philosophers are often ponderous and in fact nebulous,
Schopenhauer is always clear, original, and readable.
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ideal biography of a State. His clear, straightforward, concise
statement of conditions and characters as he saw then is a model for
all writers of record. He was the first great Italian historian, and
no man has ever been more ardent in his patriotism or a more earnest
supporter of government for and by the people. The greatest tribute to
his inflexible honesty of character is the fact that while no man had
greater opportunities to enrich himself at the cost of the State, he
died leaving his family in the greatest poverty. His varied political
experience, and his assiduous study of classic writers, gave him the
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estimate to the fantasies and airy castles of men like Rousseau, More,
and Campanella. The four Ideal Republics or Governments described in
this volume are perhaps the most famous of all, since they rank not
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highest class; and their writers have a further claim upon posterity
from the fact that they helped to make history.
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tremendous range of world-wide literature which we call, for want of
a better name, Belles Lettres. Goethe contributes his brilliant and
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Persian and Chinese Letters. Lord Chesterfield gives us the irony and
hard-headed criticism combined with worldly common sense contained in
the Letters to His Son, and the various names best known in French
and English Belles Lettres yield what is greatest in them. Ottoman
Literature, comprising Arabian, Persian, and Hebraic Poems, affords
the reader an insight into the romantic and dramatic character of the
Oriental. The Dabistan, possibly the most extraordinary book ever
written in the East, finds itself at home in this section, while the
Literature of the Hebrews is ideally represented in that most wonderful
of all monuments of human wisdom, and perhaps folly, the "Talmud,"
together with the basis of modern metaphysics, the "Kabbala."
The Sufistic Quatrains of Omar Khayyam are here for the first time
presented complete in a collection of this order. The various editions
of Fitzgerald are reprinted, collated, and to them is added the
valuable Heron-Allen analysis of Fitzgerald's sources of inspiration.
The very rare Whinfield version is found here complete; and for the
first time in English appears M. Nicolas' French transcription of the
Teheran Manuscript. It is safe to say that any lover of Omar wishing to
add to his collection the versions here quoted would be compelled to

disburse more than one hundred times the amount this book will cost him.
While the Library of Universal Classics does not claim to be the
final condensation of the treasure houses of human philosophy and
lore, whether practical or ideal, it does most emphatically assert
its right to be called the most useful, most attractive, and most
representative selection, within the limits assigned to it, of those
world-masterpieces of literature which men, for lack of a more luminous
name, call Classics.
Robert Arnot
[Illustration: _HUGO GROTIUS_
_From an Original Painting._]

[Illustration]
THE RIGHTS OF
WAR AND PEACE
INCLUDING THE
LAW OF NATURE
AND OF NATIONS
TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL LATIN OF
GROTIUS
WITH NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FROM
POLITICAL AND LEGAL WRITERS
BY
A. C. CAMPBELL, A. M.
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
DAVID J. Hill,
Assistant Secretary of State of the United States
M. WALTER DUNNE, PUBLISHER
NEW YORK & LONDON

COPYRIGHT, 1901,
BY
M. WALTER DUNNE,
PUBLISHER

ILLUSTRATIONS

HUGO GROTIUS
From an original painting.

_Frontispiece_

WAR

109
By Gari Melchers,
From a panel painting in Library of Congress.

PEACE
By Gari Melchers,
From a panel painting in Library of Congress.

213

WAR AND PEACE


Frontispiece to a rare edition of Grotius.

307

CONTENTS
_BOOK I._
CHAPTER

PAGE
Introduction

I. On War and Right

17

II. Inquiry into the Lawfulness of War


III. The Division of War into Public and Private, and the
Nature of Sovereign Power

31
55

_BOOK II._
I. Defense of Person and Property
II. The General Rights of Things
III. On the Original Acquisition of Things, and the Right of
Property in Seas and Rivers

73
85
103

IV. Title to Desert Lands by Occupancy, Possession, and


Prescription

109

IX. In What Cases Jurisdiction and Property Cease

117

X. The Obligation Arising from Property

123

XI. On Promises

131

XII. On Contracts

144

XIII. On Oaths
XV. On Treaties and on Engagements Made by Delegates
Exceeding Their Powers

160
166

XVI. The Interpretation of Treaties


XVII. On Damages Occasioned by Injury, and the Obligation to
Repair Them
XVIII. On the Rights of Embassies
XIX. On the Right of Burial
XX. On Punishments
XXI. On the Communication of Punishment
XXII. On the Unjust Causes of War
XXIII. On Doubtful Causes
XXIV. Precautions against Rashly Engaging in War, Even upon
Just Grounds

176
195
202
213
220
256
267
274
280

_BOOK III._
I. What Is Lawful in War
II. In What Manner the Law of Nations Renders the Property of
Subjects Answerable for the Debts of Sovereigns. The
Nature of Reprisals
III. On Just or Solemn War According to the Law of Nations on
Declarations of War
IV. On the Right of Killing an Enemy in Lawful War and
Committing Other Acts of Hostility

290

307
314
323

V. On the Right to Lay Waste an Enemy's Country and Carry Off


His Effects
332
VI. On the Acquisition of Territory and Property by Right of
Conquest
VII. On the Right over Prisoners of War

334
345

VIII. On Empire over the Conquered

348

IX. Of the Right of Postliminium

351

XI. The Right of Killing Enemies, in Just War, to be Tempered


with Moderation and Humanity

359

XII. On Moderation in Despoiling an Enemy's Country


XIII. On Moderation in Making Captures in War
XV. On Moderation in Acquiring Dominion
XVI. On Moderation with Respect to Things Excluded from the
Right of Postliminium by the Law of Nations
XVII. Respecting Those Who Are Neutral in War

365
369
372
375
377

XIX. On Good Faith between Enemies


XX. On the Public Faith by Which War Is Concluded; Comprising
Treaties of Peace, and the Nature of Arbitration,
Surrender, Hostages, Pledges

379

XXI. On Faith During the Continuance of War, on Truces,


Safe-Conducts, and the Redemption of Prisoners

385
403

XXII. On the Faith of Those Invested with Subordinate Powers


in War

411

XXIV. On Tacit Faith

415

XXV. Conclusion

417

INDEX

419

INTRODUCTION
THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF HUGO GROTIUS.
The claims of the great work of Grotius, "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_,"
to be included in a list of Universal Classics, do not rest upon
the felicity of style usually expected in a classic composition.
His work is marked by frequent rhetorical deformities, tedious and
involved forms of reasoning, and perplexing obscurities of phraseology
which prevent its acceptance as an example of elegant writing.
Notwithstanding these external defects, it is, nevertheless, one of the
few notable works of genius which, among the labors of centuries, stand
forth as illustrations of human progress and constitute the precious
heritage of the human race.
If it is not literature in the technical sense, the masterpiece of
Grotius is something higher and nobler,--a triumph of intelligence
over irrational impulses and barbarous propensities. Its publication
marks an era in the history of nations, for out of the chaos of lawless
and unreasoning strife it created a system of illuminating principles
to light the way of sovereigns and peoples in the paths of peace and
general concord.
I. THE REIGN OF WAR.
The idea of peaceful equity among nations, now accepted as a human
ideal, though still far from realization, was for ages a difficult, if
not an impossible, conception. All experience spoke against it, for war
was the most familiar phenomenon of history.
Among the Greek city-states, a few temporary leagues and federations
were attempted, but so feeble were the bonds of peace, so explosive
were the passions which led to war, that even among the highly
civilized Hellenic peoples, community of race, language, and religion
was powerless to create a Greek nation. It was reserved for the

military genius of Alexander the Great, at last, by irresistible


conquest, to bring the Greek Empire into being, to be destroyed in turn
by superior force.
The Roman Empire almost achieved the complete political unity of
Europe, and bound parts of three continents under one rule, but the
corruption of the military power which held it together led to its
inevitable dismemberment.
After the conflicts of the barbaric kingdoms which followed the
dissolution of the Western Empire were ended by the predominance of the
Frankish monarchy, the world believed that the _Pax Romana_ was to be
restored in Europe by the hand of Charles the Great; but the disruptive
forces were destined to prevail once more, and the Holy Roman Empire
never succeeded in reviving the power of ancient Rome. And thus the
dream of a universal monarchy, of a central authority able to preside
over kings and princes, adjusting their difficulties, and preserving
the peace between them, was at last proved futile.
In each of the great national monarchies that had already risen or were
still rising on the ruins of imperial dominion, particularly in France,
England, Holland, and the States of Germany, a continuous internal
conflict over questions of religion complicated the bitterness and
destructiveness of foreign wars until Europe was reorganized by the
Peace of Westphalia, in 1648.
It was in the midst of these wars that Grotius was born. He saw his own
country rising from a baptism of blood and all Europe rent and torn by
the awful struggle of the Thirty Years' War, in the midst of which his
great work was written and to whose conclusion it served as a guide
and inspiration. The Empire, dismembered, had been reduced to almost
complete impotence, the Church had been disrupted, and no international
authority was anywhere visible. Amid the general wreck of institutions
Grotius sought for light and guidance in great principles. Looking
about him at the general havoc which war had made, the nations hostile,
the faith of ages shattered, the passions of men destroying the
commonwealths which nourished them, he saw that Europe possessed but
one common bond, one vestige of its former unity,--_the human mind_. To
this he made appeal and upon its deepest convictions he sought to plant
the Law of Nations.
II. THE PREDECESSORS OF GROTIUS.
It is historically accurate to say, that, until formulated by Grotius,
Europe possessed no system of international law. Others had preceded
him in touching upon certain aspects of the rights and duties of
nations, but none had produced a system comparable to his.
The earliest attempt to formulate recognized international customs
was the formation of the early maritime codes, rendered necessary by
the expansion of medival commerce from the end of the eleventh to
the end of the sixteenth century, such as the "_Jugemens d' Olron_,"
adopted by the merchants of France, England, and Spain, and reissued
under other names for the merchants of The Netherlands and the Baltic.
"_The Consolato del Mare_," a more elaborate compilation, was made,
apparently at Barcelona, about the middle of the fourteenth century,
and accepted generally by the traders of the chief maritime powers. It
was in the cradle of commerce, therefore, that international law awoke
to consciousness.

As the Church was often intrusted with the task of pacification, it


is but natural to look among her representatives for the earliest
writers on the laws of international relations. It is, in fact, among
the theological moralists that we find the first students of this
subject. As early as 1564, a Spanish theologian, Vasquez, conceived
of a group of free states with reciprocal rights regulated by _jus
naturale et gentium_, without regard to a world-power, either imperial
or ecclesiastical. In 1612, Saurez pointed out that a kind of customary
law had arisen from the usages of nations, and distinctly described a
society of interdependent states bound by fundamental principles of
justice.
At the close of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth
centuries, a series of circumstances arose necessitating the extension
of jurisprudence beyond its ancient boundaries, and thus tending to
produce a group of international jurists. Among the juristic writers
of this time are Balthazar Ayala, a Spanish jurisconsult, who died in
1584, having written in a historico-judicial spirit on the subject
of war in his "_De Jure et Officiis Belli_"; Conrad Brunus, a German
jurist, who wrote of the rights and duties of ambassadors in his
"_De Legationibus_," published in 1548; and pre-eminent above all,
Albericus Gentilis, an Italian professor of jurisprudence and lecturer
at Oxford, a writer of force and originality, who published his "_De
Legationibus_" in 1583 and his "_De Jure Belli_" in 1589.
III. THE LIFE AND PERSONALITY OF GROTIUS.
HUGO GROTIUS, to use the Latin form of his name by which he is best
known, or Hugo de Groot as he is called in Holland, descended from a
race of scholars and magistrates, was born at Delft, on April 10th,
1583. His family history has been related with much detail by De
Burigny, in his "_Vie de Grotius_," published in French at Amsterdam
in 1754; and by Vorsterman van Oyen, in his "_Hugo de Groot en Zijn
Gesclacht_," a complete genealogy in Dutch, published at Amsterdam
in 1883, which gives the descendants of Grotius down to the present
generation. His origin is traced from a French gentleman, Jean Cornets,
who took up his residence in The Netherlands in 1402. His descendant,
Cornelius Cornets, married the daughter of a burgomaster of Delft on
condition that the future children of this marriage should bear the
name of their mother's family, in order to perpetuate the distinction
which it had achieved. The maternal name imposed by Cornelius Cornets's
Dutch father-in-law, Dirk van Kraayenburg de Groot, was de Groot,
meaning the Great, and is said to have been bestowed for signal
services rendered to his country by the first who had borne it four
hundred years before. From this marriage sprung a Hugo de Groot,
distinguished for his learning in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew and five
times burgomaster of his native city. His eldest son, Cornelius, was a
noted linguist and mathematician who studied law in France and received
high office in his own country, afterward becoming a professor of law
and many times rector of the University of Leyden. Another son, John
de Groot, the father of Hugo Grotius, studied there under the famous
Lipsius, who speaks of him with the highest commendation. Four times
burgomaster of Delft, John de Groot became curator of the University of
Leyden, a position which he filled with great dignity and honor.
In his earliest years the young Hugo gave evidence of marked and varied
ability. At eight he wrote Latin verses which betrayed poetic talent;
at twelve he entered the University where he became a pupil of that

prince of scholars, Joseph Scaliger, who directed his studies; and


at fifteen he defended "with the greatest applause" Latin theses in
philosophy and jurisprudence. His fame as a prodigy of diversified
learning spread far and wide, and great scholars declared they had
never seen his equal.
Grotius had won celebrity even in foreign lands when, in 1600, at the
age of seventeen, he was admitted to the bar. The youthful prodigy
had already accompanied the Grand Pensionary, John of Oldenbarneveld
on a special embassy to France, where he was presented to Henry IV,
who bestowed upon him his portrait together with a gold chain, and
graciously called him "The Miracle of Holland." At Orleans he was made
a Doctor of Laws.
Married in 1609 to Marie van Reigersberg, whose devotion was worthy of
his deep affection, and loaded with public honors, having been named
the official historian of the United Provinces and the advocate-general
of two provinces, Holland and Zeeland, Grotius set his hand to a work
entitled "_Mare Librum_," in which he defended the freedom of the sea
and the maritime rights of his country against the arrogant pretensions
of the Portuguese in suppressing the commerce of other nations in
Eastern waters,--a treatise destined to become still more celebrated in
the history of international law by Selden's reply, "_Mare Clausum_,"
written in 1635. Next, turning his attention to the history of The
Netherlands, he devoted himself for a time to his "Annals of the War of
Independence."
In 1613, Grotius added to his laurels as poet, jurist, and historian
by entering the field of politics, and he was appointed Pensionary of
Rotterdam upon the condition that he should continue in office during
his own pleasure. It was during a visit to England upon a diplomatic
mission in this same year that he met the great scholar Isaac Casaubon,
who said in a letter to Daniel Heinsius: "I cannot say how happy I
esteem myself in having seen so much of one so truly great as Grotius.
A wonderful man! This I knew him to be before I had seen him; but the
rare excellence of that divine genius no one can sufficiently feel who
does not see his face and hear him speak. Probity is stamped on all his
features."
Closely related by personal friendship as well as by his official
duties to the Grand Pensionary, John of Oldenbarneveld, Grotius was
destined to share with that unfortunate patriot the proscription and
punishment which Maurice of Orange visited upon the two confederates
in the defense of religious tolerance. Risking all as the apostles of
peace, they were soon condemned to be its martyrs. Oldenbarneveld,
having incurred the bitter hatred of the Stadtholder, was condemned
to death by decapitation on May 12th, 1619. Grotius, less offensive
to Maurice on account of his youth and his gracious personality, was
sentenced six days later to perpetual imprisonment. On the 6th of June,
1619, he was incarcerated in the fortress of Loevestein.
Rigorously treated at first, his docility and resignation soon won the
respect and affection of his keepers. Writing materials and books were
in time accorded him, and finally, on condition that she would continue
to share his captivity, he was granted the presence of his wife. The
studious prisoner and his devoted companion completely disarmed all
suspicion of an intention to escape, and the ponderous chest in which
books came and went continued to bring periodic consolation to the
mind of the busy scholar. A treatise on the truth of the Christian
religion, a catechism for the use of his children, a digest of Dutch

law, and other compositions served to occupy and alleviate the weary
months of confinement, until one day when the time seemed opportune
Madame Grotius secretly inclosed her husband in the great chest and
it was borne away by two soldiers. Descending the stone steps of the
prison the bearers remarked that the trunk was heavy enough to contain
an Arminian, but Madame Grotius's jest on the heaviness of Arminian
books smoothed over the suspicion, if one was really entertained, and
the great jurist was sent in the chest safe to Gorcum, attended by a
faithful domestic, where in the house of a friend the prisoner emerged
without injury and in the guise of a stone mason hastened to Antwerp.
From Antwerp he took refuge in France, where he arrived in April, 1621,
and was joined by his faithful wife at Paris in the following October.
The bitterness of exile was now to be added to the miseries of
imprisonment, for Grotius was not only excluded from The Netherlands,
but in extreme poverty. His letters reveal his anguish of spirit at
this period, but a generous Frenchman, Henri de Mme, placed his
country house at Balagni at his disposition, and there, supported by
a small pension, which Louis XIII had graciously accorded him, though
irregularly and tardily paid, Grotius commenced his great work, "_De
Jure Belli ac Pacis_," in the summer of 1623.
Much speculation has been indulged in regarding the causes which led
to the composition of this masterpiece, but a recent discovery has
rendered all this superfluous, as well as the ascription of special
merit to the Counselor Peyresc for suggesting the idea of the work. It
is, indeed, to the pacific genius of Grotius more than to all other
causes that the world owes the origin of his great work; for it sprang
from his dominant thought, ever brooding on the horrors of war and
the ways of peace, during more than twenty years, and never wholly
satisfied till its full expression was completed.
In the winter of 1604, there had sprung out of his legal practice the
idea of a treatise entitled "_De Jure Praedae_," fully written out,
but never printed by its author. The manuscript remained unknown by
all his biographers until it was brought to light and printed under
the auspices of Professor Fruin at The Hague in 1868. This interesting
document proves that not only the general conception but the entire
plan and even the arrangement of the "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_" were
in the mind of Grotius when he was only twenty-one years of age. The
difference between the earlier work and the later is chiefly one of
detail and amplification, the difference which twenty years of reading,
experience, meditation and maturity of faculty would inevitably create.
The curious may find in his letters the almost daily chronicle of his
progress with his book to the time of its publication after excessive
labors lasting more than a year. In March, 1625, the printing of the
first edition, which had occupied four months, was completed and copies
were sent to the fair at Frankfort. His honorarium as author consisted
of two hundred copies, many of which he presented to his friends. From
the sale of the remainder at a crown each, he was not able to reimburse
his outlay. In the following August he wrote to his father and brother
that if he had their approbation and that of a few friends, he would
have no cause for complaint but would be satisfied. Louis XIII, to
whom the work was dedicated, accepted the homage of the author and
a handsomely bound copy, but failed to exercise the grace customary
with monarchs by according a gratification. At Rome, the treatise was
proscribed in the index in 1627. Almost penniless and suffering from
his protracted toil, Grotius seemed destined to neglect and oblivion,
yet from his exile he wrote to his brother: "It is not necessary to ask

anything for me. If my country can do without me, I can do without her.
The world is large enough...."
Invited to enter the service of France by Richelieu, Grotius would not
accept the conditions which the Cardinal wished to impose,--such at
least is the inevitable inference from his letters. His pension was not
paid and his circumstances became so serious that one of his children
had but a single coat. At length, pushed to the utmost extremity
of want and instigated by his energetic wife, Grotius resolved to
return to Holland. Driven from Rotterdam to Amsterdam, where he
hoped to settle down as a lawyer, the States General twice ordered
his arrest and named a price for his delivery to the authorities.
The new Stadtholder, Frederick Henry, who, before succeeding his
brother Maurice, had written kindly to Grotius after his escape from
imprisonment, now approved his proscription. Abandoned by his prince
as well as by his countrymen, Grotius once more turned his face toward
exile and set out for Hamburg.
IV. THE WORK OF GROTIUS.
It may be of interest at this point in the career of Grotius to
describe briefly the character of the great work which was soon to win
for him a new celebrity, and materially change his prospects in life.
The inspiration of his "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_" was the love of
peace, yet he was far from being one of those visionaries who totally
condemn the use of armed force and proscribe all war as wrong and
unnecessary. On the contrary, he seeks to discover when, how, and by
whom war may be justly conducted.
His plan of treatment is as follows:-In the First Book, he considers whether any war is just, which leads
to the distinction between public and private war, and this in turn
to a discussion of the nature and embodiment of sovereignty.
In the Second Book, the causes from which wars arise, the nature
of property and personal rights which furnish their occasions, the
obligations that pertain to ownership, the rule of royal succession,
the rights secured by compacts, the force and interpretation of
treaties, and kindred subjects are examined.
In the Third Book, the question is asked, "What is lawful war?"
which prepares for the consideration of military conventions and the
methods by which peace is to be secured.
From the authority of the Empire and the Church, no longer effectual as
an international agency, Grotius appeals to Humanity as furnishing the
true law of nations. Beginning with the idea that there is a kinship
among men established by nature, he sees in this bond a community
of rights. The society of nations, including as it does the whole
human race, needs the recognition of rights as much as mere local
communities. As nations are but larger aggregations of individuals,
each with its own corporate coherence, the accidents of geographic
boundary do not obliterate that human demand for justice which springs
from the nature of man as a moral being. There is, therefore, as a
fundamental bond of human societies a Natural Law, which, when properly
apprehended, is perceived to be the expression and dictate of right
reason. It is thus upon the nature of man as a rational intelligence

that Grotius founds his system of universal law.


As this law of human nature is universally binding wherever men exist,
it cannot be set aside by the mere circumstances of time and place,
whence it results that there is a law of war as well as a law of peace.
As this law applies to the commencement of armed conflicts, war is
never to be undertaken except to assert rights, and when undertaken
is never to be carried on except within the limits of rights. It is
true that in the conflict of arms laws must be silent, but only CIVIL
laws, which govern in times of peace. Those laws which are PERPETUAL,
which spring from the nature of man as man, and not from his particular
civil relations, continue even during strife and constitute the laws of
war. To deny these, or to disobey them, implies a repudiation of human
nature itself and of the divine authority which has invested it with
rights and obligations. To disavow the imperative character of these
perpetual laws, is to revert to barbarism.
It is necessary, however to distinguish between Natural Law, that
principle of justice which springs from man's rational nature, and
Conventional Law, which results from his agreements and compacts.
Natural Law remains ever the same, but institutions change. While the
study of abstract justice, apart from all that has its origin in the
will or consent of men, would enable us to create a complete system of
jurisprudence, there is another source which must not be neglected,
since men have established the sanctity of certain rules of conduct by
solemn convention.
The Law of Nations does not consist, therefore, of a mere body of
deductions derived from general principles of justice, for there is
also a body of doctrine based upon CONSENT; and it is this system of
voluntarily recognized obligations which distinguishes international
jurisprudence from mere ethical speculation or moral theory. There are
CUSTOMS of nations as well as a universally accepted law of nature, and
it is in this growth of practically recognized rules of procedure that
we trace the evolution of law international--_jus inter gentes_--as a
body of positive jurisprudence.
It is evident that the mind of Grotius is continually struggling to
establish a science upon this positive basis, and it is this which
gives a distinctive character to his effort. The great writers of all
ages are cited with a superfluous lavishness, not so much to support
his claims by an aggregation of individual opinions--still less to
display his erudition, as his critics have sometimes complained--as to
give a historic catholicity to his doctrine by showing that the laws
he is endeavoring to formulate have, in fact, been accepted in all
times and by all men. For this purpose also, he makes abundant use of
the great authorities on Roman Law, whose doctrines and formulas were
certain to carry conviction to the minds of those whom he desired to
convince.
It is needless, perhaps, to point out that the work of Grotius is
not and could not be a work of permanent authority as a digest of
international law. His own wise appreciation of the positive and
historical element--the authority derived from custom--should exempt
him from the pretense of absolute finality. It is the Book of Genesis
only that he has given us, but it is his indefeasible distinction to
have recorded the creation of order out of chaos in the great sphere of
international relationship, justly entitling him to the honor accorded
to him by the spontaneous consent of future times as the Father of
International Jurisprudence.

It is not difficult after more than three centuries of thought and


experience to point out the defects in his doctrine. If he justifies
slavery, it is not without ingenuity; for, he argues, if a man may sell
his labor, why not his liberty? and if the conqueror may impose his
will upon the property of the vanquished, why not also upon his person?
If he identifies sovereignty with supreme power without any adequate
conception of its ethical basis, he is at least as advanced in his
thinking as the conceptions of his time, which had not yet grasped the
idea of the state as a moral organism. If he has no adequate notion
of neutrality, believing it to be the duty of a nation to enlist its
energies for what it deems the right side, rather than to disavow all
responsibility for actions foreign to its own interests, he is at least
supported in this by the opinion of the multitude even at the present
time; and even among jurists the modern conception of neutrality is
hardly a century old. If the new schools of jurisprudence make light
of Natural Law as a foundation of public and private rights, it is
not certain that Grotius may not yet be vindicated as representing a
doctrine at least as clear as any other which has been substituted for
it. But, finally, to all these criticisms it may be answered, that
no great thinker can be justly estimated except in relation to his
predecessors and contemporaries. Measured by these, Grotius stands
alone among the jurists of his century for originality of thought and
power of exposition.
V. THE INFLUENCE OF GROTIUS'S WORK.
It was during his sojourn in Hamburg in 1633, eight years after the
publication of his "_De Jure_," and while he was still suffering from
painful pecuniary embarrassment, that Europe suddenly awoke to a sense
of his importance; and, almost at one time, Poland, Denmark, Spain,
England, and Sweden all extended friendly invitations urging him to
enter into their public service. His fame as a jurist had become
international and, rudely repelled by his native Holland, he became
the center of European interest. Gustavus Adolphus had placed the work
of Grotius along side his Bible under his soldier's pillow, as he
prosecuted his campaigns in the Thirty Years' War. The first edition
of that work, written in Latin, the cosmopolitan language of learned
Europe, had been quickly exhausted and widely scattered. Another had
soon been called for at Paris, but the death of Buon, the publisher,
created obstacles to its appearance. A second edition had appeared at
Frankfort in 1626, another at Amsterdam in 1631, and still another
with notes by the author in 1632. The book had aroused the thought of
kings as well as of scholars, and in the circles of high influence
everywhere in Europe the name of Grotius had become well known. His
book had excited the most opposite sentiments and awakened the most
contradictory judgments, but among lawyers and statesmen its reception
was from the first generally marked by admiration. In spite of exile,
poverty, and misfortune, Grotius had become a European celebrity and
was about to enter into the reward of his labors. He had created a code
for war and a programme of peace, and henceforth no statesman could
afford to neglect him.
Gustavus Adolphus, the king of Sweden, before his death on the
battlefield of Ltzen, had commended Grotius to his great Chancellor,
Oxenstiern. By the death of Gustavus the Chancellor had, in 1633,
recently come into the regency of the kingdom at a critical moment
when a retreat from the bitter contest with the Empire seemed to be
foredoomed unless prevented by the support and friendship of France.

Recalling the commendation of the late king, Oxenstiern sought


and found in Grotius an ambassador of Sweden to negotiate a new
Franco-Swedish alliance. Accepting this appointment in 1634, Grotius
arrived at Paris on his diplomatic mission on March 2d, 1635.
Richelieu, having failed to draw the great jurist into the orbit of his
influence as a satellite, resented his appearance in a character so
influential and honorable as that of ambassador of Sweden, and Grotius
made little progress in his negotiation. Preoccupied with literature,
he took more interest in the composition of a sacred tragedy on "The
Flight into Egypt" than in reminding France of the existing treaty
of Heilbronn or consolidating the new Franco-Swedish alliance. Where
Grotius the theorist failed, Oxenstiern, the practical statesman, by
a few dexterous strokes of diplomacy during a brief visit to Paris,
easily succeeded; and the ambassador's mission was simplified to the
rle of a mere observer and reporter of occurrences.
By taste, nature, and training, Grotius was a jurist and not a
diplomatist, and he soon realized that the two vocations, if not
diametrically opposed, are at least separated from each other by a vast
interval. His diplomatic correspondence betrays the keen observer and
the conscientious moralist rather than the accomplished negotiator.
Among the observations recorded in his dispatches, one may be quoted as
an example of his penetration and his humor. Speaking of the Dauphin,
the future Louis XIV, he says: "His frightful and precocious avidity is
a bad omen for neighboring peoples; for he is at present on his ninth
nurse, whom he is rending and murdering as he has the others!"
It is painful to behold the great father of international jurisprudence
descending in his dispatches to petty details of precedence and
alienating from himself the sympathies of his colleagues by ridiculous
ceremonial pretensions. He would no longer visit Mazarin, because
the Cardinal insisted on calling him EMINENCE instead of EXCELLENCE;
Grotius considering this distinction of terms a slight upon his rank as
ambassador. So persistent was he in these follies and so rancorous were
the feuds that the apostle of peace elicited that, in December, 1636,
less than two years after his arrival at Paris, he advised Sweden to
send to France a simple _Charg d'Affaires_, instead of an ambassador,
in order to restore diplomatic relations.
His quarrels concerning precedence, which rendered him an object
of ridicule at the French Court, were not the only griefs of the
ambassador of Sweden. Inadequately recompensed, he was obliged to wait
two years for his salary and finally, being reduced to a condition
in which he could no longer maintain existence otherwise, he was
compelled to demand of the royal treasury of France a part of the
subsidies promised to the army of his adopted country. Weary of his
importunities, the French government repeatedly requested his recall.
Disgusted with his mission, Grotius at last abandoned the duties of his
office to the intriguing adventurer, Cerisante, who was sent to aid
him, and buried himself in his books until his return to Sweden at his
own request in 1645.
Queen Christina of Sweden, a patroness of scholars, desirous of aiding
Grotius and of retaining him in the service of her kingdom, made many
offers and promises, but their execution being deferred, he became
impatient of his lot, refused a position as counselor of state, and
resolved to leave the country. His plan to abandon Stockholm secretly
was prevented by a messenger of the queen who followed him to the port
where he intended to embark and induced him to return for a farewell

audience. With a handsome present of money and silver plate he took


passage on a vessel placed at his disposition to convey him to Lbeck.
Off the coast near Dantzic a violent tempest arose. On the 17th of
August, 1645, the vessel was driven ashore and Grotius, overcome by his
trying experiences, was taken ill at Rostock, where a few days later he
passed away.
The later years of his life had been chiefly devoted to plans for the
establishment of peace in the religious world, whose dissensions gave
him great distress of mind.
The country of his birth, which had so long denied him citizenship,
received him at last to the silent hospitality of the tomb. His body
was taken to Delft, his native town, where his name is now held in
grateful reverence.
At the time when Grotius left Stockholm, the last of the
plenipotentiaries had arrived at Mnster and Osnabrck to attend the
great European congress convoked to terminate the hostilities of the
Thirty Years' War. It is a tradition, but incapable of satisfactory
proof, that it was with the purpose of being present at the councils
of this congress that the author of "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_" left
Sweden for Germany. However this may be, it is certain that the
mediation of the king of Denmark at Osnabrck and of the papal legate
at Mnster, though unsuccessful, was in accordance with the idea of
Grotius expressed in the words: "It would be useful, and indeed it
is almost necessary, that certain congresses of Christian powers
should be held, in which controversies that have arisen among some of
them may be decided by others who are not interested." The immediate
establishment of an international tribunal, evidently contemplated in
this suggestion, was not in harmony with the temper of those times;
but it cannot be doubted that the Peace of Westphalia, whose treaties
were to form a code of public law for Europe, was to a great degree an
embodiment of the principles which Grotius was the first to enunciate.
His "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_" had already become a classic even before
the author's death, and special professorships were soon founded in
the universities to expound its principles. It would be tedious to
name the numerous editions, translations, and commentaries which have
given it an exceptional place in the literature of Europe. This task
has been in part performed, however, by Dr. Rogge in his "_Bibliotheca
Grotiana_," published at The Hague in 1883, and intended to be a full
bibliography of Grotius's works. The whole number of titles included
is 462, but they do not comprise the writings of the generations of
jurists who have been inspired by the great master or of the critics
and biographers who have discussed his life and work.
Tardily, but with full contrition for the bitter wrong done to one of
her greatest and noblest sons, the memory of Grotius has received from
his native land abundant recognition and commemoration. The appropriate
tomb that marks his resting place in the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft,
symbolical of his learning, genius, and renown, was erected in 1781.
On the 17th of September, 1886, a noble statue of the great jurist was
unveiled in the public square of his native town in front of the church
which contains his tomb. Thus, more than a century after his death,
and again still another century later, Holland has paid her tribute of
respect to her illustrious citizen.
The later years have also brought new honors to Grotius's feet. At
the recent Peace Conference at The Hague was completed the great

structure of international comity whose corner stone was laid by him


in 1625. It was most fitting that an international congress called in
the interest of peace should blend with the negotiation of conventions
for the pacific settlement of disputes between nations by a permanent
tribunal, and for the amelioration of the laws of war, a celebration
of the distinguished writer whose great thought had at last borne
such precious fruits. In pursuance of instructions received from
the Secretary of State, the United States Commission invited their
colleagues in the congress, the heads of the Dutch universities, and
the high civic authorities to join with them in observing the 4th of
July by celebrating the memory of the great jurist. With appropriate
exercises in the apse of the old church, near the monument of Grotius
and mausoleum of William the Silent, the representatives of twenty-six
nations gathered to do him honor. A beautiful commemorative wreath of
silver was laid upon Grotius's tomb bearing the inscription:
TO
THE MEMORY OF HUGO GROTIUS
IN
REVERENCE AND GRATITUDE
FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ON THE
OCCASION OF THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE CONFERENCE
AT
THE HAGUE JULY 4TH, 1899.
An eloquent oration by the Honorable Andrew D. White, Ambassador of the
United States to Germany, and the head of the Commission, followed by
other appropriate addresses, recalled the debt of mankind to the author
of "_De Jure Belli ac Pacis_"; and thus the plenipotentiaries of the
nineteenth century did homage to the exile of the sixteenth who had
taught the world that even in the shock and storm of battle humanity
cannot escape the dominion of its own essential laws, and that even
independent states are answerable before the bar of human nature for
obedience to principles imposed by a Power higher than the prerogatives
of princes or the will of nations.
David J. Hill

THE RIGHTS OF WAR AND PEACE, INCLUDING THE LAW OF NATURE AND OF NATIONS.

BOOK I.

CHAPTER I.
Of War--Definition of War--Right, of Governors and of the governed,
and of equals--Right as a Quality divided into Faculty and
Fitness--Faculty denoting Power, Property, and Credit--Divided into
Private and Superior--Right as a Rule, natural and voluntary--Law
of Nature divided--Proofs of the Law of Nature--Division of Rights
into human and divine--Human explained--Divine stated--Mosaic Law

not binding upon Christians.


I. The disputes arising among those who are held together by no
common bond of civil laws to decide their dissensions, like the
ancient Patriarchs, who formed no national community, or the numerous,
unconnected communities, whether under the direction of individuals, or
kings, or persons invested with Sovereign power, as the leading men in
an aristocracy, and the body of the people in a republican government;
the disputes, arising among any of these, all bear a relation to the
circumstances of war or peace. But because war is undertaken for the
sake of peace, and there is no dispute, which may not give rise to
war, it will be proper to treat all such quarrels, as commonly happen,
between nations, as an article in the rights of war: and then war
itself will lead us to peace, as to its proper end.
II. In treating of the rights of war, the first point, that we have
to consider, is, what is war, which is the subject of our inquiry,
and what is the right, which we seek to establish. Cicero styled war a
contention by force. But the practice has prevailed to indicate by that
name, not an immediate action, but a state of affairs; so that war is
the state of contending parties, considered as such. This definition,
by its general extent, comprises those wars of every description,
that will form the subject of the present treatise. Nor are single
combats excluded from this definition. For, as they are in reality more
ancient than public wars, and undoubtedly, of the same nature, they may
therefore properly be comprehended under one and the same name. This
agrees very well with the true derivation of the word. For the Latin
word, _Bellum_, WAR, comes from the old word, _Duellum_, a DUEL, as
_Bonus_ from _Duonus_, and _Bis_ from _Duis_. Now _Duellum_ was derived
from _Duo_; and thereby implied a difference between two persons, in
the same sense as we term peace, UNITY, from _Unitas_, for a contrary
reason. So the Greek word, { ms} cmmny usd t signify
war, x rsss in its rigina, an ida f mutitud. Th ancint
Grks ikwis cad it {ly}, wic imports a DISUNION of
minds; jst as by te term {y}, tey meant te DISSOLUTION of te
parts of te boy. Nor oes te se of te wor, WAR, contraict tis
larger acceptation of it. For tog some times it is only applie to
te qarrels of states, yet tat is no objection, as it is evient tat
a general name is often applie to some particlar object, entitle to
pecliar istinction. Jstice is not incle in te efinition of war,
becase te very point to be ecie is, weter any war is jst, an
wat war may be so calle. Terefore we mst make a istinction between
war itself, an te jstice of it.
III. As te Rigts of War is te title, by wic tis treatise is
istingise, te first inqiry, as it as been alreay observe, is
weter any war be jst, an, in te next place, wat constittes te
jstice of tat war. For, in tis place, rigt signifies noting more
tan wat is jst, an tat, more in a negative tan a positive sense;
so tat RIGHT is tat, wic is not njst. Now any ting is njst,
wic is repgnant to te natre of society, establise among rational
creatres. Ts for instance, to eprive anoter of wat belongs to
im, merely for one's own avantage, is repgnant to te law of natre,
as Cicero observes in te fift Capter of is tir book of offices;
an, by way of proof, e says tat, if te practice were general, all
society an intercorse among men mst be overtrne. Florentins, te
Lawyer, maintains tat is impios for one man to form esigns against
anoter, as natre as establise a egree of kinre amongst s. On
tis sbject, Seneca remarks tat, as all te members of te man boy

agree among temselves, becase te preservation of eac conces to


te welfare of te wole, so men sol forbear from mtal injries,
as tey were born for society, wic cannot sbsist nless all te
parts of it are efene by mtal forbearance an goo will. Bt as
tere is one kin of social tie fone pon an eqality, for instance,
among broters, citizens, friens, allies, an anoter on pre-eminence
as Aristotle styles it, sbsisting between parents an cilren,
masters an servants, sovereigns an sbjects, Go an men. So jstice
takes place eiter amongst eqals, or between te governing an te
governe parties, notwitstaning teir ifference of rank. Te former
of tese, if I am not mistaken, may be calle te rigt of eqality,
an te latter te rigt of speriority.
IV. Tere is anoter signification of te wor RIGHT, ifferent from
tis, bt yet arising from it, wic relates irectly to te person.
In wic sense, RIGHT is a moral qality annexe to te person, jstly
entitling im to possess some particlar privilege, or to perform
some particlar act. Tis rigt is annexe to te person, altog
it sometimes follows te tings, as te services of lans, wic are
calle REAL RIGHTS, in opposition to tose merely PERSONAL. Not becase
tese rigts are not annexe to persons, bt te istinction is mae,
becase tey belong to te persons only wo possess some particlar
tings. Tis moral qality, wen perfect is calle a FACULTY; wen
imperfect, an APTITUDE. Te former answers to te ACT, an te latter
to te POWER, wen we speak of natral tings.
V. Civilians call a faclty tat Rigt, wic every man as to is
own; bt we sall ereafter, taking it in its strict an proper sense,
call it a rigt. Tis rigt compreens te power, tat we ave over
orselves, wic is calle liberty, an te power, tat we ave over
oters, as tat of a fater over is cilren, an of a master over
is slaves. It likewise compreens property, wic is eiter complete
or imperfect; of te latter kin is te se or possession of any ting
witot te property, or power of alienating it, or pleges etaine
by te creitors till payment be mae. Tere is a tir signification,
wic implies te power of emaning wat is e, to wic te
obligation pon te party inebte, to iscarge wat is owing,
correspons.
VI. Rigt, strictly taken, is again twofol, te one, PRIVATE,
establise for te avantage of eac inivial, te oter, SUPERIOR,
as involving te claims, wic te state as pon inivials, an
teir property, for te pblic goo. Ts te Regal atority is above
tat of a fater an a master, an te Sovereign as a greater rigt
over te property of is sbjects, were te pblic goo is concerne,
tan te owners temselves ave. An wen te exigencies of te state
reqire a spply, every man is more oblige to contribte towars it,
tan to satisfy is creitors.
VII. Aristotle istingises aptite or capacity, by te name of wort
or merit, an Micael of Epess, gives te epitet of SUITABLE or
BECOMING to te eqality establise by tis rle of merit.
IX.[1] Tere is also a tir signification of te wor Rigt, wic
as te same meaning as Law taken in its most extensive sense, to
enote a rle of moral action, obliging s to o wat is proper. We
say OBLIGING s. For te best consels or precepts, if tey lay s
ner no obligation to obey tem, cannot come ner te enomination
of law or rigt. Now as to permission,[2] it is no act of te law,
bt only te silence of te law, it owever proibits any one from

impeing anoter in oing wat te law permits. Bt we ave sai, te
law obliges s to o wat is proper, not simply wat is jst; becase,
ner tis notion, rigt belongs to te sbstance not only of jstice,
as we ave explaine it, bt of all oter virtes. Yet from giving te
name of a RIGHT to tat, wic is PROPER, a more general acceptation
of te wor jstice as been erive. Te best ivision of rigt, in
tis general meaning, is to be fon in Aristotle, wo, efining one
kin to be natral, an te oter volntary, calls it a LAWFUL RIGHT
in te strictest sense of te wor law; an some times an institte
rigt. Te same ifference is fon among te Hebrews, wo, by way of
istinction, in speaking, call tat natral rigt, PRECEPTS, an te
volntary rigt, STATUTES: te former of wic te Septagint call
{d m
}, nd
he l

er {e
 s}.
X. N
ur  righ
is
he dic

e f righ
re s , shewi g
he mr 

urpi
ude, r mr  ecessi
y,[3] f y c
frm i
s greeme
r
dis greeme
wi
h r
i 
ure, d c seque
y
h
such
c
is ei
her frbidde r cmm ded by Gd,
he u
hr f
ure.
The c
i s, up which such dic

e is give , re ei
her bi di g
r u  wfu i
hemseves, d
herefre ecess riy u ders
d
 be
cmm ded r frbidde by Gd. This m rk dis
i guishes
ur  righ
,

 y frm hum  w, bu
frm
he  w, which Gd himsef h s bee
pe sed
 reve , c ed, by sme,
he vu
ry divi e righ
, which
des 
cmm d r frbid
hi gs i
hemseves ei
her bi di g r
u  wfu, bu
m kes
hem u  wfu by i
s prhibi
i , d bi di g by
i
s cmm d. Bu
,
 u ders
d
ur  righ
, we mus
bserve
h

sme
hi gs re s id
 be g

h
righ
, 
prpery, bu
, s

he schme s y, by w y f ccmmd
i . These re 
repug



ur  righ
, s we h ve re dy bserved
h

hse
hi gs re c ed
JUST, i which
here is  i jus
ice. Sme
imes s, by wr g use
f
he wrd,
hse
hi gs which re s shews
 be prper, r be

er

h
hi gs f ppsi
e ki d, 
hugh 
bi di g, re s id

be g

ur  righ
.
We mus
f r
her rem rk,
h

ur  righ
re
es 
 y

hse

hi gs
h
exis
i depe de
f
he hum wi, bu

 m y
hi gs
which ecess riy fw
he exercise f
h
wi. Thus prper
y,
s w i use, w s
firs
cre
ure f
he hum wi. Bu
, f
er
i
w s es
bished,  e m w s prhibi
ed by
he  w f
ure frm
seizi g
he prper
y f 
her g i s
his wi. Wherefre, P uus
he
L wyer s id,
h

hef
is expressy frbidde by
he  w f
ure.
Upi c dem s i
s i f mus i i
s w
ure;
 whse u
hri
y

h
f Euripides m y be dded, s m y be see i
he verses f Hee :
"Fr Gd himsef h
es vie ce, d wi 
h ve us
 grw rich by
r pi e, bu
by  wfu g i s. Th
bu d ce, which is
he frui
f
u righ
eus ess, is bmi
i . The ir is cmm
 me ,
he e r
h
s, where every m , i
he mpe e jyme
f his pssessi , mus

refr i frm di g vie ce r i jury



h
f 
her."
Nw
he L w f N
ure is s u 
er be,
h
i
c 
be ch ged eve
by Gd himsef. Fr 
hugh
he pwer f Gd is i fi i
e, ye

here
re sme
hi gs,
 which i
des 
ex
e d. Bec use
he
hi gs s
expressed wud h ve 
rue me i g, bu
impy c
r dic
i . Thus

w d
w mus
m ke fur, r is i
pssibe
 be 
herwise; r,
g i , c wh
is re y evi 
be evi. A d
his is Aris

e's
me i g, whe he s ys,
h
sme
hi gs re  s er med,
h we
discver
heir evi
ure. Fr s
he subs
ce f
hi gs i
heir

ure d exis
e ce depe ds up 
hi g bu

hemseves; s
here
re qu i
ies i sep r by c ec
ed wi
h
heir bei g d esse ce. Of


his ki d is
he evi f cer
i c
i s, cmp red wi
h
he
ure f
re s be bei g. Therefre Gd himsef suffers his c
i s
 be
judged by
his rue, s m y be see i
he xviii
h ch p. f Ge . 25.
Is . v. 3. Ezek. xviii. 25. Jer. ii. 9. Mich. vi. 2. Rm. ii. 6., iii.
6. Ye
i
sme
imes h ppe s
h
, i
hse c ses, which re decided by

he  w f
ure,
he u discer i g re impsed up by ppe r ce
f ch ge. Where s i re i
y
here is  ch ge i
he u 
er be
 w f
ure, bu
 y i
he
hi gs ppi
ed by i
, d which re
i be
 v ri
i . Fr ex mpe, if credi
r frgive me
he deb
,
which I we him, I m   ger bu d
 p y i
, 
bec use
he  w f

ure h s ce sed
 cmm d
he p yme
f jus
deb
, bu
bec use my
deb
, by ree se, h s ce sed
 be deb
. O
his
pic, Arri i
Epic
e
us rgues righ
y,
h

he brrwi g f m ey is 

he  y
requisi
e
 m ke deb
, bu

here mus
be
he ddi
i  circums
ce
f
he  rem i i g u disch rged. Thus if Gd shud cmm d
he
ife, r prper
y f y  e
 be
ke w y,
he c
wud 

u
hrise murder r rbbery, wrds which w ys i cude crime. Bu

h
c 
be murder r rbbery, which is d e by
he express cmm d
f Him, wh is
he svereig Lrd f ur ives d f 
hi gs. There
re s sme
hi gs wed by
he  w f
ure, 
bsu
ey, bu

ccrdi g
 cer
i s

e f ff irs. Thus, by
he  w f
ure,
befre prper
y w s i
rduced, every  e h d righ


he use f
wh
ever he fu d u ccupied; d, befre  ws were e c
ed,
 ve ge
his pers  i juries by frce.
XI. The dis
i c
i fu d i
he bks f
he Rm L w, ssig i g
 e u ch ge be righ

 bru
es i cmm wi
h m , which i mre
imi
ed se se
hey c 
he  w f
ure, d pprpri
i g 
her

me , which
hey freque
y c 
he L w f N
i s, is sc rcey f y
re  use. Fr  bei gs, excep

hse
h
c frm ge er  m xims, re
c p be f pssessi g righ
, which Hesid h s p ced i ce r pi

f view, bservi g "


h

he supreme Bei g h s ppi
ed  ws fr me ;
bu
permi

ed wid be s
s, fishes, d birds
 devur e ch 
her fr
fd." Fr
hey h ve 
hi g ike jus
ice,
he bes
gif
, bes
wed up
me .
Cicer, i his firs
bk f ffices, s ys we d 

k f
he
jus
ice f hrses r i s. I c frmi
y
 which, Pu
rch, i
he
ife f C

he eder, bserves,
h
we re frmed by
ure
 use
 w d jus
ice
w rds me  y. I ddi
i

he bve, L c

ius
m y be ci
ed, wh, i his fif
h bk, s ys
h
i  im s devid
f re s we see
ur  bi s f sef-ve. Fr
hey hur

hers

 be efi

hemseves; bec use
hey d 
k w
he evi f di g
wifu hur
. Bu
i
is 
s wi
h m , wh, pssessi g
he k wedge
f gd d evi, refr i s, eve wi
h i c ve ie ce
 himsef,
frm di g hur
. Pybius, re
i g
he m er i which me firs

e
ered i
 scie
y, c cudes,
h

he i juries d e
 p re
s r
be ef c
rs i evi
by prvke
he i dig
i f m ki d, givi g
ddi
i  re s ,
h
s u ders
di g d refec
i frm
he gre

differe ce be
wee me d 
her im s, i
is evide

hey c 

r sgress
he bu ds f
h
differe ce ike 
her im s, wi
hu

exci
i g u ivers  bhrre ce f
heir c duc
. Bu
if ever jus
ice is

ribu
ed
 bru
es, i
is d e imprpery, frm sme sh dw d
r ce
f re s
hey m y pssess. Bu
i
is 
m
eri 

he
ure f
righ
, whe
her
he c
i s ppi
ed by
he  w f
ure, such s
he
c re f ur ffspri g, re cmm
 us wi
h 
her im s r 
, r,
ike
he wrship f Gd, re pecui r
 m .
XII. The exis
e ce f
he L w f N
ure is prved by
w ki ds f
rgume
, _ priri_, d _ ps
eriri_,
he frmer mre bs
ruse,

d
he 

er mre ppu r me
hd f prf. We re s id
 re s _
priri_, whe we shw
he greeme
r dis greeme
f y
hi g wi
h
re s be d sci 
ure; bu
_ ps
eriri_, whe wi
hu
bsu
e
prf, bu
 y up prb bii
y, y
hi g is i ferred
 ccrd wi
h

he  w f
ure, bec use i
is received s such m g , r

e s

he mre civiized
i s. Fr ge er  effec
c  y rise
frm ge er  c use. Nw sc rce y 
her c use c be ssig ed fr s
ge er  pi i , bu

he cmm se se, s i
is c ed, f m ki d.
There is se
e ce f Hesid
h
h s bee much pr ised,
h
pi i s
which h ve prev ied m gs
m y
i s, mus
h ve sme fu d
i .
Her ci
us, es
bishi g cmm re s s
he bes
cri
eri f
ru
h,
s ys,
hse
hi gs re cer
i which ge er y ppe r s. Am g 
her
u
hri
ies, we m y qu
e Aris

e, wh s ys i
is s
r g prf
i ur f vur, whe  ppe r
 gree wi
h wh
we s y, d Cicer
m i
i s
h

he c se
f 
i s i y c se is
 be dmi

ed
fr
he  w f
ure. Se ec is f
he s me pi i , y
hi g, s ys
he, ppe ri g
he s me
  me is prf f i
s
ru
h. Qui
ii
s ys, we hd
hse
hi gs
 be
rue, i which  me gree. We h ve
c ed
hem
he mre civiized
i s, d 
wi
hu
re s . Fr,
s Prphyry we bserves, sme
i s re s s
r ge
h
 f ir
judgme
f hum
ure c be frmed frm
hem, fr i
wud be
err eus. A dr icus,
he Rhdi s ys,
h
wi
h me f righ
d
su d u ders
di g,
ur  jus
ice is u ch ge be. Nr des i

er

he c se,
hugh me f disrdered d perver
ed mi ds
hi k 
herwise.
Fr he wh shud de y
h
h ey is swee
, bec use i
ppe rs 
s

 me f dis
empered
s
e, wud be wr g. Pu
rch
 grees
e
irey wi
h wh
h s bee s id, s ppe rs frm p ss ge i his ife
f Pmpey, ffirmi g
h
m ei
her w s, r is, by
ure, wid
u sci be cre
ure. Bu
i
is
he crrup
i f his
ure which m kes
him s: ye
by cquiri g ew h bi
s, by ch gi g his p ce, d w y
f ivi g, he m y be rec imed
 his rigi  ge
e ess. Aris

e,

ki g descrip
i f m frm his pecui r qu i
ies, m kes him
im  f ge
e
ure, d i 
her p r
f his wrks, he
bserves,
h
i c sideri g
he
ure f m , we re

ke ur
ike ess frm
ure i i
s pure, d 
i i
s crrup
s

e.
XIII. I
h s bee re dy rem rked,
h

here is 
her ki d f
righ
, which is
he vu
ry righ
, derivi g i
s rigi frm
he wi,
d is ei
her hum r divi e.
XI . We wi begi wi
h
he hum s mre ge er y k w . Nw
his
is ei
her civi righ
, r righ
mre r ess ex
e sive
h
he
civi righ
. The civi righ
is
h
which is derived frm
he civi
pwer. The civi pwer is
he svereig pwer f
he s

e. A s

e is
perfec
bdy f free me , u i
ed
ge
her i rder
 e jy cmm
righ
s d dv
ges. The ess ex
e sive righ
, d 
derived
frm
he civi pwer i
sef, 
hugh subjec

 i
, is v rius,
cmprehe di g
he u
hri
y f p re
s ver chidre , m s
ers ver
serv
s, d
he ike. Bu

he  w f
i s is mre ex
e sive
righ
, derivi g i
s u
hri
y frm
he c se
f , r
e s
f
m y
i s.
I
w s prper
 dd MANY, bec use sc rce y righ
c be fu d cmm

 
i s, excep

he  w f
ure, which i
sef
 is ge er y
c ed
he  w f
i s. N y, freque
y i  e p r
f
he wrd,

h
is hed fr
he  w f
i s, which is 
s i 
her. Nw

his  w f
i s is prved i
he s me m er s
he u wri

e civi
 w, d
h
is by
he c
i u  experie ce d
es
im y f
he S ges
f
he L w. Fr
his  w, s Di Chryss
m we bserves, is
he
discveries m de by experie ce d
ime. A d i
his we derive gre

dv
ge frm
he wri
i gs f emi e
his
ri s.
X . The very me i g f
he wrds divi e vu
ry righ
, shws
h
i

spri gs frm
he divi e wi, by which i
is dis
i guished frm
ur 
 w, which, i
h s re dy bee bserved, is c ed divi e s. This
 w dmi
s f wh
A x rchus s id, s Pu
rch re
es i
he ife f
Aex der,
hugh wi
hu
sufficie
ccur cy,
h
Gd des 
wi

hi g, bec use i
is jus
, bu

h
i
is jus
, r bi di g, bec use
Gd wis i
. Nw
his  w w s give ei
her
 m ki d i ge er , r

  e p r
icu r pepe. We fi d
hree perids,
which i
w s give
by Gd

he hum r ce,
he firs
f which w s immedi
ey f
er
he
cre
i f m ,
he sec d up
he res
r
i f m ki d f
er
he
fd, d
he
hird up
h
mre grius res
r
i
hrugh Jesus
Chris
. These
hree  ws u dub
edy bi d  me , s s s
hey cme

 sufficie
k wedge f
hem.
X I. Of 
i s
here is bu
 e,
 which Gd p r
icu ry
vuchs fed
 give  ws; d
h
w s
he pepe f Isr e, whm Mses

hus ddresses i
he fur
h Ch p. f Deu
er my, ver. 7. "Wh


i is
here s gre
wh h
h Gd s igh u

hem, s
he Lrd
ur Gd is i 
hi gs
h
we c  up him fr? A d wh

i
is
here s gre
, wh h ve s

u
es d judgme
s s righ
eus, s

his  w, which I se
befre yu
his d y!" A d
he Ps mis
i

he cxvii. Ps m, "Gd shewed his wrd u


 J cb, his s

u
es d
rdi ces u
 Isr e. He h
h 
de 
s wi
h y
i , d s
fr his judgme
s
hey h ve 
k w
hem." Nr c we dub
bu

h

hse Jews, wi
h whm we m y c ss Tryph i his dispu
e wi
h Jus
i ,
re mis
ke , wh suppse
h
eve s
r gers, if
hey wish
 be
s ved, mus
submi


he yke f
he Ms ic L w. Fr  w des 

bi d
hse,
 whm i
h s 
bee give . Bu
i
spe ks pers y


hse, wh re immedi
ey u der i
. He r O Isr e, d we re d
everywhere f
he cve
m de wi
h
hem, by which
hey bec me
he
pecui r pepe f Gd. M im ides ck wedges d prves
he
ru
h f

his frm
he xxxiii. Ch p
er d fur
h verse f Deu
er my.
Bu
m g
he Hebrews
hemseves
here were w ys ivi g sme
s
r gers, pers s devu
d fe ri g Gd, such w s
he Syrphe ici
wm , me
i ed i
he Gspe f S
. M

hew, xv. 22. Cr eius


he
Ce
uri . Ac
s. x.
he devu
Greeks, Ac
s xviii. 6. Sjur ers, r
s
r gers, s re me
i ed. Levi
. xxv. 47. These, s
he Hebrew
R bbis
hemseves i frm us, were biged
 bserve
he  ws give

 Ad m d N h,
 bs
i frm ids d bd, d 
her
hi gs,

h
were prhibi
ed; bu

i
he s me m er
 bserve
he  ws
pecui r

he pepe f Isr e. Therefre
hugh
he Isr ei
es
were 
wed
 e

he fesh f be s
,
h
h d died
ur 
de
h; ye

he s
r gers ivi g m g
hem were permi

ed. Deu
. xiv.
21. Excep
i sme p r
icu r  ws, where i
w s expressy s id,

h
s
r gers  ess
h
he
ive i h bi

s were biged

bserve
hem. S
r gers s, wh c me frm 
her cu
ries, d were

subjec


he Jewish  ws, migh
wrship Gd i
he
empe f
Jerus em, bu
s
di g i p ce sep r
e d dis
i c
frm
he
Isr ei
es. I. Ki gs viii. 41. 2 M c. iii. 35. Jh xii. 20. Ac
s viii.
27. Nr did Eish ever sig ify
 N m
he Syri , r J s

he
Ni evi
es, r D ie
 Nebuch d ezz r, r
he 
her Prphe
s

he
Tyri s,
he M bi
es,
he Egyp
i s,
 whm
hey wr
e,
h
i
w s
ecess ry fr
hem
 dp

he Ms ic L w.
Wh
h s bee s id f
he whe  w f Mses ppies
 circumcisi ,
which w s ki d f i
rduc
i

he  w. Ye
wi
h
his differe ce

h

he Isr ei
es  e were bu d by
he Ms ic L w, bu

he

whe ps
eri
y f Abr h m by
he  w f circumcisi . Frm he ce
we re i frmed by Jewish d Greek His
ri s,
h

he Idum e s,
r Edmi
es were cmpeed by
he Jews
 be circumcised. Wherefre

here is re s
 beieve
h

he umerus
i s, wh, besides
he
Isr ei
es, pr c
ised circumcisi , d wh re me
i ed by Herd
us,
S
r b, Phi, Jus
i , Orige , Ceme s, Aex dri us, Epiph ius,
d Jerm, were desce ded frm Ishm e, Es u, r
he ps
eri
y f
Ke
ur h. Bu
wh
S
. P u s ys, Rm. ii. 14. hds gd f  
her

i s;
h

he Ge
ies, 
h vi g
he  w, ye
di g by
ure

he
hi gs c
i ed i
he  w, becme  w

hemseves. Here
he
wrd
ure m y be
ke fr
he primi
ive surce f mr  big
i ;
r, referri g i


he precedi g p r
s f
he Epis
e, i
m y sig ify

he k wedge, which
he Ge
ies cquired f
hemseves wi
hu

i s
ruc
i , i ppsi
i

he k wedge derived

he Jews frm

he  w, which w s i s
ied i

hem frm
heir cr de, d ms

frm
heir bir
h. "S
he Ge
ies shw
he wrk, r
he mr  precep
s
f
he  w, wri

e i
heir he r
s,
heir c scie ces s be ri g
wi
ess, d
heir
hugh
s
he me whie ccusi g r ese excusi g
 e 
her." A d g i i
he 26
h ver.; "If
he u circumcisi
keep
he righ
eus ess f
he  w, sh  
his u circumcisi be
cu
ed fr circumcisi ?" Therefre A i s,
he Jew, s we fi d i

he his
ry f Jsephus, very prpery
ugh
Tz
es, r s T ci
us
c s him, Ez
es,
he Adi be i ,
h
eve wi
hu
circumcisi ,
Gd migh
be righ
y wrshipped d re dered prpi
ius. Fr
hugh
m y s
r gers were circumcised, m g
he Jews, d by circumcisi
bu d
hemseves
 bserve
he  w, s S
. P u exp i s i
i G .
v. 3.;
hey did i
p r
y
 b
i
he freedm f
he cu
ry; fr
prsey
es c ed by
he Hebrews, prsey
es f righ
eus ess, e jyed
equ  privieges wi
h
he Isr ei
es. Num. xv.: d p r
y
 b
i
sh re i
hse prmises, which were 
cmm
 m ki d, bu
pecui r


he Jewish pepe, 
hugh i
c 
be de ied,
h
i 
er
ges err eus pi i prev ied,
h

here w s  s v
i u

f
he Jewish p e. He ce we m y i fer,
h
we re bu d by  p r

f
he Levi
ic   w, s
ric
y d prpery s c ed; bec use y
big
i , bey d
h
risi g frm
he  w f
ure, mus
prceed
frm
he express wi f
he  w-giver. Nw i
c 
be discvered
by y prf,
h
Gd i
e ded y 
her pepe, bu

he Isr ei
es

 be bu d by
h
 w. Therefre wi
h respec

 urseves, we h ve
 cc si
 prve brg
i f
h
 w; fr i
cud ever
be brg
ed wi
h respec


hse, whm i
ever bu d. Bu

he
Isr ei
es were ree sed frm
he cerem i  p r
, s s s
he  w
f
he Gspe w s prc imed; ce r reve
i f which w s m de

 e f
he Aps
es, Ac
s x. 15. A d
he 
her p r
s f
he Ms ic  w
s

heir pecui r dis
i c
i , whe
he Jews ce sed
 be pepe
by
he des
i d des
ruc
i f
heir ci
y wi
hu
y hpes f
res
r
i . I deed i
w s 
ree se frm
he  w f Mses
h

we, wh were s


r gers

he Cmm we 
h f Isr e, b
i ed by
he
cmi g f Chris
. Bu
s befre
h

ime, ur hpes i
he gd ess f
Gd were bscure d u cer
i , we g i ed
he ssur ce f express
cve
,
h
we shud be u i
ed i  e Church wi
h
he seed f
Isr e,
he chidre f
he p
ri rchs,
heir  w,
h
w s
he w  f
sep r
i be
wee us, bei g brke dw . Eph. ii. 14.
X II. Si ce
he
he  w give by Mses impses  direc
big
i
up us, s i
h s bee re dy shw , e
us c sider whe
her i

h s y 
her use b
h i
his i quiry i

he righ
s f w r, d
i 
her ques
i s f
he s me ki d. I
he firs
p ce,
he Ms ic
 w shws
h
wh
i
e ji s is 
c
r ry

he  w f
ure.
Fr si ce
he  w f
ure is perpe
u  d u ch ge be, 
hi g
c
r dic
ry
 i
cud be cmm ded by Gd, wh is ever u jus
.

Besides
he  w f Mses is c ed i
he xix. Ps m u defied
d righ
 w, d S
. P u, Rm. vii. 12, describes i

 be hy,
jus
, d gd. I
s precep
s re here spke f, fr i
s permissi s
require mre dis
i c
discussi . Fr
he b re permissi , sig ifyi g

he remv  f impedime
, r prhibi
i , h s  re
i

he
prese
subjec
. A psi
ive, eg  permissi is ei
her fu, gr
i g
us pwer
 d sme p r
icu r c
wi
hu

he e s
res
ric
i ,
r ess fu,  y wi g me impu i
y fr cer
i c
i s, d
righ

 d
hem wi
hu
mes

i frm 
hers. Frm
he permissi
f
he frmer ki d  ess
h frm psi
ive precep
, i
fws

h
wh

he  w ws, is 
c
r ry

he  w f
ure.[4]
Bu
wi
h reg rd

he 

er ki d f permissi , wi g impu i


y
fr cer
i c
s, bu

expressy u
hrizi g
hem, we c 
s
re diy c cude
hse c
s
 be c frm be

he  w f
ure.[5]
Bec use where
he wrds f permissi re mbiguus i
heir me i g,
i
is be

er fr us
 i
erpre
ccrdi g

he es
bished  w f

ure, wh
ki d f permissi i
is,
h frm ur c cep
i f i
s
expedie cy
 c cude i
c frm be

he  ws f
ure. C ec
ed
wi
h
his firs
bserv
i
here is 
her, expressive f
he pwer

h
b
i s m g Chris
i Pri ces
 e c
 ws f
he s me impr

wi
h
hse give by Mses, excep
such s re
ed e
irey

he
ime
f
he expec
ed Messi h, d
he Gspe
he u reve ed, r where
Chris
himsef h s i ge er  r p r
icu r m er es
bished y

hi g

he c
r ry. Fr excep
i
hese
hree c ses,  re s c
be devised, why y
hi g es
bished by
he  w f Mses shud be
w u  wfu. I
he
hird p ce i
m y be bserved,
h
wh
ever

he  w f Mses e ji ed re


i g

hse vir
ues, which Chris

required f his discipes, shud be fufied by Chris


i s w, i
gre
er degree, frm
heir superir k wedge, d higher m
ives.
Thus
he vir
ues f humii
y, p
ie ce, d ch ri
y re required f
Chris
i s i mre perfec
m er
h f
he Jews u der
he Ms ic
dispe s
i , bec use
he prmises f he ve re mre ce ry  id
befre us i
he Gspe. He ce
he d  w, whe cmp red wi
h
he
Gspe, is s id
 h ve bee ei
her perfec
r f u
ess, d Chris

is s id
 be
he e d f
he  w, d
he  w ur schm s
er
 bri g
us
 Chris
. Thus
he d  w respec
i g
he S bb
h, d
he  w
respec
i g
i
hes, shw
h
Chris
i s re bu d
 dev
e 
ess

h seve
h pr
i f
heir
ime
 divi e wrship, r ess
h

e
h f
heir frui
s
 m i
i
hse wh re empyed i hy

hi gs, r
 
her pius uses.

CHAPTER II.
INQUIRY INTO THE LAWFULNESS OF WAR.
Re s s prvi g
he  wfu ess f W r--Prfs frm His
ry--Prfs
frm ge er  c se
--The L w f N
ure prved 
repug


W r--W r 
c dem ed by
he vu
ry Divi e L w precedi g
he
Gspe--Objec
i s swered--Review f
he ques
i whe
her W r be
c
r ry

he L w f
he Gspe--Argume
s frm Scrip
ure fr
he
eg
ive Opi i s--A swer

he Argume
s
ke frm Scrip
ure fr

he ffirm
ive--The pi i s f
he primi
ive Chris
i s 
he
subjec
ex mi ed.
I. Af
er ex mi i g
he surces f righ
,
he firs
d ms
ge er 
ques
i
h
ccurs, is whe
her y w r is jus
, r if i
is ever

 wfu
 m ke w r. Bu

his ques
i ike m y 
hers
h
fw,
mus
i
he firs
p ce be cmp red wi
h
he righ
s f
ure. Cicer
i
he
hird bk f his Bu ds f Gd d Evi, d i 
her p r
s f
his wrks, prves wi
h gre
erudi
i frm
he wri
i gs f
he S
ics,

h

here re cer
i firs
pri cipes f
ure, c ed by
he Greeks

he firs

ur  impressi s, which re succeeded by 
her pri cipes
f big
i superir eve

he firs
impressi s
hemseves. He
c s
he c re, which every im , frm
he mme
f i
s bir
h, fees
fr i
sef d
he preserv
i f i
s c di
i , i
s bhrre ce f
des
ruc
i , d f every
hi g
h

hre
e s de
h, pri cipe f

ure. He ce, he s ys, i
h ppe s,
h
if ef

 his w chice,
every m wud prefer su d d perfec

 mu
i
ed d defrmed
bdy. S
h
preservi g urseves i
ur  s

e, d hdi g

every
hi g c frm be, d ver
i g every
hi g repug


ure
is
he firs
du
y.
Bu
frm
he k wedge f
hese pri cipes, 
i rises f
heir
bei g gree be
 re s ,
h
p r
f m , which is superir


he bdy. Nw
h
greeme
wi
h re s , which is
he b sis f
prprie
y, shud h ve mre weigh

h
he impuse f ppe
i
e;
bec use
he pri cipes f
ure recmme d righ
re s s rue
h

ugh

 be f higher v ue
h b re i s
i c
. As
he
ru
h f
his
is e siy sse
ed
 by  me f su d judgme
wi
hu
y 
her
dem s
r
i , i
fws
h
i i quiri g i

he  ws f
ure

he firs
bjec
f c sider
i is, wh
is gree be

hse
pri cipes f
ure, d
he we cme

he rues, which,
hugh
risi g  y u
f
he frmer, re f higher dig i
y, d 
 y

be embr ced, whe ffered, bu
pursued by 
he me s i ur pwer.
This  s
pri cipe, which is c ed prprie
y, frm i
s fi
ess,
ccrdi g

he v rius
hi gs  which i

ur s, sme
imes is imi
ed

 very rrw pi


,
he e s
dep r
ure frm which is devi
i
i
 vice; sme
imes i
ws wider scpe, s
h
sme c
i s,
eve  ud be i
hemseves, m y be mi

ed r v ried wi
hu
crime.
I
his c se
here is 
immedi
e dis
i c
i be
wee righ
d
wr g;
he sh des re gr du , d
heir
ermi
i u perceived; 

ike direc
c
r s
, where
he ppsi
i is immedi
ey see , d

he firs
s
ep is
r sgressi f
he fixed bu ds.
The ge er  bjec
f divi e d hum  ws is
 give
he u
hri
y
f big
i
 wh
w s  y  ud be i i
sef. I
h s bee s id
bve
h
i ves
ig
i f
he  ws f
ure impies i quiry,
whe
her y p r
icu r c
i m y be d e wi
hu
i jus
ice: w by
c
f i jus
ice is u ders
d
h
, which ecess riy h s i i

y
hi g repug


he
ure f re s be d sci  bei g. S
f r frm y
hi g i
he pri cipes f
ure bei g repug

 w r,
every p r
f
hem i deed r
her f vurs i
. Fr
he preserv
i f
ur ives d pers s, which is
he e d f w r, d
he pssessi r
cquireme
f
hi gs ecess ry d usefu
 ife is ms
sui
be


hse pri cipes f


ure, d
 use frce, if ecess ry, fr
hse
cc si s, is  w y diss


he pri cipes f
ure, si ce 
im s re e dwed wi
h
ur  s
re g
h, sufficie

 ssis
d
defe d
hemseves.
Xe ph s ys,
h
every im  k ws cer
i me
hd f figh
i g
wi
hu
y 
her i s
ruc
r
h
ure. I fr gme
f Ovid's,
c ed
he Ar
f Fishery, i
is rem rked,
h
 im s k w
heir
e emy d his me s f defe ce, d
he s
re g
h d me sure f
heir
w we p s. Hr ce h s s id, "
he wf

cks wi
h i
s
ee
h,
he
bu wi
h i
s hr s, d whe ce is
his k wedge derived bu
frm

i s
i c
?" O
his subjec
Lucre
ius e  rges, bservi g
h
"every
cre
ure k ws i
s w pwers. The c f bu

s wi
h i
s frehe d,
befre i
s hr s ppe r, d s
rikes wi
h  im gi be fury." O
which G e expresses himsef i
he fwi g m er, "every im 
ppe rs
 defe d i
sef wi
h
h
p r
f i
s bdy, i which i
exces

hers. The c f bu

s wi
h i
s he d befre i
s hr s h ve grw , d

he c
s
rikes wi
h i
s hee befre i
s hfs re h rd, s
he yu g
dg

emp
s
 bi
e befre his
ee
h re s
r g." The s me wri
er i
describi g
he use f differe
p r
s f
he bdy, s ys, "
h
m is
cre
ure frmed fr pe ce d w r. His rmur frms 
immedi
e
p r
f his bdy; bu
he h s h ds fi
fr prep ri g d h di g rms,
d we see i f
s usi g
hem sp
eusy, wi
hu
bei g
ugh


d s." Aris

e i
he 4
h bk, d
e
h ch p
er f
he his
ry f
im s, s ys, "
h

he h d serves m fr spe r, swrd, r y
rms wh
ever, bec use i
c hd d wied
hem." Nw righ
re s
d
he
ure f scie
y which c ims
he sec d, d i deed mre
impr

p ce i
his i quiry, prhibi

 frce, bu
 y
h

which is repug

 scie
y, by deprivi g 
her f his righ
. Fr

he e d f scie
y is
 frm cmm d u i
ed id
 preserve

every  e his w . Which m y e siy be u ders
d
 h ve b
i ed,
befre wh
is w c ed prper
y w s i
rduced. Fr
he free use f
ife d imbs w s s much
he righ
f every  e,
h
i
cud 

be i fri ged r

cked wi
hu
i jus
ice. S
he use f
he cmm
prduc
i s f
ure w s
he righ
f
he firs
ccupier, d fr y
 e
 rb him f
h
w s m ifes
i jus
ice. This m y be mre e siy
u ders
d, si ce  w d cus
m h ve es
bished prper
y u der i
s
prese
frm. Tuy h s expressed
his i
he
hird bk f his Offices
i
he fwi g wrds, "if every member cud h ve sep r
e feei g,
d im gi e i
cud derive vigur frm e grssi g
he s
re g
h f
eighbri g p r
f
he bdy,
he whe fr me wud  guish d
perish. I
he s me m er if every  e f us, fr his w dv
ge,
migh
rb 
her f wh
he pe sed,
here wud be

 ver
hrw
f hum scie
y d i
ercurse. Fr
hugh i
is wed by
ure
fr every  e
 give
he prefere ce
 himsef befre 
her i

he e jyme
f ife d ecess ries, ye
she des 
permi
us

i cre se ur me s d riches by
he spis f 
hers." I
is 

herefre c
r ry

he
ure f scie
y
 prvide d c su
fr
urseves, if 
her's righ
is 
i jured;
he frce
herefre,
which i vi by bs
i s frm
uchi g
he righ
s f 
hers, is 

u jus
. Fr s
he s me Cicer bserves sme where i his Epis
es,

h
s
here re
w mdes f c
e di g,
he  e by rgume
, d
he

her by frce, d s
he frmer is pecui r
 m , d
he 

er
cmm
 him wi
h
he bru
e cre
i , we mus
h ve recurse

he


er, whe i
is impssibe
 use
he frmer. A d g i , wh
c be
ppsed
 frce, bu
frce? Upi bserves
h
C ssius s ys, i
is
 wfu
 repe frce by frce, d i
is righ
pp re
y prvided
by
ure
 repe rms wi
h rms, wi
h whm Ovid grees, bservi g

h

he  ws permi
us

ke up rms g i s

hse
h
be r
hem.
II. The bserv
i
h
 w r is 
repug


he  w f
ure,
m y be mre mpy prved frm s cred his
ry. Fr whe Abr h m wi
h his
serv
s d c feder
es h d g i ed vic
ry, by frce f rms, ver

he fur Ki gs, wh h d pu dered Sdm, Gd pprved f his c


by

he mu
h f his pries
Mechisedech, wh s id
 him, "Bessed be
he
ms
high Gd, wh h
h deivered
hi e e emies i

hi e h d." Ge .
xiv. 20. Nw Abr h m h d
ke up rms, s ppe rs frm
he his
ry,
wi
hu
y speci  cmm d frm Gd. Bu

his m ,  ess emi e
fr
s c
i
y
h wisdm, fe
himsef u
hrized by
he  w f
ure,
s i
is dmi

ed by
he evide ce f Bersus, d Orpheus, wh were
s
r gers.

There is  cc si


 ppe 

he his
ry f
he seve
i s,
whm Gd deivered up i

he h ds f
he Isr ei
es
 be des
ryed.
Fr
here w s speci  cmm d
 execu
e
he judgme
f Gd up

i s gui
y f
he gre
es
crimes. Frm whe ce
hese w rs re
i
er y s
yed i scrip
ure, B

es f
he Lrd, s u der
ke , 

by hum wi, bu
by divi e ppi
me
. The xvii. ch p
er f Exdus
suppies p ss ge mre

he purpse, re
i g
he ver
hrw which

he Isr ei
es, c duc
ed by Mses d Jshu , m de f
he Am eki
es.
I
his c
,
here w s  express cmmissi frm Gd, bu
 y
pprv  f
er i
w s d e. Bu
i
he xix. ch p. f Deu
. ver. 10,
15. Gd h s prescribed ge er  d s
di g  ws
 his pepe 

he m er f m ki g w r, by
his circums
ce shewi g
h
w r
m y be jus
wi
hu
y express cmm dme
frm him. Bec use i
he
s me p ss ge, p i dis
i c
i is m de be
wee
he c se f
he
seve
i s d
h
f 
hers. A d s
here is  speci  edic

prescribi g
he jus
c uses fr which w r m y be u der
ke ,
he
de
ermi
i f
hem is ef


he discvery f
ur  re s . Of

his ki d is
he w r f Jeph
h h g i s

he Amm i
es, i defe ce f

heir brders. Jud. xi. d


he w r f D vid g i s

he s me pepe
fr h vi g vi
ed
he righ
s f his Amb ss drs. 2 S m. x. T
he
precedi g bserv
i s m y be dded, wh

he i spired wri
er f
he
Epis
e

he Hebrews s ys f Gide , B r ck, S mps , Jeph
h h,
D vid, S mue, d 
hers, wh by f i
h m de w r up ki gdms,
prev ied i w r d pu
whe rmies f
heir e emies
 figh
. Heb.
xi. 33, 34. The whe
e r f
his p ss ge shews,
h

he wrd f i
h
impies persu si ,
h
wh

hey did w s beieved
 be gree be


he wi f Gd. I
he s me m er, D vid is s id, by wm
dis
i guished fr her wisdm, 1 S m. xxv. 28.
 figh

he b

es f

he Lrd,
h
is
 m ke  wfu d jus
w rs.
III. Prfs f wh
h s bee dv ced, m y be dr w s frm
he
c se
f , especi y, f
he wises

i s. There is
ceebr
ed p ss ge i Cicer's speech fr Mi, i which, jus
ifyi g
recurse
 frce i defe ce f ife, he be rs mpe
es
im y

he
feei gs f
ure, wh h s give us
his  w, which is 
wri

e ,
bu
i
e, which we h ve 
received by i s
ruc
i , he ri g r
re di g, bu

he eeme
s f i
h ve bee e gr ve i ur he r
s
d mi ds wi
h her w h d:  w which is 

he effec
f h bi

d cquireme
, bu
frms p r
i
he rigi  cmpexi f ur
fr me: s
h
if ur ives re
hre
e ed wi
h ss ssi
i r pe
vie ce frm
he h ds f rbbers r e emies, ANY me s f defe ce
wud be wed d  ud be. He prceeds, re s h s
ugh

his


he e r ed, ecessi
y

he b rb ri s, cus
m

i s, d
ure
hersef
 wid be s
s,
 use every pssibe me s f repei g frce
ffered

heir bdies,
heir imbs d
heir ives. C ius d L wyer
s ys,
ur  re s permi
s us
 defe d urseves g i s
d gers.
A d Fre
i us, 
her eg  u
hri
y, m i
i s,
h
wh
ever y
 e des i defe ce f his pers ugh

 be es
eemed righ
. Jsephus
bserves,
h

he ve f ife is  w f
ure s
r gy imp
ed
i  cre
ures, d
herefre we k up
hse s e emies, wh
wud pe y deprive us f i
.
This pri cipe is fu ded  re s s f equi
y, s evide
,
h

eve i
he bru
e cre
i , wh h ve  ide f righ
, we m ke
dis
i c
i be
wee

ck d defe ce. Fr whe Upi h d s id,

h
im  wi
hu
k wedge,
h
is wi
hu

he use f re s ,
cud 
pssiby d wr g, he immedi
ey dds,
h
whe
w im s
figh
, if  e kis
he 
her,
he dis
i c
i f Qui
ius Mu
ius
mus
be dmi

ed,
h
if
he ggressr were kied  d m ges cud

be recvered; bu
if
he 
her, which w s

cked, c
i migh

be m i
i ed. There is p ss ge i Pi y, which wi serve fr
exp
i f
his, he s ys
h

he fierces
i s d 
figh
wi
h
e ch 
her, r d serpe
s bi
e serpe
s. Bu
if y vie ce is d e


he
mes
f
hem,
hey re rused, d up receivi g y hur
,
wi defe d
hemseves wi
h
he gre
es
 cri
y d vigur.
I . Frm
he  w f
ure
he which m y s be c ed
he  w f

i s, i
is evide

h
 ki ds f w r re 

 be c dem ed.
I
he s me m er,  his
ry d
he  ws f m ers f every pepe
sufficie
y i frm us,
h
w r is 
c dem ed by
he vu
ry  w
f
i s. I deed Hermge i us h s s id,
h
w rs were i
rduced
by
he  w f
i s, p ss ge which ugh

 be exp i ed smewh

differe
y frm
he ge er  i
erpre

i give
 i
. The me i g f
i
is,
h
cer
i frm i
ies,

e di g w r, were i
rduced by
he
 w f
i s, which frm i
ies were ecess ry
 secure
he pecui r
privieges risi g u
f
he  w. Frm he ce dis
i c
i , which

here wi be cc si


 use here f
er, be
wee w r wi
h
he usu 
frm i
ies f
he  w f
i s, which is c ed jus
r perfec
, d
i frm  w r, which des 
fr
h
re s ce se
 be jus
, r
gree be
 righ
. Fr sme w rs, whe m de up jus
gru ds,
hugh

ex c
y c frm be, ye
re 
repug


he  w, s wi be
exp i ed mre fuy here f
er. By
he  w f
he
i s, s ys Livy,
prvisi is m de
 repe frce by rms; d Fre
i us dec res,

h

he  w f
i s ws us
 repe vie ce d i jury, i
rder
 pr
ec
ur pers s.

. A gre
er difficu
y ccurs respec
i g
he divi e vu
ry  w.
Nr is
here y frce i
he bjec
i
h
s
he  w f
ure is
u ch ge be, 
hi g c be ppi
ed eve by Gd himsef c
r ry

 i
. Fr
his is
rue  y i
hse
hi gs, which
he  w f
ure
psi
ivey frbids r cmm ds; 
i
hse which re
ci
y
permi

ed by
he s me  w. Fr c
s f
h
ki d, 
f i g s
ric
y
wi
hi
he ge er  rue, bu
bei g excep
i s

he  w f
ure,
m y be ei
her frbidde r cmm ded. The firs
bjec
i usu y m de
g i s

he  wfu ess f w r is
ke frm
he  w give
 N h
d his ps
eri
y, Ge . ix. 5, 6, where Gd
hus spe ks, "Surey
he
bd f yur ives wi I require;

he h d f every be s
wi I
require i
, d

he h d f every m ;

he h d f every m 's
br
her wi I require
he ife f m . Whever sheds m 's bd, by
m sh  his bd be shed; fr i
he im ge f Gd m de he m ." Here
sme
ke
he phr se f requiri g bd, i
he ms
ge er  se se, d

he 
her p r
,
h
bd sh  be shed i i
s
ur ,
hey c sider s
b re
hre
, d 
pprb
i ; ei
her f which ccep

i s
c be dmi

ed. Fr
he prhibi
i f sheddi g bd ex
e ds 

bey d
he  w i
sef, which dec res, THOU SHALT NOT KILL; bu
p sses
 c dem
i up c pi
 pu ishme
s r w rs u der
ke by pubic
u
hri
y.
Nei
her
he  w f Mses, r
h
give
 N h es
bished y
hi g
ew,
hey were  y dec r
ry repe
i
i f
he  w f
ure,
h

h d bee bi
er
ed by depr ved cus
m. S
h

he sheddi g f bd
i crimi  d w
 m er is
he  y c
prhibi
ed by
hse
cmm dme
s. Thus every c
f hmicide des 
mu

 murder, bu

 y
h
, which is cmmi

ed wi
h wifu d m icius i
e
i

des
ry
he ife f i ce
pers . As
 wh
fws bu
bd
bei g shed i re
ur fr bd, i
seems
 impy 
mere c
f
pers  reve ge, bu

he deiber
e exercise f perfec
righ
, which
m y be
hus exp i ed; i
is 
u jus
, ccrdi g

he pri cipes
f
ure
h
y  e shud suffer i prpr
i

he evi he h s

d e, c frm by

he judici  m xim f Rh d m
hus,
h
if y
 e himsef suffers wh
he h s d e, i
is bu
jus
d righ
. The
s me pi i is
hus expressed by Se ec
he f
her; "i
is bu
jus

re
i
i fr y  e
 suffer i his w pers
he evi which
he i
e ded
 i fic
up 
her." Frm se se f
his
ur 
jus
ice, C i k wi g himsef gui
y f his br
her's bd s id,
"whsever fi ds me sh  ki me."
Bu
s i
hse e ry
imes, whe me were few, d ggressi s r re,

here w s ess cc si fr ex mpes, Gd res


r i ed by express
cmm dme

he impuse f
ure which ppe red  wfu, he frb d y
 e
 ki
he murderer,

he s me
ime prhibi
i g  i
ercurse
wi
h him, eve s f r s 


uch him.[6]
P
 h s es
bished
his i his  ws, d
he s me rue prev ied
i Greece, s ppe rs frm
he fwi g p ss ge i Euripides, "ur
f
hers f d did we i b ishi g frm
heir i
ercurse d sigh

y  e
h
h d shed 
her's bd; impsi g b ishme
by w y f

 eme
, r
her
h i fic
i g de
h." We fi d Thucydides f
he
s me pi i , "
h
cie
y igh
er pu ishme
s were i fic
ed fr

he gre
es
crimes; bu
i prcess f
ime, s
hse pe 
ies c me

 be despised, egis
rs were biged
 h ve recurse
 de
h
i cer
i c ses." We m y dd

he bve i s
ces
he rem rk f
L c

ius,
h
s ye
i
ppe red si
 pu ish eve
he ms

wicked me wi
h de
h.
The c jec
ure f
he divi e wi
ke frm
he rem rk be i s
ce
f C i , whm   e w s permi

ed
 ki p ssed i
  w, s
h

L ech, h vi g perpe
r
ed simi r deed, prmised himsef impu i
y
frm
his ex mpe.--Ge . iv. 24.
Bu
s befre
he deuge, i
he
ime f
he Gi
s,
he pr c
ice f
freque
d w
 murders h d prev ied; up
he re ew  f
he
hum r ce, f
er
he deuge,
h

he s me evi cus
m migh

be
es
bished, Gd
hugh
prper
 res
r i i
by severer me s. The
e i
y f frmer ges w s  id side, d
he divi e u
hri
y g ve
s c
i

he precep
s f
ur  jus
ice,
h
whever kied
murderer shud be i ce
. Af
er
ribu s were erec
ed,
he pwer
ver ife w s, fr
he very bes
re s s, c ferred up
he judges
 e. S
i sme
r ces f cie
m ers rem i ed i
he righ
which
w s gr
ed, f
er
he i
rduc
i f
he Ms ic L w,

he e res

i bd

he pers kied.
This i
erpre

i is jus
ified by
he u
hri
y f Abr h m, wh, wi
h
perfec
k wedge f
he  w give
 N h,
k rms g i s

he
fur Ki gs, fuy persu ded
h
he w s di g 
hi g i vi
i f

h
 w. I
he s me m er Mses rdered
he pepe
 figh
g i s

Am eki
es, wh

cked
hem; fwi g i
his c se
he dic

es
f
ure, fr he ppe rs
 h ve h d  speci  cmmu ic
i wi
h
Gd. Exd. xvii. 9. Besides, we fi d
h
c pi
 pu ishme
s were
i fic
ed up 
her crimi s, s we s murderers, 
 y m g

he Ge
ies, bu
m g
hse wh h d bee impressed wi
h
he ms

pius rues d pi i s, eve


he P
ri rchs
hemseves. Ge . xxxviii.
24.
I deed up cmp ri g
he divi e wi wi
h
he igh
f
ure, i
w s
c cuded,
h
i
seemed c frm be
 jus
ice,
h

her crimes
f gre
e rmi
y shud be subjec


he s me pu ishme
s
h

f murder. Fr
here re sme righ
s, such s
hse f repu

i ,
ch s
i
y, c jug  fidei
y, submissi f subjec
s

heir pri ces,

 f which re es
eemed f equ  v ue wi
h ife i
sef, bec use 

he preserv
i f
hese
he pe ce d cmfr
f ife depe d. The
vi
i f y f
hse righ
s is i

e ess
h murder i
sef.
Here m y be ppied
he d
r di
i fu d m g
he Jews,
h

here
were m y  ws, which were 
ALL me
i ed by Mses, give by Gd


he s s f N h; s i
w s sufficie
fr his purpse,
h

hey
shud f
erw rds be cmprehe ded i
he pecui r  ws f
he Hebrews.
Thus i
ppe rs frm xviii. ch p. f Levi
icus,
h

here w s
cie
 w g i s
i ces
uus m rri ges,
hugh 
me
i ed by Mses
i i
s prper p ce. Nw m g
he cmm dme
s give by Gd

he
chidre f N h, i
is s id,
h
de
h w s expressy dec red

be
he pu ishme

 y fr murder, bu
fr du
ery, i ces
, d
rbbery, which is c firmed by
he wrds f Jb xxxi. 11. The  w f
Mses
, fr
he s c
i f c pi
 pu ishme
s, gives re s s which
per
e  ess wi
h 
her
i s,
h wi
h
he Jewish pepe. Levi
.
xviii. 25-30. Ps . ci. 5. Prv. xx. 8. A d p r
icu ry respec
i g
murder i
is s id,
he  d c 
be ce sed u ess
he bd f
he
murderer be shed. Numb. xxv. 31-33. Besides, i
were bsurd
 suppse

h

he Jewish pepe were i duged wi
h
he priviege f m i
i i g

he pubic s fe
y, d
h
f i dividu s by c pi
 pu ishme
s, d
sser
i g
heir righ
s by w r, d
h

her ki gs d
i s were

wed
he s me pwers. Nr d we fi d
h

hse ki gs r
i s
were frew r ed by
he Prphe
s,
h

he use f c pi
 pu ishme
s,
d
h
 w rs, were c dem ed by Gd i
he s me m er s
hey
were dm ished f  
her si s. O
he 
her h d, c y  e
dub
, s
he  w f Mses bre such express im ge f
he divi e
wi respec
i g crimi  jus
ice, whe
her 
her
i s wud 
h ve
c
ed wisey i dp
i g i
fr
heir ex mpe? I
is cer
i
h

he
Greeks, d
he A
he i s i p r
icu r did s. Frm he ce c me
he
cse resemb ce which
he Jewish bre

he d A
he i  w, d


h
f
he
weve
bes f Rme. E ugh h s bee s id,
 shew

h

he  w give
 N h c 
be r
he i
erpre

i f
hse, wh
derive frm i

heir rgume
s g i s

he  wfu ess f  w r.

I. The rgume
s g i s

he  wfu ess f w r, dr w frm
he Gspe,
re mre specius. I ex mi i g which i
wi 
be ecess ry

ssume, s m y d,
h

he Gspe c
i s 
hi g mre
h
he  w
f
ure, excep

he rues f f i
h d
he S cr me
s: ssump
i ,
which i i
s ge er  ccep

i is by  me s
rue. I
m y re diy be
dmi

ed,
h

hi g i c sis
e
wi
h
ur  jus
ice is e ji ed
i
he gspe, ye
i
c ever be wed,
h

he  ws f Chris
d

impse du
ies up us, bve
hse required by
he  w f
ure.
A d
hse, wh
hi k 
herwise, s
r i
heir rgume
s
 prve
h

m y pr c
ices frbidde by
he gspe, s c cubi ge, divrce,
pyg my, were m de ffe ces by
he  w f
ure. The igh
f
ure
migh
pi
u

he HONOUR f bs
i i g frm such pr c
ices, bu

he
SINFULNESS f
hem cud 
h ve bee discvered wi
hu
reve
i
f
he wi f Gd. Wh fr i s
ce wud s y,
h

he Chris
i
precep
f  yi g dw ur ives fr 
hers w s big
i f
he
 w f
ure? 1 Jh iii. 16. I
is s id by Jus
i
he M r
yr,
h


ive ccrdi g

he b re  w f
ure is 

he ch r c
er f
rue
beiever. Nei
her c we fw
hse, wh, dp
i g 
her me i g f
 i c sider be impr
, c s
rue
he precep
deivered by Chris
i
his serm 
he mu
, i
 
hi g mre
h i
erpre

i f

he Ms ic L w. Fr
he wrds, "yu h ve he rd i
w s s id

hem f
d, bu
I s y
 YOU," which re s f
e repe
ed, impy sme
hi g
ese. Thse f d were  
her
h c
empr ries f Mses: fr
wh
is
here repe
ed s s id

hse f OLD re 

he wrds f

he
e chers f
he  w, bu
f Mses, ei
her LITERALLY, r i THEIR

me i g. They re ci
ed by ur S viur s his express wrds, 
s
i
erpre

i s f
hem: "Thu sh 

ki," Exd. xx. whever
kie
h sh  be i d ger f Judgme
, Levi
. xxi. 21. Numb. xxxv. 16,
17, 30. "Thu sh 

cmmi
du
ery," Exd. xx. "whsever sh 
pu
w y his wife, e
him give her wri
i g f divrceme
." Deu
.
xxiv, 1. "Thu sh 

frswe r
hysef, bu
sh 
perfrm u

he
Lrd
hi e 
hs." Exd. xx. 7. Numb. xxx. 2. "A eye fr eye, d


h fr

h," m y be dem ded i jus
ice. Levi
. xxxiv. 20.
Deu
. xix. 21. "Thu sh 
ve
hy eighbur,"
h
is, Isr ei
e.
Levi
. xix. 18. " d
hu sh 
h
e
hi e e emy,"
h
is, y  e
f
he seve
i s
 whm frie dship r cmp ssi w s frbidde

 be shew . Exd. xxxiv. 11. Deu


. vii. 1. T
hese m y be dded

he Am eki
es, wi
h whm
he Isr ei
es were cmm ded
 m i
i
irrec cie be w r. Exd. xxvii. 19. Deu
. xxv. 19.
Bu

 u ders
d
he wrds f ur S viur, we mus
bserve
h

he
 w f Mses is
ke i dube se se, ei
her s c
i i g sme
pri cipes i cmm wi
h hum  ws, such s impsi g res
r i
up
hum crimes by
he dre d f exemp ry pu ishme
s. Heb. ii. 2. A d
i
his m er m i
i i g civi scie
y m g
he Jewish pepe:
fr which re s i
is c ed, Heb. vii. 16,
he  w f c r 
cmm dme
, d Rm. iii. 17.
he  w f wrks: r i
m y be
ke
i 
her se se, cmprehe di g
he pecui r s c
i s f divi e
 w, requiri g puri
y f mi d, d cer
i c
i s, which migh
be
mi

ed wi
hu

empr  pu ishme
s. I
his se se i
is c ed
spiri
u   w, givi g ife

he su. The
e chers f
he  w, d

he Ph risees c sideri g
he firs
p r
s sufficie
, egec
ed

i s
ruc

he pepe i
he sec d d mre impr

br ch, deemi g
i
superfuus. The
ru
h f
his m y be prved, 
 y frm ur w
wri
i gs, bu
frm Jsephus s, d
he Jewish R bbis. Respec
i g

his sec d p r
we m y bserve,
h

he vir
ues which re required
f Chris
i s, re ei
her recmme ded r e ji ed

he Hebrews,
bu

e ji ed i
he s me degree d ex
e
s
 Chris
i s. Nw
i b
h
hese se ses Chris
ppses his w precep
s

he d  w.
Frm whe ce i
is ce r,
h
his wrds c
i mre
h b re
i
erpre

i f
he Ms ic  w. These bserv
i s ppy 
 y


he ques
i immedi
ey i h d, bu

 m y 
hers;
h
we m y 

res
up
he u
hri
y f
he Ms ic  w f r
her
h is righ
.

II. Omi

i g
herefre
he ess s
isf c
ry prfs, s e di g
pi
f evide ce
 shew
h

he righ
f w r is 

ke w y by

he  w f
he gspe,
h
p ss ge i S
. P u's Epis
e
 Tim
hy
m y be referred
, where
he Aps
e s ys, "I exhr

herefre

h
, firs
f , suppic
i s, pr yers, i
ercessi s, d givi g
f
h ks be m de fr  me ; fr Ki gs, d fr 
h
re i
u
hri
y,
h
we m y e d quie
d pe ce be ife, i 
gdi ess d h es
y; fr
his is gd d ccep
be i
he sigh
f
Gd ur S viur, wh wud h ve  me
 be s ved, d
 cme


he k wedge f
he
ru
h." 1 Eph. ii. 1, 2, 3. Frm
his p ss ge,

he fwi g c cusi s m y be dr w ; i
he firs
p ce,
h

Chris
i pie
y i ki gs is ccep
be
 Gd,
h

heir prfessi
f Chris
i i
y des 
bridge
heir righ
s f svereig
y. Jus
i

he M r
yr h s s id, "
h
i ur pr yers fr Ki gs, we shud beg

h

hey m y u i
e spiri
f wisdm wi
h
heir ry  pwer," d
i
he bk c ed
he C s
i
u
i s f Ceme
,
he Church pr ys fr
Chris
i ruers, d
h
Chris
i Pri ces m y perfrm ccep
be
service
 Gd, by securi g
 
her Chris
i s
he e jyme
f quie

ives. The m er i which


he Svereig secures
his impr

e d,
is exp i ed i 
her p ss ge frm
he s me Aps
e. Rm. xiii. 4.
"He is
he mi is
er f Gd

hee fr gd. Bu
if
hu d evi, fe r,

fr he be re
h 

he swrd i v i ; fr he is
he mi is
er f Gd,
ve ger
 execu
e wr
h up
hem,
h
d evi." By
he righ

f
he swrd is u ders
d
he exercise f every ki d f res
r i
,
i
he se se dp
ed by
he L wyers, 
 y ver ffe ders m gs

his w pepe, bu
g i s
eighbri g
i s, wh vi
e his w
d his pepe's righ
s. T ce r up
his pi
, we m y refer

he
sec d Ps m, which 
hugh i
ppies i
er y
 D vid, ye
i i
s
mre fu d perfec
se se re
es
 Chris
, which m y be see by
c su
i g 
her p r
s f scrip
ure. Fr i s
ce, Ac
s iv. 25. xiii.
33. Fr
h
Ps m exhr
s  ki gs
 wrship
he s f Gd, shewi g

hemseves, s ki gs,
 be his mi is
ers, which m y be exp i ed by

he wrds f S
. Augus
i e, wh s ys, "I
his, ki gs, i
heir ry 
c p ci
y, serve Gd ccrdi g

he divi e cmm dme
, if
hey
prm
e wh
is gd, d prhibi
wh
is evi i
heir ki gdms, 

 y re
i g
 hum scie
y, bu
s respec
i g reigi ." A d i

her p ce
he s me wri
er s ys, "Hw c ki gs serve
he Lrd i
fe r, u ess
hey c prhibi
d pu ish wi
h due severi
y ffe ces
g i s

he  w f Gd? Fr
he c p ci
ies i which
hey serve Gd, s
i dividu s, d s ki gs, re very differe
. I
his respec

hey
serve
he Lrd, s ki gs, whe
hey prm
e his service by me s which

hey cud 
use wi
hu
reg  pwer.
The s me p r
f
he Aps
e's wri
i gs suppies us wi
h sec d
rgume
, where
he higher pwers, me i g ki gs, re s id
 be frm
Gd, d re c ed
he rdi ce f Gd; frm whe ce i
is p i y
i ferred
h
we re
 h ur d bey
he ki g, frm m
ives f
c scie ce, d
h
every  e wh resis
s him, is resis
i g Gd. If

he wrd rdi ce me

hi g mre
h b re permissi ,
h

bedie ce which
he Aps
e s s
re uusy e ji s wud  y h ve

he frce f imperfec
big
i . Bu
s
he wrd rdi ce, i

he rigi , impies express cmm dme


d ppi
me
, d s
 p r
s f
he reve ed wi f Gd re c sis
e
wi
h e ch 
her,
i
fws
h

he bedie ce f subjec
s
 svereig s is du
y f
supreme big
i . Nr is
he rgume

 we ke ed by i
s bei g
s id,
h

he Svereig s

he
ime whe S
. P u wr
e, were 

Chris
i s. Fr i
is 
u ivers y
rue, s Sergius P uus,
he
depu
y gver r f Cyprus, h d  g befre prfessed
he Chris
i
reigi . Ac
s xiii. 12. There is  cc si
 me
i
he
r di
i
respec
i g Abg rus
he Ki g f Edess 's Epis
e
 ur S viur;

r di
i mi ged wi
h f sehd,
hugh, i sme me sure fu ded
up
ru
h. Fr
he ques
i did 

ur up
he ch r c
ers f
he
Pri ces, whe
her
hey were gdy r 
, bu
whe
her THEIR hdi g
he
ki gy ffice w s repug


he  w f Gd. This S
. P u de ies,
m i
i i g
h

he ki gy ffice, eve u der  circums
ces, w s
ppi
ed by Gd,
herefre i
ugh

 be h ured frm m
ives f
c scie ce, which, prpery spe ki g, re u der
he c
ru f Gd
 e. S
h
Ner, d Ki g Agripp whm P u s e r es
y e
re
s

 becme Chris
i , migh
h ve embr ced Chris
i i
y, d s
i
re
i ed,
he  e his reg , d
he 
her his imperi  u
hri
y,
which cud 
be exercised wi
hu

he pwer f
he swrd. As
he
eg  s crifices migh
frmery be perfrmed by wicked Pries
s; i
he
s me m er reg  pwer wud re
i i
s i deibe s c
i
y,
hugh i

he h ds f u gdy m .
A
hird rgume
is derived frm
he wrds f Jh
he B p
is
, wh,


ime whe m y
hus ds f
he Jews served i
he Rm rmies,
s ppe rs frm
he
es
im y f Jsephus d 
hers, bei g seriusy
sked by
he sdiers, wh

hey shud d
 vid
he wr
h f Gd,
did 
cmm d
hem
 re u ce
heir mii
ry c i g, which he ugh

 h ve d e, h d i
bee i c sis
e
wi
h
he  w d wi f Gd,

bu

 bs
i frm vie ce, ex
r
i , d f se ccus
i , d

be c
e
wi
h
heir w ges. I repy

hese wrds f
he B p
is
,
s p i y givi g u
hri
y

he mii
ry prfessi , m y bserved

h

he i ju c
i f
he B p
is
is s widey differe
frm
he
precep
s f Chris
,
h
HE seemed
 pre ch  e dc
ri e d ur LORD

her. Which is by  me s dmissibe, fr
he fwi g re s s.
B
h ur S viur d
he B p
is
m de repe
ce
he subs
ce f

heir dc
ri e; fr
he ki gdm f he ve w s
h d. By
he Ki gdm
f He ve is me
ew  w, s
he Hebrews used
 give
he me
f Ki gdm

heir  w. Chris
himsef s ys
he Ki gdm f He ve
beg
 suffer vie ce frm
he d ys f Jh
he B p
is
. M

. xi.
12. Jh is s id
 h ve pre ched
he b p
ism f repe
ce fr
he
remissi f si s. M rk i. 4. The Aps
es re s id
 h ve d e
he
s me i
he me f Chris
. Ac
s xi. 38. Jh requires frui
s wr
hy
f repe
ce, d
hre
e s des
ruc
i

hse, wh d 
prduce

hem. M

. iii. 8, 10. He s requires wrks f ch ri


y bve
he
 w. Luke iii. 2. The  w is s id
 h ve c
i ued
i Jh ,
h

is, mre perfec


 w is s id
 h ve cmme ced frm his i s
ruc
i .
He w s c ed gre
er
h
he prphe
s, d dec red
 be  e se

 give
he k wedge f s v
i

he pepe by u ci g
he
gspe. He m kes  dis
i c
i be
wee himsef d Jesus 
he scre
f dc
ri e,  y scribi g pre-emi e ce
 Chris
s
he prmised
Messi h,
he Lrd f
he Ki gdm f He ve , wh wud give
he pwer f

he hy spiri


hse, wh beieved i him. I shr
,
he d w i g
rudime
s f k wedge, which prceeded frm
he freru er, were mre
dis
i c
y u fded d ce red up, by Chris
himsef,
he igh
f
he
wrd.
There is fur
h rgume
, which seems
 h ve  i

e weigh
,
prceedi g up
he suppsi
i ,
h
if
he righ
f i fic
i g
c pi
 pu ishme
s were bished, d pri ces were deprived f
he
pwer f
he swrd
 pr
ec

heir subjec
s g i s

he vie ce f
murderers d rbbers, wicked ess wud
riumph
y prev i, d

he wrd wud be deuged wi


h crimes, which, eve u der
he bes

es
bished gver me
s, re wi
h s much difficu
y preve
ed r
res
r i ed. If
he i
h d bee
he i
e
i f Chris

 i
rduce
such rder f
hi gs s h d ever bee he rd f, he wud
u dub
edy by
he ms
express d p r
icu r wrds, h ve c dem ed
 c pi
 pu ishme
s, d  w rs, which we ever re d
h
he
did. Fr
he rgume
s, brugh
i f vr f such pi i , re
fr
he ms
p r
very i defi i
e d bscure. Nw b
h jus
ice d
cmm se se require such ge er  expressi s
 be
ke i imi
ed
ccep

i , d w us, i exp i i g mbiguus wrds,
 dep r

frm
heir i
er  me i g, where ur s
ric
y dheri g
 i
wud
e d
 m ifes
i c ve ie ce d de
rime
.
There is fif
h rgume
, m i
i i g
h
 prf c be dduced

h

he judici  p r
f
he Ms ic L w, i fic
i g se
e ce f
de
h, ever ce sed
 be i frce,
i
he ci
y f Jerus em, d

he civi pi
y f
he Jews were u

ery des
ryed, wi
hu
hpes
f res
r
i . Fr i
he Ms ic dispe s
i  ssig be
erm is
med fr
he dur
i f
he  w; r d Chris
d his Aps
es ever
spe k f i
s bi
i , excep
i usi

he ver
hrw f
he
Jewish s

e. I deed 
he c
r ry, S
. P u s ys,
h

he High
Pries
w s ppi
ed
 judge ccrdi g

he  w f Mses. Ac
s xxiv.
3. A d Chris
himsef, i
he i
rduc
i
 his precep
s, dec res

h
he c me 

 des
ry
he  w, bu

 fufi i
. M

. v. 17.
The ppic
i f his me i g

he ri
u   w is very p i , fr
i
w s  y
he u
i e d sh dw f
h
perfec
bdy, f which
he
Gspe frmed
he subs
ce. Bu
hw is i
pssibe
h

he judici 

 ws shud s
d, if Chris
, ccrdi g

he pi i f sme,
bished
hem by his cmi g? Nw if
he  w rem i ed i frce s  g
s
he Jewish s

e c
i ued, i
fws
h

he Jewish c ver
s

Chris
i i
y if c ed

he m gis
eri  ffice, cud 
refuse i


he scre f deci i g
 p ss se
e ce f de
h, d
h

hey
cud 
decide 
herwise
h
he  w f Mses h d prescribed.
Up weighi g
he whe m

er,
he sigh
es
gru d c 
be
discvered fr suppsi g
h
y pius m , wh h d he rd
hse
wrds frm ur S viur himsef, wud h ve u ders
d
hem i se se
differe
frm
h
which h s bee here give . I
mus
hwever be
dmi

ed
h
, befre
he Gspe dispe s
i permissi r impu i
y
w s gr
ed
 cer
i c
s d dispsi
i s, which i
wud ei
her
be ecess ry r prper
 ex mi e
prese
, up which Chris
did

w his fwers
 c
. Of
his ki d w s
he permissi

pu
w y wife fr every ffe ce, d
 seek redress by  w fr
every i jury. Nw be
wee
he psi
ive precep
s f Chris
d
hse
permissi s
here is differe ce, bu

c
r dic
i . Fr he

h
re
i s his wife, d he
h
frges his righ
f redress, des

hi g CONTRARY

he  w, bu
r
her c
s gree by

he SPIRIT
f i
. I
is very differe
wi
h judge, wh is 
merey permi

ed,
bu
cmm ded by
he  w
 pu ish murderer wi
h de
h, i curri g
gui
i
he sigh
f Gd, if he shud c

herwise. If Chris
h d
frbidde him
 pu
murderer
 de
h, his prhibi
i wud h ve
mu
ed
 c
r dic
i , d i
wud h ve bished
he  w.
The ex mpe f Cr eius
he Ce
uri suppies six
h rgume
i
f vr f
his pi i . I receivi g
he hy spiri
frm Chris
, he
received i dubi
be prf f his jus
ific
i ; he w s b p
ized
i

he me f Chris
by Pe
er, ye
we d 
fi d
h
he ei
her
h d resig ed r w s dvised by
he Aps
e
 resig his mii
ry
cmmissi . I repy
 which sme m i
i ,
h
whe i s
ruc
ed
by Pe
er i
he
ure f
he Chris
i reigi , he mus
h ve bee
i s
ruc
ed
 frm
he resu
i f qui

i g his mii
ry c i g.
There wud be sme weigh
i
heir swer, if i
cud be shw
h

bsu
e prhibi
i f w r is
 be fu d m g
he precep
s
f Chris
. A d s i
c be fu d where ese, i
wud h ve bee
i ser
ed i i
s prper p ce m g
he precep
s f Chris
,
h
f
er
ges migh

h ve bee ig r
f
he rues f du
y. Nr s m y be
see i
he xix. ch p. f
he Ac
s f
he Aps
es d
he 19
h ver.
is i
usu  wi
h S
. Luke, i c ses where
he pers  ch r c
er d
si
u
i f c ver
s required ex
r rdi ry ch ge f ife d
dispsi
i ,
 p ss ver such circums
ce wi
hu

ice.
The seve
h rgume
is ike
he precedi g, d is
ke frm
he
ex mpe f Sergius P uus, which h s bee re dy me
i ed. I
he
his
ry f his c versi
here is 

he e s
i
im
i f his
bdic
i g
he m gis
r cy, r bei g required
 d s. Therefre
sie ce respec
i g circums
ce, which wud
ur y d
ecess riy h ve bee me
i ed, m y be f iry
ke s prf
h

i
ever exis
ed. The c duc
f S
. P u suppies us wi
h eigh
h
rgume

his subjec
. Whe he u ders
d
h

he Jews  y i
w i
fr ppr
u i
y
 seize d ki him, he immedi
ey g ve
i frm
i f
heir desig

he cmm der f
he Rm g rris ,
d whe
he cmm der g ve him gu rd f sdiers
 pr
ec
him 
his jur ey, he m de  rem s
r ce, r ever hi
ed ei
her

he
cmm der r
he sdiers
h
i
w s dispe si g
 Gd
 repe frce
by frce. Ye

his is
he s me Aps
e wh, s ppe rs frm  his
wri
i gs, 2 Tim. iv. 2. ei
her himsef egec
ed r wed 
hers

 egec
y ppr
u i
y f remi di g me f
heir du
y. I ddi
i


 
h
h s bee s id, i
m y be bserved,
h

he pecui r e d
f wh
is  wfu d bi di g, mus
i
sef be  wfu d bi di g s.
I
is  wfu
 p y
ribu
e, d ccrdi g
 S
. P u's exp
i ,
i
is c
bi di g up
he c scie ce, Rm. xiii. 3, 4, 6. Fr
he
e d f
ribu
e is
 suppy
he s

e wi
h
he me s f pr
ec
i g

he gd, d res
r i i g
he wicked. There is p ss ge i T ci
us
very ppic be

he prese
ques
i . I
is i
he fur
h bk f
his his
ry, i
he speech f Pe
iius Cere is, wh s ys, "
he pe ce
f
i s c 
be preserved wi
hu
rmies, r c rmies be
m i
i ed wi
hu
p y, r p y suppied wi
hu

x
i ." There is
se
ime
simi r

his f
he his
ri , i S
. Augus
i , he s ys,
"fr
his purpse we p y
ribu
e,
h

he sdier m y be prvided wi
h

he ecess ries f ife."


The
e
h rgume
is
ke frm
h
p r
f
he xxv. ch p. f
he
Ac
s f
he Aps
es, where P u s ys, "If I h ve wr ged y m , r
d e y
hi g wr
hy f de
h, I refuse 

 die." Frm whe ce
he
pi i f S
. P u m y be g
hered,
h
, eve f
er
he pubic
i
f
he gspe,
here were cer
i crimes which jus
ice 
 y wed
bu
required
 be pu ished wi
h de
h; which pi i S
. Pe
er s
m i
i s. Bu
if i
h d bee
he wi f Gd
h
c pi
 pu ishme
s
shud be bished, P u migh
h ve ce red himsef, bu
he ugh


 h ve ef
impressi 
he mi ds f me ,
h
i
w s

h

ime equ y  wfu s befre


 pu ish
he gui
y wi
h de
h. Nw s
i
h s bee prved,
h

he cmi g f Chris
did 

ke w y
he
righ
f i fic
i g c pi
 pu ishme
s, i
h s

he s me
ime bee
prved,
h
w r m y be m de up mu
i
ude f rmed ffe ders, wh
c  y be brugh

 jus
ice by defe
i b

e. The umbers,


he
s
re g
h d bd ess f
he ggressrs,
hugh
hey m y h ve
heir
weigh
i res
r i i g ur deiber
i s, c 
i
he e s
dimi ish
ur righ
.
The subs
ce f
he eeve
h rgume
res
s 
 y up ur
S viur's h vi g bished
hse p r
s f
he Ms ic  w, which frmed
w  f sep r
i be
wee
he Jews d 
her
i s, bu
up
his wi g
he mr  p r
s
 rem i , s s
di g rues, pprved
by
he  w f
ure, d
he c se
f every civiized pepe, d
c
i i g wh
ever is gd d vir
uus.
Nw
he pu ishi g f crimes, d
he
ki g up rms
 ve ge r w rd
ff i juries re m g
hse c
i s, which by
he  w f
ure
r k s  ud be, d re referred

he vir
ues f jus
ice d
be efice ce. A d here is
he prper p ce
 im dver
sigh
y up

he mis
ke f
hse, wh derive
he righ
s f w r, pssessed by
he
Isr ei
es, sey frm
he circums
ce f Gd h vi g give
hem
he
 d f C d cmmissi ed
hem
 drive u

he i h bi

s. This
m y be  e jus
re s , bu
i
is 

he se re s .
Fr, prir

hse
imes, hy me guided by
he igh
f
ure
u der
k w rs, which
he Isr ei
es
hemseves f
erw rds did fr
v rius re s s, d D vid i p r
icu r,
 ve ge
he vi
ed righ
s
f mb ss drs. Bu

he righ
s, which y  e derives frm
he  w f

ure, re  ess his w
h if Gd h d give
hem: r re
hse
righ
s bished by
he  w f
he Gspe.

III. Le
us w c sider
he rgume
s, by which
he c
r ry pi i
is suppr
ed,
h

he pius re der m y judge mre e siy,
 which
side
he sc e i ci es.
I
he firs
p ce,
he prphecy f Is i h is ge er y eged, wh

s ys
he
ime sh  cme, "whe
i s sh  be

heir swrds i

pw-sh res, d
ur
heir spe rs i
 pru i g hks. N
i sh 

if
up swrd g i s

i , ei
her sh 
hey e r w r y
mre." ii. 4. Bu

his prphecy, ike m y 
hers, is
 be
ke
c di
i y, udi g

he s

e f
he wrd
h
wud
ke
p ce, if 
i s wud submi


he  w f Chris
, d m ke
i

he rue f ife,
 which purpse Gd wud suffer 
hi g

be w
i g  his p r
. Fr i
is cer
i ,
h
if  pepe were
Chris
i s, d ived ike Chris
i s,
here wud be  w rs, which
Ar bius expresses
hus, "If  me , k wi g
h
i
is 

heir
crpre  frm  e which m kes
hem me , bu

he pwers f
he
u ders
di g, wud e d p
ie
e r
 his s u
ry d p cific
i s
ruc
i s, if
hey wud
rus

 his dm i
i s r
her
h

he
swei g pride d
urbue ce f
heir se ses, ir wud be empyed
fr i s
rume
s f mre h rmess d usefu per
i s,
he wrd e jy

he sf
es
repse d be u i
ed i
he b ds f i vi be
re
ies."
O
his subjec
L c

ius, repr chi g
he P g s wi
h
he deific
i
f
heir c querrs, s ys, "wh
wud be
he c seque ce, if  me
wud u i
e i c crd? Which migh
cer
i y be brugh

 p ss,
if, b d i g rui us d impius r ge,
hey wud ive i jus
ice
d i ce ce." Or
his p ss ge f
he prphecy mus
be u ders
d
i
er y, d, if
ke i
h
se se, i
shews
h
i
is 
ye

fufied, bu
i
s ccmpishme
mus
be ked fr i
he ge er 
c versi f
he Jewish pepe. Bu
, which ever w y yu
ke i
, 
c cusi c be dr w frm i
g i s

he jus
ice f w r, s  g s
vie
me exis

 dis
urb
he quie
f
he vers f pe ce.[7]
IX. I ex mi i g
he me i g f wri

e evide ce, ge er  cus


m, d

he pi i s f me ceebr
ed fr
heir wisdm h ve usu y gre

weigh
; pr c
ice which i
is righ

 bserve i
he i
erpre

i
f hy scrip
ure. Fr i
is 
ikey
h
churches, which h d bee
fu ded by
he Aps
es, wud ei
her sudde y r u ivers y h ve
swerved frm
hse pi i s, which
he Aps
es h d briefy expressed,
i wri
i g, d f
erw rds mre fuy d ce ry exp i ed

hem
wi
h
heir w ips, d reduced
 pr c
ice. Nw cer
i expressi s
f
he primi
ive Chris
i s re usu y eged by
hse wh re
dverse
  w rs, whse pi i s m y be c sidered d refu
ed i

hree pi
s f view.
I
he firs
p ce, frm
hese expressi s 
hi g mre c be g
hered

h
he priv
e pi i s f cer
i i dividu s, bu
 pubic
pi i f
he Churches. Besides
hese expressi s fr
he ms
p r

re
 be fu d  y i
he wri
i gs f Orige , Ter
ui d sme
few 
hers, wh wished
 dis
i guish
hemseves by
he brii cy f

heir
hugh
s, wi
hu
reg rdi g c sis
e cy i
heir pi i s. Fr

his s me Orige s ys,


h
Bees were give by Gd s p

er fr
me
 fw i c duc
i g jus
, regu r, d ecess ry w rs; d
ikewise Ter
ui , wh i sme p r
s seems
 dis pprve f c pi

pu ishme
s, h s s id, "N  e c de y
h
i
is gd
he gui
y
shud be pu ished." He expresses his dub
s respec
i g
he mii
ry
prfessi , fr i his bk up id
ry, he s ys, i
is fi
m

er
f i quiry, whe
her beievers c
ke up rms, r whe
her y f

he mii
ry prfessi c be dmi

ed s members f
he Chris
i
Church. Bu
i his Bk e
i
ed,
he SOLDIER'S CROWN, f
er sme
bjec
i s g i s

he prfessi f rms, he m kes dis
i c
i
be
wee
hse wh re e g ged i
he rmy befre b p
ism, d
hse
wh e
ered f
er
hey h d m de
he b p
ism  vw. "I
evide
y,
_s ys he_ 
ers
he c se wi
h
hse wh were sdiers befre
heir
c versi
 Chris
i i
y; Jh dmi

ed
hem
 b p
ism, i  e
i s
ce Chris
pprved, d i 
her Pe
er i s
ruc
ed f i
hfu

Ce
uri : ye
wi
h
his s
ipu
i ,
h

hey mus
ei
her ike
m y 
hers, rei quish
heir c i g, r be c refu
 d 
hi g
dispe si g
 Gd." He w s se sibe
he
h

hey c
i ued i
he
mii
ry prfessi f
er b p
ism, which
hey wud by  me s h ve
d e, if
hey h d u ders
d
h
 w r w s frbidde by Chris
. They
wud h ve fwed
he ex mpe f
he S
hs yers,
he M gi, d 
her
prfessrs f frbidde r
s, wh ce sed
 pr c
ice
hem, whe
hey
bec me Chris
i s. I
he bk qu
ed bve, cmme di g sdier, wh
w s

he s me
ime Chris
i , he s ys, "O Sdier grius i Gd."
The sec d bserv
i ppies

he c se f
hse, wh deci ed r
eve refused be ri g rms,  ccu
f
he circums
ces f
he

imes, which wud h ve required


hem
 d m y c
s i c sis
e
wi
h

heir Chris
i c i g. I D be 's e

er

he Ephesi s, which
is
 be fu d i Jsephus, we see
h

he Jews reques
ed exemp
i
frm mii
ry expedi
i s, bec use, i mi gi g wi
h s
r gers,
hey
cud 
c ve ie
y h ve bserved
he ri
es f
heir w  ws d
wud h ve bee biged
 be r rms, d
 m ke  g m rches 
he
S bb
hs. A d we re i frmed by Jsephus
h
, fr
he s me re s s,

he Jews b
i ed
heir disch rge f L. Le
uus. I 
her p r
, he
re
es
h
whe
he Jews h d bee rdered
 e ve
he ci
y f Rme,
sme f
hem e is
ed i
he rmy, d
h

hers, wh u
f respec


he  ws f
heir cu
ry, fr
he re s s befre me
i ed, refused

 be r rms, were pu ished. I ddi


i

hese
hird re s m y
be give , which w s
h

hey wud h ve
 figh
g i s

heir w
pepe, g i s
whm i
w s u  wfu
 be r rms, especi y whe
hey
i curred d ger d e mi
y fr dheri g

he Ms ic  w. Bu

he
Jews, whe ever
hey cud d i
, wi
hu

hese i c ve ie ces, served
u der freig pri ces, previusy s
ipu
i g, s we re i frmed by
Jsephus, fr iber
y
 ive ccrdi g

he  ws d rues f
heir
w cu
ry. Ter
ui bjec
s

he mii
ry service f his w

imes  ccu
f d gers, d i c ve ie ces very simi r

hse,
which de
erred
he Jews. I his bk  Id
ry, he s ys, "i
is
impssibe
 rec cie
he 
h f fidei
y
 serve u der
he b ers
f Chris
, wi
h
h

 serve u der
he b ers f
he Devi." Bec use

he sdiers were rdered


 swe r by Jupi
er, M rs, d
he 
her
He
he Gds. A d i his bk 
he Sdier's Crw , he sks, "if
he
sdier be
 keep w
ch befre
he
empes, which he h s re u ced,

sup where he is frbidde by
he Aps
e, d
 gu rd i
he igh

he
Gds, whm he h s bjured i
he d y?" A d he prceeds wi
h ski g, "if

here be 
m y 
her mii
ry du
ies, which ugh

 be reg rded i

he igh
f si s?"
The
hird pi
f view, i which
he subjec
is
 be c sidered,
re
es

he c duc
f
hse primi
ive Chris
i s, wh, i
he
rdur f ze , imed

he ms
brii

i me
s,
ki g
he
divi e cu ses fr precep
s f big
i . The Chris
i s, s ys
A
he gr s, ever g
  w wi
h
hse, wh rb
hem.
S vi s ys, i
w s cmm ded by Chris

h
we shud rei quish

he bjec
f dispu
e, r
her
h e g ge i  w sui
s. Bu

his,

ke i s ge er  ccep

i , is r
her by
he w y f cu se,
i rder


i
 subimer mde f ife,
h i
e ded s
psi
ive precep
. Thus m y f
he primi
ive F
hers c dem ed 

hs wi
hu
excep
i , ye
S
. P u, i m

ers f gre
impr
ce,
m de use f
hese sem ppe s
 Gd. A Chris
i i T
i s id,
"I refuse
he ffice f Pr e
r," d i
he wrds f Ter
ui , "
Chris
i is 
mbi
ius f
he Aedie's ffice." I
he s me m er
L c

ius m i
i s
h
jus
m , such s he wishes Chris
i

 be, ugh


 e g ge i w r, r, s  his w
s c be

suppied
hme, eve
 g
 se . Hw m y f
he primi
ive f
hers
dissu de Chris
i s frm sec d m rri ges? A
hese cu ses re gd,
recmme di g excee

i me
s, highy ccep
be
 Gd, ye

hey
re 
required f us, by y bsu
e  w. The bserv
i s re dy
m de re sufficie

 swer
he bjec
i s derived frm
he primi
ive

imes f Chris
i i
y.
Nw i rder
 c firm ur pi i s, we m y bserve
h

hey h ve

he suppr
f wri
ers, eve f gre
er
iqui
y, wh
hi k
h

c pi
 pu ishme
s m y be i fic
ed, d
h
w rs, which res
up

he s me u
hri
y, m y be  wfuy e g ged i by Chris
i s. Ceme s
Aex dri us s ys,
h
" Chris
i , if, ike Mses, he be c ed


he exercise f svereig pwer, wi be ivi g  w


 his subjec
s,
rew rdi g
he gd, d pu ishi g
he wicked." A d, i 
her p ce,
describi g
he h bi
f Chris
i , he s ys, "i
wud becme him

g b ref
, u ess he were sdier." I
he wrk usu y e
i
ed

he CONSTITUTIONS OF CLEMENS ROMANUS, we fi d


h
"i
is 

kii g which is c sidered u  wfu, bu
 y
h
f
he i ce
;
ye

he dmi is
r
i f judici  pu ishme
s mus
be reserved

he
supreme pwer  e." Bu
wi
hu
res
i g up i dividu  u
hri
ies,
we c ppe 

he pubic u
hri
y f
he church which ugh


h ve
he gre
es
weigh
. Frm he ce i
is evide

h
 e were ever
refused b p
ism, r excmmu ic
ed by
he church, merey fr be ri g
rms, which
hey ugh

 h ve bee , h d
he mii
ry prfessi bee
repug


he
erms f
he ew cve
. I
he CONSTITUTIONS jus

qu
ed,
he wri
er spe ki g f
hse wh, i
he primi
ive
imes,
were dmi

ed
 b p
ism, r refused
h
rdi ce, s ys, "e

sdier wh desires
 be dmi

ed be
ugh

 frbe r frm vie ce,
d f se ccus
i s, d
 be c
e
wi
h his regu r p y. If he
prmises bedie ce e
him be dmi

ed." Ter
ui i his Apgy,
spe ki g i
he ch r c
er f Chris
i s, s ys, "We s i  g wi
h yu,
d we e g ge i
he s me w rs," h vi g i

e befre bserved, "we


re bu
s
r gers, ye
we h ve fied  yur ci
ies, yur is ds,
yur c s
es, yur mu icip 
w s, yur cu cis, d eve yur
c mps." He h d re
ed i
he s me bk
h
r i h d bee b
i ed
fr
he Emperr M rcus Aureius by
he pr yers f
he Chris
i
sdiers.[8] I his bk f
he crw , he cmme ds sdier, wh h d

hrw w y his g r d, fr cur ge superir



h
f his bre
hre
i rms, d i frms us
h
he h d m y Chris
i few sdiers.
T
hese prfs m y be dded
he h urs f M r
yrdm give by
he
Church
 sme sdiers, wh h d bee cruey persecu
ed, d h d eve
suffered de
h fr
he s ke f Chris
, m g whm re recrded
hree f
S
. P u's cmp i s, Ceri is wh suffered m r
yrdm u der Decius;
M ri us u der eri ; fif
y u der Aurei , ic
r, M urus, d
e
i us, ieu
e
ge er  u der M ximi . Abu

he s me
ime
M rceus
he Ce
uri , Severi u der Lici ius. Cypri , i spe ki g
f L ure
i us, d Ig
ius, b
h Afric s, s ys, "They
 served i

he rmies f e r
hy pri ces, ye

hey were
ruy spiri
u  sdiers
f Gd, defe
i g
he wies f
he Devi by s
e dy c fessi f
he
me f Chris
, d e r i g
he p ms d crw s f
he Lrd by
heir
sufferi gs." A d frm he ce i
is p i wh
w s
he ge er  pi i
f
he primi
ive Chris
i s up w r, eve befre
he Emperrs bec me
Chris
i s.
I
eed 
be
hugh
surprisi g, if
he Chris
i s f
hse
imes
were u wii g
 ppe r

ri s fr ife, si ce, fr
he ms

p r
,
he pers s
 be
ried were Chris
i s. I 
her respec
s
,
besides bei g u wii g
 wi
ess
he u meri
ed sufferi gs f
heir
persecu
ed bre
hre ,
he Rm  ws were mre severe
h Chris
i

e i
y cud w f, s m y be see frm
he si ge i s
ce f
he
Si i decree f
he Se
e.[9] I deed c pi
 pu ishme
s were 

bished eve f
er C s

i e embr ced d beg
 e cur ge
he
Chris
i reigi . He himsef m g 
her  ws e c
ed  e simi r


h
f
he cie
Rm s, fr pu ishi g p rricides, by sewi g
hem
i s ck wi
h cer
i im s, d
hrwi g
hem i

he se , r
he
e res
river. This  w is
 be fu d i his cde u der
he "
i
e f

he murders f p re
s r chidre ." Ye
i 
her respec
s he w s s
ge
e i pu ishi g crimi s,
h
he is b med by m y his
ri s
fr his excessive e i
y. C s

i e, we re i frmed by his
ri s,
h d

h

ime m y Chris
i s i his rmy, d he used
he me
f Chris
s
he m

 up his s
d rds. Frm
h

ime

he
mii
ry 
h w s ch ged

he frm, which is fu d i ege
ius, d

he sdier swre, "By Gd, d Chris


, d
he hy spiri
, d
he
m jes
y f
he Emperr,
 whm s ex

 Gd, hm ge d revere ce
re due frm m ki d." Nr u
f s m y Bishps

h

ime, m y
f whm suffered
he ms
crue
re
me
fr
heir reigi , d we
re d f si ge  e, wh dissu ded C s

i e, by
he
errrs f
divi e wr
h frm i fic
i g c pi
 pu ishme
s, r prsecu
i g w rs,
r wh de
erred
he Chris
i s, fr
he s me re s s, frm servi g
i
he rmies. Thugh ms
f
hse Bishps were s
ric
bservers
f discipi e, wh wud by  me s dissembe i pi
s re
i g


he du
y f
he Emperrs r f 
hers. Am g
his c ss, i
he

ime f Thedsius, we m y r k Ambrse, wh i his seve


h discurse
s ys, "
here is 
hi g wr g i be ri g rms; bu

 be r rms frm
m
ives f r pi e is si i deed," d i his firs
bk f Offices,
he m i
i s
he s me pi i ,
h
"
he cur ge which defe ds  e's
cu
ry g i s

he i cursi s f b rb ri s, r pr
ec
s  e's f miy
d hme frm
he

cks f rbbers, is cmpe


e jus
ice." These
rgume
s s decidedy shew
he pi i s f
he primi
ive Chris
i s
i
he suppr
f jus
d ecess ry w r,
h

he subjec
requires 
f r
her prf r eucid
i .
Nr is
he rgume
i v id
ed by f c
pre

y ge er y k w ,
h

Bishps d 
her Chris
i s f
e i
erceded i beh f f crimi s,

 mi
ig
e
he pu ishme
f de
h, d
h
y, wh h d
ke
refuge i churches, were 
give up, bu
up
he prmise f
heir
ives bei g sp red. A cus
m w s i
rduced ikewise f ree si g
 pris ers bu

he
ime f E s
er. Bu

hese i s
ces, if
c refuy ex mi ed, wi be fu d
he vu
ry c
s f Chris
i
ki d ess, embr ci g every ppr
u i
y
 d gd, d 
se

ed
pi
f pubic pi i c dem i g  c pi
 pu ishme
s. Therefre

hse f vurs were 


u ivers ; bu
imi
ed

imes d p ces,
d eve
he i
ercessi s
hemseves were mdified wi
h cer
i
excep
i s.[10]

CHAPTER III.
THE DI ISION OF WAR INTO PUBLIC AND PRI ATE AND THE NATURE OF SO EREIGN
POWER.
The Divisi f W r i
 pubic d priv
e--Ex mpes
 prve

h
 priv
e W r is 
repug


he L w f N
ure si ce

he erec
i f Cur
s f Jus
ice--The Divisi f Pubic W r
i
 frm , d i frm --Whe
her
he suppressi f Tumu
s by
subrdi
e M gis
r
es be prpery pubic W r--Civi Pwer, i
wh
i
c sis
s--Svereig Pwer fur
her c sidered--The pi i

f
hse, wh m i
i
h

he Svereig Pwer is w ys i
he
pepe, refu
ed, d
heir rgume
s swered--Mu
u  subjec
i
refu
ed--C u
i s requisi
e
 u ders
d
he
ure f Svereig
Pwer--Dis
i c
i f
he re  differe ces
h
exis
u der simi r
mes--Dis
i c
i be
wee
he righ

 Svereig Pwer, d
he
mde f exercisi g i
.
I. The firs
d ms
ecess ry divisi s f w r re i
  e ki d
c ed priv
e, 
her pubic, d 
her mixed. Nw pubic w r is
c rried  by
he pers hdi g
he svereig pwer. Priv
e w r is

h
which is c rried  by priv
e pers s wi
hu
u
hri
y frm
he
s

e. A mixed w r is
h
which is c rried  ,   e side by pubic
u
hri
y, d 
he 
her by priv
e pers s. Bu
priv
e w r, frm
i
s gre
er
iqui
y, is
he firs
subjec
fr i quiry.
The prfs
h
h ve bee re dy prduced,
 shew
h

 repe
vie ce is 
repug


ur   w, ffrd s
isf c
ry re s

 jus
ify priv
e w r, s f r s
he  w f
ure is c cer ed.
Bu
perh ps i
m y be
hugh

h
si ce pubic
ribu s h ve bee
erec
ed, priv
e redress f wr gs is 
w be. A bjec
i which
is very jus
. Ye

hugh pubic
ri s d cur
s f jus
ice re

i s
i
u
i s f
ure, bu
erec
ed by
he i ve
i f me , ye

s i
is much mre c ducive

he pe ce f scie
y fr m

er i
dispu
e
 be decided by disi
eres
ed pers ,
h by
he p r
i i
y
d prejudice f
he p r
y ggrieved,
ur  jus
ice d re s wi
dic

e
he ecessi
y d dv
ge f every  e's submi

i g

he
equi
be decisi s f pubic judges. P uus,
he L wyer, bserves
h

"wh
c be d e by m gis
r
e wi
h
he u
hri
y f
he s

e,
shud ever be i
rus
ed
 i dividu s; s priv
e redress wud give
rise
 gre
er dis
urb ce. A d "
he re s , _s ys Ki g Thedric_,
why  ws were i ve
ed, w s
 preve
y  e frm usi g pers 
vie ce, fr wherei wud pe ce differ frm 
he c fusi f w r,
if priv
e dispu
es were
ermi
ed by frce?" A d
he  w c s i

frce fr y m
 seize wh
he
hi ks his due, wi
hu
seeki g
eg  remedy.
II. I
is m

er bey d  dub

h

he iber
y f priv
e
redress, which  ce exis
ed, w s gre
y bridged f
er cur
s f
jus
ice were es
bished. Ye

here m y be c ses, i which priv
e
redress mus
be wed, s fr i s
ce, if
he w y
 eg  jus
ice
were 
pe . Fr whe
he  w prhibi
s y  e frm redressi g his
w wr gs, i
c  y be u ders
d
 ppy
 circums
ces where
eg  remedy exis
s. Nw
he bs
ruc
i i
he w y
 eg  redress
m y be ei
her
empr ry r bsu
e. Tempr ry, where i
is impssibe
fr
he i jured p r
y
 w i
fr eg  remedy, wi
hu
immi e

d ger d eve des


ruc
i . As fr i s
ce, if m were

cked i

he igh
, r i secre
p ce where  ssis
ce cud be prcured.
Absu
e, ei
her s
he righ
, r
he f c
m y require. Nw
here re
m y si
u
i s, where
he righ
mus
ce se frm
he impssibii
y f
suppr
i g i
i eg  w y, s i u ccupied p ces, 
he se s,
i wider ess, r deser
is d, r y 
her p ce, where
here
is  civi gver me
. A eg  remedy
 ce ses by f c
, whe
subjec
s wi 
submi


he judge, r if he refuses pe y

ke
cg iz ce f m

ers i dispu
e. The sser
i
h
 priv
e w r
is 
m de repug


he  w f
ure by
he erec
i f eg 

ribu s, m y be u ders


d frm  w give

he Jews, wherei Gd

hus spe ks by
he mu
h f Mses, Exd. xxii. 2. "If
hief be fu d
bre ki g up,
h
is, by igh
, d be smi

e
h
he dies,
here
sh   bd be shed fr him, bu
if
he su be rise up him,


here sh  be bd shed fr him." Nw
his  w, m ki g s ccur
e
dis
i c
i i
he meri
s f
he c se, seems 
 y
 impy impu i
y
fr kii g y  e, i sef-defe ce, bu

 exp i
ur  righ
,
fu ded 
 y speci  divi e cmm d, bu

he cmm pri cipes
f jus
ice. Frm whe ce 
her
i s h ve p i y fwed
he s me
rue. The p ss ge f
he
weve
bes is we k w , u dub
edy
ke
frm
he d A
he i L w, "If
hief cmmi
rbbery i
he igh
,
d m ki him, he is kied  wfuy." Thus by
he  ws f 
k w d civiized
i s,
he pers is judged i ce
, wh kis

her, frciby

emp
i g r e d geri g his ife; c spiri g d
u ivers 
es
im y, which prves
h
i jus
ifi be hmicide,
here
is 
hi g repug


he  w f
ure.
I .[11] Pubic w r, ccrdi g

he  w f
i s, is ei
her SOLEMN,

h
is FORMAL, r LESS SOLEMN,
h
is INFORMAL. The me f  wfu
w r is cmm y give
 wh
is here c ed frm , i
he s me se se
i which regu r wi is ppsed
 cdici, r  wfu m rri ge


he ch bi

i f s ves. This ppsi
i by  me s impies

h
i
is 
wed
 y m , if he pe ses,
 m ke cdici,
r
 s ves
 ch bi
i m
rim y, bu
 y,
h
, by
he civi
 w, FORMAL WILLS d SOLEMN MARRIAGES, were

e ded wi
h pecui r
privieges d effec
s. These bserv
i s were
he mre ecess ry;
bec use m y, frm misc cep
i f
he wrd jus
r  wfu,
hi k

h
 w rs,
 which
hse epi
he
s d 
ppy, re c dem ed s
u jus
d u  wfu. Nw
 give w r
he frm i
y required by
he
 w f
i s,
w
hi gs re ecess ry. I
he firs
p ce i
mus

be m de  b
h sides, by
he svereig pwer f
he s

e, d i
he
ex
p ce i
mus
be ccmp ied wi
h cer
i frm i
ies. B
h f
which re s esse
i 
h
 e is i sufficie
wi
hu

he 
her.
Nw pubic w r, LESS SOLEMN, m y be m de wi
hu

hse frm i
ies,
eve g i s
priv
e pers s, d by y m gis
r
e wh
ever. A d
i deed, c sideri g
he
hi g wi
hu
respec


he civi  w, every
m gis
r
e, i c se f resis
ce, seems
 h ve righ


ke up
rms,
 m i
i his u
hri
y i
he execu
i f his ffice; s
we s
 defe d
he pepe cmmi

ed
 his pr
ec
i . Bu
s
whe s

e is by w r i vved i d ger, i
is es
bished  w i
ms

i s
h
 w r c be m de bu
by
he u
hri
y f
he
svereig i e ch s

e. There is such  w s
his i
he  s
bk
f P
 ON LAWS. A d by
he Rm  w,
 m ke w r, r evy
rps
wi
hu
cmmissi frm
he Pri ce w s high
re s . Accrdi g

he
Cr ei  w s, e c
ed by Lucius Cr eius Sy ,
 d s wi
hu

u
hri
y frm
he pepe mu
ed

he s me crime. I
he cde f
Jus
i i
here is c s
i
u
i , m de by e
i i d e s,

h
  e shud be r rms wi
hu

heir k wedge d u
hri
y.
C frm by

his rue, S
. Augus
i s ys,
h
s pe ce is ms

gree be

he
ur  s

e f m , i
is prper
h
Pri ces shud
h ve
he se u
hri
y
 devise d execu
e
he per
i s f w r.
Ye

his ge er  rue, ike  
hers, i i
s ppic
i mus
w ys
be imi
ed by equi
y d discre
i .
I cer
i c ses
his u
hri
y m y be cmmu ic
ed
 
hers. Fr i

is pi
se

ed bey d  dub



h
subrdi
e m gis
r
es m y,
by
heir fficers, reduce few disbedie
d
umu
uus pers s

 subjec
i , prvided,
h

 d i
, i
requires 
frce f
such e rmus m g i
ude s migh
e d ger
he s

e. Ag i , if
he
d ger be s immi e
s
 w f 
ime fr ppic
i

he
svereig execu
ive pwer, here

he ecessi
y is dmi

ed s
excep
i

he ge er  rue. Lucius Pi rius
he Gver r f E ,
Sicii g rris , presumi g up
his righ
, up receivi g cer
i

i frm
i
h

he i h bi

s h d frmed c spir cy
 rev



he C r
h gi i s, pu

hem 

he swrd, d by
h
me s s ved

he p ce. Fr ciscus ic
ri ws
he i h bi

s f
w

ke
up rms, eve wi
hu
such c se f ecessi
y,
 redress
heir w
wr gs, which
he Pri ce egec
s
 ve ge, bu
such pi i is
rejec
ed by 
hers.

. Whe
her
he circums
ces, u der which subrdi
e m gis
r
es re
u
hrised
 use mii
ry frce, c prpery be c ed pubic w r r

, is m

er f dispu
e m g eg  wri
ers, sme ffirmi g d

hers de yi g i
. If i deed we c   
her pubic w r, bu

h

which is m de by m gis
eri  u
hri
y,
here is  dub
bu

h

such suppressi s f
umu
re pubic w rs, d
hse wh i such
c ses resis

he m gis
r
e i
he execu
i f his ffice, i cur
he
gui
f rebei g i s
superirs. Bu
if pubic w r is
ke i
he
higher se se f FORMAL w r, s i
u dub
edy f
e is;
hse re 

pubic w rs; bec use


 e
i
e
hem

he fu righ
s f such,
he
dec r
i f
he svereig pwer d 
her requisi
es re w
i g.
Nr d
he ss f prper
y d
he mii
ry execu
i s,
 which

he ffe ders re subjec


,
 ffec

he ques
i .[12] Fr
hse
c su 
ies re 
s pecui ry

ched
 frm  w r, s
 be
excuded frm  
her ki ds. Fr i
m y h ppe , s i ex
e sive
empire fr i s
ce,
h
pers s i subrdi
e u
hri
y, m y, whe

cked, r
hre
e ed wi
h

ck, h ve pwers gr
ed
 cmme ce
mii
ry per
i s. I which c se
he w r mus
be suppsed
 cmme ce
by
he u
hri
y f
he svereig pwer; s pers is c sidered

 be
he u
hr f me sure which by vir
ue f his u
hri
y he
empwers 
her
 perfrm. The mre dub
fu pi
is, whe
her, where

here is  such cmmissi , c jec


ure f wh
is
he wi f
he
svereig pwer be sufficie
. This seems 
dmissibe. Fr i
is

sufficie

 c sider, wh
we suppse wud be
he Svereig 's
pe sure, if he were c su
ed; bu
wh
wud be his c
u  wi, i
m

ers dmi

i g f
ime fr deiber
i , eve
hugh he were 

frm y c su


ed; if  w w s
 be p ssed up
hse m

ers. "Fr

hugh UNDER SOME PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, i


m y be ecess ry

w ive c su
i g
he wi f
he svereig , ye

his wud by  me s
u
hrise i
s GENERAL PRACTICE. Fr
he s fe
y f
he s

e wud
be e d gered, if subrdi
e pwers shud usurp
he righ
f m ki g
w r

heir discre
i . I
w s 
wi
hu
re s ,
h
C eus M ius
w s ccused by his Lieu
e
s f h vi g m de w r up
he G 
i s
wi
hu
u
hri
y frm
he Rm pepe. Fr
hugh
he G 
i s h d
suppied A
ichus wi
h
rps, ye
s pe ce h d bee m de wi
h him, i

res
ed wi
h
he Rm pepe, d 
wi
h M ius
 de
ermi e i wh

m er
he G 
i s shud be pu ished fr ssis
i g e emy. C

prpsed
h
Juius C es r shud be deivered up

he Germ s fr
h vi g

cked
hem i vi
i f his prmise, prps  prceedi g
r
her frm
he desire
 be rid f frmid be riv ,
h frm y
pri cipe f jus
ice.
The c se w s
hus;
he Germ s h d ssis
ed
he G us, e emies f

he Rm pepe,
herefre
hey h d  re s
 cmp i f
he
i jury d e

hem, if
he w r g i s

he G us, i which
hey h d
m de
hemseves p r
y c cer ed, w s jus
. Bu
C es r ugh

 h ve
c
e
ed himsef wi
h drivi g
he Germ s u
f G u,
he prvi ce
ssig ed him, wi
hu
pursui g
hem i

heir w cu
ry, especi y
s
here w s  f r
her d ger
 be pprehe ded frm
hem; u ess he
h d firs
c su
ed
he Rm pepe. I
w s p i ,
he ,
he Germ s
h d  righ

 dem d
he surre der f C es r's pers ,
hugh
he
Rm s h d righ

 pu ish him fr h vi g exceeded his cmmissi . O
simi r cc si
he C r
h gi i s swered
he Rm s; "I
is 


he subjec
f i quiry whe
her H ib  h s besieged S gu
um, by his
w priv
e r by pubic u
hri
y, bu
whe
her jus
y r u jus
y. Fr
wi
h respec

  e f ur w subjec
s i
is ur busi ess
 i quire
by wh
u
hri
y he h s c
ed; bu

he m

er f discussi wi
h yu
is, whe
her he h s brke y
re
y." Cicer defe ds
he c duc
f
Oc
vius d Decimus Bru
us, wh h d
ke up rms g i s
A
 y. Bu

hugh i
w s evide

h
A
 y deserved
 be
re
ed s e emy,
ye

hey ugh

 h ve w i
ed fr
he de
ermi
i f
he Se
e d
pepe f Rme, whe
her i
were fr
he pubic i
eres



ke

ice f his c duc
r
 pu ish i
,
 gree

erms f pe ce wi
h
him, r
 h ve recurse
 rms. This wud h ve bee prper; fr 
 e is biged
 exercise
he righ
f pu ishi g e emy, if i
is

e ded wi
h prb be d ger.
Bu
eve if i
h d bee judged expedie

 dec re A
 y e emy,

he chice f
he pers s
 c duc

he w r shud h ve bee ef



he Se
e d pepe f Rme. Thus whe C ssius dem ded ssis
ce f

he Rhdi s, ccrdi g

re
y,
hey swered
hey wud se d i
,
if
he se
e
hugh
prper. This refu

i f Cicer's pi i wi
serve,  g wi
h m y 
her i s
ces
 be me
wi
h; s dm i
i


 be c rried w y by
he pi i s f
he ms
ceebr
ed wri
ers,
p r
icu ry
he ms
brii
r
rs, wh f
e spe k
 sui

he
circums
ces f
he mme
. Bu
 pi
ic  i ves
ig
i requires
c d s
e dy judgme
, 

 be bi sed by ex mpes, which m y
r
her be excused
h vi dic
ed.
Si ce
he i
h s re dy bee es
bished
h
 w r c  wfuy be
m de bu
by
he svereig pwer f e ch s

e, i respec

 
he
ques
i s c ec
ed wi
h w r, i
wi be ecess ry
 ex mi e wh

h

svereig pwer is, d wh re


he pers s
h
hd i
.

I. The mr  pwer


he f gver i g s

e, which is c ed by
Thucydides
he civi pwer, is described s c sis
i g f
hree p r
s
which frm
he ecess ry subs
ce f every s

e; d
hse re
he
righ
f m ki g i
s w  ws, execu
i g
hem i i
s w m er, d
ppi
i g i
s w m gis
r
es. Aris

e, i
he fur
h bk f his
Pi
ics, cmprises
he svereig
y f s

e i
he exercise f
he
deiber
ive, execu
ive, d judici  pwers. T
he deiber
ive
br ch he ssig s
he righ
f decidi g up pe ce r w r, m ki g r
ui g
re
ies, d fr mi g d p ssi g ew  ws. T
hese he
dds
he pwer f i fic
i g de
h, b ishme
, d frfei
ure, d
f pu ishi g s fr pubic pecu
i . I
he exercise f judici 
pwer, he i cudes 
 y
he pu ishme
f crimes d misdeme rs,
bu

he redress f civi i juries.[13] Di ysius f H ic r ssus,
pi
s u

hree dis
i guishi g m rks f svereig pwer; d
hse
re,
he righ
f ppi
i g m gis
r
es,
he righ
f e c
i g d
repe i g  ws, d
he righ
f m ki g w r d pe ce. T which, i

her p r
, he dds
he dmi is
r
i f jus
ice,
he supreme
u
hri
y i m

ers f reigi , d
he righ
f c i g ge er 
cu cis.
A
rue defi i
i cmprehe ds every pssibe br ch f u
hri
y
h

c grw u
f
he pssessi d exercise f svereig pwer. Fr

he ruer f every s

e mus
exercise his u
hri
y ei
her i pers ,
r
hrugh
he medium f 
hers. His w pers  c
s mus
be ei
her
ge er  r speci . He m y be s id
 d GENERAL c
s i p ssi g r
repe i g  ws, respec
i g ei
her
empr  m

ers, r spiri
u 
c cer s, s f r s
he 

er re
e

he wef re f
he s

e. The
k wedge f
hese pri cipes is c ed by Aris

e
he m s
erpiece i

he scie ce f gver me
.

The p r
icu r c
s f
he Svereig re ei
her direc
y f pubic

ure, r priv
e, bu
eve
he 

er be r refere ce
 his pubic
c p ci
y. Nw
he c
s f
he svereig execu
ive pwer f direc
y
pubic ki d re
he m ki g f pe ce d w r d
re
ies, d
he
impsi
i f
xes, d 
her simi r exercises f u
hri
y ver
he
pers s d prper
y f i
s subjec
s, which c s
i
u
e
he svereig
y
f
he s

e. Aris

e c s
he k wedge f
his pr c
ice pi
ic 
d deiber
ive scie ce.
The priv
e c
s f
he svereig re
hse, i which by his u
hri
y,
dispu
es be
wee i dividu s re decided, s i
is c ducive

he
pe ce f scie
y
h

hese shud be se

ed. This is c ed by


Aris

e
he judici  pwer. Thus
he c
s f
he svereig re
d e i his me by his m gis
r
es r 
her fficers, m g whm
mb ss drs re reck ed. A d i
he exercise f 
hse righ
s
svereig pwer c sis
s.

II. Th
pwer is c ed svereig , whse c
i s re 
subjec



he c
ru f y 
her pwer, s s
 be ued

he pe sure
f y 
her hum wi. The
erm ANY OTHER HUMAN WILL exemp
s
he
svereig himsef frm
his res
ric
i , wh m y u his w c
s,
s m y s his successr, wh e jys
he s me righ
, h vi g
he s me
pwer d  
her. We re
 c sider
he wh
is
he subjec
i
which
his svereig pwer exis
s. Nw
he subjec
is i  e respec

cmm , d i 
her prper, s
he bdy is
he cmm subjec
f
sigh
,
he eye
he prper, s
he cmm subjec
f svereig pwer is

he s

e, which h s re dy bee s id
 be perfec
scie
y f me .
Nw
hse
i s, wh re i s

e f subjug
i
 
her pwer,
s
he Rm prvi ces were, re excuded frm
his defi i
i . Fr

hse
i s re 
svereig s

es f
hemseves, i
he prese

ccep

i f
he wrd; bu
re subrdi
e members f gre

s

e, s s ves re members f husehd. Ag i i
h ppe s
h

m y s

es, frmi g e ch i depe de
bdy, m y h ve  e he d.
Fr pi
ic  re 
ike
ur  bdies,
  y  e f which
he
s me he d c be g. Where s i
he frmer,  e pers c exercise

he fu c
i f
he he d
 m y dis
i c
bdies. As cer
i prf
f which, whe
he reig i g huse h s becme ex
i c
,
he svereig
pwer re
ur s

he h ds f
he
i . S i
m y h ppe ,
h
m y
s

es m y be c ec
ed
ge
her by
he cses
feder  u i , which
S
r b, i mre p ces
h  e c s sys
em, d ye
e ch re
i
he
c di
i f perfec
, i dividu  s

e, which h s bee bserved by
Aris

e d 
hers i differe
p r
s f
heir wri
i gs. Therefre

he cmm subjec
f svereig pwer is
he s

e,
ke i
he se se
re dy exp i ed. The prper subjec
is  e r mre pers s ccrdi g


he  ws d cus
ms f e ch
i . This is c ed by G e i
he
six
h bk DE PLACITIS HIPPOCRATE ET PLATONIS,
he firs
pwer f
he
s

e.

III. A d here is
he prper p ce fr refu
i g
he pi i f
hse,
wh m i
i
h
, everywhere d wi
hu
excep
i ,
he svereig
pwer is ves
ed i
he pepe, s
h

hey h ve righ

 res
r i
d pu ish ki gs fr buse f
heir pwer. Hwever
here is  m
f sber wisdm, wh des 
see
he i c cu be mischiefs, which
such pi i s h ve cc si ed, d m y s
i cc si ; d up
he
fwi g gru ds
hey m y be refu
ed.
Frm
he Jewish, s we s
he Rm L w, i
ppe rs
h
y  e
migh
e g ge himsef i priv
e servi
ude
 whm he pe sed. Nw if

i dividu  m y d s, why m y 


whe pepe, fr
he be efi

f be

er gver me
d mre cer
i pr
ec
i , cmpe
ey
r sfer

heir svereig righ


s
  e r mre pers s, wi
hu
reservi g y
pr
i

hemseves? Nei
her c i
be eged
h
such
hi g is


 be presumed, fr
he ques
i is 
, wh
is
 be presumed
i dub
fu c se, bu
wh
m y  wfuy be d e. Nr is i
y
mre

he purpse
 bjec


he i c ve ie ces, which m y, d
c
u y d rise frm pepe's
hus surre deri g
heir righ
s. Fr
i
is 
i
he pwer f m
 devise y frm f gver me
free
frm imperfec
i s d d gers. As dr m
ic wri
er s ys, "yu mus

ei
her
ke
hese dv
ges wi
h
hse imperfec
i s, r resig yur
pre
e si s
 b
h."
Nw s
here re differe
w ys f ivi g, sme f wrse, d sme
f be

er ki d, ef


he chice f every i dividu ; s
i ,
"u der cer
i circums
ces, WHEN fr i s
ce,
he successi

he

hr e is ex
i c
, r
he
hr e h s by y 
her me s becme v c
,"
m y chuse wh
frm f gver me
she pe ses. Nr is
his righ

 be
me sured by
he excee ce f
his r
h
frm f gver me
,  which

here m y be v rie
ies f pi i , bu
by
he wi f
he pepe.
There m y be m y re s s i deed why pepe m y e
irey rei quish

heir righ
s, d surre der
hem
 
her: fr i s
ce,
hey m y
h ve  
her me s f securi g
hemseves frm
he d ger f immedi
e
des
ruc
i , r u der
he pressure f f mi e i
m y be
he  y
w y,
hrugh which
hey c prcure suppr
. Fr if
he C mp i s,
frmery, whe reduced by ecessi
y surre dered
hemseves

he Rm
pepe i
he fwi g
erms:--"Se
rs f Rme, we c sig
 yur
dmi i
he pepe f C mp i , d
he ci
y f C pu , ur  ds,
ur
empes, d 
hi gs b
h divi e d hum ," d if 
her
pepe s Appi re
es, ffered
 submi


he Rm s, d were
refused, wh
is
here
 preve
y
i frm submi

i g i
he
s me m er
  e pwerfu svereig ? I
m y s h ppe
h
m s
er
f f miy, h vi g  rge pssessi s, wi suffer   e
 reside
up
hem  y 
her
erms, r w er, h vi g m y s ves, m y give

hem
heir iber
y up c di
i f
heir di g cer
i services, d
p yi g cer
i re
s; f which ex mpes m y be prduced. Thus T ci
us,
spe ki g f
he Germ s ves, s ys, "E ch h s his w sep r
e
h bi

i , d his w husehd
 gver . The m s
er c siders him
s
e
, bu d
 p y cer
i re
i cr , c

e, d we ri g
pp re. A d
his is
he u
ms
ex
e
f servi
ude."
Aris

e, i describi g
he requisi
es, which fi
me fr servi
ude,
s ys,
h
"
hse me , whse pwers re chiefy c fi ed

he bdy,
d whse pri cip  excee ce c sis
s i ffrdi g bdiy service,
re
ur y s ves, bec use i
is
heir i
eres

 be s." I
he
s me m er sme
i s re f such dispsi
i
h

hey re mre
c cu
ed
 bey
h
 gver , which seems
 h ve bee
he pi i
which
he C pp dci s hed f
hemseves, wh whe
he Rm s ffered

hem ppu r gver me


, refused
 ccep
i
, bec use
he
i

hey s id cud 
exis
i s fe
y wi
hu
ki g. Thus Phis
r
us
i
he ife f Ap ius, s ys,
h
i
w s fish
 ffer iber
y


he Thr ci s,
he Mysi s, d
he Ge
e, which
hey were 

c p be f e jyi g. The ex mpe f


i s, wh h ve fr m y ges
ived h ppiy u der ki gy gver me
, h s i duced m y
 give
he
prefere ce

h
frm. Livy s ys,
h

he ci
ies u der Eume es wud

h ve ch ged
heir c di
i fr
h
f y free s

e wh
sever.
A d sme
imes s

e is s si
u
ed,
h
i
seems impssibe i
c
preserve i
s pe ce d exis
e ce, wi
hu
submi

i g

he bsu
e
gver me
f si ge pers , which m y wise me
hugh

 be
he

c se wi
h
he Rm Repubic i
he
ime f Augus
us C es r. Frm

hese, d c uses ike


hese i

 y m y, bu
ge er y des
h ppe ,
h
me , s Cicer bserves i
he sec d bk f his ffices,
wii gy submi


he supreme u
hri
y f 
her.
Nw s prper
y m y be cquired by wh
h s bee re dy s
yed jus

w r, by
he s me me s
he righ
s f svereig
y m y be cquired. Nr
is
he
erm svereig
y here me

 be ppied
 m rchy  e,
bu

 gver me
by bes, frm y sh re i which
he pepe re
excuded. Fr
here ever w s y gver me
s purey ppu r, s 

 require
he excusi f
he pr, f s
r gers, wme , d mi rs
frm
he pubic cu cis. Sme s

es h ve 
her
i s u der
hem,
 ess depe de
up
heir wi,
h subjec
s up
h
f
heir
svereig pri ces. Frm whe ce rse
h
ques
i , Are
he C
i e
pepe i
heir w pwer? A d
he C mp i s, whe
hey submi

ed


he Rm s, re s id
 h ve p ssed u der freig dmi i . I

he s me m er Ac r i d Amphichi re s id
 h ve bee u der

he dmi i f
he Ae
i s; Per e d C u us u der
h
f
he
Rhdi s; d Pyd w s ceded by Phiip

he Oy
hi s. A d
hse

w s,
h
h d bee u der
he Sp r
s, whe
hey were deivered frm

heir dmi i , received


he me f
he free L c i s. The ci
y f
C
yr is s id by Xe ph
 h ve be ged

he pepe f Si pe.
Nice i I
y, ccrdi g
 S
r b, w s djudged

he pepe f
M rseies; d
he is d f Pi
hecus

he Ne pi
s. We fi d i
Fr
i us,
h

he
w s f C 
i d C udium wi
h
heir
erri
ries
were djudged,
he  e

he c y f C pu , d
he 
her

h

f Be eve
um. O
h, s T ci
us re
es, g ve
he ci
ies f
he Mrs


he Prvi ce f B e
i . N e f
hese i s
ces, y mre
h
he
cessi s f 
her c quered cu
ries cud be dmi

ed, if i
were
received rue
h

he righ
s f svereig s re u der
he c
ru d
direc
i f subjec
s.
Nw i
is p i b
h frm s cred d prf e his
ry,
h

here re
ki gs, wh re 
subjec


he c
ru f
he pepe i
heir
cec
ive bdy; Gd ddressi g
he pepe f Isr e, s ys, if
hu
sh 
s y, "I wi p ce ki g ver me"; d
 S mue "Shew
hem
he
m er f
he ki g, wh sh  reig ver
hem." He ce
he Ki g is s id

 be i
ed ver
he pepe, ver
he i heri
ce f
he Lrd, ver
Isr e. Sm is s
yed Ki g ver  Isr e. Thus D vid gives
h ks

 Gd, fr subdui g


he pepe u der him. A d Chris
s ys, "
he Ki gs
f
he
i s be r rue ver
hem." There is we k w p ss ge i
Hr ce, "Pwerfu svereig s reig ver
heir w subjec
s, d
he
supreme bei g ver svereig s
hemseves." Se ec
hus describes
he

hree frms f gver me


, "Sme
imes
he supreme pwer is dged i

he pepe, sme
imes i se
e cmpsed f
he e di g me f
he
s

e, sme
imes
his pwer f
he pepe, d dmi i ver
he pepe

hemseves is ves
ed i si ge pers ." Of
he  s
descrip
i re

hse, wh, s Pu


rch s ys, exercise u
hri
y 
ccrdi g

he
 ws, bu
ver
he  ws. A d i Herd
us, O
es describes m rch
s  e whse c
s re 
subjec

 c
ru. Di Prus ee sis s
d P us i s defi e m rchy i
he s me
erms.
Aris

e s ys
here re sme ki gs, wh h ve
he s me righ
, which
he

i esewhere pssesses ver pers s d prper
y. Thus whe
he
Rm Pri ces beg
 exercise reg  pwer,
he pepe i
w s s id
h d
r sferred 
heir w pers  svereig
y

hem, which g ve
rise

he s yi g f M rcus A
 i us
he Phispher,
h
  e
bu
Gd  e c be judge f
he Pri ce. Di . L. iii. spe ki g f
such pri ce, s ys, "he is perfec
y m s
er f his w c
i s,
 d
wh
ever he pe ses, d c 
be biged
 d y
hi g g i s
his

wi." Such cie


y w s
he pwer f
he I chid e es
bished

Args i Greece. Fr i


he Greek Tr gedy f
he Suppi
s, Aeschyus
h s i
rduced
he pepe
hus ddressi g
he Ki g: "Yu re
he
s

e, yu
he pepe; yu
he cur
frm which
here is  ppe ,
yu preside ver
he 
rs, d regu
e  ff irs by yur supreme
wi." Ki g Theseus himsef i Euripides spe ks i very differe

erms f
he A
he i Repubic; "The ci
y is 
gver ed by  e m ,
bu
i ppu r frm, by u  successi f m gis
r
es." Fr
ccrdi g
 Pu
rch's exp
i , Theseus w s
he ge er  i w r,
d
he gu rdi f
he  ws; bu
i 
her respec
s 
hi g mre

h ci
ize . S
h

hey wh re imi
ed by ppu r c
ru re
imprpery c ed ki gs. Thus f
er
he
ime f Lycurgus, d mre
p r
icu ry f
er
he i s
i
u
i f
he Ephri,
he Ki gs f
he
L ced em i s re s id by Pybius, Pu
rch, d Cr eius Neps,

 h ve bee Ki gs mre i me
h i re i
y. A ex mpe which w s
fwed by
he res
f Greece. Thus P us i s s ys f
he Argives


he Cri
hi s, "The Argives frm
heir ve f equ i
y h ve reduced

heir ki gy pwer very w; s


h

hey h ve ef

he ps
eri
y f
Cisus 
hi g mre
h
he sh dw f Ki gs." Aris

e de ies such

be prper frms f gver me
, bec use
hey c s
i
u
e  y p r
f
Aris
cr cy r Demcr cy.
Ex mpes s m y be fu d f
i s, wh h ve 
bee u der
perpe
u  reg  frm, bu
 y fr
ime u der gver me
exemp

frm ppu r c
ru. Such w s
he pwer f
he Amim i s m g

he C idi s, d f
he Dic

rs i
he e ry perids f
he Rm
his
ry, whe
here w s  ppe 

he pepe, frm whe ce Livy s ys,

he wi f
he Dic

r w s bserved s  w. I deed
hey fu d
his
submissi
he  y remedy g i s
immi e
d ger, d i
he wrds f
Cicer,
he Dic

rship pssessed 
he s
re g
h f ry  pwer.
I
wi 
be difficu

 refu
e
he rgume
s brugh
i f vur f

he c
r ry pi i . Fr i
he firs
p ce
he sser
i
h

he
c s
i
ue
w ys re
i s c
ru ver
he svereig pwer, which
he h s c
ribu
ed
 es
bish, is  y
rue i
hse c ses where

he c
i u ce d exis
e ce f
h
pwer depe ds up
he wi d
pe sure f
he c s
i
ue
: bu

i c ses where
he pwer,
hugh
i
migh
derive i
s rigi frm
h
c s
i
ue
, becmes ecess ry
d fu d me
 p r
f
he es
bished  w. Of
his
ure is
h

u
hri
y
 which wm submi
s whe she gives hersef
 husb d.
e
i i
he Emperr, whe
he sdiers wh h d r ised him

he

hr e, m de dem d f which he did 


pprve, repied; "Sdiers,
yur eec
i f me fr yur emperr w s yur w vu
ry chice; bu

si ce yu h ve eec
ed me, i
depe ds up my pe sure
 gr
yur
reques
. I
becmes yu
 bey s subjec
s, d me
 c sider wh
is
prper
 be d e."
Nr is
he ssump
i
rue,
h
 ki gs re m de by
he pepe,
s m y be p i y see frm
he i s
ces dduced bve, f w er
dmi

i g s
r gers
 reside up his demes es  c di
i f
heir
bedie ce, d f
i s submi

i g by righ
f c ques
. A 
her
rgume
is derived frm s yi g f
he Phisphers,
h

pwer is c ferred fr
he be efi
f
he gver ed d 
f
he
gver i g p r
y. He ce frm
he be ess f
he e d, i
is suppsed

 fw,
h
subjec
s h ve superiri
y ver
he svereig . Bu
i

is 
u ivers y
rue,
h
 pwer is c ferred fr
he be efi

f
he p r
y gver ed. Fr sme pwers re c ferred fr
he s ke
f
he gver r, s
he righ
f m s
er ver s ve, i which

he dv
ge f
he 

er is  y c
i ge
d dve
i
ius
circums
ce. I
he s me m er
he g i f Physici is
 rew rd

him fr his  bur; d 


merey
 prm
e
he gd f his r
.
There re 
her ki ds f u
hri
y es
bished fr
he be efi
f
b
h p r
ies, s fr i s
ce,
he u
hri
y f husb d ver his
wife. Cer
i gver me
s s, s
hse which re g i ed by righ

f c ques
, m y be es
bished fr
he be efi
f
he svereig ;
d ye
c vey  ide f
yr y, wrd which i i
s rigi 
sig ific
i , impied 
hi g f rbi
r ry pwer r i jus
ice, bu

 y
he gver me
r u
hri
y f Pri ce. Ag i , sme gver me
s
m y be frmed fr
he dv
ge b
h f subjec
s d svereig , s
whe pepe, u be
 defe d
hemseves, pu

hemseves u der

he pr
ec
i d dmi i f y pwerfu ki g. Ye
i
is 


be de ied, bu

h
i ms
gver me
s
he gd f
he subjec
is

he chief bjec
which is reg rded: d
h
wh
Cicer h s s id
f
er Herd
us, d Herd
us f
er Hesid, is
rue,
h
Ki gs were
ppi
ed i rder
h
me migh
e jy cmpe
e jus
ice.
Nw
his dmissi by  me s ges
 es
bish
he i fere ce
h

ki gs re me be

he pepe. Fr
hugh gu rdi ships were
i ve
ed fr
he be efi
f w rds, ye

he gu rdi h s righ


u
hri
y ver
he w rd. Nr,
hugh gu rdi m y fr mism geme

be remved frm his


rus
, des i
fw
h
ki g m y fr
he s me
re s be depsed. The c ses re qui
e differe
,
he gu rdi h s
superir
 judge him; bu
i gver me
s, s
here mus
be sme
der ier resr
, i
mus
be ves
ed ei
her i i dividu , r i sme
pubic bdy, whse misc duc
, s
here is  superir
ribu  befre
which
hey c be c ed, Gd dec res
h
he himsef wi judge. He
ei
her pu ishes
heir ffe ces, shud he deem i
ecess ry; r permi
s

hem fr
he ch s
iseme
f his pepe.
This is we expressed by T ci
us: he s ys, "yu shud be r wi
h

he r p ci
y r uxury f ruers, s yu wud be r wi
h drugh
,
r excessive r i s, r y 
her c  mi
ies f
ure. Fr s  g
s me exis

here wi be f u
s d imperfec
i s; bu

hese re

f u i
errup
ed c
i u ce, d
hey re f
e rep ired by

he successi f be

er
imes." A d M rcus Aureius spe ki g f
subrdi
e m gis
r
es, s id,
h

hey were u der
he c
ru f

he svereig : bu

h

he svereig w s me be
 Gd. There
is rem rk be p ss ge i Gregry f Turs, where
h
Bishp
hus
ddresses
he Ki g f Fr ce, "If y f us, Sir, shud
r sgress
he
bu ds f jus
ice, he m y be pu ished by yu. Bu
if yu exceed
hem,
wh c c  yu
 ccu
? Fr whe we ddress yu, yu m y he r us
if yu pe se; bu
if yu wi 
, wh c judge yu, excep
him, wh
h s dec red himsef
 be righ
eus ess?" Am g
he m xims f
he
Esse es, Prphyry ci
es p ss ge,
h
"   e c reig wi
hu

he
speci  ppi
me
f divi e prvide ce." Ire eus h s expressed
his
we, "Ki gs re ppi
ed by him
whse cmm d me re cre
ed; d

heir ppi
me
is sui
ed

he c di
i f
hse, whm
hey re
c ed
 gver ." There is
he s me
hugh
i
he C s
i
u
i s f
Ceme
, "Yu sh  fe r
he Ki g, fr he is f
he Lrd's ppi
me
."
Nr is i
bjec
i
 wh
h s bee s id,
h
sme
i s h ve
bee pu ished fr
he ffe ces f
heir ki gs; fr
his des 

h ppe , bec use


hey frbe r
 res
r i
heir ki gs, bu
bec use
hey
seem
 give,
e s

ci
c se


heir vices, r perh ps,
wi
hu
respec


his, Gd m y use
h
svereig pwer which he h s
ver
he ife d de
h f every m
 i fic
pu ishme
up
he
ki g by deprivi g him f his subjec
s.
IX. There re sme wh fr me im gi ry ki d f mu
u  subjec
i ,
by which
he pepe re bu d
 bey
he ki g, s  g s he gver s

we; bu
his gver me
is subjec


heir i spec
i d c
ru.
If
hey were
 s y
h
his du
y

he svereig des 
bige y
 e
 d c
m ifes
y u jus
d repug


he  w f Gd;

hey wud s y 
hi g bu
wh
is
rue d u ivers y dmi

ed, bu

his by  me s i cudes righ



 y c
ru ver
he Pri ce's
c duc
i his  wfu gver me
. Bu
if y pepe h d
he ppr
u i
y
f dividi g
he svereig pwer wi
h
he ki g,
he privieges f
he
 e, d
he prerg
ives f
he 
her ugh

 be defi ed by cer
i
bu ds, which migh
e siy be k w , ccrdi g

he differe ce f
p ces, pers s, r circums
ces.
Nw
he suppsed gd r evi f y c
, especi y i pi
ic 
m

ers which dmi


f gre
v rie
y f pi i s d much discussi ,
is 
sufficie
m rk
 scer
i
hese bu ds. Frm whe ce
he
gre
es
c fusi mus
fw, if u der pre
e ce f prm
i g gd
r ver
i g evi me sures,
he pepe migh
s
rugge fr
he Pri ce's
jurisdic
i :
urbue
s

e f ff irs, which  sber mi ded
pepe ever wished
 experie ce.
X. Af
er refu
i g f se pi i s, i
rem i s
 ppy sme c u
i s,
which m y pi
u

he w y
 scer
i crrec
y
he pers
 whm
svereig pwer, i every s

e, f righ
be gs. The firs
c u
i
ecess ry is
 vid bei g deceived by mbiguus
erms, r ppe r ces
freig

he re  subjec
. Fr i s
ce, m g
he L
i s, 
hugh

he
erms PRINCIPALITY d KINGDOM re ge er y ppsed
 e ch

her, whe C es r s ys,
h

he f
her f erci ge
rix hed
he
pri cip i
y f G u, d w s pu

 de
h fr imi g
svereig
pwer; d whe Pis, i T ci
us c s Germ icus
he s f Rm
Pri ce, 
f P r
hi Ki g; d whe Sue
 ius s ys,
h
C igu
w s 
he pi
f c ver
i g
he pwer f pri ce i

h
f
ki g; d eeius sser
s
h
M rbduus 
c
e
ed wi
h
he
u
hri
y f pri ce ver vu
ry dhere
s d depe de
s, w s
gr spi g i his mi d
reg  pwer; ye
we fi d
hese
erms
hugh
i re i
y very dis
i c
were f
e c fu ded. Fr
he L ced em i
chiefs,
he desce d
s f Hercues,
hugh subjec


he c
ru
f
he Ephri, were ever
heess c ed ki gs: d T ci
us s ys,

h
m g
he cie
Germ s
here were ki gs, wh gver ed mre
by
he i fue ce f persu si
h by
he u
hri
y f pwer. Livy

, spe ki g f ki g Ev der, describes him s reig i g mre by


pers  u
hri
y
h by his reg  pwer; d Aris

e, Pybius,
d Didrus give
he mes f Ki gs

he Suffe
es r Judges f

he C r
h gi i s. I
he s me m er Si us s c s H  Ki g
f
he C r
h gi i s. S
r b spe ks f Scepsis i Tr s,
h
h vi g
i crpr
ed
he Miesi s i

he s

e, i
frmed i
sef i

Demcr cy, e vi g
he desce d
s f
he cie
ki gs
he
i
e, d
sme
hi g f
he dig i
y f ki gs.
O
he 
her h d,
he Rm emperrs, f
er
hey h d exercised pe y,
d wi
hu
y disguise, ms
bsu
e m rchic  pwer, were

wi
hs
di g c ed Pri ces. A d i sme ppu r s

es
he chief
m gis
r
es re gr ced wi
h e sig s f ry 
y.
Ag i
he s

es ge er ,
h
is
he c ve
i f
hse wh represe

he pepe, divided i
 c sses ccrdi g
 Gu
her, c sis
f
hree
rders, which re
he Pre
es,
he Nbes, d Depu
ies f  rge

w s. I sme p ces,
hey serve s gre
er cu ci

he ki g,

cmmu ic
e
 him
he cmp i
s f his pepe, which migh

herwise
be kep
frm his e rs; e vi g him

he s me
ime fu iber
y

exercise his w discre
i up
he m

ers s cmmu ic
ed. Bu
i

her p ces
hey frm bdy wi
h pwer
 i quire i

he pri ce's

me sures, d
 m ke  ws.
M y
hi k
h
i rder
 k w whe
her pri ce be svereig r 
,
i
is prper
 i quire whe
her his
i
e

he crw is by eec
i
r i heri
ce. Fr
hey m i
i
h
heredi
ry m rchies  e
re svereig . Bu

his c 
be received s ge er  cri
eri .
Fr svereig
y c sis
s 
merey i
he TITLE

he
hr e, which
 y impies
h

he successr h s righ

 
he privieges d
prerg
ives
h
his ces
rs e jyed, bu
i
by  me s ffec
s
he

ure r ex
e
f his pwers. Fr righ
f eec
i c veys 
he
pwers, which
he firs
eec
i r ppi
me
c ferred. Am g
he
L ced em i s
he crw w s heredi
ry eve f
er
he i s
i
u
i f

he Ephri. A d Aris

e describi g
he chief pwer f such s

e,
s ys, "Of
hese ki gdms, sme re heredi
ry, d 
hers eec
ive."
I
he heric
imes ms
f
he ki gdms i Greece were f
his
descrip
i , s we re i frmed by Thucydides. The Rm empire, 
he
c
r ry, eve f
er
he pwer f
he Se
e d pepe w s bished,
w s give r c firmed by eec
i .
XI. A 
her c u
i is ecess ry. Fr
 i quire i

he m

er f
righ
is 

he s me
hi g s
 ex mi e
he
ure f i
s
e ure. A
dis
i c
i which
kes p ce 
 y i crpre  bu
i i crpre 
pssessi s. Fr righ
f p ss ge r c rri ge
hrugh gru d is
 ess righ

h
h
which e
i
es m

he pssessi f

he  d i
sef. Nw sme hd
hese privieges by fu righ
f
prper
y, sme by usufruc
u ry, d 
hers by
empr ry righ
.
Thus
he Rm Dic

r h d svereig pwer by
empr ry righ
. I

he s me m er ki gs, b
h
hse wh re
he firs
f
heir i e
eec
ed

he
hr e, d
hse wh succeed
hem i
he  wfu rder,
e jy usufruc
u ry righ
, r i ie be righ
. Bu
sme svereig s
hd
heir pwer by pe ry righ
f prper
y; whe fr i s
ce i

cmes i

heir pssessi by
he righ
f  wfu c ques
, r whe
pepe,
 vid gre
er evis, m ke u qu ified surre der f

hemseves d
heir righ
s i

heir h ds.
The pi i f
hse c ever be sse
ed
, wh s y
h

he pwer
f
he Dic

r w s 
svereig , bec use i
w s 
perm e
. Fr i

he mr  wrd
he
ure f
hi gs is k w frm
heir per
i s.
The pwers

e ded wi
h equ  effec
s re e
i
ed
 equ  mes.
Nw
he Dic

r fr
he
ime bei g perfrmed  c
s wi
h
he s me
u
hri
y s
he ms
bsu
e svereig ; r cud y 
her pwer
u his c
s. The perm e ce
herefre f u cer
i
y 
ers 

he

ure f righ
, 
hugh i
wud u dub
edy bridge i
s dig i
y,
d dimi ish i
s spe dur.[14]

BOOK II.

CHAPTER I.
DEFENCE OF PERSON AND PROPERTY.
C uses f W r--Defe ce f pers d prper
y--Wh
re c ed
jus
ifi be c uses f w r--Jus
ifi be c uses f W r re
Defe ce, recvery f  e's prper
y r deb
, r
he pu ishme

f ffe ces cmmi

ed--W r fr defe ce f ife, jus


ifi be, d
 wfu--This ki d f w r  wfu g i s
ggressr  y--The
d ger mus
be prese
d re , 
im gi ry d ger--L wfu

 ki y  e

emp
i g
 m im  e's pers , r vi
e  e's
ch s
i
y--Occ si s where
his righ
m y be  wfuy w ved--This
righ

 be w ved p r
icu ry wi
h respec


he pers f
he
Svereig , which is s cred d i vi be--Hmicide i defe ce f
 e's prper
y wed by
he  w f
ure--Hw f r hmicide is
permi

ed by
he  w f Mses--Sef-defe ce i pubic w r--N

 wfu


ck y pwer sey  ccu


f i
s i cre si g
gre
ess--The hs
ie me sures f ggressr, 

 be
jus
ified 
he pe f sef-defe ce.
I. The c uses f w r by which re me

he jus
ifi be c uses, re
w
 be c sidered. Fr i sme c ses m
ives f i
eres
per
e
dis
i c
y frm m
ives f jus
ice. Pybius ccur
ey dis
i guishes

hese m
ives frm e ch 
her, d frm
he begi i g f
he w r, r

h
which g ve cc si

he firs
c
s f hs
ii
y; s w s
he
c se whe Asc ius wu ded
he s
g, which g ve rise

he w r be
wee
Tur us d Ae e s. Bu

hugh
here is c
u  dis
i c
i be
wee

he jus
ifi be c uses,
he pre
ex
s, d
he begi i g f w r; ye

he
erms used
 express
hem re f
e c fu ded. Fr wh
we c 
jus
ifi be c uses, Livy, i
he speech which he h s pu
i

he mu
h
f
he Rhdi s, c s begi i gs. The Rhdi depu
ies s id, "Yu
Rm s prfess
 beieve
h
yur w rs re successfu, bec use
hey
re jus
; r d yu b s
s much f
heir vic
rius issue, s f

he jus
pri cipes, up which yu m ke
hem." I which se se Aei
s
yes
hem { h s m } d Did us Siuus,
i s  ki g f th  f th L d m i s g i st th E s givs
thm th m f {proph e} nd { h s}.
Th i i  d ift f u gum t sts u  ths justifi b
 uss, t hih th s tim t f C i us i Di ysius f
H i ssus, tiu y is, h s ys, "i th fi st  , I
bsh yu t  sid h yu m y fi d ius d just txts f
th  ." A d Dmsth s i his s d Oy thi , m ks simi
bs v ti , "I thi k, _s ys h_, th t s i shi ,  hus,  y
th f b i, th st ts ught t b th st  gst; s i 
iti  m su s th mtivs d txts ught t b  id d y
i th i i s f t uth d justi." Th fi g  gu g f
Di C ssius is  ss i b t th qusti . "Justi must b
m d th i i  g u d f u ti s. F ith suh su  t th 
is th bst h  f suss t u ms. But ithut th t, y i t
hih m y b g i d f th mm t h s  fi m g u d t st u  ."
T hih m y b ddd, th  ds f Ci , h m i t i s ths  s
t b u just, hih  m d ithut suffii t  us. A d i th
 , h  vs C ssus f h vi g i t dd t ss th Eu h ts,
h th   s   us f  . Whih is  ss t u f ubi th f
iv t  s. H  m th m  i ts f S  , "Why d  st i
hmiid, d th mu d f i dividu s, but g y i th  im f
s ught , hih dst ys h ti s? Av i d  uty k  t
y bu ds. By d s f th S t, d f th    u ts 
uth izd, d m su s, hih  u sud by  d f th st t, 
f bidd t i dividu s." W s i dd u d t k by ubi uth ity
 tt dd ith  t i ffts f ight, d h v th s ti f
 i i i thi f vu . But thy  t th ss  imi , h m d
ithut just  us. F hih  s Ax d  s t im   y
styd bb by th Sythi mb ss d s, s m y b s i Qui tus
Cu tius. S  d Lu giv him th s m  ti ; th I di

s gs   him m dm ; d i t   sumd t k him ith


his   ss. Justi s  ks f Phii i th s m t ms, h, _s ys
h_, i didi g dis ut bt t iv  ki gs, st i d bth
f thi dmi i s ith  th t  h y d vi  f bb .
Augusti h s  ti  t m k  this subjt. H s ys, h t 
u justy qui d dmi i s, but th s is f bb y? I th s m
st i , L t tius s ys, "M ,  tiv td ith th  s f v i
g y, giv th ms f vi tus t thi  ims." I ju y,  th
v ti f i ju y f ms th  y justifi b  us f  . "A d, _i
th  gu g f th s m Augusti _,  th vi  squ s f 
 t b  id t th d f th gg ss ." Thus th Rm H d i
d ti f  m ks sm   g i st th gg ss , s
h vi g vi td th  s f ti s, d fusd   s tisf ti .
II. Th g u ds f   s um us s ths f judii  ti s.
F h  th  f    ss, th   bgi s. N th  
mthds i   t v t i t dd i ju is, s  s ti s f
ths tu y mmittd. F CI IL INJURIES v ius mthds f
d ss,  v ti  i td by th  ; d by th s m
 su itis  vidd t v t th mmissi f  ims d
misdm  s. I ivi  ss, th ty gg ivd m y v d m gs
f th i ju is sust i d; d i  ims, hih  ff s g i st
th ubi, th gg ss must submit t tu  u ishm t. P t, i
his i th bk   s, v y   y m ks th s m disti ti , s
Hm h d d  bf  him.
N  ti  i dm ity  ts t h t ith ds  did b g
t us; hih givs is t   d  s  ti s. Ths s t i
u ight t th d m gs, hih  u du, ith f m g m t,
 f m i ju y ivd. A ight hih is t md i   ight by
 t t,  i ju y. C ims, hih  ff s g i st sity, 
sutd by i ditm t, th t is by us ti i th m f th
sv ig .
Th justifi b  uss g  y ssig d f   th , df ,
i dm ity, d u ishm t,  hih  m isd i th d ti
f C mius g i st th G us,  um ti g  thi gs, hih it is
ight t df d, t v , d th    hm t  hih it is ight
t u ish.
Th  is missi i this  um ti , u ss th  d v b
t k i its mst xt siv s s. F v i g by  h t  h v
st, i uds i dm ity f th st, s  s th suti f
u  im t dbt. P t h s t mittd t ti this disti ti ,
f h h s s id, "th t  s  m d t u ish t  y  ssi 
bb y, but s f ud d d ti ." With hm S  g s; f
t mm d ym t f h t yu , h  s, " quit b s t ,
st m d ith th uth ity f th   f ti s." I dd th f m
hih  s s ibd f th Rm h ds t us i d ti s
f  , b s x ty th s m im  t. F th i th gg ss is
h gd ith h vi g ith giv , id,  d  h t  s du. S ust
i   f his f gm ts, h s m d T ibu , i his h gu t th
 , s y, "As fi  sttm t f  disussi s, I dm d
stituti  di g t th   f ti s."
St. Augusti , i dfi i g ths t b just  s, hih  m d t
v g i ju is h s t k th  d v g i g   s s f
mvi g d v ti g, s  s u ishi g gg ssi s. This  s
t b his m i g f m th fi g s t  f th ss g, i hih
h ds t  um t th tiu ts, hih mu t t i ju y,

but dds, by  y f iust ti , th t "th st t  ti , hih


h s gtd t u ish th gg ssi s f its  subjts,  t
m k  ti f th sss  si d by ths gg ssi s, is
  bjt f hstiity d tt k." P m td by this tu 
k dg f ight d   g, th I di Ki g, s   i f md by
Did us, usd Smi mis f h vi g mm d  g i st him ithut
h vi g ivd y i ju y. Thus th Rm s x stu td ith th
S  s, th t thy ught t t tt k   h h d giv thm 
v ti . A istt i th s d bk d s d h t f his
A ytis, s ys,  g  y is m d u  ths h h v fi st d 
i ju y. Qui tus Cu tius ds ibs th Abi Sythi s, s th bst
qu i td ith th i i s f justi f y f th B b i s. F
thy di d h vi g u s t ms, u ss vkd by gg ssi .
A just  us th f  is i ju y, hih thugh t tu y
mmittd, th  t s u  s s    ty ith d g .
III. It h s   dy b vd th t h u ivs  th  t d ith
immdi t d g , it is  fu t ki th gg ss , if th d g
 t th is b vidd: i st , s it h s b sh , 
hih th justi f iv t  sts. W must bs v th t this ki d
f df  d ivs its  igi f m th i i  f sf- s v ti ,
hih tu  h s giv t v y ivi g   tu , d t f m th
i justi  mis dut f th gg ss . Wh f  thugh h m y b
 f guit, s f i st  sdi i tu  s vi, mist ki g
my  s f th t f th ,  m dm i his f  zy,  m
 ki g i his s ,   f ths  ss d iv m f th ight f
sf-df  g i st ths  s s. F I m t bu d t submit t th
d g  mishif i t dd, y m  th t x s mysf t th
tt ks f id b st.
I . It dmits f sm dubt, hth ths, h u i t ti y
bst ut u df ,  s , hih  ss y t u
s v ti , m y b  fuy m imd  kid. Th   sm, v
Thgi s, h thi k thy m y. A d,  t i y if  k t th  
f tu   ,  di g t its i i s, u  s v ti
shud h v muh m  ight ith us, th th f  f sity. But
th   f h ity, s i y th v gi   , hih h s ut u
ighbu u  v ith u svs, ds t  mit it.
Thm s Aqui s, if t k i ight s s, h s justy bs vd, th t i
tu  sf-df   m  b s id t b u sy kid. I dd,
it m y sm tims h  th t th  is  th  y f  s t
s v himsf, th by dsig dy di g t, by hih th d th f
gg ss must i vit by  su. Yt h  th d th f y    s
t th im y bjt i t dd, but m yd s th  y m s f
su ity, hih th mm t su id. Sti it is btt f th ty
ss utd, if h  s fy d it, t    dis b th gg ss
th t shd his bd.

. Th d g must b immdi t, hih is   ss y i t. Thugh


it must b  fssd, th t h ss i t sizs y   ith
 t i t ti t ki m I h v ight t tii t d v t
th d g . F i th m  s  s th tu  systm f thi gs,
th  is  i t ithut sm b  dth. But thy  thmsvs muh
mist k , d mis d th s, h m i t i th t y dg  f f
ught t b g u d f kii g th , t v t his SUPPOSED
i t ti . It is v y just bs v ti m d by Ci  i his fi st
bk f Offis, th t m y   gs d f m f ; s h th
 s , h i t ds t hu t th , h ds sm d g t himsf
u ss h tk th t mthd. C hus, i X  h , s ys, I h v k 

sm m , h ty th ugh mis  s t ti , d ty th ugh


sus ii , d  di g   th , i  d t v t th su sd
i t ti s f thi dv s is, h v mmittd th mst   mus
 utis g i st ths h ith dsig d,  ishd thm y h m.
C t i his s h f th Rhdi s, s ys, "A   t v t thm by
di g fi st, h t  s y thy i t dd t d t us?" O this subjt
th  is m k b ss g i Auus Gius, "Wh G di t
 s t  t th ists f mb t, suh is his t th t h must
ith ki his dv s y,  b kid himsf. But th if f m is
t i ums ibd by th h d t ms f suh v - ui g ssity,
s t big him t d i ju y t v t him f m ivi g  ."
Qui tii h s qutd ss g f m Ci , h i th  t sks,
"Whv m d suh disi ,  t hm ud suh i t b yidd
ithut th mst immi  t d g , th t yu h v ight t ki th
 s , by hm yu s y, yu f th t yu sh  ft  ds b kid
yu sf?" T hih this ss g f Eu i ids, m y b id, "If yu
husb d, s yu s y, i t dd t h v kid yu, yu ught t h v
 itd, ti h tu y did m k th ttm t." C f m by t hih
Thuydids, i th fi st bk f his hist y, h s x ssd himsf i
th fi g t ms, "Th issu f  is u  t i ,  ught  t
b s f t s  td by u f s, s t  g g i immdi t d  
hstiitis." Th s m  it t i his umi us ds i ti f th
d g us f ti s, th t h d is i th G i st ts,  dm s th
b ti bstd  th  s , th t i ju d  dst yd th
f m hm h himsf h dd i ju y  dst uti ."
Livy s ys, "M , t gu d g i st thi  ms, m k thmsvs bjts
f t  ; v ti g th d g f m thi  h ds, by im si g u 
th s th ssity f ith di g  suff i g th vi hih thy
thmsvs f ." ibius skd  s , th t  d md i th
f um, "Wh g v yu  missi t sh yu f i this m  ?" A
qusti t i i b t th s t subjt, d muh mm dd
by Qui tii . Livi s i Di s ys, th t g  t i f my du ds t
ths, h by tii ti  t t th  imi  t, hih thy f .
N if y   i t d  immdi t vi , but is fu d t h v
f md  s i y t dst y m by ss ssi ti ,  is ,  by
f s us ti ,  ju y,  sub d it sss, I h v  ight t
ki him. F my k dg f th d g m y v t it. O v if
it   vid t th t I ud t vid th d g ithut kii g
him; this ud t st bish my ight t d s. F th  is v y
sum ti th t my k i g it i  d m t y f th g 
mdis f v ti .

I. d II. Th xt thi g t b  sid d is, h t must b s id u 


th muti ti f imb. N, s th ss f imb, s i y th t
f i i  imb i th bdy, is g ivus dt im t, d  y
qu  t th ss f if, t hih m y b ddd th b biity f
d th  sui g f m suh   mity; th  fu ss f kii g y  ,
h m ks suh ttm t, if th d g  t th is b vidd,
s  dmits f dubt. Nith is th  y m  diffiuty i
i g th s m ight f th  s  df  f h stity, th
s v ti f hih, bth i th mm stim ti f m , d by
th divi   , is dmd f qu  v u ith if itsf. W h v
x m  f this i Ci , Qui tii , d Put h, i th  s
f   f M ius's t ibu s, h  s kid by sdi . Am g th
ti s f m , h h v df dd thmsvs, Hid us  ds th t
f H  , hih h  s just df  f h i ju d h u .

III. Thugh sm, s it h s b   dy s id, dmit th  fu ss f


kii g th  s , h ttm ts ith   vi  t dst y  's
if, yt thy dm it m  mm d b t s  th if f th ,
v t th h z d f  's  . Yt t  s s, i hs s v ti
th ubi i t st is i vvd, thy i g t xm ti f m
this u f f b . I dd it sms u s f t im s u  ANY,
hs ivs  f im  t  t th s, u f f b  s
 t y t  th i i s f   . This xm ti th f 
must b d t  vstd ith y ubi ffi, hih m ks thm
s  sib f th s fty f th s; s th g  s h  dut
mis,  th u s f th st t, d m y th s i simi
situ ti s; t hm m y b id th i s f Lu --"Wh th ivs
d s fty f s m y ti s d  d u  yu s, d s g  t  ti
f th  d h s hs yu f its h d; it is  uty t x s
yu sf ifuy t d th."
IX. O th th h d it m y h  , th t th gg ss m y b  
hs  s is  d d s  d d i vi b by  divi , hum ,
d tu   s; hih is th  s ith s t t th  s f
th Sv ig . F th   f tu  g ds t  y th i i s
f STRICT JUSTICE, but m iss th vi tus s, s tm  ,
f titud, d dis ti , m ki g th bs v  f thm i  t i
 ss, bi di g s  s h u b. T bs v ths   bu d
s by th   f h ity.
N is th t uth f this gum t t   k d by h t squz
h s dv d, h m i t i s th t th Sv ig h ttm ts th if
f i dividu  ss, i  ity, th h t f Sv ig :
dt i  f ught ith qu  bsu dity d d g . F sv ig ty
 t y m  th   ty b f fitd by y tiu t f
di qu y; u ss it h s b viusy d x ssy s  td by
th fu d m t   s f th st t. F suh u f f fitu , hih
ud b dutiv f u iv s  hy d  fusi , v h s b ,
 v i b st bishd m g y iviizd  . F th m xim,
"th t  gv m t is f md f th b fit f th subjt d t
f th Sv ig ," hih squz d m y th  it s  y d s
fu d m t   , thugh it m y b g  y t u i th y, is by 
m s i b t th qusti . F thi g ss t its xist ,
by si g sm t f its utiity. N is th  suffii t  sist y
i his bs v ti , th t v y i dividu  dsi s th s fty f th
mm  th  his  u t, d th f  v y   ught t
f his  s fty t th t f th h st t. F  ish f th
ubi f  t  u  u t  , but s f th s k f
th s.
Th  i i f ths h thi k th t f i dshi iss f m ssity
 , is jtd s f s, by th m  su d Phis h s; s  f
s  t us d tu  i i ti t ds f i dy i t u s.
Ch ity i dd ft  su ds, d i sm i st s mm ds us t
f th gd f m y t u  si g dv t g. T hih th
fi g ss g f m S  is v y i b. "It is t su isi g
th t i s, d ki gs,  h tv m th gu di s f th ubi
f  m y b , shud b vd ith v  ti d ffti , f
by d ths f iv t f i dshi . F  m f sb judgm t, d
  gd i f m ti dm th ubi i t st f high mm t th
thi  . Thi tt hm t th f  must b  mst t th  s 
hm th  bi g d s  ity f th st t d  ds." A d t th
s m fft, St. Amb s i his thi d bk f Offis, s ys, "v y
m fs g  t dight i v ti g ubi th iv t d g ."
S  , th  it   dy qutd, dus t i st s, th   f

C ist tus t Ath s, d th th f Rutiius t Rm, h fusd


t b st d f m b ishm t thi ki g it btt f t i dividu s
t suff h dshi , th f th ubi t b u gd i t   mitis.
XI.[15] Th xt bjt t b  sid d,  ts t i ju is ffti g
u   ty. I st it justi, it  t b d id th t  h v
ight t ki bb , if suh st is i vit by ss y t th
s v ti f u   ty. F th diff   bt th v u f
if d   ty is v b  d by th h  hih bb xits,
d by th f vu b i i ti ft by  m t ds th i ju d
d i  t. F m h  it fs, th t g di g th t ight  ,
bb m y b u dd  kid i his fight ith th   ty, if
it  t th is b v d. Dmsth s i his s h g i st
A ist ts, x ims, "By  th t is s  d, is it t d  dfu
d   vi ti f  , t  y f  itt  , but f th t  
hih is th u  itt u f  m , t b db d f m th ight
f usi g f  g i st th bb s  s g i st th  my; h
is u d i g yu   ty?" N is it f bidd by th  ts
f h ity, t f m   sid ti f divi  d hum  ,
u ss h  th   ty is f itt v u, d b  th ti;
x ti , hih sm  it s h v v y   y ddd.
XII. Th s s f th Jish    this i t is  t b  sid d.
Th d   f S , t hih Dmsth s, i his s h g i st
Tim ts,  s, g s ith it. F m h  th subst  f
th TWEL E TABLES, d P t's m xim i his i th bk f  s  
t k . F thy  g  i m ki g disti ti bt thif h
st s by d y, d th bb , h mmits th t by ight; thugh
thy diff but th REASON f this disti ti . Sm thi k this
disti ti iss f m th diffiuty f dis i g by ight, hth
gg ss ms ith i t t t mu d  st , d th f 
h ught t b t  td s ss ssi . Oth s thi k th disti ti
is m d, b us s it is diffiut t k  th  s f th thif,
th  is ss b biity f v i g th gds. I ith  s
d th f m s f  s sm t h v  sid d th qusti i its
  ight. Thi vid t i t ti is t hibit th kii g f
y  , m y  u t f u   ty; hih ud h  , f
i st , by kii g thif i his fight i  d t v th
gds h h d st . But if u  ivs   d g d, th  
d t v t th d g , v t th h z d f th 's if.
N is u h vi g u i t th d g y bjti ; vidd it  s
d  t s v  t v u gds,  t t k th thif. F
 im ut ti f guit  tt h t us i y f ths  ss, hi
  m yd i di g  fu t,   it b s id th t  
di g   g t th by x isi g u  ight.
Th diff   th f  m d bt thif i th ight d thif
i th d y, iss f m th diffiuty f u i g suffii t vid 
f th f t. S th t if thif is fu d kid, th  s h s ys,
th t h  s fu d by him ith dst utiv   , d kid by
him i his  df , i  siy g i bif. F th Jish  
su ss this, h it t  ts f thif i th t f i i g,  ,
s sm t s t it, ith st bbi g i st um t. This i t t ti
 ds ith th   f th tv t bs, hih f bids y   t
ki thif i th d y tim, x t h df d himsf ith   .
Th sum ti th f  g i st thif i th ight is th t h
df dd himsf i suh m  . N th t m   m h ds t
 y i st um t f i  , but s C ius i t ts this  , ub,
 st . U i  th th h d, s  ki g f thif t k i th
ight, s ys th t th  s h kis him i i u  guit, vidd

th t i s vi g his   ty h ud t s  his if, ithut


 d g i g his  . Th  is sum ti , s it h s b   dy
bs vd, i f vu f th  s h h s kid thif t k i th
ight. But if th  b vid  t v, th t th if f th  s
h kid th thif  s i  d g ; th th sum ti i his
f vu f is, d th t mu ts t mu d .
Th   f th tv t bs i dd qui d, th t th  s h tk
thif ith i th d y tim,  i th ight, shud m k is
th t, if ssib, th m gist ts  ighbu s might ssmb t
ssist him d giv vid . But s suh  u s ud m   siy
b ssmbd i th d y tim th i th ight, s U i bs vs
u  th ss g bf  qutd f m Dmsth s, th ffi m ti f
 s d i g th d g h  s i du i g th ight is m   diy
bivd. T hih dditi  bs v ti m y b m d, th t, v
u d qu  i umst s, th d g hih h  s by ight  b
ss x mi d, d s t i d, d th f  is th m  t ib.
Th Jish   th f ,  ss th th Rm , ti g u  th s m
i i  f t d ss f bids us t ki y  , h h s t k u
gds, u ss f th s v ti f u  ivs.
X I.[16] Wh t h s b   dy s id f th ight f df di g u
 s s d   ty, thugh g di g hify iv t  , m y
v thss b id t ubi hstiitis, i g f th
diff   f i umst s. F iv t  m y b  sid d s
i st t us x is f tu  ight, hih  ss th mm t th t
g  d ss  b bt i d. N s ubi   v t k  ,
but h  judii  mdis  s t xist, it is ft t td,
d th s i it f hstiity i f md by th  ti ud ssi f
sss d i ju is. Bsids, iv t  xt ds  y t sf-df ,
h  s sv ig  s h v ight t  y t v t, but t u ish
  gs. F m h  thy  uth isd t v t mt s  s
immdi t gg ssi . Thugh th sus ii f hsti i t ti s, 
th t f th  , m y t justify th mm m t f tu 
 , yt it  s f m su s f md v ti , d i uth is
i di t hstiity. Pi ts, hih i b disussd i th  .
X II. Sm  it s h v dv d dt i  hih  v b
dmittd, m i t i i g th t th   f ti s uth iss   
t mm  hstiitis g i st th , hs i   si g g  t ss
 k s h  ms. As m tt f x di y suh m su  m y b
d td, but th i i s f justi  v b dv d i its
f vu . Th  uss hih  tit  t th d mi ti f just 
smh t diff  t f m ths f x di y  . But t m i t i
th t th b  b biity f sm mt,  futu  y  f m
ighbu i g st t ff ds just g u d f hsti gg ssi , is
dt i   ug t t v y i i  f quity. Suh hv is th
 diti f hum if, th t  fu su ity  b  jyd. Th  y
tti g i st u  t i f s must b sught, t f m vi ,
but f m th divi  vid , d df siv  uti .
X III. Th  is th  i i , t m  dmissib, m i t i i g
th t th hsti ts f gg ss , m y b  sid d i th ight
f df siv m su s, b us, s y th dv ts f this  i i , f
    t t t   ti thi v g t th i ju is thy
h v ivd; bu ds hih i  b biity th ty gg ivd h s
xdd, d th f  i tu bms himsf th gg ss . N
th xss f t i ti  t, y m  th th f f u  t i
d g , giv u f ight t th fi st gg ssi , hih m y b
iust td by th  s f m f t , h  h v  ight t u d

 ki th ffi s f justi i thi ttm ts t t k him, u gi g


s  th t h f d th u ishm t ud xd th ff s.
Th fi st st , hih gg ss ught t t k, shud b ff f
i dm ity t th i ju d ty, by th bit ti f sm i d  d t
d disi t std st t. A d if this mdi ti b jtd, th his
 ssums th h t f just  . Thus Hzki h h h h d t
std t th  g gm ts m d by his st s, bi g th  t d ith
tt k f m th Ki g f Assy i  th t u t, k dgd his
f ut, d ft it t th Ki g t ssig h t  ty h shud y
f th ff . Aft h h d d  s, fi di g himsf g i tt kd,
yi g  th justi f his  us, h  sd th  my, d
sudd by th f vu f Gd. P tius th S m it, ft st ti
f th izs h d b m d t th Rm s, d th mt f th 
div d u i t thi h ds, s id, "W h v  v td th  th f
h v , hih u vi ti f t  tis h d vkd. But th su m
bi g h  s  sd t du us t th ssity f st ti ,
 s t qu y  sd ith th id f th Rm s, h jtd u
ff . Wh t f th s tisf ti d   t th Rm s,  t H v ,
th bit f t  tis? W d t sh i k f m submitti g th m su 
f YOUR s tm t,  f OUR u ishm t t th judgm t f y  ,
 y i dividu ." I th s m m  , h th Thb s h d ff d
th mst quit b t ms t th L d m i s, h sti s high
i thi dm ds, A istids s ys, th t th justi f th  us h gd
sids d ssd f m th L d m i s t th Thb s.

CHAPTER II.
THE GENERAL RIGHTS OF THINGS.
Th g   ights f thi gs--Divisi f h t is u  --Th  igi
d g ss f   ty--Sm thi gs im ssib t b m d th
subjt f   ty--Th S f this tu , i its fu xt t, 
i its i i  ts--U u id  ds m y bm th   ty
f i dividu s, u ss thy h v b viusy u id by
th   t  g--Wid b sts, fishs, bi ds, m y bm th
  ty f him h sizs thm--I  ss f ssity m h v
ight f usi g th t hih h s   dy bm th   ty f
th s--T s ti this i dug , th ssity must b suh
th t it  t th is b vidd--This i dug  t d
h  th ssss is i qu  dg  f ssity--Th
ty thus su yi g his  ts f m th 's   ty, bu d
t m k stituti h v it is ssib. Th i ti
f this i i  t th ti f  --Th ight t us th
  ty f th , vidd th t us b   y judii  t
th   --H  th ight t th us f u i g  t --Th ight
f ssi g th ugh u t is, d by iv s x  i d--A i qui y
i t th ight f im si g dutis  m h dis--Th ight f
sidi g f tim i f ig st t--Th ight f xis t
sid i th dmi i s f f ig st t, vidd thy submit
t its  s--I h t m  th ight f u yi g  st  s is
t b u d std--Th ight t  t i tis ss y t th
su  t f hum sity, d if--Th g   ight f u h si g
ths tis t  s b i--Th ight t s, t f
qu  f  d xt t--Th ight t ths ivigs hih 
misuusy g td t f ig  s--I qui y hth it b  fu
t  t t ith y   f th u h s f thi duti s

  diti f thi t si g th s m t th s.


I. Am g th  uss ssig d t justify  ,  m y k th
mmissi f i ju y, tiu y suh s ffts y thi g hih
b gs t us. N  st bish this  im t y thi g s u 
ith by ight COMMON t us s m ,  qui d by us i u
INDI IDUAL  ity. But t bgi ith th t hih is th mm ight
f  m ki d;  m y bs v th t it m iss h t is  d by
g  uth itis, C    d I     ights.[17]
Thi gs      ith u  i td,  m d th subjts f
iv t   ty. N th thi gs u  i td,  suh th t it
m y b ith ssib  im ssib f thm t b dud t
st t f iv t   ty.[18] I  d th f  t u d st d this
m   y, it i b ss y t t k su vy f th  igi f
  ty.
II. Gd g v t m ki d i g  , dmi i v  th   tu s
f th  th, f m th fi st   ti f th  d; g t hih
 s  d u  th st ti f th  d ft th dug. A
thi gs, s Justi s ys, f md mm stk f  m ki d, s th
i h it s f   g   t im y. F m h  it h  d, th t
v y m sizd t his  us   sum ti h tv h mt ith;
g   x is f ight, hih su id th   f iv t
  ty. S th t t d iv y   f h t h h d thus sizd, b m
t f i justi. Whih Ci  h s x  i d i his thi d bk, 
th bu ds f gd d vi, by m i g th  d t Th t , i
hih th s ts  mm   ty, yt v y s t t  ims th t
hih h u is, f th tim bi g, s his  . A st t f ff i s,
hih ud t subsist but i th g  tst sim iity f m  s, d
u d th mutu  f b  d gd-i f m ki d. A x m  f
mmu ity f gds, isi g f m xt m sim iity f m  s, m y
b s i sm ti s f Am i , h f m y gs h v subsistd
i this m  ithut i  v i . Th Ess s f d, fu ishd
x m  f m tu td by mutu  ffti d hdi g  thi gs i
mm , ti d td by th imitiv Ch isti s t J us m,
d sti v ii g m g sm f th igius  d s. M t his
fi st  igi , qui i g  thi g, ff dd f f th sim iity
f m  s i hih h h d b f md. Yt  h s, s Justi s ys
f th Sythi s, h might b  sid d s ig  t f vi th
th qu i td ith vi tu; T itus s ys, th t i th  y gs f
th  d, m ivd f  f m th i fu  f vi ssi s, ithut
  h, d ikd ss; d  squ ty ithut th st i ts f
u ishm t. I imitiv tims th   d m g m ki d,  di g
t M  bius, sim iity, ig  t f vi, d i x  i d i
 ft: sim iity hih i th bk f Wisdm sms t b  d
i tg ity, d by th A st P u sim iity i  siti t
subtity. Thi s m ym t  s th  shi f Gd, f hih th
t  f if  s th symb, s it is x  i d by th i t Hb s,
hs  i i is  fi md by th Bk f Rv ti .
M t th t  id subsistd u  th s  t us duti s f th
g u d: st t f sim iity t hih thy did t  g dh , but
id thmsvs t th i v ti f v ius ts, i di td by th
t  f k dg f gd d vi, th t is th k dg f ths
thi gs hih m y b ith usd   y,  busd; hih Phi
 s midd ki d f isdm. I this vi, Sm s ys, Gd h th
  td m u ight, th t is, i sim iity, but thy h v sught ut
m y i v ti s,  , i th  gu g f Phi, thy h v i i d t

subtity. I th sixth  ti f Di P us  sis it is s id, "th


ds d ts h v dg  td f m th i   f imitiv tims,
 t ivi g m y subti i v ti s   y  duiv t th gd f
if; d usi g thi st  gth t t mt justi, but t g tify
thi tits." Ag iutu  d stu g sm t h v b th
mst i t u suits, hih h t izd th fi st b th s. Sm
dist ibuti f thi gs ud ss iy f ths diff  t st ts;
d   i f md by hy  it, th t th iv  y thus   td  dd
i mu d . At  gth m i   si g i ikd ss by thi vi
mmu i ti s ith  h th , th  f Gi ts, th t is f st  g
d vi t m  d, hm th G ks d mi t by tit,
sig ifyi g ths h m k thi  h ds d st  gth th m su  f
justi.
Th  d i g ss f tim bi g  d f this  by th dug,
th s v g  s sudd by sft d m  s su   y f if,
t hih th us f i  vd subs vi t, bi g fd by 
th vi  squ s f i txi ti . But th g  tst b  h i
th h m y f m  s m d by mbiti , hih is  sid d i sm
m su , s th ffs i g f b mi d. Its fi st d mst mi  t
ffts  d i th ttm t t is th t f B b; th
f iu  f hih  usd th dis  si f m ki d, h tk ssssi
f diff  t ts f th  th.
Sti ft this mmu ity f  ds f stu , thugh t f
fks, v id m g m . F th g  t xt t f  d  s
suffii t f th us f  u ts, s yt but f i umb ,
ithut thi i mmdi g  h th . I th  ds f th Pt, it  s
dmd u  fu t fix  d m k  th  i ,  t  ti it ut
i st td imits. But s m i   sd i umb s d thi fks i
th s m   ti , thy ud   g ith  v i   jy th
us f  ds i mm , d it b m ss y t divid thm i t
tm ts f  h f miy. N i th ht u t is f th E st, s
ud b bjts f g  t im  t , f th f shm t f thi
h ds d fks; s th t i  d t vid st if d i  v i ,
 ud b xius t h v thm s ssssi s f thi  . Ths
u ts  d iv f m s  d hist y, d thy  fu d t g 
ith th  i i s m i t i d u  this subjt by Phis h s d
Pts, h h v ds ibd th mmu ity f gds, th t v id i
th  y st t f th  d, d th dist ibuti f   ty hih
ft  ds tk  . H  ti m y b f md f th  s
hy m d td f m th im v  st t f hdi g  thi gs i
mm , tt hi g th id s f   ty, fi st t mv b d xt t
immv b thi gs.
Wh th i h bit ts f th  th bg t qui  t st f m 
di t f  th th s  t us duti s f th g u d, d t
k f m  mmdius h bit ti s th  vs,  th h f
t s, d t  g f m  g t  thi g th th ski s f id
b sts, i dust y b m ss y t su y ths  ts, d  h
i dividu  bg t y his tt ti t sm tiu t. Th
dist  f th  s t, i t hih m   dis  sd, v td
thm f m  yi g th f uits f th  th t mm stk, d i
th xt  , th WANT f just i i  d quit b ki d ss ud
dst y th t qu ity hih ught t subsist bth i th  bu f
dui g d  sumi g th ss is f if.
At th s m tim,   h thi gs ssd f m bi g hd i mm
t st t f   ty. It  s t by th t f th mi d   th t
this h g tk  . F m i th t  s ud v k , h t

th s i t dd t  i t t thi  us, s s t xud


th  im f v y th t d t th s m; d m y t might
dsi  t ssss th s m thi g. P   ty th f  must h v b
st bishd ith by x ss g m t, s by divisi ,  by t it
 s t, s by u y. F s s s it  s fu d i  v i t
t hd thi gs i mm , bf  y divisi f  ds h d b
st bishd, it is tu  t su s it must h v b g  y
g d, th t h tv y   h d u id shud b u td his  .
Ci , i th thi d bk f his Offis s ys, it is dmittd s
u iv s  m xim, t  ug t t th i i s f tu   , th t
v y   shud th ish himsf t  jy th ss is f if,
th  v thm f th quisiti f th . Whih is su  td by
Qui tii , h s ys, if th  diti f if b suh, th t h tv
h s f  t th iv t us f y i dividu , bms th   ty
f suh hd , it is vid ty u just t t k  y y thi g hih
is ssssd by suh ight. A d th i ts i styi g C s
 -giv , d givi g th m f Thsm h i t h s  d ights,
m t by this t sig ify th t th divisi f  ds h d giv bi th t
 ki d f ight.
III. Ntithst di g th st tm ts bv m d, it must b dmittd
th t sm thi gs  im ssib t b dud t st t f   ty,
f hih th S ff ds us i st  bth i its g   xt t,
d i its i i  b hs. But s sm  ii g t m k this
 ssi ith g d t i dividu s, but t ith g d t ti s,
th siti dv d i th bgi i g f this sti m y b vd
f m th fi g m  gum t, th t s i this  s th  s 
 g subsists hy m shud hd  thi gs i mm , th ti
 ss s. F th m g itud f th s is suh, s t b suffii t
f th us f  ti s, t  thm ithut i  v i  d
judi t  h th th ight f fishi g, s ii g,  y th
dv t g hih th t m t ff ds. Th s m m y b s id f i s
mm   ty, x t th t     us   jy it, ithut t
th s m tim usi g th g u d v hih it sss  sts. S th t
th musm t f fi g  t b fd, x t by  missi ,
ithut t s ssi g u  th  ds f sm   , v hih th bi ds
fy.
Th s m  ti f COMMON m y b giv t th s d f th sh ,
hih bi g i  b f utiv ti , is ft f  t yid its
i xh ustib su is f th us f .
Th  is tu   s s, hih  d s th s ,  sid d i
th vi   dy t k , i  b f bi g m d   ty: b us
u y  v subsist, but i thi gs th t  b  fi d t
 t i  m  t bu ds. F m h  Thuydids givs th m f
i fi it s  t u u id  ds, d Is ts s  ki g f th t
u id by th Ath i s  s it th t hih h s b m su d by us
i t td ts. But fuids, hih  t b imitd  st i d,
x t thy b  t i d ithi sm th subst ,  t b
u id. Thus  ds, d  ks d iv s ikis,   y b m d
  ty s f s thy   fi d ithi  t i b ks. But th
 s it is qu  t,   g th th  th,  t b  fi d
ithi th  d: s th t th i ts s id th  th  s bu dd i by
th s ik gi d su u di g it. N  y im gi b divisi
f it h v b  igi y f md. F s th g  tst t f it  s
u k  , it  s im ssib th t ti s f mvd f m  h th
ud g  u  th bu ds t b ssig d t diff  t ts.
Wh tv th f   s th mm

  ty f , d ft g  

divisi f  th thi gs, t i d its  igi  st t, ud


t b  i td by divisi , but by u y. A d th m ks f
disti ti d s ti by hih its diff  t ts   k  ,
fd suh  i ti .
I . Th xt m tt s t b tid  ths thi gs, hih thugh
t yt m d   ty, m y b dud t th t  diti . U d this
ds i ti m  st  ds, ds t is ds, id b sts, fishs, d
bi ds. N i ths  ss th   t thi gs t b i td ut, hih
 dub ki d f u y th t m y t k  ; th   i th
m f th Sv ig ,  f h  , th th by i dividu s,
 v ti g i t iv t st ts th  ds hih thy h v s u id.
Th  tt ki d f i dividu    ty ds th f m ssig m t
th f m f  u y. Yt y  s th t h v b t k
ssssi f i th m f sv ig ,  f h  , thugh
t  ti d ut m gst i dividu s,  t t b  sid d s
 st  ds, but s th   ty f th fi st u i , hth it b
th Ki g,  h  . Of this ds i ti  iv s,  ks,
f sts, d id mu t i s.

. As t id b sts, fishs, d bi ds, it is t b bs vd th t th


sv ig f th s tiv  ds,   t s h  thy  fu d,
h s g  ight t hibit y   f m t ki g thm, d th by
qui i g   ty i thm. A hibiti xt di g t f ig  s,
s  s subjts. T f ig  s; b us by  th us f m 
  thy  bdi  t th sv ig , f th tim du i g hih thy
sid i his t it is. N is th  y v idity i th bjti
fu dd  th Rm L , th L  f tu ,  th L  f ti s,
hih, it is s id, d  suh im s t b b sts f h  f  t
v y  's hu ti g. F this is  y t u, h  th  is  ivi
  t i t s its hibiti ; s th Rm   ft m y thi gs i
thi imitiv st t, hih by th ti s    d u  v y
diff  t fti g. Th dvi ti s th f  f m th st t f tu ,
hih h v b st bishd by th ivi  ,   d i d by v y
i i  f tu  justi t b byd by m ki d. F thugh th
ivi     ji thi g hih th   f tu  hibits, 
hibit y thi g hih it  ji s, yt it m y i ums ib tu 
ib ty, st i i g h t  s bf  d; thugh th st i t
shud xt d t th v y quisiti f   ty, t hih v y m
AT FIRST h d ight by th   f tu .
I. Th xt thi g t b  sid d is th ight, hih m h v t
th mm us f thi gs,   dy  i td; t ms, i hih t th
fi st sight th   s t b sm i  sist y, s it  s th t
th st bishm t f   ty h s bs bd v y ight th t s u g f m
st t f thi gs hd i mm . But this is by  m s th  s. F
th i t ti f ths, h fi st i t du iv t   ty, must b
t k i t th u t. A d it  s but  s b t su s, th t i
m ki g this i t duti f   ty, thy ud d t s itt s
ssib f m th  igi  i i s f tu  quity. F if  itt
 s  t b  st ud i s s,  hi g s  y s ssib
t th  s f tu , muh m  s  ths ustms hih  t
ftt d ith th it  st iti s f  itt m xims. F m h  it
fs th t i  ss f xt m ssity, th  igi  ight f usi g
thi gs, s if thy h d m i d i mm , must b vivd; b us i
 hum  s, d  squ ty i th  s  ti g t   ty, th
 s f xt m ssity sms t f m x ti .
U  this i i  is buit th m xim th t if i vy g visi s
bgi t f i, th stk f v y i dividu  ught t b dud f

mm  sum ti ; f th s m  s ighbu i g hus m y b


ud d t st th g ss f fi :  th  bs  ts,
i hih shi is  t gd, m y b ut, if it  t th is b
dis g gd. M xims,   f hih   i t dud by th ivi  , but
 y x  i d by it  di g t th us f tu  quity.
N m g Thgi s s it is ivd  i i , th t if i u g t
dist ss, y   sh  t k f m th h t is bsuty ss y
f th s v ti f his  if, th t sh  t b dmd
thft. A u t fu dd, s sm g, sy u  th   f
h ity, hih bigs v y ssss t y sm t f his  th
t iv th dy; but u  th  igi  divisi f  ds m g
iv t   s, hih  s m d ith s v ti i f vu f th
imitiv ights f tu . F if ths h t fi st m d th divisi
h d b skd thi  i i u  this i t, thy ud h v giv th
s m  s th t h s just b dv d. Nssity, s ys S  , th
g  t tt ss f hum i fi mity b  ks th ugh  hum  s,
d  ths m d i th s i it f hum gu ti s. Ci  i his
v th Phii i, s ys, th t C ssius  t i t Sy i , hih might b
 sid d s th 's vi , if m dh d t  itt  s, but
if ths   bishd, it ud b  sid d s his  by th  
f tu . I th sixth bk d fu th h t f Qui tus Cu tius,
 fi d bs v ti , th t i mm   mity v y m ks t
himsf.

II. N this i dug  must b g td ith  uti s d


st iti s, t v t it f m dg  ti g i t i tius ss. A d
f ths  uti s, th fi st qui s th dist ssd ty t t y
v y md f bt i i g if, by   t m gist t,  by
t yi g th fft f  t  ty t v i u  th   t g t h t
is ss y f his ssi g  si s. P t s y   t sk
 t f m his ighbu 's , ft h vi g dug t  t i d th i
his  ithut fft. S imits th d th t f ty ubits; u 
hih Put h m ks, th t h i t dd by this t iv ssity
d diffiuty, but t t  u g sth. X  h i his s t
th Si  i s, i th fifth bk f th x diti f Cy us, s ys,
"h v  m, hth i t b b us u t y  i t y t f
G , d fi d th   u ii g t ff d us su is,  t k
thm, t th ugh mtivs f  t ss, but f m th m usi f
ssity."
III. I th xt   this  f ssity  t b dmittd,
h  th ssss is i qu  st t f ssity himsf. F
u d qu  i umst s th   h s btt ight t th us f
his ssssi s. Thugh L t tius m i t i s th t it is  m k f
fy t f b th usti g th f m th s m  k i shi  k
i  d t s v yu sf. B us yu h v th by vidd hu ti g
th : si hih is  t i y f f isdm t bst i f m.
Ci , i th thi d bk f his ffis, sks this qusti , if is
m , i d g f  ishi g ith hu g , h s t ight t t k th
visi s f th , h is gd f thi g? T hih h  is; By
 m s. F   's if  b f suh im  t  s t uth iz
th vi ti f th t g   u f f b , by hih th  
d s fty f v y i dividu   su d.
IX. I th thi d  , th ty thus su yi g his  ts f m
th   ty f th , is bu d t m k stituti ,  giv
quiv  t t th   , h v th t is ssib. Th   sm
i dd, h d y this, u  th g u d th t    is bu d t giv
i dm ity f h vi g x isd his  ight. But st ity s  ki g,

it  s t fu d  ft ight, hih h x isd; but ki d f


 missi , isi g ut f  s f ssity, d xisti g   g
th hi th ssity  ti ud. F suh  missiv ight is  y
g td i  d t s v tu  quity i  siti t th st it
d hu ish igu f xusiv   shi .
X. H  it m y b i f d, th t, i th suti f just  ,
y  h s ight t t k ssssi f ut  si; if th  b
  g u ds, d t im gi y f s f su si g th  my i t ds
t m k himsf m st f th s m, s i y if th  my's u yi g
it ud b tt dd ith immi  t d i  b mishif t th t
s m  . But i this  s th st iti is id th t thi g b
t k but h t is tu y ss y t suh  uti d su ity.
B y u yi g th   is  th t  b justifid:  vi g t
th     th fu  jym t f  his ights, immu itis, d
ju isditi , d  th duti s f his si. A d this must b
d  t ith th fu i t ti f st i g th   t its  fu
Sv ig , h v th ssity, f hih it  s u id, m y
 s. Th t i i g f E , Livy s ys,  s ith t f vi ,
 ss y m su ; by vi  m i g th  st d tu  f m
ssity. Th G ks, h   ith X  h bi g i g  t  t f
shi s, by X  h 's  dvi, sizd u  ths th t   ssi g,
sti s vi g th   ty u tuhd f th   s, su yi g th
s i s ith visi s, d yi g thm  gs. Th i i  ight
th f , fu dd u  th  igi  mmu ity f gds, m i i g
si  th i t duti f   ty, is th t f ssity, hih h s
just b disussd.
XI. Th  is th ight, hih is th t f m ki g us f th   ty
f th , h  suh us is tt dd ith  judi t th   .
F hy, s ys Ci , shud t y  , h h  d it ithut
i ju y t himsf,  th t sh  ith him ths dv t gs,
hih  usfu t th iv , d   y dt im t  t th giv ?
S  th f  bs vs, th t it is  f vu t  th t
ight his fi  f m yu f m. A d i th 7th bk f Put h's
Sym si s,  fi d bs v ti , th t h  h v visi s m 
th suffii t f u   sum ti it is ikd t dst y th
m i d ;  ft su yi g u   ts, t bst ut  dst y th
s i gs f  t ;  ft h vi g fi ishd u vy g, t t  v
f th ss g s th s -m ks, th t h v  bd us t st u
u s.
XII. U  th i i s   dy st bishd, iv , s suh, is th
  ty f th t  ,  f th sv ig f th t  , th ugh
hs t it is it fs. H m y f m qu ys, d butt sss u  th t
iv , d t him  th du f it b gs. But th s m iv ,
s u i g  t , sti m i s mm t  t d   d i k it.
Ovid i t dus L t thus dd ssi g th Lydi s, "Why d yu fus
 t , th us f hih is mm ?" h  h  s  t ubi gift
th t is mm t m , t ki g th  d ubi i m  g   s s
th s id t y PEOPLE, m i g i hih sm thi gs  s id
t b ubi by th   f ti s. A d i th s m s s i gi h s
ss td  t t b f  d   t  m .
XIII. It is u  th s m fu d ti f mm ight, th t f 
ss g th ugh u t is, iv s,  v y t f th s , hih
b gs t sm tiu  , ught t b d t ths, h
qui  it f th ss y  si s f if; hth ths  si s
b i qust f sttm ts, ft bi g d iv f m thi  u t y,
 t t d ith mt ti ,  t v by just  thi st

ssssi s. Th s m  s v is h  s i th  ss bv md.


B us   ty  s  igi y i t dud ith s v ti f th t
us, hih might b f g   b fit, d t judii  t th
i t st f th   : i t ti vid ty  t t i d by ths,
h fi st dvisd th s ti f th bu tus gifts f th   t
i t iv t ssssi s. Th  is m k b i st  f this i th
Ms i hist y, h th  d f th hid  f Is  qui d
f  ss g f th t  , misi g t th Ki g f Edm, d t th
Ki g f th Am its, th t h ud g by th high y, ithut stti g
ft u  th si f iv t ssssi s, d th t th   shud
y th i f v ythi g, hih thy might h v  si t us.
U  ths quit b t ms bi g jtd, Mss  s justifid i
m ki g  u  th Am its. B us, s ys Augusti , i ff siv
ss g, ight i t v ith th v y f m f hum sity,  s
fusd. Th G ks u d th mm d f C hus, s id, "  u 
th  y t u hm, if    i t u t us; but v y ttm t t
mst us,  , ith th ssist  f h v , dt mi d t v g."
Nt u ik this s f th sdi s u d C hus is th qusti
ut t th diff  t ti s f Th  by Agsi us, h dsi d t
k  hth thy ishd him t ss th ugh thi u t y s f i d,
 s  my. Wh th Bti s hsit td u  sm  siti s
m d t thm by Lys d , h skd thm hth thy i t dd th t h
shud ss ith  td  i i d s  s, m i g by th x ssi
i hsti  quit m  . W  i f md by T itus, th t th
B t vi s, s s s thy  m  th  m t B , s t mss g
t H  ius G us, im  ti g th t "thy h d  hsti dsig ; th t
if t bst utd, thy ud m h i   b m  ; but if thy
mt ith  siti thy ud ut thi  y s d i h d." Wh
Cim i  yi g su is t th L d m i s, h d m hd ith his
t  s th ugh sm t f th C i thi dist it, th C i thi s
x stu td u  his  dut s vi ti f thi t it y,
b us h h d d  it ithut ski g thi  v, t th s m tim
bs vi g, th t    k ks t th m 's d ,  sums t
 t th hus ithut bt i i g th m st 's  v. T hm h
 id, yu v k kd t th g ts f C  d Mg , but b k
thm d , bivi g, I su s, th t  ight ught t ithst d th
f  f th mighty.
N bt ths t xt ms th  is midd u s, qui i g
f  ss g t b fi st skd; th fus  f hih i justify th
i ti f f . Thus Agsi us i his tu f m Asi h h
h d skd ss g f th Ki g f th M d i s, h s d th t
h ud  sid f it, s id, yu m y  sid , if yu  s, but 
sh  ss i th m tim.
Th f s, hih y   t t i s f m mutitud i ms ssi g
th ugh its t it is, d t f m suh x ti s  d  y
th u   dy  id d . F it is t     s b th t th
f s f   ty shud dst y th ights f th . Es i y,
s ss y  uti s d su itis m y b usd, suh s ths,
f i st , f qui i g th t th t  s sh  ss ithut ms, 
i sm  bdis; mis hih th Ag i i i s m d t th G m s.
A d, s   i f md by St b, th ti sti v is i th
u t y f th E s. A th su ity m y b fu d i vidi g
g is s t th x  s f th ty, t hm th ss g is g td;
 i givi g hst gs; th  diti , hih Suus dm dd f
Dmt ius, f  mitti g him t m i ithi his t it is. N
is th f f ff di g th t  , hih is th bjt f tt k,
suffii t txt f fusi g th ss g f th t  s t th st t

th t is  g gd i just  . N is it    s t ssig f


fus , t s y th t th ss g m y b fu d; s v y th
 might g th s m, d by this m s th ight f ss g
ud b  ti y df td. Th qust f ss g th f , by th
 st d mst mmdius  y, ithut di g i ju y d mishif, is
suffii t g u d u  hih it shud b g td. It t s th  s
 ti y, if th ty m ki g th qust is  g gd i u just  ,
d is m hi g ith th t  s f  hsti t th sv ig f
th t t it y; f i this i st , ss g m y b fusd. F th
sv ig h s ight t tt k th t  i his  t it y, d t
 s its m h.
N f  ss g ught t b d t  y t  s s, but t
m h dis. F   h s ight t v t   ti f m
t di g ith th t mt dist ;  missi hih f th
i t st f sity shud b m i t i d. N  it b s id th t y
  is i ju d by it. F thugh h m y b th by d ivd f
xusiv g i , yt th ss f h t is t his du, s MATTER OF
RIGHT,  v b  sid d s d m g  th vi ti f  im.
XI . But it i f m subjt f i qui y, hth th sv ig f
th u t y h s ight t im s dutis  gds  id by  d, 
u  iv  u  y t f th s , hih m y f m ssi
t his dmi i s. It ud u dubtdy b u just f y bu d s
f ig t th tu  f t d t b im sd u  suh gds. Thus
st g s m y ssi g th ugh u t y ud h v  ight t y
-t x, im sd t su  t th xig is f th st t. But if th
sv ig i u s x   by vidi g su ity d tti t t d,
h h s ight t imbu s himsf by th im siti f md t d
 s b dutis. It is th REASONABLENESS f thm, hih  stituts
th justi f ustms d t xs. Thus Sm ivd ts f
h ss d i  th t ssd v th Isthmus f Sy i . Pi y,
s  ki g f f ki  s, bs vs th t s it ud t b t s  td
but by th Gb its, duty u  it  s id t thi ki g. I th
s m m  , s St b i f ms us i his fu th bk, th   f
M sis d ivd g  t  th f m th   hih M ius h d m d
f m th Rh  t th s , by x ti g t ibut f  th t s id u 
it t d f  ith vsss. I th ighth bk f th s m  it , 
 td th t th C i thi s im sd duty u   gds, hih, t
vid th d g us ss g f C  M  ,   t s  td by  d
f m s t s . Th Rm s t m d th ss g f th Rhi  su 
f t ibut, d S   ts th t t  s id f gi g v
b idgs. Th  ks f g   it s bu d i i st s f this ki d.
But it f qu ty h  s th t xt ti is tisd i ths m tt s,
hih St b f ms i t subjt f m  i t g i st hifs f th
A bi t ibs,  udi g th t it ud b u iky f m f th t
 ss ki d t im s u  th gds f m h ts y dutis th t  
t  ssiv.
X . Ths gi g ith m h dis   y ssi g th ugh u t y,
ught t b d t sid th  f tim, if th v y f
h th,  y th just  us shud  d suh sid  ss y.
F ths m y b k d m g th i  t uss f u ight.
Thus Ii us i i gi  s h v t it ss th i justi f
th Af i s i d ivi g him d his shi  kd m i s f m th
hs it b us f th sh , d   i f md by Put h i his
if f P is th t  th G i s vd f th m  i t, hih
th Mg  si s m d g i st th Ath i s, h h d hibitd thm
f m stti g ft u  th si f thi t it is,   yi g
vss i t thi h bu s. S th L d m i s g dd this s th

mst suffii t g u ds t justify th  .


F m h  suts th ight f  ti g tm  y hut, u  th
sh , thugh, f i st , th s m sh  is d t b th
  ty f th   f th t  . F h t Pm  ius s ys f its
bi g ss y t bt i th P t 's  v, bf  buidi g 
b isd u  th ubi sh ,  ts t st utu s f  m  t
ki d, h th m ssy is f st , s th Pt s ys,    h u 
th s , d th ff ightd fish f thi  vs  t td.
X I. N ught  m  t sid  t b fusd t f ig  s, h,
d iv f m thi  u t y, sk    fug. But th it is
 y u   diti th t thy submit t th st bishd  s f th
 , d vid v y  si f xiti g tumut d sditi . A
 s b u, hih th divi  t h s bs vd, h h i t dus
A  s m ki g ff th t L ti us, h h d bm his f th -i - ,
shud t i  miit y d ivi  . A d i Di ysius f
H i ssus, L ti us dmits th  s  f A  s t b just; s
h  m th ugh ssity i qust f sttm t. T d iv  y
fugs, s ys St b, f m E tsth s, is ti g ik b b i s;
d  dut ik this i th S t s  s s  dm d. St.
Amb s sss th s m s t  f  dm ti u  ths  s, h
fus  dmissi t st g s. Yt stt s f this ds i ti
h v  ight t dm d sh  i th gv m t. A  s  f this
ki d m d by th Mi y  t th L d m i s, h h d ivd thm,
is v y   y  sid d by H dtus s i s t, d u  s b.
X II. It is i dd but t f mm hum ity i sv ig t
 st g s, t thi qust, ib ty t fix thi sid  u 
y  st  b   ds ithi his dmi i s, sti s vi g t
himsf  th ights f sv ig ty. Sv hu d d  s f b 
d u utiv td  d, s S vius bs vs,   giv by th tiv
L ti s t th T j s. Di P us  sis, i his sv th  ti , s ys,
th t thy mmit   im f t s ss, h t k u  thm t utiv t
 st  ds. Th fus  f this ivig m d th A sib i s
x im, "th fi m m t v u h ds is th m si f th dity: th
 th  s giv t m ; d h t m i s u u id, is i mm
t ." Yt th t m  i t did t y x ty t thi  s. F
ths  ds ud t b  d u u id, s thy s vd t su y
th Rm my ith f g f thi  tt, hih  t i y fu ishd
th Rm s ith just txt f fusi g t g t thi qust. A d
ith  ss  ity th Rm s skd th G i S  s if it  
ight t dm d  ds   dy ssssd, d t th  t t t k thm
by f .
X III. Si  th COMMON RIGHT TO THINGS h s b st bishd, th
COMMON RIGHT TO ACTIONS fs xt i  d , d this ight is ith
bsut,  st bishd by th su siti f g   g m t
m gst m ki d. N  m h v bsuty ight t d suh 
suh ts s  ss y t vid h tv is ss ti  t th
xist    v i  f if. CON ENIENCE is i udd i this
ight; f th  is   si h  t im gi  xist  f th
s m ssity s  s quisit t uth iz th sizi g f th 's
  ty. B us th i t f disussi h  is t hth y t
is d  AGAINST THE WILL f   , but hth  qui  h t is
ss y f u  ts ACCORDING TO THE TERMS t hih th   h s
g d.[19] Su si g th  is thi g ig  i th  t t, 
y ifu i t ti  his t t m k it u d vid. F y
im dim t   td by th   i suh t s ti s, is  ug t
t th v y i i s f tu  justi, hih su s qu ity

f u ight d i g t subsist i bth th tis   d. St.


Amb s  s f udu t  dut f th t ki d, ttm t t d iv
m f thi sh  i th gds f mm  t, t ithhd th
duti s f tu  hih  th bi th ight f , d t dst y
th t mm  hih is th v y su  t f if. F   t
t  ti g f su  fuitis d uxu is, but f ths thi gs, hih 
ss ti  t if, s hysi, fd d  thi g.
XIX. F m h t h s   dy b vd, it fs th t  m h v
ight t u h s th ss is f if t  s b i, x t
th   s  t thm f thi  us. Thus i g  t s ity f
 , th  ud b  i justi i thi fusi g t s. A d yt
i suh tim f ssity f ig  s, h h v b   dmittd,
 t b d iv  y; but s St. Amb s shs i th ss g   dy
qutd, mm vi must b b  by  ik.
XX. N   s h v t th s m ight i th s  f thi gds: f
th s  t fu ib ty t dt mi  hth thy i u h s
 t i tis  t. Th i t Bgi s, f i st , d
t i s d th f ig m h dis t b im  td m g thm. Th
s m u,   i f md by St b,  s tisd by th N b th 
A bi s.
XXI. It is su sd t b g  y g d m g m ki d, th t th
ivigs, hih y ti g ts misuusy t th subjts
f f ig  s  u t is,  th mm ight f .[20]
C squ ty th xusi f y     f m ths ights ud
b  sid d s i ju y t th t  . Thus, h v f ig  s
i g    d t hu t, t fish, t sht, t g th  s,
t sud t   ty by tst m t, t s mmditis,  t f m
i t m i gs, th s m ivigs  t b fusd t y tiu
 , u ss thy h v by mis dut f fitd thi ight. O hih
u t th t ib f B j mi  s db d f m i t m yi g ith
th t ibs.
XXII. It h s smtims b subjt f i qui y hth   ti
m y  fuy g  ith th t xud  ti s but h sf
f m u h si g  t i duti s, hih  th ui g th f
h si. A g m t hih, it is vid t, m y b  fuy m d; if
th u h s i t ds t su y th ti s ith ths tis t
 s b i. F it is m tt f i diff   t th ti s
OF WHOM thy u h s, vidd thy  h v  s b su y f
thi  ts. N is th  y thi g u  fu i i g    
dv t g v th i this s t, tiu y f ti
h h s t k th u d h tti d i u d x   
th t u t. N suh m  y, u d th i umst s   dy
m ti d, is   y  ug t t th   f tu ,[21] thugh it
m y b smtims f th i t st f th mmu ity t hibit it by
x ss  s.

CHAPTER III.
ON THE ORIGINAL ACQUISITION OF THINGS, AND THE RIGHT OF PROPERTY IN
SEAS AND RI ERS.
S ifi ti f mv b   ty--Th diff   bt
sv ig ty d   ty--Th ight t mv bs by u y m y

b su  sdd by  --Riv s m y b u id--Right t s s--O th


t  tis bi di g   t t vig t th s s by d  t i
bu ds--I qui y i t th tu  f th h g hih iv ,
h gi g its u s, m ks i th dji i g t it is--Wh t
dt mi ti is t b m d, h  th iv h s  ti y
h gd its h --Smtims h iv m y  u t
t it y--Thi gs ds td b g t th fi st u i .
I. Am g th m s f qui i g   ty, P uus th L y k s
 , hih sms mst tu , d th t is, if by th i g uity f
t,  th x ti s f  bu  h v giv t y duti its
xist  m g th  ks f m . N s thi g  tu y b
dud, x t f m sm m t i s bf  i xist , it fs
th t, if ths m t i s   u  , th ssssi f thm u d y
 sh ,  mmdity is  y CONTINUATION f u f m   ty;
if thy b gd t   , u ssssi ms u d th  ss f
tit by u y: but if thy   th 's,  im vm t f u s
 by th   f tu  giv us ight f   ty th i .
II. Am g ths thi gs, hih b g t   , th   t th t
m y bm th subjts f u y; d ths  ju isditi , 
sv ig ty d   ty. F ju isditi d   ty  disti t
f m  h th i thi ffts. Th bjts v hih sv ig ty
m y b x isd  f tfd ds i ti , mb i g bth  s s
d thi gs. But this is t th  s ith   ty, th ight f hih
 xt d  y t th i ti  d i im t t f th   ti .
Thugh it might  igi y, f th mst t, b th s m t by hih
sv ig ty d   ty   qui d, yt thy  i thi tu 
disti t. SO EREIGNTY, s ys S  , b gs t PRINCES d PROPERTY
t INDI IDUALS. Th sv ig ty th f , t  y v subjts t
hm, but v ths i th i 's f ig dmi i s sss ith th
h dit y ds t f th   .
III. I  s, h  sv ig ty is   dy st bishd, th ight t
mv bs by u y, d i dd v y  igi  ight must giv  y
t th su  i s ti f  . A d h t y m bf  hd by y
suh ight, h ud ft  ds b  sid d s hdi g by th  s f
th u t y. F ths  igi  ights   PERMISSIONS f th   f
tu , d t mm ds th t   t b PERPETUALLY  f d. F th
 ti ud st bishm t f suh ight s th t by i u y, s
f f m mti g th f , ud   t t th v y dst uti
f hum sity. Athugh it m y b s id by  y f bjti , th t
th   f ti s sms t dmit f suh ight, yt  m y s
th t if suh u ith is  h s b mm y ivd i y t
f th  d, it h s t th f  f g   m t bi di g u 
diff  t i d  d t ti s; but m y b  sid d s   b h f
th ivi   f m y ti s, hih y st t h s ight t  ti u,
     di g t its   su   dis ti . Th   m y
th thi gs i dd hih g   it s, i t  ti g f th divisi
d quisiti f   ty,  sid s f mi g t f th   f
ti s.
I . Riv s m y b u id by u t y, t i udi g th st  m
bv,  th t b its  t it is. But th  t s hih  sh
its  ds f m i s b t f th u  t, m ki g its  y
t th m i s . F t  stitut th ight t   ty i its
h , it is suffii t th t its sids, i sd by th b ks f th t
t it y f m its g  tst t, d th t th iv itsf m d
ith th  d, m ks but sm   ti .

. I th s m m  , th s  s  b f bi g m d   ty


by th  ssssd f th sh   bth sids f it; thugh
by d ths imits it m y s  d t id xt t, hih is th  s
ith b y, d ith st ight by d  h f its utts i t m i
s   . But this ight f   ty  v t k   h 
th s is f suh m g itud, s t su ss  m is ith th t
 ti f th  d hih it  shs. A d th ight, hih     
i  sssss, m y s b sh d by g  t umb f st ts, m g
hs s tiv t it is th s fs. Thus iv s s ti g
t  s m y b u id by bth, t  h f hm thi us d
dv t gs m y b qu .
I. I st s m y b fu d f t  tis by hih   ti bi ds itsf
t th , t t vig t tiu s s by d  t i bu ds.
Thus bt th Egy ti s d th P i s i h biti g th b d s f
th Rd S , it  s g d, i i t tims, th t th f m shud
t  t th t s ith y shi f  ,  ith m  th  
m h t shi . I th s m m  , i th tim f Cim , th P si s
  bu d by t  ty, m d ith th Ath i s, t t s i ith y
shi f  bt th Cy  ks d th Chid i is ds;
hibiti , hih, ft th b tt f S  mis, st itd y P si
md vss f m s ii g bt Ph sis d th bv md ks.
I th   y 's t u f th P  si  , th L d m i s
  hibitd f m s ii g ith y shi s f  h tv ,  i dd
ith y th shi s f m  th t ty t s bu d . A d i th fi st
t  ty, hih th Rm s, immdi ty ft th x usi f thi
ki gs, m d ith th C th gi i s, it  s sti u td th t ith th
Rm s,  thi is shud s i by d th m t y f Puh um,
x t thy   d iv thith by st ss f  th ,  t vid bi g
 tu d by  my. But i ith  s thy   t t k thi g m 
th ss is, d t d t bf  th x i ti f fiv d ys. A d
i th s d t  ty, th Rm s   hibitd f m mmitti g y
ts f i y,  v f m t di g by d th m t y f Puh um,
M ssi d T sius.
I t  ty f   bt th Iy i s d Rm s, th  tt
qui d th t thy shud t ss by d th Lissus ith m  th t
f ig ts, d ths u md. I th   ith A tihus, h  s bu d
t t s i ithi th  s f C y d ius d S d , x t ith
shi s  yi g t ibut, mb ss d s,  hst gs. N th i st s
udd t d t v th tu  u y f th s ,  th ight
f vig ti . F it m y h  th t bth i dividu s d ti s
m y g t s m tt f f vu  m t, t  y h t thy h v
m t t ight t dis s f, but th t hih is th mm ight
f  m s  s f thmsvs. Wh this h  s,  m y s y
s U i did  ik  si , h  st t h d b sd ith
s v ti , th t th u h s shud t fish f Tu y t th
judi f th s . H bs vd th t th s ud t b  d d
subjt t s vi, but sti th u h s d ths h sudd
t his ssssi ,   bu d i h u t bs v th t t f th
 t t.

II. Wh v iv h s h gd its u s, dis uts h v is
bt ighb i g st ts t did hth suh t ti   ts
y h g i th dji i g t it is, d t hm y dditi f
 d  si d by th t h g  us. Dis uts hih must b sttd
 di g t th tu  d m  f suh quisiti . W it s,
h h v t  td f th divisi f  d, h v ds ibd it s f
th fd tu :   ki d thy m DI IDED d ASSIGNED  d,

hih F  ti us th L y  s LIMITED, b us it is m kd ut


by tifii  bu d is. By  d ASSIGNED, is m t th t hih h s
b  i td t h mmu ity, m h di g  t i umb
f f miis; hu d d f i st : f m h  it h s d ivd th t
m. A d ths  ti s   d hu d ds. Th  is th divisi
 d ARCIFINIUM, hih is id h th  d is df dd g i st
 my by th tu  bu d is f iv s  mu t i s. Ths  ds
Agg us U bius  s OCCUPATORY, bi g suh s h v b u id
ith by  s f thi bi g v  t,  by th  f  qust. I
th t fi st ki ds f  ds, b us thi xt t d bu ds  fixd
d dt mi d, thugh iv shud h g its u s, it  si s
 h g f t it y, d h t is ddd by uvi i b g t
th f m u t.
I ifi ius  ds, h  th bu ds  f md by tu , y
g du  h g i th u s f th iv m ks h g s i th
bu d is f t it y, d h tv ssi is giv by th iv
t   sid, it i b g t th ssss f th  d  th t sid.
B us th s tiv ti s  su sd  igi y t h v t k
ssssi f ths  ds, ith i t ti f m ki g th MIDDLE f
th t iv , s tu  bu d y, th i  f s ti bt
thm. Thus T itus i s  ki g f th Usi i s d T t i s, h
b d  th C tti s, s ys, "thi t it y is  th b ks f th
Rhi , h  th t iv , sti fi g i   gu h , f ms
suffii t bu d y."

III. Disi s ik ths bv   y t k   i i st s,


h  th iv h s t t d its h . F iv , dividi g
t it is, is t t b  sid d b y s s muh  t , but s
 t fi g i PARTICULAR CHANNEL, d i sd WITHIN CERTAIN
BANKS. F hih  s dditi , d  s,  suh h g f
sm   ti s, s  vs th i t  , u  th h,
 y th s m, s us t  sid th iv s sti th s m. But
if th h f  f th iv is h gd, th  s i b  ti y
t d. F s iv m y b  ti y dst yd by th  ti f
d ms u  th high ts f its st  m,  by diggi g  s, hih
 y ff its  t s i th di ti : s by th ds ti f its
d h , d b  ki g ut f itsf th u s, it i t
 ti u t b s m iv it  s bf , but i b m ty 
 . I th s m m  if iv h s b d id u , th midd f its
h  i m i s th bu d y bt ighbu i g st ts, h
i t ki g ssssi f th ighbu i g t it y  igi y i t dd
th midd f suh iv t b th i  f s ti , d u d 
h gs t s v th s m s  m  t imit. But i dubtfu
 ss, th t it is b d i g u  iv ught t b  sid d
s ifi ius, b us thi g  b m  t m k f disti ti
th ths im ss b bu ds ssig d by tu . It v y sdm i dd
h  s, th t th tifii   ivi dm su m ts f t it y 
b gu td by suh tu  bu ds, s thy , i g  , th
fft f  igi  quisiti ,  h v b dd by t  ty.
IX. Athugh i dubtfu  ss, it h s b s id th t th t it is
  h sid f iv  dt mi d by th midd f th h ;
yt it m y h  , d h s h  d, th t th s ight t iv
m y b g t th t it is    sid f it. B us th t  th
 sit sid  s f  t u y, d subsqu t t th ssssi
f th t iv by th th  :  b us this s ight m y h v
b s sttd by t  ty.
X. It is t u  thy f bs v ti th t thi gs hih h v h d

  , but h v  sd t h v  , bm subjt t th ight by


 igi  quisiti . Thy  su sd t h v b b d d f m th
 t f   , d th f  h v tu d t th  igi  st t
f mm stk. But t th s m tim it is   t bs v, th t
sm tims th  igi  quisiti m y h v b m d by   
thi sv ig , i suh m  s t giv thm  him t  y ths
-mi  t ights hih  stitut  g tiv, but s th fu
tit f   ty.
A d this   ty g i m y b dividd i t sm  g ts, d ths
g i subdividd i t th  ti s, t b hd s d  d t u  th
 igi  g t , th Sv ig ,  th L d. Thugh th  d m y t
b hd by b s s vi,  v ss  g, yt it is ssssd by sm
 diti  t u . F thi gs  u id by m y ki ds f ight;
m g hih m y b k d th ight f  s h x ts   ty
t b ft t him u d th  diti f t ust. S  s ys, th t
  's bi g db d f m si g his  ds, mmitti g  st u 
thm,  v m ki g im vm ts, is t t b t k s f th t
th   ty is t his. F th t is m 's  , hih h hds u d
y  t i  diti s. Si  th   ty dist ibutd i th m 
bv md is hd f th sv ig ,  f sm i t mdi t L d, h
himsf is t t f th sv ig , it fs th t y thi g hih
 ts   ds t bm th   ty f him, h  fi st siz
it, but v ts t th st t  t th sv ig .
[Iust ti : _WAR_
_By G i Mh s--F m  i ti g i Lib y f C g ss._]

CHAPTER I .
TITLE TO DESERT LAND BY OCCUPANCY, POSSESSION, AND PRESCRIPTION.
Why Usu ti  P s i ti  t subsist bt i d  d t
St ts, d Sv ig s--L g ssssi gd s g u d
f ight--I qui y i t th i t ti s f m , hih  t
t b judgd f by  ds  --I t ti t b judgd f by
ts--I t ti s s t b judgd f by missi s--H f  gth
f tim, si , d  - ssssi , m y  fi m th  jtu  f
b d d ight--Tim immm i  g  y thught t b y
 im--Wh t  stituts tim immm i --Objti s t sumd
ds ti f   ty,  sid d ithut y  jtu , tim
immm i   s t t sf d  stitut   ty--I qui y
hth  s s yt u b m y thus b d ivd f thi
ight--Rus f ivi   s ti g Usu ti d P s i ti s
id t th  s f Sv ig P i s, x  i d.
I. A g  t diffiuty iss h  s ti g th ight t   ty
by u i t u td ssssi f y  t i tim. F thugh tim is
th g  t g t, by hs mti  g    s d ights m y
b m su d d dt mi d, yt it h s  fftu   f itsf
t   t x ss tit t y   ty. N ths ights  
i t dud by th ivi  ; d it is t thi  g  ti u ,
but th x ss visi s f th mu ii   , hih givs thm
thi v idity. Thy  f  f  th f , i th  i i f
squz, bt t i d  d t ti s  sv ig s,  bt

f  ti d sv ig : bt sv ig d i dividu  h


is t his subjt,  bt t subjts b gi g t diff  t
ki gs  ti s. Whih i dd sms t u; d is tu y th  s;
f suh i ts  ti g t  s s d thi gs,  t ft t
th   f tu , but  sttd by th s tiv  s f  h
u t y. As th u qu ifid dmissi f this i i  ud  d t
g  t i  v i , d v t th dis uts f ki gs d ti s
s ti g th bu ds f t it y f m v bi g djustd; i  d
t  di t th sds f  tu   f  d  fusi , s  ug t
t th i t sts d fi gs f v y  ; th sttm t f suh
bu d is is t ft t th  ims f s i tiv ight; but th
t it is f  h  t di g ty , i g  , x ssy dfi d
by  t i t  tis.
II. T distu b y   i th tu  d  g ssssi f t it y,
h s i  gs b  sid d s  ug t t th g   i t sts
d fi gs f m ki d. F  fi d i hy  it, th t h th
Ki g f th Amm its dm dd th  ds situ td bt th iv s
A  d J bk, d ths xt di g f m th ds ts f A bi
t th J d , J th h  sd his t tius by vi g his 
ssssi f th s m f th  hu d d y s, d skd hy h d
his st s h d f s  g  id gtd t m k thi  im.
A d th L d m i s,   i f md by Is ts,  id it d f
 t i u dmittd m g  ti s, th t th ight t ubi
t it y s  s t iv t   ty  s s fi my st bishd by
 gth f tim, th t it ud t b distu bd; d u  this g u d
thy jtd th  im f ths h dm dd th st ti f
Mss .
Rsti g u  ight ik this, Phii th S d  s i dud t
d  t Titus Qui tius, "th t h ud st  th dmi i s hih
h h d subdud himsf, but ud u    sid ti giv u th
ssssi s hih h h d d ivd f m his st s by just d
h dit y tit. Su itius, s  ki g g i st A tihus, vd h
u just it  s i him t t d, th t b us th G k N ti s i
Asi h d   b u d th subjti f his f f th s, h h d
ight t viv ths  ims, d t du thm g i t st t f
s vitud. A d u  this subjt t hist i s, T itus d Did us
m y b f d t; th f m f hm  s suh bst t si s,
m ty t ki g, d th  tt t  ts thm s id t s d f bs.
With ths  i i s Ci , i his 2 d bk f Offis, g s, ski g
"h t justi th   b i d ivi g   f th  d, hih h
h s f m y gs quity ssssd?"
III. C it b s id, i  d t justify th distu b  f  g
 jyd ssssi s, th t th ightfu   INTENDED t ss t his
 im, h h v m ifstd suh i t ti by y ut d visib
t? Th fft f ight hih d  ds u  m 's i t ti s 
v f f m b   jtu  f his i, u ss h h s d d
d vd it by sm x ss d visib t. F ti s bi g th
 y vid  f i t ti s, i t ti s  v f thmsvs
  ithut suh ts b th bjt f hum  s. N  jtu s
i dd s ti g th ts f th mi d  b dud t m thm ti 
 t i ty, but  y t th vid  f b biity t th utmst. F
m by thi  ds m y x ss i t ti s diff  t f m thi  
 s, d by thi ts u t fit i t ti s hih thy h v t. Th
tu  f hum sity, hv , qui s th t  ts f th mi d,
h suffii ty i di td, shud b fd by thi du ffts.
Th f  th i t ti , hih h s b suffii ty i di td, is
t k f g td g i st him h g v suh i di ti .

I . But t d t fs d ivd f m ti s. A thi g is


u d std t b b d d, h it is  st  y; x t it b u d
tiu i umst s, s th i g gds v b d i st m t
ight shi , h  th   is t su sd t h v b d d 
i t ti f v y, shud it v b i his  . Ag i , by givi g
u   i g miss y t, dbt is dmd t b dish gd.
P uus th L y , s ys, ight t   ty m y b  u d t  y
by  ds, but s by ti s,  y th i di ti f th i.
Thus, if   k i gy m k  t t ith y   h is i
ssssi , t  ti g him s if h   th ightfu  it , h
is tu y su sd t h v i quishd his  t si s. N
is th  y  s , hy th s m u m y t t k   bt
sv ig i s, d i d  d t st ts, s bt i dividu s. I
th s m m  , L d by g ti g  t i ivigs t his ss ,
hih h ud t g y  jy ithut  s f m his f m
big ti s,  s su sd by suh t t h v giv him his f dm. A
 d ivd t f m th ivi    y, but f m th   f tu ,
hih s v y m t i quish h t is his  , d f m
tu  sum ti th t  s dsig d t d th t hih h h s
giv m ifst fs f his i t ti t d. I this s s, U i m y
b ighty u d std, h  h s ys, th t ACCEPTILATION  th v b 
dish g f dbt is fu dd u  th   f ti s.

. Ev missi s, t ki g    i umst s i t  sid ti ,


m u d th g iz  f th  . Thus th  s , h k i g
f t, d bi g s t t th mmissi f it, sss it v
i si , sms t giv his  s t t it; this  s dmittd by
th Ms i L . U ss i dd it  b sh th t th s m  s
 s hi d d f m s  ki g ith by f  sm th ssi g
i umst . Thus thi g is u td s st h  h  f
v i g it is giv u ; s f i st , if t m im , hih  s
i u ssssi , b sizd d  id ff by id b st. Gds t
st by shi  k, U i s ys,  s t b  sid d s u  , t
immdi ty, but h thy  st by d  ssibiity f bi g
 imd, d h  fs f th   's i t ti t  im thm
 b disv d.
N th  s is t d, if  s s   s t t i qui  ft th
st gds,    ty, d  d  s misd t th fi d . But
if  s k s his   ty t b i th ssssi f th , d
s it t m i s f  gth f tim, ithut ss ti g his
 im, u ss th   suffii t  s s f his si , h is
 st ud t h v  ti y b d d  t si s t th s m. A d
t th s m u s h h s s id sh , th t hus is kd u 
t b b d d  u t f th  g si  f th  it .
Th Em   A t i us Pius, i   f his s i ts, s id th   s but
itt justi i  imi g i t st u  m y ft  g  id; f
th  gth f tim  sd  s i di ti th t th dbt h d b
xusd f m ym t, f m sm mtiv f ki d ss.
Th   s smthi g simi t this i th tu  f ustm.
F t f m th uth ity f ivi  s, hih gu t th tim
d m  f ustm, d its i t duti , it m y is f m th
i dug  f sv ig t  qu d  . But th  gth f tim
f m hih ustm d ivs th f  f ight, is t dfi d, but ft
t th bit y disi f h t is suffii t t i di t g  
 s t. But f si  t b t k s v id sum ti th t
  ty is ds td, t thi gs  quisit: it must b si 

ith k dg f th f t, d ith  ft f dm f i i


th  s   d. F si  fu dd i ig    h v 
ight; d h  y th  s  s, th sum ti f f 
 s t must f i.
I. Athugh th t quisits   dy md m y b dud, yt
th  s s h v thi ight; m g hih  gth f tim is t th
 st im  t t. F i th fi st  , it  s y h  , th t
f g  t  gth f tim thi g b gi g t y   shud t
sm  y  th m t his k dg, s tim might su y m y
  tu itis. Ev if th ivi   did t i t s t b mt
t si s, th v y tu  f thi gs ud sh th  s b ss f
sh t  id f imit ti bi g d t s t th t bs t
 im ts. If im ssi s f f    dd by y   i xus,
yt thi i fu  ud t b f  tu  du ti , d  gth
f tim ud u fd v ius m s f su ity g i st suh f s,
ith f m su s ithi himsf,  f m th ssist  f th s.
Es i g by d th  h f him h d  dd, h might tst g i st
his  ssi , by  i g t   judgs d bit t s.
II. N s tim immm i ,  sid d i m  ight, sms t
h v  bu ds, si  f suh  gth f tim  s suffii t
t st bish th sum ti th t   im t thi g is b d d,
u ss th st  gst fs t th  t y  b dud. Th mst
b L y s h v   y bs vd, th t tim  di g t th mm y
f m is t hu d d y s, thugh b by it m y t f  f
sh t f th t s . F hu d d y s  th t m by d hih
hum xist  sdm  hs; s , hih i g   m ts
th  gs  g  ti s f m . Th Rm s m d this bjti t
A tihus, th t h  imd itis, hih ith h himsf, his
f th ,  his g df th h d v ssssd.
III. F m th tu  ffti hih  m h v f thmsvs,
d thi   ty, bjti m y b t k g i st th sum ti
f y  's b d i g thi g hih b gs t him, d  squ ty
g tiv ts, v thugh  fi md by  g  id f tim,  t
suffii t t st bish th bv md  jtu .
N  sid i g th g  t im  t  ds vdy tt hd t th
sttm t f CROWNS,   jtu s f vu b t th ssss s
ught t b d. F if A tus f Siy thught it h d  s,
th t PRI ATE ssssi s f fifty y s' st di g shud b distu bd,
h muh ighti is th t m xim f Augustus, th t it is th h t
f gd m d gd subjt t ish f  h g i th s t
gv m t, d, IN THE WORDS, WHICH THUCYDIDES HAS ASSIGNED TO
ALCIBIADES, t su  t th  stituti , u d hih h h s b b ?
But if  suh us i f vu f ssssi ud b ddud, yt
m  ighty bjti might b fu d g i st th sum ti , d 
f m th i i ti f v y   t s v his  ight, hih is
th im b biity f   m 's i g th t usu his   ty
f y  gth f tim, ithut d i g d ss ti g his  ight.
IX. P h s it m y  s by b s id, th t this m tt ds t
st u  sum ti  y, but th t it is u, i t dud by th
vu t y   f N ti s, th t u i t u td ssssi , g i st hih
  im h s b ss td, i  ti y t sf suh   ty t th
tu  ssss . F it is mst iky th t  ti s by  s t
g v thi s ti t suh ti, s  duiv t thi mm
 . Th t m u i t u td ssssi th f  h s b v y
  y usd t sig ify, s Su itius s ys i Livy, "th t hih h s

b hd by   u if m t u f ight, ithut i t missi ." O s


th s m uth , i th  ,  s it, "  tu  ssssi ,
th t h s v b  d i qusti ." F t sit y ssssi
  ts  tit. A d it  s this x ti hih th Numidi s h d
u gd g i st th C th gi i s, gi g th t s   tu ity ff d,
smtims th Ki gs f th Numidi s h d  i td t thmsvs th
dis utd ssssi s, hih h d  ys m i d i th h ds f th
st  g ty.
X. But h  th qusti , d th t f  sid b diffiuty,
iss, hih is, t did, hth , by this ds ti ,  s s yt
u b m y b d ivd f thi ights. If  m i t i th t thy
MAY NOT, th u   dy st bishd ud b f  v i t ds
stti g th t quiity f ki gdms, d su ity f   ty. F
i mst thi gs sm thi g is du t th i t sts f st ity. But if
 ffi m th t thy MAY, it th sms  d fu th t si  shud
judi th ights f ths, h   u b t s  k, bf  thy
h d y xist , d th t th t f OTHERS shud   t t thi
i ju y. T  u this i t,  must bs v th t  ights 
b g t  s bf  h h s y xist , s, i th  gu g f
th shs, th   b  id t ithut subst . Wh f 
if P i , f m u g t mtivs f iy, d f th dv t g f
his  tiv dmi i s, d subjts, shud di  t  t
dditi  sv ig ty,  f th s m  s s, shud i quish
th t, hih h h d   dy  td, h ud t b h gd ith
i ju i g his hi s d suss s, th u b , h ud h v 
ights bf  thy h d tu  xist .
N s sv ig m y EXPRESSLY d  h g f his i
s ti g suh dmi i s, s th t h g m y, i  t i  ss, b
im id ithut suh d ti .
I  squ  f suh h g ith x ssd  im id, bf  th
ights f hi s d suss s  b su sd t h v y xist ,
th ssssi m y b  sid d s  ti y b d d. Th  s h 
h s b  sid d  di g t th LAW OF NATURE: f th ivi
 , m g th fiti s, i t dud th t f th  's  s ti g
ths, h  t yt i bi g, d s v ti g y u y f m
t ki g   t thi judi; gu ti f   st bishd u 
 sight g u ds i  d t s v st ts i f miis, thugh
v y m s f PERPETUATING   ty t i dividu s, hih v ts
its t sf f m h d t h d, m y i sm m su  b dt im t  t
th ubi i t st. F m h  it is ivd  i i , th t  gth
f tim i giv   ty i ths fs, hih    igi y
 vyd, t by ight f sussi , but by vi tu f imitiv
i vstitu . Cv uvi s,  y f g  t judgm t, su  ts this
 i i ith th st  gst gum ts i f vu f img itu , d
is it t st ts ft i t ust. F thi g  v t th ivi
  f m i stituti g ight, hih, thugh it  t b  fuy
i td by th t f   ty ithut  s t f th th , yt, t
vid u  t i ty i th t u  f s t  it s, m y b st by
gt f  im f  gth f tim. Sti th tis thus d ivd
m y m i t i  s  ti g i st ths,  thi hi s, th ugh
hs gt thi ight h s b f fitd.
XI. It is i qui y f im  t  hth th   f usu ti d
s i ti , if it v i i i 's dmi i s,  b id t
th t u  f th   , d  its  g tivs. M y g   it s,
h h v t  td f th tu  f sv ig   di g t th
i i s f th Rm ivi  , sm t ffi m th t it m y b s

id. But this is  i i t hih   t d i its fu


xt t. F t m k   bi di g u  y  , it is quisit th t
th gis t shud ssss bth  d i. A gis t is t
bu d by his  , s by th i v b d u h g b  t u f
su  i . But  si s m y is th t i dm d t ti
 v    f th   hih h h s m d. Yt gis t m y
b bu d by his   , t di ty s gis t , but s
i dividu  f mi g t f th mmu ity: d th t t  di g t
tu  quity, hih qui s th t  th m   t ts shud b
f   t th h. W fi d i hy  it, this u bs vd by
S u i th bgi i g f his ig .
N th t u ds t t k   h . F    sid i g th
 giv , t s t but s th REPRESENTATI E d SO EREIGN f th
h mmu ity. N i dd  y suh i t ti i th  giv
b sumd t h v xistd. F gis t s  t su sd t
m h d thmsvs ithi th u f th  , x t h  th
tu  d subjt f it  g  . But sv ig ty is t t b
m d ith th thi gs; it s f su sss thm i th b ss
f its  d, d th dig ity f its tu . N is y ivi   t
b fu d hih ith ds,  dsig s t m h d sv ig 
ithi th us f s i ti .

CHAPTER IX.[22]
IN WHAT CASES JURISDICTION AND PROPERTY CEASE.
Ju isditi d   ty  s, h th f miy f th   h s
bm xti t--I h t m  th ights f   m y bm
xti t--A   bms xti t h its ss ti  ts 
dst yd--A   ds t bm xti t by mig ti --Th
xist  f s t st ts t dst yd by fd  u i .
I. d II. Aft th di g i qui is i t th m  i hih
iv t   ty s  s sv ig  m y b qui d d
t sf d, th m  , i hih thy  s, tu y ms xt
u d  sid ti . It h s b sh bf  th t th ight t
  ty m y b st by gt; f   ty   ti u   g
th hi th i f   shi  ti us. Th  is s th
m  i hih   ty m y  s t xist, ithut y x ss 
im id i ti : d th t is h  th f miy ith f sv ig ,
   , bms xti t,  ti g y f hih visi must
b m d smh t simi t sussi t th   ty f   h
dis i tst t. Wh f  if y   di, ithut y d ti f
his i, d h v   ti s by bd,  th ight, hih h h d,
bms xti t, d v ts, if sv ig , t th h ds f th
ti , x t h  x ss visi s f   h v b m d t th
 t y.
III. Th s m md f  s i g is t ti . Is ts, d
ft him th Em   Jui , h s s id th t st ts  imm t , 
m y b s. F   is   f th t ki d f bdis hih  f md
f disti t ts, fi g  h th i gu sussi , d
su yi g th   f th d sd. This bdy gs u d   m,
f mi g, s Put h s ys,    stituti ;  , i th  gu g
f P uus th L y ,   s i it. N th s i it   stituti i

  is th fu d  ft h m y f ivi if, f m hih


m ts th sv ig  , th v y su f  gv m t, d, s
S  s ys, th vit  b  th hih s m y thus ds d .
Ths tifii  bdis b s smb  t th tu  bdy,
hih, tithst di g th t ti f its m   t tis,
ss t its id tity, s  g s th g   f m m i s. A d
th f  i th ss g f S  , h  h s ys, th t    is th
s m i his d g th t h  s i his yuth, h m s  y s t
tu  subst . I th s m m  H itus, s itd by P t
i C tyus, d S  i th     dy qutd, h s s id, th t
  t ds d TWICE i t th s m iv . But S  ft  ds
 ts himsf, ddi g, th t th iv t i s its m, thugh th
 t y tis f hih it is m sd   tu y h gi g.
S A istt, t, i m i g ti s t iv s, h s s id th t th
iv s   ys  d by th s m m, thugh thi sv  ts
 futu ti g v y mm t. N is it th m   hih  ti us,
but th t i i  s hih C   s th  stituti  systm
f th bdy, d Phi th s i it, th t hds it tgth . S th t
 , s A h us d Put h, i s  ki g f th  t, but u  i g
 h f divi  v g , m i t i , thugh t   f its mmb s
f f m  id b  ivi g, is th s m t s t th t it  s
hu d d y s g, s  g s th s i it, hih fi st f md d
ft  ds k t th bdy tgth , s vs its id tity.
H  h s  igi td th ustm, i dd ssi g  , f s ibi g
t thm, h   ivi g, h t h  d t th s m   m y gs
bf ; s m y b s bth i f  hist i s, d i th bks f
hy  it. S i T itus, A t y th Fi st s vi g u d s si ,
mi ds th sdi s f th thi d gi f h t thy h d d  i
f m tims, h u d M k A t y thy h d b t th P thi s, d
u d C bu th A m i s. Th   s m  f judi, th f ,
th t uth i th   h, hih Pis  st u  th Ath i s f his
 tim, fusi g t  sid thm s Ath i s si  thy h d bm
xti t by s m y dis st s, d   thi g m  th b s mixtu 
f  ti s f th  th. W s y th   s m  f judi th
t uth i this   h. F thugh suh mixtu  might dimi ish th
dig ity, it ud t dst y th xist  f  . N  s h
himsf ig  t f this. F h   hs th Ath i s f his
 d y ith thi fb ff ts i f m tims g i st Phii f
M d , d thi i g titud t thi bst f i ds. N s h g
f its m   t ts  t dst y th id tity f  , t
v f thus d y s  m ; s ith  it b d id th t
  m y s its xist  i t  ys; ith by th xti ti f
 its mmb s,  by th xti ti f its f m d s i it.
I . A bdy is s id t di, h its ss ti  ts, d ss y
f m f subsist   dst yd. T th f m  s m y b f d
th i st  f ti s s d u by th s , s P t  ts, d
th s hm T tui m ti s:  if   shud b dst yd
by  thqu k, f hih th   m y i st s i hist y, 
shud dst y thmsvs, s th Sid i s d S gu ti s did. W 
i f md by Pi y, th t i i t L tium, fifty-th  ti s  
dst yd ithut si g t  f thm m i i g.
But h t, it m y b s id i b th  s, if ut f suh ti s
f m i th t thy  t f m  ? Thy i th t i th t
  ty, hih thy h d bf  s iv t  s s, but t i ubi
 ity. Th s m is th  s ith v y mmu ity.

. A   ss its f m, by si g   sm f ths ights,


hih it h d i mm ; d this h  s, ith h v y i dividu 
is dud t s v y, s th My  s, h   sd by th A givs;
th Oy thi s by Phii , th Thb s by Ax d , d th B uti s,
m d ubi s vs by th Rm s: O h , thugh thy t i thi
 s  ib ty, thy  d ivd f th ights f sv ig ty. Thus
Livy i f ms us s ti g C u , th t th Rm s dt mi d, thugh it
might b i h bitd s ity, th t th  shud b  mu ii  bdy,
 s t,  ubi u i,  m gist ts, but th t d ivd f
iti  dib ti , d sv ig uth ity, th i h bit ts shud
b  sid d s mutitud; subjt t th ju isditi f P ft
s t f m Rm. Th f  Ci , i his fi st s h g i st Ruus,
s ys th t th   s  im g f  ubi ft t C u . Th s m
m y b s id f ti s dud t th f m f P vi s, d f ths
subjug td by th  ; s Byz tium  s t P i thus, by th
Em   Sv us, d A tih t L di , by Thdsius.
I. But if ti shud mig t, ith s  t usy,  u t
f s ity  y th   mity,  if by m usi , hih  s th
 s ith th   f C th g i th thi d Pu i  , hi sh
t i s h f m, sh ds t  s t b  ; d sti ss s,
if  y th  s f h itis b dst yd, d th f  h th
L d m i s fusd t dmit th Mss i s t s t th   f
G , b us th  s f thi ity   dst yd, it  s  id
g i st thm i th G   Assmby f th Ais.
N ds it m k y diff   i th gum t, h tv th f m f
gv m t m y b, hth g , ist ti ,  dm ti . Th
Rm   f i st   s th s m, hth u d ki gs,  sus,
 m   s. Ev i dd u d th mst bsut f m, th   is
th s m th t it  s i its i d  d t st t, hi th ki g gv s
it s h d f th t  , d t f y th . F th sv ig ty
hih sids i th ki g s th h d, sids i th   ikis
s th bdy f hih h is th h d; d th f  i tiv
gv m t, if th ki g  th y  f miy shud bm xti t, th
ights f sv ig ty, s it h s b   dy sh , ud v t t
th  .
N is this gum t v th  by th bjti d  f m A istt,
h s ys th t, if th f m f gv m t is h gd, th st t 
 g  ti us t b th s m, s th h m y f i f musi is
 ti y h gd by t siti f m th D i t th Ph ygi m su .
N it is t b bs vd, th t tifii  systm m y ssss m y
diff  t f ms, s i my u d   su m mm d th  
m y sub di t ts, d i f i  s, hi i th   ti s
f th fid it  s but s   bdy. I s m m  , th u i f
th gis tiv d xutiv i st t givs it th   f
  f m, hi th disti ti bt subjt d sv ig , d
thi sti mutu   ti giv it th . Th xutiv  is th
itii 's   ; th judii , th  y 's. N did this s 
th ti f A istt. F h s ys it b gs t si  diff  t
f m th t f itis t dt mi  hth , u d h g i th f m
f gv m t, th dbts  t td u d th d systm ught t b
dish gd by th mmb s f th . H ds this, t vid th f ut
hih h b ms i m y th  it s, f m ki g dig ssi s f m  
subjt t th .
It is vid t th t st t, hih f m mm  th h s bm
g  gv m t, is s b f th dbts i u d bf  th t

h g. F it is th s m  , ssssi g  th s m ights,


d  s, hih   x isd i diff  t m  , bi g 
 g vstd i th bdy, but i th h d. This fu ishs  dy
s t qusti sm tims skd, hih is, h t   i g  
ssmbis f diff  t st ts, ught t b ssig d t sv ig ,
t hm th   f mm  th h v t sf d  thi  ?
U dubtdy th s m   hih th t    thi  s t tivs
h d u id bf  i suh u is. Thus i th Am hity i u i,
Phii f M d sudd t th   f th Ph si s. S,  th
th h d, th   f mm  th u y th   ssig d t
sv ig s.
III.[23] Wh v t ti s bm u itd, thi ights, s disti t
st ts, i t b st, but i b mmu i td t  h th . Thus
th ights f th Ab s i th fi st  , d ft  ds ths
f th S bi s, s   i f md by Livy,   t sf d t th
Rm s, d thy b m   gv m t. Th s m  s i g hds gd
s ti g st ts, hih  ji d, t by fd  UNION, but by
h vi g   sv ig f thi h d.
IX. O th th h d, it m y h  th t ti ,  igi y f mi g
but   st t, m y b dividd, ith by mutu   s t,  by th
f t f  ; s th bdy f th P si Em i   s dividd m g th
suss s f Ax d . Wh this is th  s, m y sv ig  s
is i th   f  ,  h  jyi g its i d  d t ights,
h tv b gd t th  igi  st t, i mm , must ith
 ti u t b gv d s mm   ,  b dividd i quit b
  ti s.
T this h d m y b f d th vu t y s ti , hih t ks
  h ti s ds ut  is. F thus    s it
  is f md,  jyi g thi  ights; d s Thuydids s ys, s t
ut t u  t ms f s v y, but qu ity, yt sti i g s t
d bdi  t thi mth -u t y. Th s m  it , s  ki g f
th s d  y s t by th C i thi s t E id m us, s ys, "thy
g v ubi ti th t suh s   ii g t g shud  jy qu 
ivigs ith ths th t st id t hm."

CHAPTER X.
THE OBLIGATION ARISING FROM PROPERTY.
O igi d tu  f th big ti t st  h t b gs t
th --Obig ti t st  t th ightfu   th fits
th t h v  ud f m th u just ssssi f his  s  
    ty--A b -fid ssss t bu d t stituti if
th thi g h s  ishd--Suh b -fid ssss bu d t th
stituti f th fits m i i g i his h ds--Bu d t m k
 ti f th  sum ti  si d by his ssssi --A
ssss t bu d t m k m   f gift, ith
x ti --Th s  f y thi g th t h s b bught, bigs th
s t m k stituti , ith  t i x ti --I h t  ss
b -fid u h s f h t b gs t th m y t i th
i,  t f it--H h h s u h sd thi g f   h is
t th     ,  t tu it t th t s --Th ssss
f thi g hs     is u k  , t bu d t giv it u
t y  --A  s t bu d t st  m y ivd u 

dish st u t,  f s vi d --O i i th t th   ty


f thi gs v ud by ight, umb d m su , m y b t sf d
ithut  s t f th   , futd.
I. H vi g x  i d i th di g t th tu  d ights f
  ty, it m i s f us t  sid th big ti hih  i u
f m th .
N this big ti ds f m thi gs ith i xist ,  t
i xist , m h di g, u d th m f thi gs, th ight s
v  s s, s f s is b fii  t us. Th big ti , isi g
f m thi gs i xist , bi ds th  s , h h s u   ty i
his  , t d  h  t ut us g i i t ssssi f it. W
h v s id t d  h  : f    is bu d t im ssibiity,
 t u  th st ti f thi g t his  x  . But h is
bigd t m k v y disv y hih m y  b th t v his
   ty. F s i mmu ity f thi gs, it  s ss y th t
 t i qu ity shud b s vd, t v t   m f m h vi g
u du sh  f th mm stk; s u  th i t duti f   ty,
it b m, s it  , ki d f st bishd u f sity m g th
  s, th t th  s , h h d i his ssssi ythi g b gi g
t th shud st  it t th  fu  it . F if th ight
f   ty xt dd  f th th b y t  b th   t
m k dm d f stituti ithut ENFORCING it by LEGAL PROCESS,
it ud st u  v y  k fu d ti , d s  b  th th
hdi g. N ds it m k y diff  , hth  s h s f i y
 f udu ty bt i d ssssi f thi g t b gi g t him.
F h is qu y bu d t st  it, bth by th sitiv big ti s
f  , d by th i i s f tu  justi. Th L d m i s
h d mi y  d thmsvs f th  im, by  dm i g Ph bid s,
h, i vi ti f thi t  ty ith th Thb s, h d sizd u 
th it d f C dm , but i  ity thy h  guity f i justi,
by t i i g th ssssi . A d X  h h s m kd th t, suh
si gu t f i justi  s u ishd by th sig  vid  f
Gd. F th s m  s M us C ssus, d Qui tus H t sius, 
b md f h vi g t i d t f i h it  ft thm by i,
th m ki g f hih h d b u d u  f s t s, but i th
m gm t f hih thy h d  sh . Ci  b ms thm, b us it
is u d std t b sttd by g   g m t, th t  m  t
st  h t thy  ssssd f, if th is vd t b th
ightfu   . A i i  by hih   ty is fi my su d, d
u  hih  s i   t ts  fu dd, d y x ti s t
this u,  t i d i thm, must b x ssy md s suh. This
th s ight u  th ss g f T y h i us. "If bb , _s ys h_,
h s s id m f my gds, hih h h s d sitd ith Sius, h
k s thi g f th f t; th qusti is, hth h ught t st 
thm t th bb  t m. If   sid him s givi g d ivi g
 his  u t, GOOD FAITH qui s th t th d sit shud b
st d t him h g v it. If   sid th quity f th h
 s, i udi g  th  s s   d i th t s ti , th gds
shud b st d t m, s th  s u justy d ivd f thm."
A d h   y dds, "I v it t b st it justi t ssig v y
  his du, ithut i f i gi g  th m  just  ims f th ."
N it h s b sh th t th justst tit  hih y   
 im, is th t hih is  v  ith th   ty itsf. F m h 
th i i   id d by T y h i us, th t if y   u k i gy
ivd gds s d sit, d ft  ds disv s thm t b his
 , h is t bu d t st  thm. A d th qusti , hih th s m
uth uts itt bf  s ti g gds d sitd by  , hs

  ty h d b  fis td, is btt sttd by this i i ,


th by h t h s ys sh   th utiity f u ishm t. F s t
th tu  f   ty, it m ks  diff  , hth it iss f m
th   f ti s,  f m th ivi  ; s it  ys  is ith it
ui qu itis, m g hih m y b k d th big ti , u d
hih v y ssss is t st  thi g t its ightfu   .
A d h  it is s id by M ti , th t  di g t th   f ti s,
stituti m y b dm dd, f ths, h h v  g  tit t th
ssssi . F m th s m  igi s i gs th m xim f U i , th t
hv h s fu d thi g b gi g t th , is bu d t st  it,
v ithut  imi g  ivi g  d f fi di g it. Th fits
s  t b st d, ith dduti  y f  s b h gs.
II. Rs ti g thi gs,  -xist t,  hs id tity  t b
s t i d, is i i  g  y ivd m g m ki d, th t
th  s , h h s bm ih by th t   ty, f hih th
ightfu   h s b dis ssssd, is bu d t m k him  ti
i   ti t th b fit, hih h h s d ivd f m his   ty.
F th t u  it m y b justy s id t h v st, h t HE h s
g i d. N th v y i t duti f   ty  s i t dd t s v
th t qu ity, hih ssig s t v y   his  .
Ci  h s s id, th t it is  t y t tu  justi, f   m
t im v his  dv t g t th x   f th , d i th
 , th t tu  ds t  us t i   s u su s, ihs,
d  , f m th s is f th s. Th  is s muh f quity i
this s yi g, th t m y g   it s h v m d it th b sis f thi
dfi iti s, t su y th dfii y f th st it tt f th  ,
 ys  i g t quity s th mst su  d  u f ti .
If y   m y s v, s his f t , t t d f him, h is bu d
by th ts f th t f t , u ss h h s viusy giv ti th t
h is t t b t ustd. But v if suh ti h s b giv , h 
th f t h s   ty i th   ,  th m st fit, th
ti sh  b dmd f ud. F , s ys P uus, hv m ks
dv t g f m th ss f th is guity f f ud; t m
im yi g v y thi g  ug t t tu  justi d quity. H, h,
t th i st  f mth , h s ut i b i f h s 's dv t,
h s  ti  th  s g i st th dv t f h t is  d
ssum sit  u d t ki g. F it  s t st ity his busi ss, hih
th dv t m gd; th b i  s ut i t th INSTANCE f th
MOTHER. Yt  di g t th  i i f P i i , ti  th
 s f th ssum sit,  u d t ki g i i g i st th dv t,
b us it is ith th b i 's m y th t h is dish gd f m th
isqu f th sts.
S if h h s giv t h husb d m y, hih sh m y by  
dm d g i , h s  s  ti f v y g i st him, 
i di t ti u  y thi g u h sd ith th m y. B us, s
U i s ys, it  t b d id, th t th husb d h s b ih by
it, d th qusti is, hth h t h sssss b gs t his if?
If I h v b bbd by my s v, d y   h s s  t th m y
u d th su siti th t it  s th s v's    ty, ti
m y b m i t i d g i st th t  s , s bi g u justy i ssssi
f my   ty. A di g t th Rm  s, mi  s  t s b
f m y b d. Yt if mi  h s bm ih by th  ,
i di t ti i i g i st him,  , if ythi g, b gi g t
th , h s b  d d sd by  dit , th dbt shud b
 sd f m th dbt i   ti t h t th  dit h s ivd.

B us, s ys T y h i us, h tv th big ti m y b, si  th


m y isd  ud f m th dbt, it is m   s b th t it
shud du d t th b fit f th dbt th th  dit . But
th dbt is bu d t i dm ify th u h s , f it ud t b
 s b th t h shud d iv g i f m th 's ss. N if
 dit , hdi g st t i dg f his m y, h s ivd f m
it  ts d fits mu ti g t m  th his   dbt;  bv
th t sh  b  sid d s dish g f s muh f th i i .
But t d ith th  ss. If yu h v t  td ith my dbt ,
t su si g him t b i dbtd t m, but t th  s , d h v
b d my m y f him, yu  bigd t y m; t b us I h v
 t yu m y; f th t ud  y b d  by mutu   s t; but
b us it is  s b d just, th t my m y, hih h s m i t
yu ssssi , shud b st d t m.
Th  t  it s  th   h v ddud this ki d f  s i g i
su  t f simi  ss. Thus, f i st , if th gds f y  ,
h h s b  st th ugh df ut, h v b sd, if h  m k y
gd x ti t th disi , h sh  b  titd t th m y
isi g f m suh s . Ag i , h y   h s  t m y t f th
f th m i t  f his s ; if th f th shud bm i sv t,
h m y b i g ti g i st th s , vidd th s is ssssd
f y thi g th ugh his mth .
Ths t us bi g  fty u d std, th  i b  diffiuty
i s i g th qusti s ft  sd by L y s d Thgi s 
suh subjts.
III. I th fi st   it  s, th t  s h h s bt i d
ssssi f gds by f i m s, is t bu d t stituti ,
if ths gds h v  ishd, b us thy    g i his
ssssi ,  h s h d ivd y dv t g f m thm. Th  s f
u  fu ssssi hih is ft t th u ishm t f th   is
 ti y ut f th qusti .
I . I th xt   b -fid ssss f thi g is bu d t
stituti f th f uits  fits th f m i i g i his h d. Th
FRUITS  PRODUCE f th THING ITSELF  h  m t. F th b fit
d ivd f m thi g i g t th i dust y bstd u  it by th
u i th f,  t b g t th thi g itsf, thugh  igi y
di g f m it. Th  s f this big ti iss f m th
i stituti f   ty. F th t u  it f ssssi is
tu y  it f th f uits  du f th s m.

. Suh ssss i th thi d   is bu d t m k stituti f


th thi g,   ti f th  sum ti f it  si d by his
ssssi . F h is  ivd t h v b m d th ih th by.
Thus C igu is isd f h vi g, i th bgi i g f his ig ,
st d t diff  t P i s  g ith thi   s, th i t mdi t
v us f thi ki gdms.
I. I th fu th  , u i f  ds, f i st , is t
bu d t m k m  s ti f th du th f hih h h s t
 d. F if dis ssssd, h h s ith th thi g itsf,  y
thi g i th   f it.
II. I th fifth  , ssss h h s g td t thi d  s
thi g f hih gift h d b m d t himsf, is t bu d t
m k m   t th  igi  giv , u ss h ivd it u d

sti u ti , th t if h g td it t thi d  s , d th by


s d his    ty, h shud m k tu   ti b t suh
g i .

III. Sixthy, if y   h s sd thi g hih h h s bught, h is


t bu d t stituti f m  th th su us isi g f m th
s . But if h h d ivd it u d sti u ti t s, h is bu d
t m k stituti f th h i, u ss, i t s ti g th s 
h h s i u d x  , mu ti g t th h i, hih h
ud t th is h v d .[24]
IX. Sv thy, b -fid u h s f h t b gs t th is
bigd t m k stituti t th     ,   th i h
id b v d. T this hv th  sms t b   x ti ,
hih is, h  th   ud t h v v d ssssi ithut
sm x  ; s f i st , if his   ty   i th h ds f
i ts. F th dduti m y b m d f s muh s th   ud
ii gy h v s  t i th v y. B us th tu  ssssi ,
s i y f thi g diffiut t b v d, m y b s t i d,
d th   dmd s muh th ih by suh v y. A d
th f , thugh i th  di y u s f  , th u h s f h t
b gs t  's sf  v  stitut b g i , yt P uus th
L y s ys, th t it m y d s, if it h s b  igi y g d th t
  t y f th - ssssi f h t th h s b gi g t us
i his h ds.
N is it i th  st m t i , hth thi g h s b bught ith
i t ti f st i g it t th   ; i hih  s, sm s y,
th t ti f sts m y b m i t i d, hist th s d y it. F
ti  th  s, t v m  s ti f busi ss d 
iss f m th tifii  us f CI IL LAW, d t sy f m
th sim  dit ts f tu  justi; hih  h  th i i 
subjt f i qui y.
Nt u ik t this is h t U i h s  itt  fu   x  s, i
hih h s ys, th t m ssi t judg i t igidy g d th
b   bu th t h s b giv , but i g sm  x ti i f vu
f quity, i sh i dug  t th fi gs f hum tu .
Th s m  it , i th   h s s id, th t if y   h s
t s td my busi ss, t ut f g d t m, but f his 
i t st, d h s i u d x    my u t, h m y b i g
ti  th  s, t f h t h h s giv , but f h t I h v
g i d by his  bu d x  .
I th s m m  ,   s, by th i g hs gds v b d shi
h s b ight d, m y v m  s ti f m th s hs gds
  by th t m s s vd. B us ths  s s   sid d s muh
th ih by th s v ti f h t ud th is h v b st.
X. Eighthy, th  s th t h s bught thi g f  , h is t th
  ,  t tu it t th t s ; b us f m th tim th t th
thi g  m i t his ssssi , h i u d big ti t st  it
t th  fu   .
XI. Ag i , if y   is i ssssi f thi g, hs     is
u k  , h is t tu y, d ss iy bu d t giv it t th
 ; thugh this m y b  sid d s t f ity, ustm v y
  y st bishd i sm  s. Th  s f hih is fu dd
 th i t duti f   ty. F , i  squ  f th t,   

x t th     ,   im ight t y thi g. T th  s


th f , h  t disv suh   , it is th s m s if
th   y    .
XII. L sty,  s is t bigd by th   f tu  t st 
m y, hih h s b ivd u  dish st u t,  f th
 f m  f g  t, t hih th t  s  s f himsf
bu d. Hv it is t ithut  s th t sm  s h v qui d
stituti i suh  ss. Th  s f this is, b us    is
bu d t t ith y thi g u ss it b gs t th . But h  th
  ty is vu t iy t sf d by th fi st   .
Th  s i b t d, if th  b y thi g i iquitus i th
m  f qui i g th thi g; s if, f i st , it b g i d
by xt ti . This givs is t th big ti f submitti g t
 tis, hih is t immdi ty t th s t u s.
XIII. Th s t subjt m y b  udd ith fut ti f
Mdi 's f s  i i , th t   ty i thi gs, b gi g t
th , m y b t sf d ithut  s t f th   ; vidd
th thi gs  suh s  usu y v ud by ight, umb d
m su . B us thi gs f th t tu   b  id i ki d,  by
quiv  t. But this is  y, h  suh md f  ym t h s b
viusy g d u  ;  h  it is u d std t b st bishd by
   ustm;  h  th thi g itsf h s b  sumd, d  t
b id ti y st d. But ithut suh  s t, ith x ssd
 im id,  x ti g th im ssibiity just m ti d, th thi gs
thmsvs must b st d.

CHAPTER XI.
ON PROMISES.
O i i , th t th big ti t fufi miss is t  td
by th   f tu , futd--A b  ss ti t bi di g--A
mis bu d t fufi his  g gm ts, thugh  ight t x t
th  f m  f thm, is th by  vyd t th --Wh t
ki d f mis givs suh ight--Th mis shud ssss
th ight us f  s --Diff   bt tu  d ivi
  ith s t t mi  s--P miss m d u d   , 
xt td by f , h f bi di g--P miss v id, if i th
 f th mis t  f m thm--P mis m d u  u  fu
 sid ti s, hth bi di g--M  f  fi mi g th miss
m d by th s, d th  dut f Amb ss d s h xd thi
i st uti s,  sid d--O  s f shi s, h f bu d by th
ts f th m st s f suh vsss, d m h ts by th ts
f thi f t s--A t  quisit t giv v idity t
mis--P miss smtims vk b--Th  f vki g
mis, x  i d by disti ti s--Bu d sm  diti s xd
t mis--M s f  fi mi g i v id miss--N tu 
big ti isi g f m  g gm ts m d f th s.
I. Th u s f th subjt xt  ds t i qui y i t th
big ti f miss.[25] Wh  th fi st bjt, th t s ts
itsf, is th  i i f F isus C us, m f   di y
 i g. H m i t i s  i i th t th   f tu  d f ti s

ds t  f  th fufim t f ths g m ts, hih d t


i ud x ss  t t.[26] Yt th fufim t f thm is ight,
i  ss, h , v ithut mis, th  f m  ud b
 s t t vi tu d quity. I su  t f his  i i , h b i gs
t  y th s yi gs f L y s, but ikis th fi g  s s. H
s ys, th t th  s , h m ks, d h h bivs, sh mis,
 qu y t b m. F th f tu s f  m ud b i immi  t
d g , if thy   bu d by suh miss, hih ft d f m
mtivs f v ity th th f m sttd dib ti , d 
th sut f ight d i  sid t mi d. L sty, th  f m 
f h tv is y  y just i itsf, ught t b ft t th f 
i f v y  , d t x td  di g t th igid us f
ssity. H s ys th t it is sh mfu t t fufi miss; t
b us it is u just, but b us it gus vity i m ki g thm.
I su  t f his  i i , h  s s t th tstim y f Tuy,
h h s s id, th t ths miss  t t b k t, hih 
judii  t th  s t hm thy  m d,  , if thy 
m  dt im t  t th giv th b fii  t th iv . But
if th  f m  f  g gm t is bgu u  th st  gth f
mis, but t fi ishd, h ds t qui  m t fufim t
f th mis, but  y sm m  s ti t th ty f th
dis i tm t. Ag m ts, h  ti us, h v  i t i si f  f
big ti , but  y h t thy d iv f m th x ss  t ts, i
hih thy  i udd,  t hih thy  xd,  f m th
div y f th thi g misd. F m h  is ti s,  th  
sid, d x ti s  th th , d b s t   ims f v y.
But it is th ugh f vu f th  s  , hih giv th ffi y
f big ti t h t is  y f i d quit b i itsf, th t
big t y g m ts, suh s x ss v ts d th thi gs f
th t ki d, d iv thi f .
N th  is   sist y i this  i i , t k i th g   s s
i t dd by its uth . F i th fi st   it immdi ty fs
f m th , th t th  is  f  i t  tis bt ki gs d
diff  t ti s, ti sm t f thm b  id i t xuti ,
s i y i ths  s, h    t i f m f t  tis 
m ts h s b st bishd. But  just  s  b fu d, hy
 s, hih  ki d f g   g m t m g  , d i dd
  d s by A istt, d Dmsth s, shud b b t giv th
f  f big ti t m ts, d hy th i f i dividu ,
di g v y thi g t bi d himsf, shud t h v th s m  ;
s i y h  th ivi     ts  im dim t t it. Bsids,
s it h s b   dy s id th t th   ty f thi g m y b
t sf d, h  suffii t i di ti f th i is giv . Why
m y  t th  vy t th th ight t  im t sf f u
  ty t him,  th fufim t f u  g gm ts, s  h v th
s m  v u ti s, s v u   ty?
This is  i i  fi md by th isdm f  gs. F s it
is s id by g  uth itis, th t si  thi g is s  s t t
tu  justi, s f th i f   , f y t sf i g his
  ty t th , t b  fi md, s thi g is m   duiv t
gd f ith m g m , th st it dh   t th  g gm ts thy
h v m d ith  h th . Thus g  disi f th ym t f
m y, h   dbt h s b i u d, x t by th v b   s t f
th ty misi g, is thught  f m b t tu  justi. P uus
th L y s s ys, th t th   f tu  d th   f ti s
g  i m i g  s , h h s ivd  dit, t ym t. I

this   th  d, COMPELLING, sig ifis m  big ti . N


 h t C us s ys b dmittd, hih is, th t   su sd t
h v  dit f fu  f m  f mis, h  th  g gm t
h s b i t fufid. F P uus i this   is t  ti g f
ti h  thi g is du; hih ti is  ti y vid, if m y
h s b id, i y  y, hth  di g t th m  x ssy
sti u td,  y th . F th ivi  , i  d t disu g
f qu t  uss f itig ti , ds t i t f  ith ths g m ts
hih   f d by th   f tu  d f ti s.
Tuy, i th fi st bk f his Offis, ssig s suh f  t th
big ti f miss, th t h  s fidity th fu d ti f
justi, hih H  s stys th sist f justi, d th
P t ists ft   justi, TRUTH, hih A uius h s t s td
FIDELITY, d Sim ids h s dfi d justi t b t  y tu i g
h t   h s ivd, but s s  ki g th t uth.
But t u d st d th m tt fuy,  must  fuy bs v th t
th   th  diff  t  ys f s  ki g, s ti g thi gs hih
ARE,  hih, it is su sd, WILL b i u  .
II. Th fi st f ths  ys is, h  ssu  is giv f futu 
i t ti s, d if th ssu  b SINCERE t th tim it is giv ,
thugh it shud t b  id i t fft,  b m is i u d, s
it might ft  ds t b fu d x di t. F th hum mi d h s t
 y tu   , but ight t h g its u s. Wh f  if
y b m tt hs t h g f  i i ,  u s, it is t t b
im utd t th BARE ACT OF CHANGING, but t th CIRCUMSTANCES, u d
hih it h  s, s i y h th f m suti  s th bst.
III. Th s d  y is, h futu  i t ti s  x ssd by ut d
ts d sig s suffii t t i di t suti f bidi g by
s t ssu s. A d ths ki d f miss m y b  d im  ft
big ti s, but  vyi g t th  s t hm thy  giv 
RIGHT t x t thm. F it h  s i m y  ss th t  m y b u d
big ti f duty, t th  f m  f hih th h s  ight
t m  us. F i this s t th duty f fidity t miss, is
ik th dutis f m ssi d g titud. I suh ki ds f miss
th f  th  s t hm thy  m d, h s  ight, by th   f
tu  t ssss himsf f th ffts f th mis , s his  ,
 t COMPEL him t th  f m  f his mis.
I . Th thi d  y is, h  suh dt mi ti is  fi md by
vid t sig s f i t ti t  vy ui ight t th ,
hih  stituts th  ft big ti f mis, d is tt dd
ith  squ s simi t i ti f   ty.
Th  m y b t ki ds f i ti , th   f u   ty, th
th f  t i  ti f u ib ty. U d ths f th f m
ki d  m y  ss th miss f gifts, d u d th  tt th
miss f di g  t i ti s. O this subjt   su id
ith b gum ts f m th divi   s, hih i f m us, th t
Gd himsf, h  b imitd by  st bishd us f  , ud
t  t y t his  tu , if h did t  f m his miss.
F m h  it fs th t th big ti s t  f m miss s i g
f m th tu  f th t u h g b justi, hih is tt ibut f
Gd, d mm t  h b his im g, i th us f  s . T
th fs f s i tu  h  f d t,  m y dd th judgm t f
Sm , "My s if thu h st b su ty f thy f i d, thu h st
tid u thy h ds t st g ; thu t  s d by th  ds f thy

muth, th t thu t k by th  ds f thi   muth." H 


mis is  d by th Hb s b d  h i , d is m d t
v. Eust thius i his ts  th s d bk f th Ii d, ssig s
simi  igi t th  d {hy shss}   g gm t. F
h h h s ivd th mis, i sm m su  t ks d hds th
 s , th t h s m d th  g gm t. A m i g t i x ssd by
Ovid i th s d bk f his Mt m hss, h  th mis s ys
t him, t hm h h d misd, "My  d h s bm yu s."
Aft k i g this, th  m i s  diffiuty i  yi g t th
gum ts f C us. F th x ssi s f th  y s, s ti g
BARE PROMISES, f  y t h t  s i t dud by th Rm  s,
hih h v m d FORMAL STIPULATION th u dubtd sig f dib t
mi d.
N  it b d id th t th    simi  s m g th ti s.
F S  , s  ki g f hum  s, d miss m d ithut  
sm itis, s ys, "Wh t  , _f y u t y,  m y dd_, bigs us
t th  f m  f b  miss?" But th  m y tu y b th
sig s f dib t mi d, bsids f m  sti u ti ,  y th
simi t hih th ivi   qui s, t ff d g u ds f g 
mdy. But h t is t d  ith dib t mi d,   i i d
t biv ds t m u d th  ss f  ft big ti s; s
Th h stus h s bs vd i his bk   s. N y, v h t is d 
ith dib t mi d, but t ith i t ti f  di g u
 ight t th ; thugh it  t giv y   tu  ight
f x ti g its fufim t, yt it   ts big ti t  y i
i t f duty, but i i t f m  ssity. Th xt m tt t b
 sid d is, h t  th quisits t  stitut  ft mis.

. Th us f  s is th fi st quisit t  stitut th


big ti f mis, hih idts, m dm , d i f ts 
 squ ty i  b f m ki g. Th  s f mi  s is smh t
diff  t. F thugh thy m y t h v su d judgm t, yt it is
t  m  t dft,  suffii t f itsf t i v id t 
thi ts. It  t b  t i y dfi d t h t  id f if
 s mm s. But it must b judgd f f m d iy ti s,  f m
th tiu ustms f  h u t y. Am gst th Hb s mis
m d by m  t th g f thi t , d by fm  t th g f
tv,  s v id. I th ti s, th ivi  s, ti g u  just
mtivs, d   t i miss m d by  ds d mi  s t b vid,
t  y m g th Rm s, but m g th G ks s, s it h s b
bs vd by Di Ch ysstm i his t ty-fifth  ti . T d  y
th fft f im vid t miss, sm  s i t du ti s f
v y,  stituti . But suh gu ti s  ui t th
ivi  , d h v  immdi t  ti ith th   f tu  d
f ti s, y f th th th t h v thy  st bishd, it is
 s t t tu  justi th t thy shud b bs vd. Wh f 
if f ig   t i t g m t ith itiz  subjt f
y th u t y; h i b bu d by th  s f th t u t y, t
hih, du i g his sid  th i , h s tm  y bdi .
But th  s is diff  t, h  g m t is m d u  th  
s ,  i ds t is d,  by tt s f  s  d . F suh
 t ts  gu td by th   f tu   , i th s m m 
s m ts m d by sv ig s i thi ubi  ity.
I. Th  sid ti f miss, m d u d   , is subjt
f sm i t i y. F it, i g  , m ks diff  , hth
th mis k  th fu xt t f his mis, d th v u f
th thi g misd,  t,  hth th  t t, hih  s m d,

 igi td i f udu t i t ti ,  t,  hth   f th


tis  s ivy t th f ud; d hth th fufim t f it  s
t f st it justi,   y f gd f ith. F  di g t
th v ity f ths i umst s,  it s  u  sm ts vid
d th s v id,  vi g th i ju d ty dis ti y  t
si d  m d thm.
Mst f ths disti ti s  igi t i th i t ivi, d
t i Rm  . Thugh sm f thm  t st ity fu dd i
 s d t uth. But th mst bvius d tu   y f disv i g
th t uth is by f i g t  s, hih d iv thi f  d
ffi y f m th g    s t f m ki d; s th t if   sts
u  th sum ti f y f t, hih i  ity h s  xist ,
suh   is t bi di g. F h  vid  f th f t  b
dud, th  ti  fu d ti ,  hih th t   sts must f i. But
 must h v u s t th subjt, t th  ds d i umst s f
 , t dt mi  h it is fu dd  suh sum ti .[27]
Th s m u is t th i t t ti f miss. F h  thy
 m d u  th su siti f f t, hih i th  d vs t
t b t u, thy s th f  f big ti s. B us th mis
m d thm u   t i  diti s  y, th fufim t f hih bms
im ssib. Ci , i his fi st bk  th t  ts d h t f
 t , uts th  s f f th , h, u d th su siti 
i tig  th t his s  s d d, misd t dvis his   ty t
his  h. But th su siti vi g   us, d th i tig 
f s, th f th  s  sd f m th big ti f th mis m d
t his  tiv. But if th mis h s gtd t x mi  th
m tt ,  h s b  ss i x ssi g his m i g, h i b
bu d t  i th d m g hih th h s sust i d  th t u t.
This big ti is t buit  th st  gth f th mis, but  th
i ju y, hih it h s  si d. A   us mis i b bi di g,
if th    s t th OCCASION f th mis. F h  th  is
  t f  s t i th ty, h m d it. But if th mis  s
bt i d by f ud, th  s s bt i i g it sh  i dm ify th
mis f th i ju y sust i d, if th  h s b y ti   
i th mis, yt i th s ts it sh  b dmd v id.

II. P miss xt td by f  subjt f  ss i t i t


disi . F h  t disti ti is usu y m d bt
 fu dd d him i  f , bt just f d b 
sus ii , d bt th  s s h  si it, hth it b th
 s t hm th mis is giv ,  sm th . A disti ti
is s m d bt ts u y g tuitus, d ths i hih
bth tis h v i t st. F  di g t  this v ity f
i umst s sm  g gm ts   sid d s vid, th s s
v b t th  su   dis ti f th m k , d th s s
 ti g  im t i dm ity f th i  v i   si d. But
  h f ths i ts th  is g  t div sity f  i i .
Th  is sm sh f  s i th  i i f ths h, ithut
t ki g i t  sid ti th  f th ivi   t u 
dimi ish big ti , m i t i th t  s is bu d t fufi
mis hih h h s giv u d im ssi s f f . F v i
this  s th   s CONSENT, thugh it  s xt td; ith  s it
 diti , s i   us miss, but bsut. It is  d
CONSENT. F s A istt h s bs vd, ths h  s t t th 
thi gds v b d i st m, ud h v s vd thm, h d it
t b f th f f shi  k. But thy f y t ith thm
 sid i g  th i umst s f tim d  .

III. T  d mis v id, it must b suh s it is i th 


f th mis t  f m. F hih  s  miss t d ig 
ts  v id; b us    ith h s,  v  h v ight t
d thm. But mis, s  s s id bf , d ivs  its f  f m
th ight f th mis t m k it,   it xt d by d th t.
If thi g is t  i th  f th mis , but m y b s t
sm futu  tim; th big ti i m i i sus  s. F th
mis  s  y m d u d th x t ti f sm futu  biity
t fufi it. But if  s h s  t u v th  diti u 
hih th mis is m d, t  is it  t, h is u d m 
big ti t us v y  d vu t fufi it. But i big ti s f
this ki d s, th ivi  , f m bvius mtivs f g   utiity,
 si y i t ss its uth ity t m k thm vid: big ti s,
hih th   f tu  ud h v  fi md.
IX. Th xt g   i qui y, f th mst t, f s t th v idity
f miss m d u  y imm   u  fu  sid ti ; s if,
f i st , y thi g is misd t th   diti f his
mmitti g mu d . H  th v y mis itsf is ikd d
u  fu, b us it  u gs th mmissi f  im. But it ds
t f v y FOOLISH  IMPRO IDENT mis ss th f  f
big ti , s i th  fi m ti f im ud t  dig  g ts, f
 fu th vi  sut f m  fi m ti f h t h s b   dy
giv : d th i v idity f miss ud b g  t vi th y
th t ud sut f m  fi m ti f th mst im vid t. But i
miss m d u  IMMORAL d UNLAWFUL  sid ti s, th  is  ys
 imi ity m i i g, v hi thy  ti u u fufid. F
du i g th h f th t tim, th x t ti f fufim t  is
ith it th i dib m k f  u gm t t th mmissi f
 im.
XII.[28] W  bigd t  fi m th  g gm ts m d by th s,
ti g i u m, if it is vid t th t thy h d s i ,  g  
i st uti s f m us t d s. A d i g ti g mmissi ith fu
 s t y  , it m y s h  th t   bu d by th  dut
f th t g t, v if h xd th s t i st uti s hih h h s
ivd. F h ts u  th t st sib uth ity, by hih  
bu d t tify h tv h ds, thugh  m y h v bu d him t d
thi g but  di g t his iv t i st uti s. This u,  must
bs v, is t th miss m d by mb ss d s i th m f
thi sv ig s, h , by vi tu f thi ubi  d ti s, thy
h v xdd thi iv t  d s.
XIII. F m th di g gum ts, it is  sy t u d st d h f
  s f shi s  s b f th ts f th m st s m yd by
thm i ths vsss,  m h ts f th  dut f thi f t s.
F tu  quity i qu ify th ti s b ught g i st thm,
 di g t th i st uti s d  s hih thy giv. S th t 
m y justy  dm th igu f th Rm  , i m ki g th   s
f shi s bsuty bu d by  th ts f th m st s m yd. F
this is ith  s t t tu  quity, hih hds it suffii t
f  h ty t b s b i   ti t his sh ,  is it
 duiv t th ubi gd. F m ud b dt d f m m yi g
shi s, if thy  y u d th  tu  f f bi g s b f th
ts f thi m st s t u imitd xt t. A d th f  i H d,
u t y h  t d h s fu ishd ith th g  tst vigu , th
Rm   h s v b bs vd ith   t y f m  id.
O th  t y, it is st bishd u th t  ti  b

m i t i d g i st th   f y g  t sum th th v u f th


shi d  g.
F mis t  vy ight,  t  is  ss ss y th
i t sf f   ty. A d i this  s th  is su sd t h v
b d t qust, hih is th s m s  t . N is this
 t ditd by th miss hih th ivi   im is v y   t
h v m d t th st t, WITHOUT ANY REQUEST OR FORMAL ACCEPTANCE.
XI . A  s hih h s i dud sm t biv th t th s t f
mis , by th   f tu , is suffii t. Ou fi st siti is
t  t ditd by th Rm  . F it  h  s ys, th t mis
h s its fu fft bf   t , but  y f bids th v ti
f it hih might v t  t : d this fft suts, t f m
NATURAL but f m u y LEGAL us.
X . A th qusti is, hth th  t    f mis is
suffii t,  hth it ught t b mmu i td t th mis
bf  it  b m d bi di g.
It is  t i th t mis m y b m d t  ys, ith u 
 diti f its bi g fufid, if  td,  u   diti f its
bi g tifid, if th mis is isd f its bi g  td. A d
i  ss f mutu  big ti , it is sumd t b t k i th  tt
s s; but it is btt t t k miss th t  u y g tuitus i
th f m s s, u ss th  b vid  t th  t y.
X I. F m h  it fs, th t mis m y b vkd, ithut th
im ut ti f i justi  vity, BEFORE ACCEPTANCE, s  ight h s
yt b  vyd; s i y if ACCEPTANCE   m d th  diti
f its bi g fufid. It m y b vkd t if th ty t hm it
 s m d, shud di bf   t . B us it is vid t th t
th  t  t it  t,  s  f d u  HIM, d t u 
his HEIRS. F t giv m ight, hih m y POSSIBLY ds d t
his hi s, is   thi g, d t x ss i t ti f givi g it t
his hi s is th . F it m ks ss ti  diff   u  h t
 s th f vu is  f d. This is u d std i th s m d
by N tius, h s id, th t h did t biv th i  ud h v
g td t   h  s d d, h t h g td, su si g him sti iv.
X II. A mis m y b vkd, by th d th f th  s i td
t mmu i t t thi d th i t ti f th mis . B us th
big ti t th thi d  s std u  suh mmu i ti . Th
 s is diff  t, h  ubi mss g is m yd, h is t
himsf th big t y i st um t, but  y th m s th ugh hih it
is  vyd. Th f  tt s i di ti g mis,   s t m y b
 vyd by y  . Yt th  is disti ti t b m d bt
mi ist i td t mmu i t mis, d   i td t m k
th mis i his  m.
F i th f m  s, v ti i b v id, v thugh it
h s t b m d k  t th mi ist m yd; but i th  tt
 s, it i b  ti y vid, b us th ight f misi g  s
mmittd t th mi ist , d fuy d  dd u  his i; th f 
th big ti f th mis  s m t, s h k  f  i t dd
v ti . S s i th f m  s, h  s d  s is
mmissi d t mmu i t th i t ti s f d  t thi d; v
if th d  shud di, th  t  f th gift i b dmd
v id,  th t  s quisit bi g  f md    t; thugh ti
th t  id th i t ti  s v b, s is vid t i th  s f

bqusts. But i th th  s, h   s h s ivd fu


mmissi t xut mis du i g th LIFE f th d  , shud
th d  di bf  th xuti f it, d th  s m yd b
isd f his d th; th mmissi , th mis, d th  t 
f it i th , t  , bm vid.
I dubtfu  ss, it is  s b t su s th t it  s th
i t ti f th mis , th t th mmissi hih h g v shud
b xutd, u ss sm g  t h g, s f i st , his  d th
shud u . Yt  s s i f vu f  t y  i i m y  siy
b fu d d dmittd, s i y ith s t t ius d ti s,
hih, t  v ts, ught t st d gd. A d i th s m m  m y
b didd th  g dis utd qusti , hth ti  u t f
suh bqust ud b b ught g i st th hi . U  hih th uth
f th s d bk t H  ius s ys, th t M us D usus th t
didd    y, d Sxtus Juius th .
X III. Th  t  f mis f thi d  s is m tt
subjt t disussi , i hih th  is disti ti t b bs vd
bt mis m d t  s f thi g, hih is t b giv t
th , d mis m d di ty t th  s himsf,  hm
th f m is t b  f d. If mis is m d t y  , h 
his   s  i t st is t   d,  sid ti i t dud
by th Rm  , by  t  h sms tu y t qui  ight
hih m y b t sf d t th f HIS  t , d this ight
i ss s fuy, th t i th m tim th mis  t b vkd
by th  s h g v, thugh it m y b  sd by him h ivd
it. F th t is m i g by  m s  ug t t th   f tu ,
d it is  ti y  f m b t th  ds f suh mis;  
it b m tt f i diff   t th  s , th ugh hm th is
t iv b fit.
But if mis is m d di ty t  ,  hm thi g is t b
 f d, disti ti must b m d, hth th  s ivi g
suh mis h s SPECIAL mmissi f  t ,    s GENERAL
s t i ud  t ,  h s it t. Wh mmissi h s b
viusy giv ,  f th disti ti is ss y, hth th
 s b f   t,  diti hih th Rm  s qui . But it
is  i th t f m suh  t , t th  diti f th  s
b h t it i, th mis is m t: b us  s t m y b giv
d sig ifid th ugh th mdium f th . F  s is su sd
t h v fuy i t dd, h t h h s ut i t th  f th t
 t  fus.
Wh  th  is  suh mmissi , if th , t hm th mis
 s t di ty m d,  ts it ith th  s t f th mis ,
th mis i b s f bi di g, th t th mis i t b t
ib ty t vk it, bf  th  s , i hs f vu it  s m d
h s tifid, d ft  ds hs t  s th  g gm t. Yt, i
th m tim, th  t  t  s it, s h vi g d ivd 
ui ight f m it himsf, but  y b usd s i st um t
i mti g th ki d i t ti s d gd f ith f th mis . Th
mis th f  himsf, by vki g it, is t di g vi  t
th  ft ight f th , but  y ti g i  t diti his 
gd f ith.
XIX. F m h t h s b s id bf , it is  sy t  iv h t
 i i ught t b  t t i d f bu d sm  diti xd t
mis. F it m y b xd t y tim, ti mis h s b
m td by  t ,  i v b dg t fufi it h s b

giv . But th  diti f bu d xd t f vu i t dd t


b  f d u  thi d  s , th ugh th mdium f y  , m y
b vkd bf  th  s h s  fi md it by his  t . O
this i t th  is g  t diff   f  i i . But u  im ti 
 sid ti th tu  quity f y  s m y b  siy s ithut
y g  t  gth f gum ts.
XX. XXI. XXII. A th i t f disussi  ts t th v idity f
  us mis, h th  s , h m d it, u  bi g isd
f his   is ii g t dh  t his  g gm t. A d th s m
i qui y is t miss, hih, isi g ut f f  y th
suh mtiv,  hibitd by th ivi  . Wh t, it m y b skd,
i bm f ths miss, if th t f ,  th t mtiv h s b
mvd?
T  fi m suh big ti s, sm thi k i t   s t f th mi d
  i  ju ti ith sm vius xt  t is suffii t.
Oth s dis v f this  i i , b us thy d t dmit th t
xt  t is   sig f subsqu t i t ti . Th f  thy
qui  x ss  titi f th mis d  t . Bt
ths t  i i s, th t uth is mst iky t b fu d. Th  m y
b xt  t x ssiv f mis, thugh u m id ith
 ds; h    ty's  ti g d t i i g gift, d th
th 's i quishi g his ight i it  suffii t t  stitut
fu  s t.
T v t ivi  s f m bi g  fu dd ith tu  justi, 
must t mit tii g, i this  , th t miss thugh fu dd i
 EXPRESS mtiv,  t, y m  th gifts, vid by th   f
tu .
N is  s h h s  g gd f th 's  f mi g y thi g,
bu d t y d m gs d i t st f gt, vidd h h s d 
v y thi g th t  s ss y  his t t ds bt i i g its
m ishm t. U ss th x ss t ms f th g m t,  th
tu  f th busi ss qui  st it big ti , sitivy
d i g th t, u d  i umst s h tv , th thi g sh  b
 f md.

CHAPTER XII.
ON CONTRACTS.
Hum ti s dividd i t sim   mixd--G tuitus,
 m id ith mutu  big ti --Ats by  y
f xh g, djustm t f h t is t b giv 
d --P t  shi --C t ts--P vius qu ity--As t k dg
f  i umst s--As t f dm f  s t, quisit i
 t ts f xh g, f s , f mmissi d  --P i
f thi gs i h t m  t b td--T sf f   ty by
s --Wh t ki d  t y t th   f tu --M y--Its us s
th st d d v u f  thi gs--N b tm t i th  t  hi 
f thi g  u t f  di y id ts--I   s  dimi uti
f just s  is--Usu y, by h t   f bidd --I t st t
mi g u d th m f usu y--I su --P t  shi s f T d,
N v  Assi ti s--I qu ity i th t ms f  t t   y
 ug t t th   f ti s.

I. d II. Of  hum ti s, h i th i t st f th s is


  d, sm  sim , d sm  mixd. I ths f th f m
ds i ti  s vi is u y g tuitus, but i th  tt it is
t ffi f xh g. I th    s th s vi is g td ithut
quit , but i th th it is m id ith big ti 
bth sids. G tuitus s vis  ith immdi t i thi fft,
 t t k   t sm futu  tim. A b fii  s vi m y b s id
t b immdi ty  f md, h it  f s dv t g, t hih
th  s s b fittd h s  di t  bsut ight. As gift
t sf s   ty, h  th  is  vius ight. A subjt, hih
h s b   dy disussd. A d miss m y b s id t  t t sm
futu  gift,  ti , f hih fu d suffii t x  ti h s
bf  b giv .
S vis m id ith mutu  big ti  ths h  th us
f thi g is d t y   ithut m t i ti , 
h   bu is giv i x t ti f sm v u b  sid ti .
U d th fi st f ths h ds  m y k th  d us f 
 sum b  i  sum b   ty: d u d th  tt  m y  
 mmissi s t t s t busi ss,   t usts t s v th
  ty f th . Simi t hih   miss f smthi g t
b d , x t th t thy g d futu  tim. A d i this vi 
m y  sid  th ti s, hih   t b x  i d.
III. I  ts f xh g, th  is ith djustm t f sh s,
 th fits  g dd s mm stk. A d suh djustm ts
 m d by th Rm L y s i th fi g t ms, "I giv this
t iv th t i tu , I d this i  d f yu t d th t, 
I d this f yu t giv m th t."[29] But th Rm s xud f m
th t djustm t  t i ki ds f  t ts, hih thy   EXPRESS
ENGAGEMENTS. Nt b us thy   titd t y suh ui m
m  th th sim  ts f xh g   dy m ti d: but b us
f m f qu t us thy h v tu y d ivd h t simi t
th t f th  igi   t t, f m hih thy  md, thugh thy
 t tt dd x ty ith th s m i umst s,  x ssd
di ty i th s m t ms. Wh  s i th  t ts ss f qu ty
i us, th f m  s  fi d t x t st tm t f  th
i umst s f th  s. A ti u  hih  s th f   d by
th Rm   ACTION IN PRESCRIBED WORDS.
F th s m  s , if ths  t ts, hih  i g   us, b
m id ith y f th quisit f m itis, s i b g i
 s , if th i h d b g d u  , thugh  t f th
g m t h d b  f md by ith f th tis, th ivi  
 f d big ti t fufi thm. But s it  sid s ths
 t ts hih  sdm usd, m  i th ight f vu t y
 g gm ts, d  di g u  th gd f ith f th s tiv tis,
th u  g  big ti , it  vs bth sids t ib ty t
i quish thm t y tim i t thi bi g tu y  f md.
Disti ti s f this ki d  u k  t th   f tu , hih
givs SIMPLE AGREEMENTS qu  uth ity ith ths, th t  i udd
by ivii s i th  ss f EXPRESS CONTRACTS. A d  th s  f
tiquity thi t si s  f su  i . It is th f   fty
 f m b t th i i s f tu  t du th djustm t f
 g m ts, ithut y g d t th disti ti bt SIMPLE
d EXPRESS CONTRACTS, t th th  s is   dy md. Thus, f
i st ,   thi g is giv f th , hih  stituts b t ,

th mst i t ki d f t ffi; th xt st i th g ss f


mm i  i t u s is h    ki d f m y is giv f th ,
t s ti hih by m h ts is  d xh g; d thi d
s is f  t t is h  m y is giv f y thi g, s i th
ts f si g d buyi g. O th USE f   thi g m y b giv f
th t f th ; m y s m y b giv f th USE f thi g, hih
 st mthd  stituts th ts f tti g d hi i g.
Th t m us is t b u d std h  s id t  y t th b 
u dutiv us f thi g, but t th t hih is tt dd ith fit,
hth it b tm  y,  s , h dit y  i ums ibd, s
 s th  s m g th Hb s ith g d t t sf s, hih ud
b m d f   g tim th ti th y f Jubi. Th v y
ss  f   sists i tu f th s m ki d f thi g
ft st td  id. A tu hih  t k    y i thi gs
gu td by ight, umb ,  m su , hth it b i mmditis
 m y. But th xh g f  bu b hs ut i t v ius ki ds f
m    tu . As, f i st ,  s givs his  bu f
m y, hih i th d iy t s ti s f if is  d hi    gs:
h    u d t ks t i dm ify th f id t  sss 
d m gs, it is  d i su : s is f  t t s  k  t
th i ts, but  f mi g v y im  t t b h i  m  ti
d m itim   s.
I . Ats f mmu i ti  ths, h   h  t ibuts sh 
t th ji t stk. P h s    sid, m y, d  th th ,
ski d  bu m y b giv . But i h tv  y ths   s 
gu td, thy m u d th d mi ti f t  shi s. With this
 ss  m y k th i s f diff  t st ts i  . A d f
th s m ds i ti  ths v  ssi ti s f i dividu s, s
f qu ty f md i H d f tti g i st i ts  th
i v d s, hih is g  y  d ADMIRALTY, d t hih th
G ks g v th m f ji t ft.

. d I. N mixd ti s  ith suh i thmsvs,  m d s


by sm dv titius i umst . Thus if I k i gy giv    s
g  t i f thi g th I  u h s it f f th , th
xss f i m y b  sid d ty s gift, d ty s
u h s. O if I  g g gdsmith t m k m y ti ith his
 m t i s, th i hih I giv i b ty u h s, d
ty  gs. Th fud  systm t might b  sid d s t i f
mixd  t ts. Wh  th g t f th f might b  sid d s
b fii  t; but th miit y s vi qui d by th L d, i
tu f his tti , g v th f th tu  f  t t, h 
 s did   thi g x ti g f it th  f m  f th . But
if y ym t is tt hd t it by  y f k dgm t, it t ks
f th tu  f quit  t. S m y s t t s by  y f v tu  is
smthi g m u dd f  t t, f  , d f i su .
II. A ts b fii  t th s, x t ths th t 
g tuitus, m u d th d mi ti f  t ts.

u y

III. I   t ts, tu  justi qui s th t th  shud b


qu ity f t ms: i smuh th t th gg ivd ty h s ti
g i st th th f v  hi g him. This qu ity  sists ty
i th  f m , d ty i th fits f th  t t, yi g
t  th vius gm ts, d t th ss ti   squ s f
th g m t.
IX. As t qu ity f t ms

vius t th  t t, it is vid t

th t s is bu d t disv t u h s y dfts,


hih  k  t him, i thi g ff d f s ; u t
 y st bishd by ivi  s, but st ity  f m b t tu 
justi. F th  ds f g m t bt  t ti g tis 
v st  g th ths,  hih sity is fu dd. A d i this
m  m y b x  i d th bs v ti f Dig s th B by i ,
h i disussi g this t i s id, it is t v y dg  f si ,
hih mu ts t   m t;  is    s bu d t diss
v y thi g, hih m y b f s vi t th . Thus f i st ,
m f si  is t st ity bu d t mmu i t t th th t
k dg, hih might du d t his dv t g. F  t ts, hih
  i v td t mt b fii  i t u s m g m ki d,
qui  sm s d m  i tim t  ti th b  gd-i
t  f  thi big ti . U  hih Amb s h s justy m kd,
"th t, i  t ts, th f uts f thi gs x sd t s  ught t b
m d k  , f hih u ss th s h s giv i tim ti , thugh h
m y h v t sf d th ight f   ty by s , yt h is i b t
ti f f ud."
But th s m  t b s id f thi gs t mi g u d th tu 
f  t ts. Thus if y   shud s his  t high i,
h h k s th t m y shi s  d ith g i  bu d f th t
 , thugh it ud b t f ki d ss i him t mmu i t
suh i tig  t th u h s s, d thugh  dv t g ud b
d ivd t him, f m ithhdi g th mmu i ti , but t th x  
f h ity, yt th  is thi g u just i it,   t y t th
g   us f d i g. Th ti is vi di td by Dig s i
th ss g f Ci  udd t, h s ys, "I  id my mmditis
d ff d thm t s , i si g thm I dm dd  g  t i
th th s did; if th su y h d b g  t I ud h v sd thm
f ss, d h  is th   g d  t y  ?" Th m xim f Ci 
th f   t g  y b dmittd, th t, k i g thi g yu sf,
t ish th , hs i t st it is t k  it s, t m i
ig  t f it, m y f th s k f yu  dv t g, mu ts t
f udu t   m t. By  m s; f th t  y is f udu t
  m t hih immdi ty ffts th tu  f th  t t:
s f i st , i si g hus, t    th i umst  f
its bi g i ftd ith th  gu,  h vi g b  d d by ubi
uth ity t b ud d . But it is u ss y t m ti , th t
th  s , ith hm s t  ts, ught t b isd f v y
i umst  tt di g th thi g ff d f s ; if it b  ds,
hth th t u  b subjt t  t-h g,  s vi f y ki d,
 b  ti y f .
X. d XI. N is th qu ity th t h s b x  i d  fi d sy
t th mmu i ti f  th i umst s f th  s t th
 t ti g tis, but it i uds s  ti  f dm f  s t
i bth.
I th i i  t itsf, th   qu ity qui s th t  m 
shud b dm dd ith ty th h t is just. Whih  s 
h v   i g tuitus ts. T sti u t f m   i
tu f  ,  f th s vi f  bu  mmissi is di g
   g, but  stituts ki d f mixd  t t, t ki g f th
tu  f g tuitus t, d t f xh g. A d i  ts
f xh g, this qu ity is t b u tu y bs vd. N  it
b s id th t if   ty miss m , it is t b kd u  s
gift. F m v  t i t  t ts ith suh i t ti s, 
ught th xist  f suh i t ti s v b sumd, u ss thy
vid ty  . F  miss  gifts, i ths  ss,  m d

ith x t ti f ivi g quiv  t i tu . "Wh , _i


th  ds f Ch ysstm_, i  b g i s d  t ts,   xius
t iv MORE d giv LESS th is du, h t is this but s is
f f ud  bb y?" Th  it f th if f Isid us i Phtius,
 ts f H mi s, th t h y thi g, hih h ishd t u h s
 s v ud t t  t, h m d u th dfii y f th i,
thi ki g th t t t th is  s s is f i justi, thugh it
might s  th bs v ti f th s. A d i this s s, m y b
i t td th   f th Hb s.
XII. Th  m i s th dg  f qu ity t b  sid d, isi g
ut f th fi g  s. It m y h  i  t ts th t thugh
thi g is   d, hih ught t b m d k  ,  m  x td
 t k by   ty th is du, yt th  m y b sm i qu ity
ithut y f ut i ith f th tis. P h s, f i st  th 
might b sm u k  dft i th thi g,  th  might b sm
mist k i th i. Yt, i suh  ss, t s v th t qu ity,
hih is ss ti  quisit i   t ts, th ty suff i g
by suh dft  mist k, ught t b i dm ifid by th th . F i
  g gm ts it ith is,  ught t b st di g u, th t bth
tis shud h v qu  d just dv t gs.
It  s t i v y ki d f qu ity th t th Rm   st bishd
this u, ssi g v sight  si s, i  d t disu g
f qu t d f ivus itig ti . It  y i t sd its judii 
uth ity i ighty m tt s, h  th i xdd th just v u
by   h f. L s i dd, s Ci  h s s id, h v  t m , 
st i m , h  s his h s   y   t thi  s 
u d st di g. Yt ths, h  t subjt t th  f ivi
 s ught t m y ith h tv  s i ts ut t thm t b
just: S t ught thy, h  subjt t th  f hum  s, t
 f m h tv tu  d divi  justi qui s, v i  ss,
h  th  s ith giv  t k  y th ight, but  y f b
t  f  it f tiu  s s.
XIII. Th  is  t i dg  f qu ity, t, i b fii  
g tuitus ts, t i dd ik th t v ii g i  t ts f
xh g, but di g u  su siti f th h dshi , th t
y   shud iv dt im t f m vu t y s vis, hih h
bsts. F hih  s vu t y g t ught t b i dm ifid
f th x    i  v i , hih h i u s, by u d t ki g th
busi ss f th . A b  t is bu d t  i thi g th t h s
b d m gd  dst yd. B us h is bu d t th   t  y
f th thi g itsf, by vi tu f th   ty hih h t i s i
it, but h s dbt f g titud s f th f vu f th  ;
u ss it  s th t th thi g s  t ud h v  ishd, h d it
v m i d i ssssi f th   himsf. I this  s, th
  ss thi g by th  . O th th h d, th d sit y h s
ivd thi g but t ust. If th thi g th f  is dst yd, h
 t b bu d t st  h t is   g i xist ,   h
b qui d t m k m  , h  h h s d ivd  dv t g;
f i t ki g th t ust h did t iv f vu , but  f d
 . I  , th s m s i thi g t ut f hi , midd  y
f didi g th big ti m y b u sud, s th t th  s t ki g
it is t s b, ik b  , f v y id t, d yt h
is bigd t us g  t  , th b  d sit y, i k i g
it s f. F thugh t ki g dg is g tuitus  t , it
is fd by sm f th  diti s f  t t. A ths  ss
  f m b t th Rm  , thugh t  igi y d ivd f m
th , but f m tu  quity. Rus,  f hih m y b fu d m g

th ti s. A d, m g th  ks,  m y f t th thi d bk


d f ty-s d h t f th GUIDE FOR DOUBTFUL CASES,  itt by
Mss M im ids, Jish  it .
U  th s m i i s th tu  f  th  t ts m y b
x  i d; but th  di g f tu s i ths f  t i ds i ti s
smd suffii t f t  tis ik th s t.
XI . Th g   dm d f y thi g, s A istt h s  y
vd,  stituts th t u m su  f its v u, hih m y b s
tiu y f m th ti v ii g m g b b us ti s f
xh gi g   thi g f th . But this is t th  y st d d:
f th humu s d  i f m ki d, hih dit t d  t u 
gu ti s, giv mi  v u t m y su  fuitis. It  s uxu y,
s ys Pi y, th t fi st disv d th v u f  s, d Ci  h s
smh  bs vd, th t th  th f suh thi gs   y b stim td
by th dsi s f m .
But  th th h d, it h  s th t th  tifu su y f
ss is  s thi i. This S  , i th 15th h t f his
sixth bk  b fits, vs by m y i st s, hih h  uds
ith th fi g bs v ti , "th i f v y thi g must b
gu td by th m kt, d tithst di g  yu iss, it is
 th thi g m  th it  b sd f ." T hih  m y dd th
uth ity f P uus th L y , h s ys, th is f thi gs d t
d  d u  th humu s d i t st f i dividu s, but u  mm
stim ti , th t is, s h x  i s himsf sh ,  di g t th
 th hih thy  f t .
H  it is th t thi gs  v ud i   ti t h t is usu y
ff d  giv f thm, u dmitti g f g  t v i ti d
 titud, x t i  t i  ss, h  th   h s fixd st d d
i. I th mm i f tis, th  bu d x   f th
m h t i u i g thm is t k i t th u t, d th sudd
h gs s f qu t i  m kts d  d u  th umb f buy s,
hth it b g  t  sm , d u  th m y d m kt b
mmditis, hth thy b  tifu  s .
Th  m y i dd b  su tis, i g t hih thi g m y b  fuy
bught  sd bv  b th m kt i. Thus f i st ,
thi g by bi g d m gd m y h v st its  igi   mm v u, 
th t, hih th is ud t h v b dis sd f, m y b bught 
sd f m sm tiu iki g  v si . A ths i umst s
ught t b m d k  t th  t ti g tis. Rg d t shud b
h d t th ss  g i isi g f m d y  m t ss f ym t.
X . I buyi g d si g  must bs v, th t th b g i is
m td f m th v y mm t f th  t t, v ithut div y,
d th t is th mst sim   y f d i g. Thus S  s ys, th t
s  is t sf f  's ight d   ty i thi g t th ,
hih is d  i  xh gs. But if it b sttd th t th   ty
sh  t b t sf d immdi ty, sti th s i b bu d t
 vy it t th st td  id, t ki g i th m tim  th fits
d sss.
Wh  s th m ti f b g i d s , by givi g th u h s
ight f ssssi d jtm t, d  vyi g t him th h z d
ith  th fits f th   ty, v bf  it is t sf d,
 gu ti s f th ivi   t u iv s y bs vd. I dd
sm gis t s h v m d th s s b f  id ts

d d m gs, ti th tu  div y f ssssi is m d, s


Th h stus h s bs vd i ss g i Stb us, u d th tit
f  s, h  th  d i fi d m y ustms,  ti g t th
f m itis f s , t  st, t   t  f b g i , v y
diff  t f m th us f th Rm  . A d m g th Rhdi s, Di
P us  sis i f ms us th t  s s d  t ts    fi md by
bi g  t d i ubi gist .
W must bs v t th t, if thi g h s b ti sd, f th t
s s th   is v id, h  immdi t t sf f th   ty h s
b m d, ith by div y f ssssi ,  i y th md. F
by this m s th s givs u bsut ight, hih ud t
ss by mis  .
X I. It is t v y ki d f m  y th t mu ts t di t
vi ti f th  s f tu . Th Sv ig  m y h v v y just
 s s f g ti g m  is, d th t t t sttd i:
b i st  f hih  fi d i th hist y f Js h, h gv d
Egy t u d th us is f Ph h.[30] S s u d th Rm
gv m t th   f Ax d i , s   i f md by St b,
 jyd th m  y f  I di d Ethi i gds.
A m  y s m y, i sm  ss, b st bishd by i dividu s,
vidd thy s t  s b t. But  mbi ti s t is
th ss y tis f if t x bit t t,   vi t
d f udu t ttm ts t v t th m kt f m bi g su id,
 t buy u  t i mmditis, i  d t  h  th i, 
ubi i ju is d u ish b s suh.[31] O i dd ANY WAY f
v ti g th im  t ti f gds,  buyi g thm u i  d t
s thm t g  t t th usu , thugh th i, UNDER SOME
PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, m y t sm u  s b, is fuy sh by
Amb s i his thi d bk f Offis t b b  h f h ity; thugh
it m t di ty u d th hibiti f  s.
X II. As t m y, it m y b bs vd th t its uss d t sut
f m y v u i t i si y b gi g t th ius mt s,  t
th s ifi d mi ti d sh  f i , but f m th g  
i ti hih  b m d f it, s st d d f ym t f 
mmditis. F h tv is t k s mm m su  f  th
thi gs, ught t b i b, i itsf, t but itt v i ti . N th
ius mt s  f this ds i ti , ssssi g  y th s m
i t i si v u t  tims d i   s. Thugh th mi 
v u f th s m qu tity f gd d siv , hth id by ight
 i i b g  t  ss, i   ti t th bu d  
s ity f th thi gs f hih th  is g   dm d.
X III. Ltti g d hi i g, s C ius h s justy s id, m  st t
si g d buyi g, d  gu td by th s m i i s. F th
i  s  ds t th  t  hi , d th   ty f thi g t
th ib ty f usi g it. Wh f  s   must b th ss f
thi g th t  ishs, s  s hi i g thi g   ti g f m
must b th ss f   di y id ts, s f i st , ths
f b  ss  y th  us, hih m y dimi ish his fits.[32]
N i th   ,  th t u t, b th ss  titd t th
sti u td i   t, b us h g v th th th ight f
 jym t, hih t th t tim  s  th s muh, u ss it  s th
g d th t th v u shud d  d u  suh  ti g is.
If   , h th fi st t t h s b v td f m usi g
thi g, sh  h v t it t th ,  th fits  ui g f m it

 du t th fi st t t, f it ud t b quit b th t th


  shud b m d ih by h t b gd t th .
XIX. Th xt t i, th t ms u d  sid ti , is th  fu ss
f t ki g i t st f th us f  sum b thi g; th gum ts
b ught g i st hih  by  m s suh s t mm d u ss t.
F s t h t is s id f th  f  sum b   ty bi g
g tuitus t, d  titd t  tu , th s m  s i g m y
y t th tti g f i  sum b   ty f hi , qui i g
m   f th us f hih is v dmd u  fu, thugh it
givs th  t t itsf diff  t d mi ti .
N is th  y m  ight i th bjti t t ki g i t st f
th us f m y, hih i its  tu  is b  d u dutiv.
F th s m m y b s id f huss d th thi gs, hih 
u dutiv d u fit b ithut th i dust y f m .[33]
Th  is smthi g m  s ius i th gum t, hih m i t i s,
th t, s   thi g is h  giv i tu f th , d th us d
fits f thi g  t b disti guishd f m th thi g itsf, h
th v y us f it d  ds u  its  sum ti , thi g m  ught t
b qui d i tu f th us, th h t is b y quiv  t t
th thi g itsf.
But it is ss y t m k, th t h it is s id th  jym t f
th fits f  sum b thi gs, hs   ty is t sf d, i
th us, t th b   t ust,  s i t dud by t f th
s t, this ds t   y m u d th ti f Usuf ut, hih
 t i y i its  igi  sig ifi ti s s t  suh ight.
Yt it ds t f th t suh ight is f  v u, but  th
 t y m y m y b qui d f su  d i g it t th  it .
Thus s th ight f t yi g m y  i  b d ti ft
 t i tim is thi g hs v u m y b s t i d, th d y bi g
 sid d s sm dv t g. Th f  i m tg g th fits f
th  d s th us f m y. But h t C t, Ci , Put h d
th s g g i st usu y, is t s muh t th tu  f th
thi g, s t th id t  i umst s d  squ s ith hih
it is mm y tt dd.[34]
XX. Th   sm ki ds f i t st, hih  thught t  th
  f usu y, d g  y m u d th t d mi ti ,
but hih i  ity   t ts f diff  t tu . Th fiv
shii gs mmissi hih b k , f i st , h gs u 
v y hu d d u ds, is t s muh i t st i dditi t fiv
  t, s m  s ti f his t ub, d f th isk d
i  v i  h i u s, by th  f his m y, hih h might h v
m yd i sm th u tiv  y. I th s m m   s h
 ds m y t m y i dividu s, d, f th t u s, k s  t i
sums f  sh i his h ds, ught t h v sm i dm ity f th
 ti u  ss f i t st u  ths sums, hih m y b  sid d
s s muh d d stk. N  y m   f this ki d b b dd
ith th m f usu y. Dmsth s, i his s h g i st P t  tus,
 dm s it s dius t f i justi, t h g ith usu y m ,
h i  d t k his i i  u dimi ishd,  t ssist th
ith m y,  ds ut th s vi gs f his i dust y d f ug  h bits,
u  md t i t st.
XXI. Ths hum  s, hih  m  s ti t b m d f th
us f m y  y th thi g,  ith  ug t t tu  
v d  . Thus i H d, h  th t f i t st u  mm

 s  s ight   t, th   s  i justi i qui i g tv


  t f m h ts; b us th h z d  s g  t . Th justi d
 s b ss i dd f  ths gu ti s must b m su d by th
h z d  i  v i  f  di g. F h  th m   xds
this, it bms t f xt ti   ssi .
XXII. C t ts f gu di g g i st d g , hih   d
i su s, i b dmd f udu t d vid, if th i su  k s
bf h d th t th thi g i su d is   dy s f,  h s  hd its
  f dsti ti , d th th ty th t it is   dy dst yd
 st. A d th t t s muh  u t f th qu ity tu y
quisit i   t ts f xh g, s b us th d g d
u  t i ty is th v y ss  f suh  t t. N th mium u 
 i su s must b gu td by mm stim ti .[35]
XXIII. I t di g t  shi s, h  m y is  t ibutd by bth
tis; if th   ti s b qu , th fits d th sss ught
t b qu  s. But if thy b u qu , th fits d th sss
must b th s m   ti , s A istt h s sh t th  usi
f th ighth bk f his Ethis. A d th s m u i hd gd
h  qu   u qu    ti s f  b   t ibutd. L b
m y b giv s b   g i st m y,  bth  b d m y m y
b giv ,  di g t th g   m xim th t   m 's  bu is
quiv  t f th m 's m y.
But th   v ius  ys f f mi g ths g m ts. If m
b s m y t m y his ski u  i t di g f himsf, hth
h g i s  ss th h, h is s b t th   f th
i i . But h  m u its his  b t th  it  f th
i t  shi , th  h bms t  i th i i , t sh 
f hih h is  titd. I th fi st f ths  ss th i i  is
t m d s b   g i st th  b , but it is  t u  t ms
  ti d t th isk f si g it,  th b b g i s t b
d ivd f m it. I th th  s, th i f  bu is ighd, s
it  , g i st th m y, d th ty h bsts it, is  titd
t quiv  t sh  i th  it .
Wh t h s b s id f  bu m y b id t vy gs, d 
th h z dus u d t ki gs. F it is  t y t th v y tu 
f t  shi s f y   t sh  i th g i , d t b xm t
f m th sss. Yt it m y b s sttd ithut y dg  f
i justi. F th  m y b mixd  t t isi g ut f  t t
f i su  i hih du qu ity m y b s vd, by i g th
 s , h h s t k u  himsf th sss, t iv g  t
sh  f th g i th h ud th is h v d . But it is thi g
quit i dmissib th t y   shud b s  sib f th sss
ithut t ki g f th g i s; f mmu i f i t sts is s
tu  t sity th t it  t subsist ithut it.
Wh t h s b s id by  it s  th ivi  , th t th sh s 
u d std t b qu  h  thy  t x ssy md, is t u
h  qu  qut s h v b  t ibutd. But i GENERAL t  shi
th sh s  t t b m su d by h t m y is f m this  th t
ti, but f m th b b fits f th h.
XXI . I v  ssi ti s th mm mtiv f utiity is
sf-df  g i st i ts: thugh thy m y smtims b f md f m
ss  thy mtivs. I m uti g th sss t b sust i d by  h,
it is usu  t stim t th umb f m , th umb f shi s, d th
qu tity f m h dis ttd. A d h t h s hith t b s id i

b fu d  f m b t tu  justi.


XX . N ds th vu t y[36]   f ti s  t m k y
t ti h . Hv , th  is   x ti , hih is, th t h 
qu  t ms h v b g d u  , if  f ud h s b usd,  y
ss y i f m ti ithhd, thy sh  b  sid d s qu  i
xt [37] i t f vi. S th t  ti  b m i t i d
i u t f suh i qu ity. Whih  s th  s i th ivi  
bf  Disi 's  stituti . S m g ths, h  bu d by th
  f ti s  , th   b  d ss   st i t  suh
u t.[38]
A d this is th m i g f h t Pm  ius s ys, th t i b g i
s ,   m m y NATURALLY v  h th :   hih
t t b  st ud, s ight, but is  y s f  missi ,
 g  mdy  b usd g i st th  s , h is dt mi d
i sist u  th g m t.

d
is
th t
t

I this  , s i m y th s, th  d tu  sig ifis thi g


m  th h t is ivd by g   ustm. I this s s th A st
P u h s s id, th t it is tu y disg fu f m t   g
h i ; thi g, i hih th  is thi g  ug t t tu , but hih
is th g   ti m g sm ti s. I dd m y  it s, bth
s  d d f , giv th m f NATURAL t h t is  y CUSTOMARY
d HABITUAL.

CHAPTER XIII.
ON OATHS.
Effi y f  ths m g P g s--Dib ti quisit i
 ths--Th s s, i hih  ths  u d std t b t k , t
b dh d t--T b t k  di g t th usu  m i g f th
 ds--Th subjt f thm t b  fu--Nt t u t t m 
big ti s--I h t s s  ths    t Gd--Th u  t
f  ths--T b f ithfuy bs vd i   ss--Th  t u
f sv ig s v th  ths f subjts--Obs v ti s  u
S viu 's hibiti f  ths--F ms substitutd f  ths.
I. Th s tity f  th ith g d t miss, g m ts, d
 t ts, h s  ys b hd i th g  tst stm, i v y g
d m g v y  . F s S hs h s s id i his Hi d mi ,
"Th su is bu d t g  t  uti by th dditi f  th. F
it gu ds us g i st t thi gs, mst t b vidd, th   h f
f i ds, d th  th f h v ." I dditi t hih th uth ity
f Ci  m y b qutd, h s ys, u f f th s i t dd th t
 th shud b th bst su ity f si  ity f ffi m ti , d th
bs v  f gd f ith. "F , _ s h bs vs i th  _,
th   b  st  g ti, t th fufim t f u  d d
mis, th  th, hih is sm   t th tstim y f
Gd."
II. Th xt i t, t b  sid d, is th  igi  f  d xt t
f  ths.
A d i th fi st

  th gum ts, th t h v b usd s ti g

miss d  t ts, y t  ths s, hih ught v t b


t k but ith th mst dib t fti d judgm t. N  y
   fuy t k  th, ith s t i t ti f t bi g bu d
by it. F th big ti is i s b d ss y  squ 
f  th, d v y t m id ith big ti is su sd t
d f m dib t u s f mi d. Ev y   is bu d ikis
t dh  t  th i th t s s, i hih it is usu y u d std
t b t k . F  th bi g   t Gd, shud d  th
fu t uth i th s s i hih it is u d std. A d this is th
s s u  hih Ci  i sists th t   ths shud b  f md d
dh d t i th t s s, i hih th ty im si g thm i t dd
thy shud b t k . F thugh i th ki ds f miss
 diti m y  siy b im id, t  s th mis ; yt th t is
 titud by  m s dmissib i  th. A d  this i t  
m y b m d t th t ss g, h  th dmi b  it f th E ist
t th Hb s h s s id, GOD WILLING m  bu d ty t sh u t th
hi s f th mis th immut biity f his u s  fi md it by
 th: th t by t immut b thi gs, i hih it  s im ssib f Gd
t div,  might h v st  g  s ti . I  d t u d st d
ths  ds,  must bs v th t th s  d  it s, i s  ki g f
Gd, ft tt ibut t him hum ssi s, th i  f mity t
u fi it  itis, th t his i fi it tu . F Gd ds t
tu y h g his d s, thugh h m y b s id t d s, d t
  t, h v h ts th is th th  ds smd t i di t,
th  si ,  hih thy   div d, h vi g  sd. N this
m y  siy b id i th  s f th  ts, s  f i g  ight;
smtims t i miss, h   diti is im id. Th A st
th f  ms t thi gs d ti g immut biity, mis hih
 f s ight, d  th, hih dmits f  m t  s v ti s.
F m th bv gum ts it is  sy t m h d h t is t b thught
f  th f udu ty bt i d. F if it is  t i th t  s
tk th  th u  su siti , hih ft  ds  s vd t h v
 fu d ti , d but f th bif f hih h ud v h v
t k it, h i t b bu d by it. But if it  s th t h ud
h v t k it ithut th t su siti ; h must bid by his  th,
b us  ths  f  v si .
III. Th m i g f  th shud t b st thd by d th usu 
 t ti f  ds. Th f  th   s  b  h f thi  th i
ths, h, h vi g s th t thy ud t giv thi d ught s i
m i g t th B j mits,  mittd ths th t h d b  id ff
t iv ith thm. F th  is diff   bt givi g thi g,
d t v i g th t hih is st.
I . T giv v idity t  th, th big ti , hih it im ss ught
t b  fu. Th f  s mis, t mmit ig  t, t
d y thi g i vi ti f tu   v d  , i b f 
fft.

. I dd if thi g misd u   th b t tu y ig , but


 y bst uti t sm g  t m  duty, i th t  s s th
 th i t b v id. B us it is duty hih   t Gd t t
d iv u svs f th f dm f di g  th gd i u  .
I. O ths m y diff i f m, d yt g  i subst . F thy 
ught t i ud   t Gd,  i g u  him t it ss th
t uth,  t u ish th f shd f thi ss ti s, bth f hih
mu t t th s m thi g. F   t th tstim y f su  i ,
h h s ight t u ish, is th s m s qui i g him t v g

t f  fidy. N th m isi  f Gd givs him  t


s  s t it ss v y dg  f f shd.

u ish,

II. It  s ustm ith th i ts t s by  s s  bi gs


x ssy disti t f m th su m   t , ith im  ti g th
 th f ths by hm thy s , hth it   th su , th
h v s,  th  th;  s i g by thi  h ds, by thi
hid  , thi u t y  thi i , d  i g f dst uti
u  THEM, if th    y f shd i thi  ths.
N  s this ti  fi d t H th ti s  y, but, s 
 i f md by Phi, it v id m g th Js. F h s ys th t
 ught t, i t ki g  th u  v y  si , t h v u s
t th m k d f th f th u iv s, but t s by u  ts,
by th h v s, th  th, th u iv s. Thus Js h is s id t h v
s by th if f Ph h,  di g t th ivd ustm f th
Egy ti s. N ds u S viu , i th fifth h t f St. M tth's
Gs , i t d, s it is su sd by sm, t  sid ths  ths t
b ss bi di g th ths t k x ssy by th m f Gd. But
s th Js   t muh i i d t m k us f, d yt dis g d
thm, h shs thm th t thy     ths. F , s U i h s 
bs vd, h h s s by his  if, sms t s by Gd, b i g
s t d f   t his divi   . I th s m m  Ch ist
shs th t h, h s s by th tm , s s by Gd h sids i
th tm , d th t h h s s by H v , s s by Gd, h sits
u  th H v s. But th Jish t h s f th t d y thught th t m
  t bu d by  ths m d i th m f   td bi gs, u ss
sm  ty   xd, s if th thi g, by hih thy s ,  
 s td t Gd. F this is th ki d f  th im id i th  d
{k b } s BY A GIFT. A d it is this   f thi s, hih
Ch ist futs.

III. Th i i  fft f  ths is t ut sh t dis uts. "A  th


f  fi m ti , _ s th i s i d  it f th E ist t th Hb s
h s s id_, is th  d f  st if." S t  fi d i Did us
Siuus, th t  th  s g dd m g th Egy ti s s th su st
dg f si  ity th t m ud giv. S th t v y  , i t ki g
 th, shud x ss th   u s f his mi d, d  d his
ti s  f m b t ths x ssi s. Th  is b utifu ss g
 this subjt, i Di ysius f H i ssus, h s ys, "th  st
dg m g m , hth G ks  B b i s, d it is dg,
hih  tim  bt ut, is th t hih t ks th Gds, s it sss
t  ths d v ts."
IX. Th subst  f  th t shud b suh, d  ivd i suh
 ds, s t i ud t  y th divi , but th hum big ti s,
hih it im is. F it shud  vy t th  s , h ivs it,
th s m su ity f his ight, s h ud d iv f m x ss
mis   t t. But if ith th  ds b  f   t
 s s s t  f u  him ight,  if thy d f t him but
i suh m  th t sm  siti m y b m d t his  im, th
f  f th  th i, i th t  s, b suh s t giv th t  s 
ight f m it; yt h h h s t k it must sti submit t th divi 
big ti , hih th  th im ss. A x m  f hih  h v i
 s , f m hm s mis h s b xt td by f . F h 
th  th  vys  ight, but h t th iv ught t i quish,
f it h s b bt i d t th judi f th giv . Thus  fi d
th Hb  Ki gs    vd by th  hts, d u ishd by Gd f
t bs vi g th  ths, hih thy h d t k t th ki gs f B by .

X. Th s m u is t  y t t s ti s bt ubi


 mis, but t ths bt y i dividu s h tsv . F h, t
hm th  th is t k , is t th  y  s t b  sid d; but
sm g d must b id t Gd, i hs m th  th is t k ,
d h sssss uth ity t  f  th big ti . F hih  s
it is im ssib t dmit th siti f Ci , th t it is  b  h
f  th t fus yi g t bb s th sum sti u td f h vi g
s d  's if; b us suh m  t t b kd i th umb
f  fu  mis, but t  td s th mm  mis f  m ki d, s
th t t ds thm  f ith ught t b k t,  v th s tity f
 th bs vd.
XI. Th  f su  i s v i f i s, th t is f sv ig s v
subjts, ith s t t  ths, is th xt t i th t ms u d
 sid ti . N th t f su  i  t u th  ft
big ti f  th, hih sts u  tu  d v d  . But
s   t, i st t f ivi sity,  ti y m st s f u
 ti s, hih i sm m su  d  d u  th di ti f th
sv ig  , hih h s tfd i fu  ith s t t  ths,
i th    s yi g t th  s h t ks, d i th th , t
th  s h ivs thm. This uth ity m y b x isd v th
 s t ki g th  th, ith by d i g, bf  it is t k , th t
it sh  b m d vid,  by hibiti g its fufim t, h t k .
F th i f i  subjt,  sid d s suh, ud t bi d himsf
t  g gm ts, by d ths d by th sv ig gis tu . I
th s m m  , by th Hb  L , husb ds might u th  ths f
ivs, d f th s ths f hid  , h   sti d  d t.
XII. I this    m y u s iy bs v, th t h t is s id i th
 ts f Ch ist, d by St. J ms, g i st s i g t , is
t t  th f ffi m ti , m y i st s f hih  t b
fu d i th  iti gs f St. P u, but t miss y  ths s ti g
u  t i d futu  v ts. This is  i f m th  siti i th
 ds f Ch ist. "Yu h v h d it h th b s id by thm f d tim,
thu sh t t f s thysf, but sh t  f m u t th L d thi 
 th. But I s y t yu, s t t ." A d th  s giv f
it by St. J ms, is th t "yu f  t i t hy  isy,"  b fu d
div s; f s th  d HYPOCRISY sig ifis i th G k.
Ag i it is s id by St. P u, th t  th miss f Gd i Ch ist
 YEA d AMEN, th t is   t i d u dubtd. H   m th
Hb  h s, th t just m 's YEA is YEA, d his NO is NO. O th
th h d,  s s, hs ti s diff f m thi ffi m ti s,
 s id t s  k YEA d NO, th t is thi ffi m ti is d i ,
d thi d i  ffi m ti . I this m  St. P u vi di ts
himsf f m th h g f ight ss f s h, ddi g th t his
 v s ti h d t b YEA, d NO.
XIII. Affi m ti s  t th  y mds f big ti . F i m y
 s sig s h v b usd s dgs f f ith; thus m g th
P si s givi g th ight h d  s  sid d th fi mst ti. S th t
h  y f m is substitutd f  th, th vi ti f it i b
t f  ju y. It h s b s id f Ki gs d P i s i tiu ,
th t thi f ith is th s m s  th. O hih u t Ci , i
his s h f Djt us, mm ds C s  ss f th vigu f his
m i b tt, th f th su  fufim t f th dg d mis
f his ight h d.

CHAPTER X .[39]
ON TREATIES AND ON ENGAGEMENTS MADE BY DELEGATES, EXCEEDING THEIR POWER.
Pubi C v ti s--Dividd i t t  tis,  g gm ts, d th
m ts--Diff   bt t  tis d th  g gm ts m d
by dg ts xdi g thi  s--T  tis fu dd  th
  f tu --Thi  igi --T  tis fu dd  sti m 
xt siv i i s--T  tis ith ths, h  st g s t
th t u igi , hibitd ith by th Jish  Ch isti
 --C uti s s ti g suh t  tis--Ch isti s bu d t u it
g i st th  mis f th Ch isti igi --Am g umb
f Ais i  , hih f thm h v th fi st t si s t
ssist --T it    f t  tis--Th fft f  fidy i  
f th  t ti g tis  sid d--H f th u uth izd
 g gm ts f dg ts  bi di g, h th sv ig s fus
t tify thm--Th C udi C v ti  sid d--Whth th
k dg d si  f th Sv ig m ks ths u uth izd
 v ti s bi di g--Th C v ti f Lut tius  sid d.
I. U i h s dividd  v ti s i t t ki ds, ubi d iv t,
d h h s t x  i d ubi  v ti u  th usu  i i s,
but h s  fi d it t t  ty f  , hih h gs s his
fi st x m , d h h s m d us f th  g gm ts  t d i t
by th g  s f t  t di g  s, s i st  f iv t
 v ti s. By ubi  v ti s th f  h m s ths, hih
 t b m d but by th uth ity d i th m f th sv ig
 , thus disti guishi g thm t  y f m th iv t  t ts
f i dividu s, but ALSO f m th PERSONAL  t ts f sv ig s
thmsvs. A d i dd iv t i ju is d  t ts,  ss th
ubi t  tis f qu ty v th  igi f  s. A d s iv t
 t ts h v b   dy s m y disussd, th high  d
f  t ts, hih m u d th d mi ti f t  tis, i
ss iy f m th  di g t i u f th i qui is.
II. d III. N ubi  v ti s m y b dividd i t t  tis,
 g gm ts, d th m ts.
Th i th bk f Livy m y b  sutd  th disti ti bt
t  tis d  g gm ts, h  th hist i i f ms us, th t t  tis
 ths  t ts, hih  m d by th x ss uth ity f th
sv ig  , d i hih th   i vk th divi  v g 
 thi h ds, if thy vi t thi  g gm ts. Am g th Rm s
th  s s m yd i d i g  d m ki g  ,   i
th  usi f ths sm t  tis,  ys m id by th
i i  h d, h tk th  th i th m f th h  .
A _s  si_,  ENGAGEMENT, is h t  s m d by  s s, h h d 
x ss mmissi f th t u s f m th sv ig  , d hs
ts  squ ty qui d fu th tifi ti f m th sv ig
himsf.[40]
Th S t f Rm,   i f md by S ust, judgd v y   y i
ssi g d , th t  t  ty ud b m d ithut thi  s t
d th t f th  . Livy  ts th t Hi  ymus, ki g f Sy us,
h vi g  t d i t  v ti ith H ib , s t ft  ds t
C th g t h v it  v td by th st t i t  gu. F hih
 s S  th d h s s id, yi g th x ssi t  s s
i vstd ith s i  mmissi f th t u s, th t t  ty,

gti td by th g  , bi ds th h f th Rm  , h 


su sd t h v m d it.
But i m his, th  f m ki g t  tis b gs t th ki g
 , m xim hih th  gu g f t y,  ss th th  ds
f hist y, shs t h v b hd i  gs. Eu i ids, hs
s tim ts   ys  f m b t tu , d  u  i i , i
his T gdy f th Su i ts, s ys, "It sts ith Ad stus t t k
th  th, t hm, s sv ig , th s ight f bi di g th u t y
by t  tis b gs."
N sub di t m gist ts h v suh  f bi di g th  ; 
i th ts f sm   ti bi d th g  t , gum t usd
i f vu f th Rm s g i st th G us. F th   s m j ity f
th   ith C mius, th dit t .
But it m i s t b  sid d h f th ts f ths, h h v
 g gd f th  , ithut y ubi uth ity,  bi di g.
P h s it m y b s id th t th  t ti g tis h v dish gd
thi s  sibiity h thy h v d   i thi  t ds th
fufim t f thi big ti . Th t might b th  s i miss, but
th big ti i ubi  t ts is f st it ki d. F th ty
 t ti g qui s smthi g i tu f th  g gm ts h m ks.
H  th ivi  , hih jts  miss m d by    s f
th  f m  f sm t by th ,  d s him h  g gs f th
tifi ti f thi g i b t y d m gs d i t st.
I . Th mst u t disti ti i t  tis, is th t hih m ks th
fu d ti f sm st u y u  th   f tu , d th s u 
th big ti s, hih m h v ith d ivd f m th   f tu ,
 ddd t it. T  tis f th f m ki d , i g  , m d, t
 y bt  mis, s t mi ti f  ; but i i t tims
  f qu ty m d, d, i sm dg , thught ss y m g m
i th f m ti f v y  t t. This s f m th t i i  i
th   f tu , hih st bishd dg  f ki d d m g m ki d.
Th f  it  s u  fu f   m t b i ju d by th . A d
this tu  justi u iv s y v id bf  th dug. But ft
th t v t, i ss f tim, s vi dis siti s d h bits g i d
g u d, it  s by dg s bit td. S th t    's bbi g d
u d i g th , v h   h d b mm d  d d,
 s dmd  fu. E i h ius  s this th Sythi f shi . Nthi g
is m  f qu t i th  iti gs f Hm th f m t b skd, if
thy  bb s? A qusti , s Thuydids i f ms us, by  m s
i t di g t  vy   h, but u y f i f m ti . I i t
  f S 's m ti is m d f m is f md f bb y: d, 
fi d f m Justi , th t, ti th tims f T qui , i y  s tt dd
ith dg  f g y.
I th   f th Rm s it  s m xim, th t ti s, hih h d t
 t d i t t ms f mity,  i t t  tis ith thm   t t
b  sid d s  mis. But if y thi g b gi g t th Rm s
f i t thi h ds, it b m thi s;  y itiz f Rm,
t k by thm, b m s v; d th Rm s ud t  t y  s
b gi g t th t ti , i th s m m  . I this  s th ight
f stimi ium[41] is bs vd. S t mt  id, bf  th
tims f th P  si  , th C y  s   t  sid d
s  mis by th Ath i s, thugh th   s  t  ty f  
subsisti g bt thm, s  s f m th s h f th C i thi s
giv by Thuydids. A istt mm ds th ti f u d i g
b b i s, d i i t L tium  my sig ifid thi g but

f ig  .
I th  ss f t  tis f d t i this sti m y b kd
ths m d bt diff  t st ts f th mutu  s v ti f th
ights f hs it ity d mm , s f s thy m u d th  
f tu . A  m ks us f this disti ti , i his s h t th
Ah  s, s   td by Livy, h  h s ys h ds t qui 
ff siv d df siv i , but  y suh t  ty s m y su 
thi ights f m i f i gm t by  h th ,  v t thm f m
h bu i g th fugitiv s vs f th M d i s. C v ti s f this
ki d    d by th G ks, st ity s  ki g, PEACE i  siti
t TREATIES.

. T  tis fu dd u  big ti s ddd t ths f th   f


tu   ith qu ,  u qu . Equ  t  tis  ths, by
hih qu  dv t gs  su d  bth sids. Th G ks   thm
ALLIANCES, d smtims i s u  qu  s . But t  tis
f th  tt ki d  m    y  gus th t  tis, d h 
  f th tis is i f i i dig ity, thy   d INJUNCTIONS,
 INJUNCTIONS ANNEXED TO CO ENANTS. Dmsth s i his s h 
th ib ty f th Rhdi s s ys,  ti s ught t gu d g i st
f mi g suh  gus, s  hi g t  t s vitud.
T  tis f bth ki ds, hth f    i   m d f m
mtivs f sm dv t g t th tis. By qu  t  tis f  ,
th st ti f is  s, th st ti  ssi f  qu d
 s, d th m tt s vidi g f its du m i t , 
sttd, subjt th t i b m  fuy t  td f h  ft , i
st ti g th ffts d  squ s f  . T  tis f i  u 
qu   diti s  t ith t mm ,  t  t ibuti s f th
ji t suti f  ,  t th bjts f qu  im  t .
Equ  t  tis f mm  m y v y i thi t ms. F i st  it
m y b sttd th t  dutis sh  b im sd u  th gds f th
subjts, b gi g t  h f th  t ti g  s:  th t th
dutis u  thi s tiv mmditis sh  b  th th dutis
u  ths f y th ti . Th fi st f ths x m s m y b
fu d i i t t  ty bt th Rm s d C th gi i s, i
hih th  is  us, m ki g x ti f h t is giv t th
t y d ubi  i . O it m y b sttd th t  high dutis
th ths xisti g t th tim th t  ty is m d sh  b im sd, 
th t thy sh  t b ugm td by d  t i t.
S i i s f  th  t ti g tis  qui d t
fu ish qu  umb s f t  s  shi s, ki d f i  hih,
s Thuydids x  i s it,  s u  th u itd  s t hd th
s m st ts f mm  mis  f i ds:  fi d, i m y ts
f Livy, i s f this ds i ti m g st ts, f th mutu 
df  f thi t it is  f th suti f sm tiu
 ,  g i st sm tiu  my,  g i st  st ts x ti g
thi s tiv is. Pybius h s giv t  ty f this ki d,
m d bt th C th gi i s d M d i s. I th s m m 
th Rhdi s bu d thmsvs by t  ty t ssist Atig us Dmt ius
g i st   mis x t Ptmy. Th   th bjts t f
hih qu  t  tis  m d. Thus    m y bi d th t buid
 f ts i thi ighbu hd hih might v y , t giv
  u gm t t bius subjts, t  th t  s f
 my  ss g th ugh thi u t y.

I. F m qu  t  tis, th tu  f u qu  t  tis m y  siy


b u d std. A d h  t  s  t t, this i qu ity m y

b  th sid ith f th su  i ,  f th i f i  .


A su  i  m y b s id t m k u qu  t  ty, h it
miss ssist  ithut sti u ti g f y tu ,  givs
g  t dv t gs th it  g gs t iv. A d  th t f th
i f i  this i qu ity subsists h , s Is ts s ys i his
PANEGYRIC, h ivigs  u duy d ssd; s th t  g gm ts f
this ki d m y b  d i ju ti s  mm ds th th t  tis.
A d ths m y,  m y t, b tt dd ith dimi uti f thi
sv ig  .
Suh dimi uti f sv ig  fd th s d t  ty bt
th C th gi i s d Rm s, by hih th f m   bu d t m k
  but ith th  s t f th Rm  ; s th t f m th t
tim, A i s ys, th C th gi i s   m d by t  ty t m y
ith th humu f th Rm s. T this ki d m y b ddd  diti 
su  d , x t th t it  ds t t DIMINUTION, but t ENTIRE
TRANSFER f th sv ig dig ity d  .

II. Th bu d s tt hd t u qu  t  tis, h   dimi uti f


sv ig ty t ks  , m y b ith t sit y   m  t.
TRANSITORY bu d s  ths, by hih th ym t f  t i sums f
m y is im sd, th dmiti f  t i  ks d f tifi ti s,
th ssi f  t i u t is d th div y f shi s  hst gs
 qui d. But PERMANENT  diti s  ths, hih qui  th
t ibut f hm g d submissi f m    t th .
N y  hi g t suh t  tis  ths, by hih    is
db d f m h vi g y f i ds   mis, but t th  su  f
th ,  f m i g ss g d su is t th t  s f y
st t, ith hm th t  m y b t  . Bsids ths th  m y b
 diti s f i f i d ss im  t t ki d; suh s ths, hih
hibit th buidi g f f ts i  t i  s; m i t i i g mis,
 h vi g shi s by d  t i umb ; vig ti g  t i s s, 
isi g t  s i  t i u t is; tt ki g is  su yi g
 mis. Sm  diti s i dd g s f s t hibit st t f m
dmitti g fugs, d t dm d ui g  f m  g gm ts ith
v y th  . Num us x m s f suh t  tis  t b fu d
i hist i s bth i t d md .
U qu  t  tis m y b m d t  y bt th  qu  s d th
 qu d but s bt mighty d im t t st ts, bt hm 
hstiitis h v v xistd.

III. I  sid i g t  tis, it is f qu ty skd, hth it b


 fu t m k thm ith ti s, h  st g s t th Ch isti
igi ; qusti , hih,  di g t th   f tu , dmits t
f dubt. F th ights, hih it st bishs,  mm t  m
ithut disti ti f igi .
Th gs  h s m d  h g i this s t, but th f vu s
t  tis, by hih ssist  i just  us m y b ff dd v t
ths, h  st g s t igi . F t mb    tu itis f
di g gd t  m is t  y  mittd s  ud b, but  ji d
s  t. F i imit ti f Gd, h m ks his su t is u 
th ightus d th ikd, d f shs thm bth ith his g ius
i ,   mm dd t xud   f m f m thi du sh 
f u s vis. Yt, i qu   ss, it dmits f  dubt, th t ths
ithi th  f u  igius mmu i h v f b  im
t u su  t.

IX. I dditi t th f gi g gum ts  m y bs v th t s 


Ch isti s   sid d s mmb s f   bdy, hih  qui d t
f f th i s d suff i gs f  h th , this  t is
t  y t i dividu s, but t ti s d ki gs i thi ubi
 ity. F th u f duty is t t b m su d by th i i ti
f i dividu s, but by th i ju ti s f Ch ist. A d i sm  ss
th v gs f im ius  my   y b  sd by fi m i 
m g Ch isti ki gs, d gv m ts. A d it is duty f m hih
thi g, but i vit b ssity, d thi immdi t tt ti bi g
 g ssd by th suti f th  s,  xus thm.
X. A th qusti f qu ty iss, hih is, h t st ts 
 g gd i  ith  h th , t hih f thm  , qu y
id t bth, ught i f   t giv ssist . H  t 
must bs v th   b  big ti t su  t u just  s. O
hih u t th t  fd t  , hih h s justi  its sid,
i h v  im t f  , if  g gd i  ith th t
m h dd i th umb f  fd ts,  v if  g gd ith  
f th  fd ts thmsvs.
But if t  s  g g i  , qu y u just  bth sids,
thi d  , u itd i  fd y ith bth, i ud ty bst i
f m i t f  . Ag i , if t  s id t us   g gd i
just  g i st th s, ith hm  h v   ti ; i th
su is f m  m y th t  fu ish t ith  ught t f
th u, bs vd i th  s f  s   dit s.[42]
But if  s  ssist , hih  t b dividd, is qui d f th
 t ti g ty, i th t  s th f   must b giv t th
 g gm ts f th  gst st di g. Hv th  s f subsqu t
t  ty, hih m ks th  g gm ts f m  bi di g d xt siv
tu , i f m x ti t this u.
XI. Th t it    f t  ty ught t t b sumd u  t th
x i ti f th  id, imitd f its  ti u , u ss  t i
ts b  f md, hih  x ssy b  st ud s    f it,
d  b t k i  th s s.
XII. If   f th tis vi ts t  ty, suh vi ti  ss
th th f m its  g gm ts. F v y  us h s th bi di g f 
f  diti . A d s x m  f this, ss g f m Thuydids
m y b qutd, h  th t hist i s ys th t "f    t d
t   fd y, d t ds t y h h s gtd t
fufi his  g gm ts, is  b  h f t  ty; but t t ssist
th  i  f mity t s  g gm ts mu ts t vi ti
th f." A d this is g  y t u, x t h  it h s b g d
t th  t y, th t t  ty sh  t b u d i quishd f
t ifi g disgusts d mis i gs.
XIII. C v ti s  s v ius d um us s t  tis, d th
disti ti m d bt thm is i g m  t th diff   f 
i ths by hm thy  m d, th t y   diff   i thi
 tu . But th   t tiu i ts f i qui y m t i y
 td ith   v ti s, th fi st f hih  ts t th
xt t f th gti t 's big ti , h th sv ig  th
st t fuss t tify  v ti , hth h is bu d t m k
i dm ity t th th ty f th dis i tm t, t st  thi gs
t th situ ti thy   i bf  h t  td,  t div u his
  s . Th fi st  i i sms  f m b t th Rm ivi  ,

th s d t quity s it  s u gd by th t ibu s f th  , L.


Livius, d J. Mius, i th dis ut but th   f C udium;[43]
but th thi d is th t mst g  y d td, s  s d  s ti g
th t f mus  v ti s f C udium d Num ti . But th  is  
 uti tiu y t b bs vd, d th t is, th t th sv ig is
  y bu d by suh u uth isd  v ti s, u ti h h s tifid
thm. I th  v ti udd t, if th S m its h d i t dd t
bi d th Rm  , thy shud h v t i d th my t C udium,
d s t mb ss d s t th s t d   t Rm, t disuss th
t  ty, d  u  h t t ms thy hs t dm thi my.
XI . A th qusti is, hth th k dg d si  f th
sv ig bi d him t th bs v  f  v ti . But h  it is
ss y t m k disti ti bt bsut  v ti , d
  m d u   diti f its bi g tifid by th sv ig . F s
  diti s ught t b it y fufid, suh  diti , 
f iu  f fufim t, bms vid.
This i i   s v y   y bs vd i th  v ti m d
bt Lut tius d th C th gi i s; t hih th   fusd
t d, s it h d b m d ithut thi  s t.[44] A  t  ty
th f   s m d by ubi uth ity.
Th xt thi g t b  sid d is, hth th  m y t b sm t
f  s t bsids si . F ithut sm visib t, si  is
t f itsf suffii t t  t b b  jtu  f i t ti .
But if  t i ts  d  hih  b u td f u   th
g u ds th ths f  s t, thy  su sd t tify t  ty.
Thus if th  v ti f Lut tius h d  t i d m y  uss, sm f
thm i quishi g  t i ights, d ths  uss h d b  ys
duy bs vd by th Rm s, suh bs v  ud b justy t k f
tifi ti f th t  ty.

CHAPTER X I.
THE INTERPRETATION OF TREATIES.
Th xt  big ti f miss--W ds h  th  jtu s
  ti g t b t k i thi  u m i g--T ms f t
t b i t td  di g t th  t ti f th  d i
 h t, t d, d si --C jtu s quisit t x  i
mbiguus  smi gy  t dit y t ms--I t t ti
f t  tis f m th subjt-m tt --F m  squ s, f m
i umst s d  ti --C jtu s t k f m mtivs--Th
m  st it  m  xt siv i t t ti --T  tis f vu b,
dius, mixd  i diff  t--Th gd f ith f ki gs d ti s
i t  tis f qu  v idity ith  --Rus f i t t ti
f md f m th bv md disti ti s--Whth th  d
is, i t  ty, is imitd t ths, h   suh t th
tim f m ki g it,  is t  h ,  h  ft m y
bm suh--I t t ti f th hibiti f   ty's
m ki g  ithut th  s t  i ju ti f th th --Of th
f dm g td t C th g--Disti ti bt  s  d
  t  tis--A t  ty m d ith ki g  ti us v du i g
his x usi by usu  , suh t  ty xt ds t t
i v d --Wh t ki d f miss ught t h v th f  --Th
xt t f bvius  jtu s--Th  f m  f mmissi

by di g smthi g quiv  t--I t t ti st itd m 


sy th th b  sig ifi ti f th  ds im is--F m
 igi  dft f i t ti --F m f iu  f th s
mtiv--F m dft i th subjt--Obs v ti s  th  st
md  jtu s--Em g is  ug t t th  igi  i t ti ,
by  d i g it u  fu  bu d sm--C jtu s t k f m
m is f   t f th  iti gs ith th --Rus t
b bs vd--I dubius  ss,  iti gs t bsuty quisit
t th v idity f  t t--C t ts f Sv ig s t
t b i t td by th Rm  --Whth th  ds f th
 s  ti g  ff i g th  g gm t ught t b mst
g dd--This x  i d by disti ti .
I. If   sid th mis  , h is tu y bu d t fufi
his  g gm ts. Gd f ith, bs vs Ci , qui s th t m
shud  sid s  h t h i t ds, s h t h s ys. But s ts
f th mi d  t, f thmsvs visib, it is ss y t fix u 
sm dt mi t m k, t v t m f m b  ki g thi  g gm ts,
by i g thm t ffix thi  i t t ti t thi  ds.
It is ight, hih tu   s dit ts, th t v y   h
ivs mis, shud h v  t m  th mis t d
h t f i i t t ti f his  ds suggsts. F th is it
ud b im ssib f m  big ti s t b b ught t y  t i
 usi . P h s it  s i this s s th t Is ts, t  ti g f
g m ts, i his s i ti g i st C im hus, m i t i s th t
th  s  td  this subjt  th mm  s f  m ki d,
t  y G ks, but b b i s s. It is f this v y  s , th t
s ifi f ms h v b ssig d f t  tis, hih  t b d 
u i t ms f u quiv  d  t i m i g. Th   u f
i t t ti is t g th th i t ti f th tis dgd, f m
th mst b b sig s. A d ths  f t ki ds, my,  ds d
 jtu s, hih m y b  sid d ith s ty,  tgth .
II. Wh   h v  th  jtu  t guid us,  ds  t t b
st ity t k i thi  igi   g mm ti  s s, but i thi
mm  t ti , f it is th bit y i f ustm, hih
di ts th  s d us f s h.[45] It  s fish t f
 fidy th f  i th L i s, h thy misd thy ud dh 
t thi  g gm ts s  g s thy std u  th t si, d b 
ths h ds u  thi shud s, i  d t v d thi mis t
 st  y th mud, hih thy h d viusy ut ithi thi shs,
d th h ds f g ik, hih thy h d  id u  thi shud s.
Ats f t  h y ik ths, Ci , i th thi d bk f his Offis,
h s   y bs vd, i st d f mitig ti g, t d t gg v t th
guit f  ju y.
III. I t ms f t hih  bv th m h si f th g  
buk f m ki d, u s, f x  ti , must b h d t ths, h
 mst x  i d i th t t; thus f m  suti g g   it s,
 m y  iv th tu  f tiu  ims,  f m th gs f
th s m uth s, d iv u ti s f sv ig  .
It is just m k f Ci 's, th t th  gu g f gi is t
th t f d iy d f mii i t u s: th  it s f th t  ss h v
h ss ui t thmsvs: hih i dd is th  s ith ts
f v y ds i ti . S i t  tis, h  miit y gm ts
u , my is dfi d t b umb f sdi s  b f OPENLY
i v di g f ig ,   my's u t y. F hist i s v yh 
m k disti ti bt th iv t i u si s f bb s, d

h t is d  by  fu d gu my. Wh t  stituts my


must b th f  judgd f by th  my's f . Ci  dfi s
my t  sist f six gi s d uxii is. Pybius s ys, th t
Rm my i g   mu td t sixt thus d Rm s, d t ty
thus d uxii is. But miit y f  might b m sd f ss
umb f t  s th this. I th s m m  th umb f shi s
suffii t f y u s i mu t t ft, d   b t
hd ut g i st  my m y b  d f t.
I . It is ss y t m k us f  jtu , h   ds  s t s
dmit f m y m i gs: A md f x ssi h i udd i    d,
is  d by Lgii s, sy  ymus t m, d, h xt di g t t
 m   ds, dubtfu h s. I th s m m  it is ss y
t h v u s t  jtu  h v smi g  t diti u s
i th x ssi s f t  ty. F i th t  s  must t y t
disv suh  jtu s, s i  i, if ssib,   t
ith th . F if th  b vid t  t diti , th  t ti g
tis by thi  tt dt mi ti s, must h v i t dd t b g t
thi f m ; s     dsig t m k  t dit y suti s
t th s m tim. I dd  ts d  di g u  th hum i, s
i th  s f  s d tst m ts, hih d  d u  th i f  
ty, d i  t ts d t  tis, hih d  d u  th t f t 
m ,  ths ts  i b t h gs, ith subsqu t h g
f i i th tis   d. I  suh  ss y bsu ity i
th  gu g bigs us t h v u s t  jtu s, hih 
smtims s bvius, s t i t ut m i g di ty  t y t
th t f th  ds i thi usu   t ti . N th i i  su s
f  jtu   t b fu d i th subjt-m tt , th  squ s,
d th i umst s d  ti .

. F m th subjt  m tt , s f i st , i th  d d y. Thus


if t u b m d f thi ty d ys, h  ivi d t tu  d ys 
m t.[46]
S th  d d ti is smtims usd t sig ify t sf ,  di g
t th tu  f th busi ss. I th s m m  t th  d
ms, hih i g   sig ifis miit y i st um ts, is smtims
id t t  s, d m y b t k i ith s s,  di g t th
tiu  si . Ev y i t t ti must b giv  di g t
th i t ti u d std. Thus th mis f f  ss g giv
u  th v u ti f t , im is s th t th t  s sh  ss
ithut mst ti . If umb f shi s  t b giv u ,  ft
d t muti td shi s  m t. A d i  simi  ss simi
judgm t must b f md  di g t th tu  t  f th  ds.

I. A th su  f i t t ti is d ivd f m th  squ s,


s i y h   us t k i its it  m i g ud  d t
 squ s f ig  v  ug t t th i t ti f t  ty.
F i mbiguus m i g suh  t ti must b t k s i
vid  di g t bsu dity   t diti . Th  vi f B sid s
th f  is highy bmi b, h, misi g th t h ud v u t
th Bti t it y, s id h did t  sid th t s Bti
t it y, hih h u id ith his my; s if th i t bu ds
  t i t dd, but  y h t m i d u  qu d, v si ,
hih  ti y ud th t  ty.
II. F m th i umst s   txt th su  f i t t ti
is d ivd. N i  sid b ight m y b th  u  th m i g
f x ssi f m th i umst  f its bi g usd by th s m
 s t x ss th s m i t ti s  th simi  si s, d

f m its  ti t h t gs bf , d h t fs th  ,


h  it st ds. F i  dubtfu  ss,  h v  s t su s
th t th  t ti g tis m t b  sist t ith thi f m
 i i s d i t ti s. Thus i Hm , i th g m t bt P is
d M  us, th t H shud b giv u t th  qu  , h
m d ith h t fs, it is vid t th t by th  qu  is
m t th mb t t, h kid th th . This u f i t t ti ,
Put h iust ts by th  dut f judgs, "h ssi g by h t is
bsu  st thi disi s u   d u mbiguus i ts."

III. As t th mtivs, hih  smtims t k f u f


i t t ti , th  m y b th subst ti   s, bsids ths
immdi ty x ssd, f th ssi g f    th m ki g f
t  ty. Yt th st  gst  jtu  is th t hih iss f m  t i
f th t th i  s tu td by sm  s ,   ti g s s
d suffii t mtiv. F th   f qu ty MANY mtivs, d
smtims th i is i fu d by its  hi i d  d t f y
th  s . I th s m m  g t m d, i  tm  ti f
m i g, i b vid, if th m i g v t ks  .
IX. It is fu th t b bs vd th t m y  ds h v v ity f
 t ti s, sm m  imitd d th s m  xt siv; hih m y
b i g ith t th i ti f g   m t tiu
 ss f thi gs, s i th  ds ki d d d d ti ;  t th us
f m sui s t x ss im s bth f th m  d fm  ki d,
h  u s f mm g d   ti g. I t ms f t t,  ds
 ft t k i mt h i   xt dd s s: thus i th ivi
  d th sig ifis b ishm t; but i its  u  t ti
dissuti f th ts f th tu  bdy.
X. I miss ikis, sm thi gs  f f vu b, sm
dius, d th s f mixd  i diff  t ds i ti . F vu b
miss  ths hih  t i qu ity f t ms,  hih b
sm  ti t th mm gd, th m g itud d xt t f hih
i   ss th f vu f th mis: s th t   g gm ts m 
 duiv t   th t   t b  sid d s ths f
f vu b m xi , d i s f mutu  df    ys
g dd s m   ud b bjt th ths f ff siv  .
T  tis f dius ki d  ths hih  y g  t bu d s   
ty th  th th , hih  t i  tis f  -  f m ,
 hih  d t b g ti  i f ti f f m t  tis.
Wh  s, thugh  g gm ts f mixd tu  m y   t dvi ti
f m f m t  tis, thy m y b t k ith i f vu b 
dius ight,  di g t th m g itud,  bjt f th h g
dud. If it b f th s k f  , it is btt , t ki g 
i umst s i t  sid ti , t k thm ith ths f
f vu b ki d.
XI. Th disti ti m d by th Rm   bt ts f quity
d ths f st it justi,  t GENERALLY b id t th  
f ti s, thugh it m y i sm  ss b d td. Thus i y
t s ti bt th subjts f t u t is, i  h f hih th
s m f m f g  di g is bs vd, th tis  su sd t
t  t ithut y i t ti f dvi ti g f m th mm u d f m,
u ss thy h v x ssy dt mi d t th  t y. But i ts f
hih  mm u is s ibd, s i d ti s d f  miss,
th  th tis  su sd t t  t  di g t th st it tt
f th g m t.

XII. Aft th st bishm t f th f m siti s, th subjt


tu y ds t th us thmsvs, hih  t b bs vd
i th i t t ti f t  tis. A d i th fi st    m y
m k, th t i thi gs, hih  t f dius tu ,  ds 
t b t k st ity i thi  u m i g, d h  thy dmit f
x ti s,  h v m  sig ifi ti s th  , it is  fu t us
th t hih is mst xt siv. As it h s b   dy bs vd, th t
bth Lgii s d G mm i s f qu ty us tiu t ms i
g   s s. Thus Ci  i  di g f C i , justy m i t i s
th t th i t ut y d ,  d i g THAT THE PERSON EJECTED FROM
HIS INHERITANCE SHOULD BE REINSTATED IN THE POSSESSION, im is t
 y jtm t, but xt ds t y f ib v ti f th
  's t ki g ssssi .
I thi gs f f vu b tu , if th tis  g gd  qu i td
ith th g  i i s, u  hih thy d,  st u  th
judgm t f ths h  s, th  ds usd m y b t k i thi mst
xt siv sig ifi ti , i udi g v t ms f t d f  .[47]
Ag i ,  must v h v u s t mt h i  i t t ti ,
x t h  th it  m i g ud  d t di t bsu dity, 
ud df t th i t ti f t  ty.
O th th h d ss g m y b i t td i m  imitd
sig ifi ti , th th  ds thmsvs b , if suh i t t ti
b ss y, t vid i justi  bsu dity. If  suh ssity
xist, but quity  utiity m ifsty qui  st iti t th
it  m i g, it must b mst igidy dh d t, x t h 
i umst s m  us t d th is. But i thi gs f dius
tu  figu tiv x ssi m y b d i  d t vid
i  v i   i justi. Th f , h y   m ks g t, 
i quishs his ight, thugh h x ss himsf i th MOST GENERAL
t ms, his  ds  usu y RESTRICTED t th t m i g, hih it is
b b h i t dd. A d i  ss f this ki d, th h  f t i i g
thi g is smtims t k f th t f ssssi . I th s m
m  it is u d std th t subsidis f m , misd by   ty
 y,  t b m i t i d t th x   f th  , h qui s
thm.
XIII. It is f mus qusti hth th  d ALLIES i uds  y
ths h   suh t th tim f m ki g th t  ty,  ths h
might ft  ds bm s: s  s th  s i th t  ty m d bt
th Rm   d th C th gi i s t th  usi f th 
th t h d  igi td i dis ut but Siiy, by hih t  ty it  s
sti u td th t bth  s shud f b tt ki g th is f
 h th . H  th Rm s i f d th t thugh th  v ti
m d ith Asd ub , by hih h  s hibitd f m ssi g th
Ib us, h d b f  s vi t thm, s it h d t b tifid by
th C th gi i s, yt if th C th gi i s s ti d th  dut
f H ib  i his tt k u  th   f S gu tum ith hm th
Rm s, ft th m ki g f th t  v ti , h d  t d i t
i , thy shud  sid thmsvs s uth isd t d  
g i st th C th gi i s f h vi g vi td sm t  ty. U 
hih Livy  s s i th fi g m  , "By th  us i f vu f
is  bth sids, th   s suffii t su ity f th S gu ti s.
F th   s  imit ti f th  ds t ths, h   is t
th t tim,    thy suh s t xud ith  f m m ki g
 i s. But if bth sids   t ib ty t m k  i s,
h ud thi k it just t d iv th  is f th t tti
t hih thy ud b  titd f m t  tis f mity? Th xusi
ud  s by g  fu th th t d  th t th is f th

C th gi i s shud t b sdud t  u  thi  g gm ts, 


if thy did s, b dmittd i t i  ith th Rm s."
Th  st ss g is t k , mst  d f  d, f m th thi d bk
f Pybius. O hih  m y bs v th t th  d ALLIES m y st ity
m ths, h   s t th tim, h th t  ty  s m d, d,
ithut y f d i t t ti , m y s b xt dd t mb 
ths, h ft  ds b m suh. T hih f ths i t t ti s
th f   is t b giv m y b s f m th us bv giv :
d  di g t ths us, it i b fu d, th t i s f md
ft th m ki g f th t  ty i t b m h dd i it, b us
it  ts t th b  h f t  ty, th vi ti f hih is
dius t, d t ds t d iv th C th gi i s f th ib ty f
d ssi g thmsvs by f  g i st ths h   su sd t h v
i ju d thm; ib ty s ti d by th   f tu , d t t
b b d d  y sight  si . W  th Rm s db d th by
this u f m m ki g y t  ty ith th S gu ti s, d df di g
thm ft thy b m is? N! thy h d ight t df d thm,
t by vi tu f y t  ty, but u  i i s f tu  justi,
hih  t  ty  u. Th S gu ti s th f  ith s t t
bth  s   i th s m situ ti , s if   g gm t h d b
m d i f vu f is. I this  s, it  s  b  h f t  ty f
th C th gi i s, u  just g u ds, t mm  hstiitis g i st
th S gu ti s,  f th Rm s t df d thm. U  th s m
i i , i th tim f Py hus, it h d b sti u td, by t  ty,
bt th C th gi i s d Rm s, th t if ith f thm ft  ds
 t d i t y  g gm t ith Py hus, th ty s  t ti g
shud s v t itsf th ight f s di g suu s t th th , if
tt kd by th t ki g. Thugh i th t  s th  ON BOTH SIDES ud
t b just, yt it ud i vv  i f ti f y t  ty. This is
x m  f  s i qu  t  tis.
XI . Th  s f u qu  t  ty m y b ut, h  it is g d
th t   f th  fd t tis sh  t m k  , ithut th
 s t,  by th i ju ti f th th , hih  s sti u td i
th t  ty bt th Rm s d C th gi i s, ft th  usi
f th s d Pu i  . Wh th t m WAR is id t  f v y
ds i ti , tiu y t ff siv th th df siv  ; i
dubius  s, it must b imitd t its   sig ifi ti , st th
t  ty shud   t s t g  t st i t u  th ib ty f th t
 , hih h s  g gd i th u qu  t  ty.
X . Of th s m ki d is th mis giv by th Rm s, th t C th g
shud b f , hih ud v m th  jym t f m t
i d  d , by  , h h d  g bf  st th ight f m ki g
 , d m y f thi th ivigs. Yt it ft thm sm dg 
f ib ty, s muh t  st, th t thy shud t b bigd t mv
th s t f thi gv m t t th mm d f y f ig  , d
g v thm dg th t thi ity shud t b distu bd. It  s
i v i th f th Rm s t u g th t it  s  y th ity hih
 s i t dd. Wh  s ths qu i td ith th us f mt h i 
 gu g k  th t by th ity is f qu ty m t th i h bit ts, d
gv m t ith its ivigs, d t th m   s d huss. F
th t m, BEING LEFT FREE, im is th t th   shud  jy thi
  s.
X I. Th tu  f  s  d   t  tis is f qu t subjt f
i qui y, hih m y   y b x mi d i this  . I dd i 
t s ti s ith f   , th  g gm ts  t d i t ith thm
 f   tu ; b us th subjt f thm is  m  t thi g.

S  m  t, th t, thugh  ubi b h gd i t g 


gv m t, t  ty i m i i f : f th iti  bdy
 ti us th s m, thugh th h d b h gd, d th sv ig
 , hih bf   s diffusd m g m y mmb s, is   t d i
 . Yt this u i dmit f x ti , h  it is vid t th t
th s ifi f m f gv m t m d ss ti  t f th t  ty,
s h t st ts m k fd  u i f th mutu  s v ti
f thi iti  systms. But if t  ty b m d ith KING OR
SO EREIGN PRINCE, it ds t  squ ty f th t it is t b
 sid d  y s PERSONAL d t REAL t  ty. F th m f
 s m y b i s td i t  ty, t m y t giv it th h t
f  s  t  ty, but t i t ut th  t ti g tis. A d
this i b sti m  vid t, if, s is usu  i mst t  tis,
 us is xd d i g it t b  tu ,  m d f th gd f
th ki gdm,  ith th ki g himsf, d his suss s, d it i
s b  sid d s   t  ty, v if it is st td t b ssd
f dfi it tim. Th t  ty bt th Rm s d Phii , Ki g f
th M d i s, sms t h v b f this ds i ti , hih, u 
th fus  f his s t  ti u it, g v is t  .
Oth f ms t bsids ths   dy md, d th subjt itsf,
i f qu ty su y  im b b g u ds f  jtu . But if th
 jtu s  qu   bth sids, it i m i th t f vu b
t  tis  su sd t b     m  t, d dius  s  y
 s . A t  tis f    mm   f vu b. Yt 
t  tis f   t dius, s i y ths f th df siv
ki d, suh h t b gi g  y t ff siv  s, f m th
 tm  ti f th   mitis hih thy i fit. It is sumd t,
th t i th f m ti f t  tis, th h t f  h ty is t k
i t th u t, d th t bth   su dd th t ith f thm i
mm  hstiitis, but f m just d im  t t  uss.
Wh t is usu y s id f sitis t mi ti g ith th d th f th
tis, h s   ti ith this subjt, but  ts t iv t
sitis, th g iz  f hih b gs t th ivi  . Whth
it  s ight    g th f  i th   f Fid , th L ti s,
Tus s d S bi s, u  th d th f Rmuus, Tuus, A us, P isus,
S vius, t b d th s tiv t  tis m d ith ths ki gs, it
is im ssib f us  t did, ths t  tis bi g   g
xt t. O th s m i t, Justi m i t i s disussi , hth
ths st ts, hih h d b t ibut y t th Mds,   u 
h g f gv m t,  sd f m thi big ti s. F th thi g
t b  sid d is, hth th  v ti ith th Mds h d b
vu t y t f thi  . I dd th gum t f Bdi us  by
 m s b dmittd, hih is, th t t  tis m d ith ki gs xt d
t t thi suss s; F th big ti f  th is imitd
t th  s f him, h t ks it. It is t u th t th  th itsf
 bi d  y th  s h t ks it; yt th  g gm ts, hih it
 fi ms, i b bi di g u  his hi s. N is it t b t k f
st bishd m xim, th t  ths  th  y fu d ti ,  hih
t  tis st. Th  g gm t itsf is suffii ty bi di g, th  ths
bi g  y ddd t giv it th g  t s tity. I th C sushi
f Pubius  ius, th Rm   h d t k  th t must t
th mm d f th C su. U  his d th, h  s sudd by Luius
Qui tius Ci i tus. Sm f th t ibu s bg t quibb, t di g
th t th      sd f m thi big ti . U  hih Livy,
i his thi d bk, m ks, th t " t th t tim thy h d t dg  td
i t th dis g d f igius big ti s, hih m kd his g: 
did v y    himsf  titud i x  i i g  ths, d  s,
but thught th t h  s bu d t  f m t thi it  m i g."

X II. A t  ty m d ith ki g  ti us i f , v thugh


th s m ki g  his suss shud b b ishd f m th ki gdm
by bius subjts. F th ights f ki g, m g hih his
i s m y b k d, m i u im i d, du i g th tm  y ss
f his th  . A  s t hih th x ssi f Lu m y b id,
th t " d v ss its ights u d y h g f i umst s."
X III. O th th h d, y  , if it b ith th  s t f th
 fu sv ig , m d u  th i v d f his ki gdm,  u  th
usu  f f   's ights bf  his usu ti h s ivd
ubi s ti , i b dmd  i f ti f y f m t  ty
ith th st bishd uth itis f th t ki gdm  u t y. F ts
f usu ti  vy t immdi ty y ight by d th t f b 
ssssi . A d this is h t  s s id by Titus Qui tius t N bis, "W
m d  t  ty f i  d mity ith yu, but ith th just d
 fu ki g f th L d m i s." F i t  tis th h t s f
KING, SUCCESSOR, d th LIKE,  y ith thm id f ui
d  fu ight, hih must  ys  d th  us f USURPERS dius.
XIX. It  s qusti f m y disussd by Ch ysi us, hth
iz misd t him, h fi st  hd th g , ud b giv t
t, h  hd it t th s m tim,  t ith . But s  ds f
m it  thi gs f f vu b tu , it is th just  i i th t
thy shud divid th iz. Athugh Si i, C s d Jui td
m  ib y, i givi g th  ti  izs t  h f ths h h d
s dd th  s tgth .
Wh t h s b   dy s id u  th it   figu tiv
f th  ds, i i t ti g t  tis, i b suffii t.

i ti

XX. Th  is s th ki d f i t t ti , isi g f m


 jtu s, hih y x ty t th sig ifi ti f th  ds
 t i i g mis   g gm t; d th t is f tfd
ds i ti , ith xt di g  imiti g th m i g. But it is m 
diffiut t xt d th t imit th  t ti f x ssi s. F
s i  m tt s th  t f   ss ti  quisit is suffii t
t df t thi fft; s i  g gm ts, ths  jtu s, hih
xt d th big ti  t  diy t b dmittd. A d it is muh
m  diffiut h  th i th  s bv m ti d; h   ds
 m  xt siv but ss f mii  t ti . F h  it is
ski g  jtu  t xt d th  ds f mis: th  jtu 
th f , hih is t   t big ti , ught t b v y  t i .
N is it suffii t th t th  is sm smb  i th mtivs;
f th mtiv dud t  fi m big ti must b x ty th
s m s th t f th  s u d  sid ti . Nith is it  ys
  t g mtiv f xt di g big ti ; b us, s it
h s b   dy s id, mtivs, i tu ti g us t f m  g gm ts,
m y smtims b s yd by th i hih ft ts i d  d ty f
y just mtiv. T uth is th f  suh xt si , it must b
vid t th t th mtiv, dud s x m  d uth ity,  s
th s d fftu   us, hih i fu d th mis , d th t
h  sid d it i th s m xt siv vi; f th is it ud
h v b u just d judii . Th i ts i thi t  tiss
 ht i f th s m u, h , i s  ki g f th LETTER
d DESIGN, thy giv us   i v i b f m f x ssi g th s m
s tim t, but i thi sygisms  ts f  s i g thy i t ut
 y f i t ti g h t is t  itt , by h t is  itt . I th
s m m  t g   it s  y d us f vidi g f uds. N
if t tim, h th   s  th md f f tifyi g t s, th by

su u di g thm ith  s, it   sti u td th t  t i  


shud t b s su u dd, it is vid t th t t m y y th
m s f f tifi ti ud b b  h f th t t  ty.
As i th bv  s th i t t ti must b xt dd t gu d
g i st v y ssib v si , s i th fi g x m , th
hibiti t ssmb md f  t ss i us i uds 
ki ds f vi  d f , by hih u ivs d su ity m y b
 d g d.[48]
XXI. H  m y b svd th qusti t b fu d i Gius,
s ti g mmissi , hth it  b fufid by di g, t th
immdi t t qui d, but sm thi g quiv  t t it,  i m 
m  b fii  th i th f m s ibd. F this dvi ti f m
th  itt u m y b   d  fu, h  th s ibd f m is
t ss ti  t ds tt i i g th bjt,  h , by d ti g f m
it, th t bjt  b btt m ishd,  di g t th s
giv by S v , th t th  s qui d t b b i d su ity f
th , m y giv  d t thi d  s t y th t m y t th
 dit . But h  suh  titud f i t t ti is t vid ty
dmissib,  must dh  t h t Gius h s s id i th s m  ,
th t it ud b dissuti f  t usts, if th ty ti g i
mmissi  , i   ss, ft t his  dis ti , th th
bu d by his  itt i st uti s.
XXII. A i t t ti , st itd m  sy th th it 
sig ifi ti f th  ds  t i i g mis bsuty qui s,
m y is ith f m sm  igi  dft i th i t ti f
th mis ,  f m sm subsqu t m g y  ug t t suh
i t ti . Thus if it   vid t th t bsu dity ud f th
fufim t f mis, this ud b suffii t t v  igi 
dft i th i t ti , b us  m  b su sd t h v
dib ty i t dd di g bsu d t. O if th s d fftu 
 s , by hih th mis  s i fu d, shud h v  sd, th
big ti s ud b vid, th s g u d  hih it std bi g
  g i xist .
XXIII. I th xt  , h  y suffii t  s  vid ty b
ssig d f mis   g gm t, it is t th subst  f th
mis itsf, hih is t b  sid d, s muh s th  s f
hih th t mis  s giv .
XXI . Thi dy, th  t di g tis must  ys b su sd t h v
i  tm  ti th subjt, d thi g but th subjt, hv
xt siv sig ifi ti th  ds m y sm t b . This mthd f
i t t ti s is h dd by th i t ht i   it s, i
s  ki g f x ssi d dsig , d thy   it u d th h d f
ARIATIONS IN OPINION.
XX . I s  ki g f mtivs d  s s, it is   t bs v, th t
thy sm tims m h d thi gs,  sid d t  di g t thi
tu  xist , but  di g t thi m   squ s: i hih
 s it is by  m s ight t imit th  ds f t  ty t thi
it  m i g, but th utmst xt t f i t t ti is  b,
i  d t m i t i th s i it s  s th tt f suh t  tis.
Thus if it b sti u td th t  t  s  shi s sh  b b ught t
 t i  ,  ithi  t i dist , th hibiti xuds
ALL shi s  t  s f m bi g b ught thith , v u d th f i st
d mst h mss t s. F th u  t f th t  ty is t gu d
t  y g i st tu  mishif but v g i st mt d g .

It is i t ft dis utd, hth th  ti u  f thi gs i


thi s t st t is t it  diti ,  hih th fufim t f
 miss is fu dd. A siti th t  by  m s b m i t i d,
u ss it  s th t suh  ti u   s th s mtiv u 
hih th t  tis   m d. As i m y ts f hist y,   d f
mb ss d s h vi g i quishd thi missi s, d tu d hm,
u  fi di g th st t f thi gs s h gd th t th bjt f thi
mb ssis  s t  d.
XX I. Wh m g y iss  ug t t th g   i t ti f
t, it is x  i d by th i t m st s f ht i u d th h d
f x ssi d dsig . N this v i ti bt th m g y d
th i t ti is f tfd tu . F th i d its i t ti
 t b td ith f m tu   s  f m sm ut d
sig . I judgi g f th i by tu   s , A istt, h h s
t  td th subjt ith g  t u y, m ks th MIND th SEAT OF
JUDGMENT, d th WILL th SEAT OF EQUITY, hih h by dfi s t
b th  ti f th t, h i th  , by  s f its u iv s 
tu  is dftiv.[49]
A d u  this i i   is d t  tis ught t b i t td.
F s   ss ud ith b f s  x ssd by th
 giv , it is ss y t  v  f x ti g th  ss,
hih h himsf ud h v x td if h   s t. Yt this is
t t b d  u  ight g u ds; f th t ud b x isi g
 t u v th ts f th ; but is  y t b st bishd u 
th  st vid  d st  gst fs. Th  st f 
 h v f  t f quity, is h  fi g th it  m i g
f th  ds ud b u  fu, th t is,  ug t t tu  
divi   ts. F suh thi gs, s  i  b f big ti , 
ss iy t b x td. Qui tii th d , s ys, "sm thi gs
thugh m h dd ithi th m i g f    f m tu 
x ti ." Thus y  , h h s misd t tu s d, th t
h s b giv u t him, ught t t tu it i t th h ds f
m dm , s d g might sut f m it t himsf  t th i  t
 s s. Likis thi g, hih h s b d sitd ith y  , ught
t t b tu d t th h ds f th  s , h g v th dg, if
th     dm ds it. I v this s ys T i h ius t b justi,
hih ssig s t v y   his  ithut distu bi g th sti just
 ims f th . F th  s , it h s b   dy bs vd, is
fu dd  th i stituti f   ty, hih m ks it u just t t
tu thi g h th     is k  .
XX II. Th d f quity t i  i  ss, h  fi g th
it  m i g f th  ds i t b bsuty u  fu, yt, u 
f i stim ti , i b fu d t h d d i t b. It might
im s h dshi i  sist t ith th g    diti f hum
tu ,  , u  m i g th  s d m tt u d  sid ti
ith  h th , it might b fu d t v i  ith th g   i t t
f   , hih is t v t vi d t d ss i ju y. Thus, if
 s h s  t sum f m y,  y th thi g, f CERTAIN
tim, h m y justy qui  th  ym t  st ti f it WITHIN
th t tim, if h h s g  t d f it himsf: f ts f ki d ss 
f suh tu , th t     b su sd i t ti y t bi d
himsf th by t m ifst i  v i   judi. I th s m
m  sv ig , h h s misd ssist  t y, i, IN
EQUITY, b xusd f m fufii g his  g gm t, if h  ts  his
st  gth t hm t  d ff d g  hstiitis. Th g t s f
immu itis  ivigs i ORDINARY  ss,  t b  dd s

xm ti  x ti f m th s vis, hih th st t i PARTICULAR


m g is qui s.
F m th bv i st s it  s th t Ci  h s t sy  dd
his  siti , "th t suh miss, s  judii  t th
 s , t hm thy  giv ,  t t b k t,  , if thy 
m  judii  t th ty givi g, th b fii  t th  s
ivi g thm." F it shud t b ft t th mis t judg,
hth th fufim t f his  g gm t i b s vi b t th
ty ivi g it, x t i th  s f th m dm itd bv:
 is y TRI IAL  IMAGINARY judi th t might sut f m it,
suffii t t  s th big ti . But it ught t b suh, s,
 di g t th tu  f th t, ud ss iy b su sd t
f m x ti . Thus y  , h vi g misd his ssist  t
ighbu t  t i  id, ud t b bu d t his  g gm t,
if h   dt i d t hm by th sik ss f f th  hid.
A  s, hih Ci , i his fi st bk f ffis, h s ut i th
fi g t ms, "If y   h s u d t k t m g  us, d,
i th m tim, his s is t k i, it i b  b  h f duty
i him t t  f m h t h h s misd." Th  is ss g i
th fu th bk f S  , ON BENEFITS, t th s m fft. "I m
i b, _s ys h_, t b h gd ith vity, d b  h f f ith,
if, thi gs  ti ui g s thy  , h I m d mis, I d t
 f m my  g gm t. But if y h g h s t k  , it  vs
m t ib ty t  sid th m tt , d  ss th big ti .
I misd my su  t i u t, d it ft  ds  d th t th
 us ud b judii  t my  f th . I misd t t k
ju y, but ft  ds h d th t th  d  s i fstd ith bb s.
I misd my s   sm tiu  si , but  s v td
f m tt di g by th sik ss f s . I  ths  ss, t bi d m
t my  g gm t, th i umst s ught t m i x ty th s m s
thy   h I m d th mis."
XX III. It h s b s id th t th   th i di ti s f i t ti ,
hih qui  quit b x ti i f vu f th s t  s. A d
m g suh fs th   b thi g st  g th th s m  ds
usd i th  , t h  thy di ty  s th s t
m i g, f th t ud mu t t  t diti , but h  thy
 sh ith it, i g t sm u x td m g y, hih th G k
Rht ii s   i umst ti  dis g m t.[50]
XXIX. Wh th  is y id t  isi bt   t f
 itt dum t d th , Ci , i th s d bk f his
t  tis ON IN ENTION, h s giv us f didi g hih f thm ught
t h v th f  . Thugh his gm t is t v y u t,
yt it is by  m s t b gtd. T su y th f  this dft
f u y, th us m y b digstd i th fi g  d .
I th fi st  , PERMISSION ught t giv  y t
b us  missi  s t b g td  y i  s
 ighti bjti th its bi g x ti t
 t,  y   d  i f vu f  sit
C squ ty, s th  it t H  ius s ys, h t is
s ibd is m   fu th b   missi .

COMMAND:
th  is
sitiv
dt mi ti .
sitivy

I th xt   h t is qui d t b d  t FIXED tim shud


h v th f   t h t m y b d  t ANY tim. F m h  it
fs th t th PROHIBITIONS f t  ty  g  y f m  ight
th its INJUNCTIONS: b us th hibit y    ts t ALL
tims. But it is t s ith i ju ti s, u ss x ss tim f

thi fufim t is md,  thy  t i t it hibiti .


Am g ths t  tis, hih, i th bv md s ts,  qu ,
th f   is giv t suh s  m  tiu , d  h
  t th i t i qusti . F h  tiu s  st td,
th  s is   , d qui s f x ti s th g   us
d.[51]
Ths hibiti s hih h v  ty xd t thm,  f g  t
ight th ths, hih h v t; d ths ith g  t  ty 
 f d i f   t ths th t h v ss. Ths  g gm ts
s hih  fu dd u   uss f ss m g itud d im  t 
ught t giv  y t ths hih h v m   ud b d usfu bjts
i vi.
L sty it is t b bs vd th t subsqu t    t  ty  ys
  s f m .
F m h t h s b s id i f   m y b d  i f vu f s
t  tis  g m ts th t thy ught t b t k i th mst usu 
 t ti f th  ds, jti g  im id imit ti s d
x ti s, d suh s  t immdi ty ss y t th subjt.
C squ ty i  s, h  s t  ty   g gm t m y h 
t  sh ith th t  f d by th big ti f  th, th
f   ught t b giv t th f m .
XXX. It is ft skd hth i dubtfu i ts,  t t shud b
dmd  ft, bf  th  iti gs  m d d div d. W fi d
i A i 's hist y f th Mith id ti  , th t it  s u  this v y
g u d Mu  bjtd t th  v ti bt Sy d Mith id ts.
Hv it  s  i , u ss it h s b sttd t th  t y,
th t  iti g ught t b  sid d dmissib s vid  f
 t t, thugh t s t f th subst , th is it is usu y
x ssd, s i th t u ith N bis, hih  s t b tifid f m
th d y th t ms   WRITTEN d DELI ERED t him.
XXXI. W  by  m s dmit th u  id d by sm  it s,
h m i t i , th t   g gm ts f ki gs, d st ts, ught t b
x  i d, s f s it is ssib, u  th i i s f th Rm
 : u ss i dd it  b m d t  th t m g sm st ts, i
thi i t u s ith  h th , th CI IL LAW is ivd s th LAW
OF NATIONS; sum ti hih ught t t b h stiy g td.
XXXII. As t th dubt, hih Put h dv s i his Sym si s,
hth th  ds f th ty ff i g,  ths f th    ti g
 diti ught t b mst tt dd t, it  s th t h  th
ty  ti g th t ms is th mis , th tu  d subst 
f th t s ti i d  d u  his  ds, if thy  bsut
d u qu ifid. F if th ff is g dd s sitiv  g gm t
t d  t i ts, th th fu xt t f it i b s by th
ss y  titi f th s m  ds i th mis. But bf 
 diti is  td, it is vid t, s  s s i th h t 
miss, th t th mis is t bu d t its fufim t; f 
ight h s b  f d by th   ty,  qui d by th th .
Th f  th ff f  diti f this ki d ds t mu t t
 ft mis.

CHAPTER X II.
ON DAMAGES OCCASIONED BY INJURY AND THE OBLIGATION TO REPAIR THEM.
O D m gs  si d by i ju y, d th big ti t  i
thm--Ev y misdm  bigs th gg ss t  i th
ss--By ss is m t y thi g  ug t t ight st ity s
 d--Disti ti bt fit ss d st it ight--Lss 
dimi uti f ssssi i uds v y i ju y d  t th du
s  s th   ty itsf--Lss stim td f m th tim th t
g i  ss--I ju is d  by i i s--By ss is--I ju is
d  by th gt f i i   f s d y g ts--Wh t
 s s  im i td i ths h gs, d i h t dg s--Th
tis  g gd s b f   squ s--Th  s h 
hmiid  y th t f vi   sus--C s f bb y--O
thft--P miss bt i d th ugh f ud  u just f --I h t
 ss th  squ s  im ut b t th suff i g ty--H
f th   f ti s uth iss st ts t t k dv t g f
 my's f --H f sv ig s  s b f y ts f
vi  mmittd by thi subjts--Th  s h  subjts i
vi ti f thi sv ig 's  missi d  d s mmit ts
f i y u  id  ut  st ts--N   s b by th
  f tu  f th mishif d  by his  tt, his s vs,
 his shi --D m gs d f i ju is d  t  ut ti 
h u --Wh t ki d f  ti d.
I. It h s b s id bv th t th ights du t us is f m th 
su s, hih   t t, i ju y d  . It is u ss y h 
t d u  th tu  f  t ts hih h s b   dy s fuy
disussd. Th xt i t th f  t hih  d is i qui y
i t th ights suti g t us f m i ju is ivd. H  th m
f  im  misdm  is id t v y t f mmissi 
gt  ug t t th dutis qui d f  m , ith f m thi
mm tu   tiu  i g. F suh ff s tu y   t
big ti t  i th ss  i ju y th t h s b sust i d.
II. By ss is m t dimi uti f h t y   sssss, hth
it b ight d ivd t him u y f m th   f tu ,  f m
th dditi f hum uth ity, th t is f m th   f   ty,
 t t,  ivi  . Gd h s giv if t m , t t dst y,
but t s v it; ssig i g t him f this u s ight t th
f   jym t f  s  ib ty,  ut ti , d th  t u v
his  ti s. Th m  , i hih   ty d  t ts  vy
t y   ight t thi gs, s  s t th s vi f th ,
h s b sh i th di g t f this t  tis. I th s m
m  f m th   v y m d ivs his ui ight; b us th
  h s th s m, if t g  t  v  s s d thi gs th
i dividu s thmsvs h v. Thus by th i tm t f  ,  d
h s ight t dm d th st itst diig  f gu di , th st t
f m gist t, d t  y th st t, but v y subjt h s ight
t qui  it; h  th   x ssy d s  vid ty im is
th t  t i ts sh  b  f md. But th b  i umst  f
ti bi g fit    givs t th ight f POLITICAL justi t
dm d its  f m ,  ds th gt f it  tit th ty
suff i g t y g  d ss. B us it ds t f th t thi g
must b g t  s b us it is fit  b fii  f him. Thus,
s A istt s ys, th  is  tu  i justi, thugh it m y b
iib  t fus ssisti g th ith m y. T th s m u s
Ci , i his s h f C ius P us, s ys, th t givi g thi vts

t hm thy  s,  ithhdi g thm if thy thi k   , is th


t u h t isti f f   . H ft  ds, i dd,  ts
his ss ti by ddi g, th t thy m y h  t d h t thy ik,
th th h t thy ught t d, t ki g th  d OUGHT t sig ify
 ity.
III. A  uti is ss y h , i  d t vid  fu di g
thi gs f diff  t ki d.
N ths h   t ustd ith th  f i ti g m gist ts,
 bu d, f m mtivs f ubi gd, t hus th   st  s s,
d this is h t th st t h s RIGHT t qui  f thm. Thy 
bu d th f  t  i y ss hih th st t m y sust i by th
hi f im    s s. S y subjt h is t disqu ifid,
thugh h h s  ui ight t ffi, h s qu  ight ith
th s t  d vu t bt i it. I th x is f hih ight,
if, h is bst utd by vi   f ud, h m y v d m gs,
t t th fu v u f th ffi hih h sught, but  di g
t th b b ss hih h m y  s by b su sd t h v
suff d. Simi hih is th ight f g t, h tst t h s
b v td by f ud  vi  f m m ki g bqust. F th
 biity f ivi g g y is ki d f ight, hih t bst ut
tst t f m  f i g, is u dubtdy i ju y.
I . Th ss  dimi uti f y  's ssssi s is t  fi d
t i ju is d  t th SUBSTANCE   f th   ty, but i uds
v y thi g ffti g th du f it, hth it h s b g th d
 t. If th   himsf h d  d it, th ss y x   f
 i g,  f im vi g th   ty t is du, must s b
t k i t th u t f his ss, d f m t f th d m gs. F
it is st bishd m xim th t    ught t d iv b fit f m th
ss f th .

. D m gs  t b m utd t, t  di g t y ACTUAL g i ,


but  di g t th REASONABLE x t ti f it. Whih i th  s f
g i g   m y b judgd f by th g   bu d   s ity f
th t tiu s s .
I. But bsids th  s immdi ty di g i ju y, th s m y b
bu d s t  i th sss f th suff i g ty. F s  s
m y b guity f ff s by gig  s  s by th mmissi
f  t i ts, s thy m y b d  s by ss is, s  s
i i s. N i i  i y  im  ff  is  , th t u gs
t th mmissi f it, th t givs  ssib  s t, th t ids,
bts,  i y sh  is t  i th  t ti f it.
II. A ss y is   h givs his u s, b ti , d
ss t. F h  is th diff  , s ys Ci , i his s d
Phii i, bt dvisi g t, d vi g f it?
III. d IX. Th big ti t  i th sss suff d by
gig  m y b  sid d i t-fd ight. Fi sty, h y
 s , hs ui ffi it is, gts ith t f bid th
mmissi f i ju y,  t ssist th i ju d ty. A d s dy,
h th  s , h ught t d it, ith ds t dissu d f m th
mmissi f ff ,  sss v i si , h t h is bu d
t m k k  . I ths  ss, h it is s id th t  s OUGHT t
d,  t f b di g  t i ti s, it is m t th t h is bu d
by th t ight, hih st it justi qui s, hth th t duty iss
f m  ,  f m th  ity, hih th  s b s. F thugh it

m y b   g t mit y duty  ji d by th   f h ity, th 


 b  d ss f suh missi , but v y LEGAL REMEDY must b
fu dd  sm PECULIAR RIGHT.
X. It is t b bs vd s th t  th tis bv-m ti d, if
thy h v b th    si f ss t y  ,  h v bttd
th  s di g him th i ju y,  s f im i td i th guit,
s t b i b t fu d m gs,  , t  st,   ti by t th
t thy h v t k . F it m y d ft ds h  th t  im
ud h v b mmittd by ff d , v ithut th id f
th i i s  ss is. I hih  s h   is s b.
Yt ith i i s  ss is i b d t  d s
xus, th t if thy h d t idd  bttd, th s ud h v b
fu d t ssist d  u g th  t t i th mmissi f th
t. Es i y, if it  s th t ithut suh ssist  f m thm
th  im ud v h v b mmittd. F ths th im gi y
btt s ud thmsvs h v b s b, if thy h d giv thi
dvi  id.
XI. I th s  f im i ti th fi st dg  is t ths, h
by thi uth ity,  th m s h v m d  u gd y  
t th mmissi f ff . O f iu  f ths th  t t
himsf h s th g  tst sh  f guit, d xt t him, th s h
h v b   d. I sh t,  i dividu s, hs h ds h v b
 g gd i th  t ti ,  guity, thugh thy h v t b th
s uth s f th t.
XII. N h h is s b f t, is s b f 
th i ju ius  squ s tt di g it. S  i   f his
 t v sis, t  ti g u  this i t, uts th  s f  -t 
st  fi , by hih hus  s bu t, d h subji s th fi g
m k, " thugh th mishif  t fu th th  s i t dd, yt
th  s di g it  s s b f th WHOLE, s muh, s if
h h d d  it by dsig . F y   th t uts his df  u 
th  f UNINTENTIONAL INJURY, ught t h v bst i d f m 
mishif h tsv ." Wh A i ths, ki g f C di h d  t y
bst utd th h  f th iv M s, hih dish gs itsf
i t th Eu h ts, th s f  t s bu sti g th mu ds, th
Eu h ts s t suh hight, s t  si xssiv d m g t th
C di s, th G  ti s, d th Ph ygi s. U  hih th disi
f th m tt bi g ft t th Rm s, thy im sd u  him fi  f
th  hu d d t  ts.
XIII. XI . X . d X I. But t d ith th i st s f i ju y,
hih  d th tis mmitti g thm i b t  i th sss
 si d th by. Th  s f xus b hmiid m y b gd s
 , h i th  s , h h s mmittd it, is bu d t m k v y
 s b m  s ti t th f miy, d  d ts, d  ti s
f th d sd ty, i   ti t th ss, hih thy h v
sust i d f m his d th. As Mih  th E hsi i th fifth bk
f A istt's Ethis h s bs vd, th t th m  s ti m d t th
 ts, th if  hid  f th d sd is  y th s m s if
it ud b m d t himsf. Th  it is h  s  ki g f xus b
hmiid, th t is, h th  s by hm it is mmittd, ds it t
i th immdi t dish g f sm g  duty. Wh f  if y  , i
df di g himsf, h s kid th f m hm h might h v s d,
thugh h m y h v vi td th   f h ity, yt h h s t i u d
th  ty f  it  ff .
U  th s m

i i  th  s , h h s m imd  muti td

th , i b bu d t m k him m  s ti ,   ti by t


th m s f subsist  hih h is d ivd f by suh   mity.
A thif  bb is bu d t st  h t h s b t k , d t
tu it ith  th im vm ts it m y h v qui d,  t m k
 ti t th   , i   ti t th g i , hih th iv ti
h s v td him f m m ki g,  t th tu  v u f th thi g
itsf. If th thi g h s b i t iv by  sumd, th stim ti f
d m gs must b m d,  di g t mdium bt th highst d th
st v u.
T this  ss f ff s d du  ti m y b f d  f uds
u  th ubi v u,  u just disi s,   f s vid ,
by hih st ts  i dividu s  i ju d.
X II. C t ts, 
 tit th i ju d
f ud  m usi ,
f m tu    d

miss bt i d by f ud, vi   u du f


ty t fu stituti . F  ft f dm f m
i  u d i gs, is RIGHT hih  d iv
ib ty.

With th s m  ss f ff d s  m y k  m i ffi, h 


u ii g t dish g thi duty ithut b ib.
X III. Wh  s h s HIMSELF b th  si f th f ud 
vi , th  squ s  im ut b t his   dut. F
h  vu t y t givs is t IN OLUNTARY  squ s, ths
 squ s,  sid d i m  ight,  t b dmd th f uits
g i g ut f th x is f f  i.
XIX. But t  t th di g  ss d gum ts ith ubi d
ti    s, it is ss y t bs v, th t it is m xim
i t dud d st bishd by th  s t f  ti s th t th  s
hih  d d d  dutd by th uth ity f th sv ig
  bth sids     titd t th d mi ti f just
 s: A d th  my h s  ight t dm d stituti f h t th
suti f suh  s h s dud him t b d th ugh f . It
is u  this i i   dmit th disti ti hih Ci  h s m d
bt  my, t ds hm th  s t d   f ti s big us
t bs v m y mm ights, d bt bb s d i ts. F y
thi g giv u t i ts  bb s, th ugh f , is   fu iz:
but it m y b v d, u ss sm  th f  u i ti h s b
t k . This is t th  s ith th  tu s m d i just  .
Th justifi ti hih Pybius m ks f th C th gi i s, i th
s d Pu i  ,  is ith it   f quity, thugh it
is t qusti immdi ty fu dd u  th   f ti s. Thy
gd s  s f thi m ki g th t  , th t, h thy  
 g gd i qui g muti y f thi  m  is, th Rm s h d
d d  , sizd u  S di i , d vid  t ibuti s f m y.
XX. Sv ig P i s d St ts  s b f thi gt, if
thy us t  th   m s ithi thi  f su ssi g
i y d bb y. A d  this u t th Sy i s   f m y
 dm d by th Am hity i u i.
Wh sm f th st ts f th u itd P vi s h d,  tiu
 si , g td mmissi s t m y iv t s, d ths dv tu  s
u d d f i ds d  mis ik, d b m g   i ts, it
 s subjt f g  t disussi , hth ths st ts   justifid
i h vi g m d us f th s vis f ds  t d b d d m ,

ithut x ti g suffii t su ity f thi gd  dut. At th t


tim, it  s m i t i d th t thy   bu d t thi g m , th t
u ish  div u th ff d s, if thy ud b fu d, d t s
justi d  by f fitu  f thi   ty. F thy thmsvs
h d ith uth isd ths UNJUST ts f u d ,  sh d i
th f uits f thm. Thy h d v st ity hibitd th iv t s
f m msti g th subjts f f i dy  s. As t thi t ki g
su itis, th   s  big ti t d th t: f thy h d ight
t g t GENERAL mmissi t  thi subjts t siz u 
th  my's   ty: thi g, hih h d f qu ty b d . N
ud th t tiu mmissi b  sid d s t f i justi
g i st ith is  ut s; si  v ithut suh  missi
i dividu s might h v fittd d s t ut md vsss. Th st ts
ud t f s,   squ ty vid g i st th mis dut f
ths dv tu  s, h h d xdd thi mmissi ; d if ti s
  t di  usi g th ssist  f ikd m ,  my ud v
b td. A d it h s b  fi md by th uth ity bth f F 
d E g d, th t sv ig  t s f v y i ju y d  t
th subjts f f i dy  by his v   miit y f s;
s i y if it is  i th t thy td i vi ti f his  d s.
But i h t  ss y   is  sd f m bi g s b f h t
is d  by his sub di t g ts, is i t t s muh f th  
f ti s, s f th mu ii   , d tiu y th m itim
d f  h u t y t did. I  s simi t th t udd t,
disi f th su m u t f judi tu   s m d g i st th
Pm i s t  tu is t  st bf .
XXI. It is th CI IL   t, hih m ks   s b f th
mishif  d m g d  by his s v,  by his  tt. F i th y
f tu  justi h is t t b m. S ith is th  s , hs
shi , by u i g fu f th , h s d m gd it, thugh by th  s
f m y ti s, d f u s m g th st, th d m gs  usu y
dividd bt bth tis, i g t th diffiuty f didi g, h
 s i f ut.
XXII. D m gs  d t f y i ju y d  t u h u 
 ut ti , by ss ut, s d ,  v ius th  ys. I hih, s
 s i thft d th  ims th tu  f th ff  is t b
stim td by its  squ s. F th  ti i suh  ss s s
t th  ty im sd f  ims. A d th t  ti is m d sm
tims by k dgi g th i ju d ty's i  ; d sm tims by
m  s ti i m y, hih is st d d v u f  thi gs.

CHAPTER X III.
ON THE RIGHT OF EMBASSIES.
Right f Emb ssis, big ti isi g ut f th   f
ti s--Wh  it bt i s--Whth Emb ssis   ys t b
dmittd--Dismiss   u ishm t f mb ss d s  g gi g i
ts t t b  sid d s h sh m su , but t f
sf-df --A  t hm  mb ss d h s b s t,
t bu d t s t th ights f mb ssy--A  my t hm
mb ss d is s t bu d t s t his ights--Th   f
t i ti   f i t  tm t f mb ss d --This ight
f tti xt ds t mb ss d 's suit, if h thi ks  

t  im it--T his mv b   ty--Ex m s f big ti


ithut th ight f m usi --Im  t  f th s  d h t
f mb ss d s.
I. Hith t th u suit f u i qui is h s d us t x mi  ths
ights t hih    titd by th   f tu ,  si y
tuhi g u  ths i ts h  its uth ity is f th  fi md by
th vu t y   f ti s. A d th t vu t y   s it is  d,
givs is t  t i big ti s, hih  m i f u disussi ,
d i hih th ights f mb ss d s f m  di g f tu . Amst
v y g f hist y ff s sm m k  th i vi b ights f
mb ss d s, d th su ity f thi  s s, su ity s ti d
by v y  us d  t f hum d v d  . N is it
su isi g th t th  s s f ths shud b dmd i vi b,
h f m th i i  i k i th t h i , by hih sv ig s d
i d  d t st ts m i t i thi i t u s ith  h th . T ff
vi  t thm is t  y t f INJUSTICE, but, s Phii i his
tt t th Ath i s s ys, is k dgd by  t b t f
IMPIETY.
II. But h tv ights th   f ti s m y  f u  mb ss d s,
it is ss y i th fi st   t bs v, th t     titd
t thm, but ths, h  s t by th sv ig s f i d  d t
u t is t  h th . F th ivigs f vi i ,  mu ii 
d utis s t t th st ts g   f y u t y  gu td by th
tiu  s f th t u t y d t by th   f ti s.[52]
Thus  fi d, i th fi st bk f Livy, mb ss d styi g himsf
ubi mss g f th Rm P ; d, i th sixth bk f th
s m hist i ,  h v d ti f th s t,  fi i g th
ights f mb ssis t th i t u s bt f ig  s, d
xudi g itiz s f m th s m ivigs i thi t s ti s ith
 h th . U  this t i, th uth ity f Ci  m y b itd, h,
i  d t sh th im  ity f s di g mb ss d s t A t y,
bs vs, th t thy  t d i g ith H ib   f ig  my,
but ith   f thi  itiz s.
N i gi h s s  y x  i d WHO  t b k d FOREIGNERS,
th t  d t h v u s t  y s, t u d st d h t is s
 x ssd by th t, h s ys, "I k u  v y u t y s
f ig , hih  s t th s y f u s t ." A . vii. 369.
A st t th f   td ith th thugh by u qu  t  ty,
if it t i its i d  d , i h v ight f s di g mb ssis.
Th P i s f G m y, h   i sm s ts subjt t th
Em   , s thi h d, bi g Sv ig P i s ssssd th ight f
s di g mb ss d s t f ig st ts. But Ki gs h h v b  ti y
subdud i just  , d st i d f thi dmi i s, h v, ith 
thi th sv ig ights, st th t f s di g mb ss d s. It  s
f this  s , th t P uus Amiius m d is  s f th mss g s
s t t him by P sus, hm h h d  qu d.
I ivi  s ssity smtims givs bi th t  ights i
vi ti f f m us. Wh f i st , ki gdm is s qu y
dividd bt t tis, th t it is m tt f dubt hih f
thm  stituts th ti ,  i dis utd sussi bt t
 im ts f th   ; th ki gdm m y b  sid d s f mi g t
ti s t th s m tim. T itus,  sid i g  h ty i suh
 ss, s  titd t th ights f th   f ti s,  dm s th

F vi s f h vi g, i th g f ivi diss si s, vi td, i


th  s s f th iti mb ss d s, ths ivigs, hih
 s td v m g FOREIGN ti s. Pi ts d bb s, s
thy f m  ivi mmu ity,  t st y  im t tti
d su  t u  th   f ti s. Tib ius, s   i f md by
T itus, h T f i s s t mb ss d s t him, s u d t th id
f t  ti g ith bb , s ith  fu  my. Yt smtims
dg f ubi f ith, d th ights f mb ssy  d t m f
th t ds i ti , hih  s d  by Pm y t th fugitivs f m th
Py   f st.
III. Th   t i ts u  hih th ivigs g td by th  
f ti s t mb ss d s tu . I th fi st  , thy h v ight
t b dmittd i t y u t y, d s dy t b ttd f m 
 s  vi . Rs ti g th f m f ths i ts, th  is
ss g i th v th bk f Livy, h  H , C th gi i
s t i vighs g i st H ib  f t h vi g dmittd i t his  m
mb ss d s, h  m f m th is, d  thi bh f; s h h d
th by v tu d th   f ti s.
But this u by  m s m s ti s t giv UNQUALIFIED
dmissi t  mb ss d s. F th t is h t th   f ti s
 v i t d: it  y hibits th fus  f dmissi ithut
suffii t g u ds.
Th   v ius mtivs hih m y ff d suffii t  f
suh fus . Th  m y b bjti t th  h ff s t
t  t, t th  s s t u  th mb ssy,   h s t th bjt
f his missi . Thus t th suggsti f P is, Msi us, th
L d m i mb ss d ,  s s t ut f th t it is f Ath s;
b us h  m f m  my, h h d  ifi i t ti s. Th
s t f Rm s id, th t thy ud iv  mb ssy f m C th g,
s  g s th C th gi i my m i d i It y. Th Ah  s
fusd t dmit th mb ss d s f P sus, h   s ty
MEDITATING  g i st th Rm s. U  th s m g u ds Justi i
jtd mb ssy f m Tti s, d th s m  s d  by th Gths
t U bi  t mss g s f m Bis ius. Pybius  ts i th thi d
bk f his hist y, th t v y  d v  y th mb ss d s f th
Cy th si s, s thy   s i f mus  .
W h v i st  f th s d ki d, h  th bjti is m d t
th PERSON s t  mb ssy, i th  s f Thd , h  s  d
th thist, d hm Lysim hus fusd t iv i th h t
f mb ss d s t f m Ptmy, d th s m thi g h s f qu ty
h  d t th s, g i st hm ui mtivs f v si h v
xistd.
I th thi d  , th  m y b suffii t g u ds f fusi g t
dmit mb ss d , if th bjt f his missi b f sus iius
ki d, s  s th  s ith th t f Rh bsh kh th Assy i , hm
Hzki h h d  s t sus t f mi g ith dsig t xit his
  t bi . O th fus  m y b justifid, h  it is t
 sist t ith th dig ity  i umst s f    t  t i t
y t  ty,  i t u s ith th . F this  s th Rm s
s t d ti t th Ati s, th t thy shud s d  mb ssy,
but ith th  missi f thi g  , d P sus  s t d
t s d   t Rm, but t Lii ius. Jugu th 's mb ss d s t, s
S ust i f ms us,    d d t  v It y ithi th s  f
t d ys, u ss thy  m ith ff s f m th t i  t su  d
himsf, d his ki gdm.

Th  m y ft b th bst  s s f sv ig 's fusi g t 


f RESIDENT mi ist t his u t; ti, s g   i th
s t d y, but tt y u k  t th gs f tiquity.
I . As t th  s  xm ti f mb ss d s f m st,
 st i t,  vi  f y ki d, it is subjt f sm diffiuty
t dt mi , i g t th v itis f  i i  t t i d by th
mst b td  it s  th qusti . I th  sid ti f this
m tt , u tt ti is di td i th fi st   t th  s 
ivigs d xm ti s f mb ss d s thmsvs, d xt t ths
f thi tt d ts, d thi gds. With s t t thi  s s,
sm  it s  f  i i , th t it is ONLY f m UNJUST IOLENCE,
d ILLEGAL CONSTRAINT, th t th   f ti s tts mb ss d s.
F thy im gi  th t thi ivigs  t b x  i d  di g
t th mm i i s f th   f tu . Oth s g i su s
th t mb ss d s  t m b t u ishm t f ALL ff s, but
 y f suh s mu t t t sg ssi f th   f NATIONS, th
i i s f hih  f suh g   xt t, s t i ud th
  f tu :  squ ty th   b  ff s f hih
mb ss d is t u ish b, x t f ths ti s th t  m d
suh by th sitiv us f MUNICIPAL  CI IL LAW.
Oth s g i  sid ths ubi  s t tivs f st ts d
  d h ds, s  y i b t u ishm t f ff s ffti g
th dig ity  gv m ts f th sv ig s t hm thy  s t.
Whi,  th th h d, th   sm  it s h m i t i th t f
y st t t u ish mb ss d f ANY CRIME WHATE ER is highy
d g us t th i d  d  f f ig  s; but th t  ff d s
f th t ds i ti ught t b ft t th  s f thi s tiv
u t is, t b u ishd  t  di g t thi ds ts, u  du
m  i t bi g m d t th sv ig s by hm thy   s t.
Sm f  it s, i dd, i  yi g d th u t b bs vd
i suh  ss, h v didd th t   shud b m d t th
i d  d t d disi t std  s, hih m y b  sid d th
s m tt f DISCRETION, th f ABSOLUTE RIGHT. But th dv ts
f  ths v ius systms h v m t  dfi it  usi i
su  t f thi f vu it  i i s. F this is ight hih  t,
ik th   f tu , b st bishd u  u h g b us, but
d ivs  its ffi y f m th i f ti s. N ti s if thy
h d thught   ,  t i y might h v  id d ABSOLUTE us f
su ity f mb ss d s,  u d thm ith  t i x ti s.
Th gum t is su  td    sid by th u g t ssity f
hi us  ims bi g u ishd, d  th th , th utmst  titud
f xm ti is f vu d  u t f th utiity f mb ssis, th
f iity f s di g hih ught t b  u gd by v y ssib
ivig, d su ity. T stt th i t th f ,  must
 sid h f ti s h v g d m g thmsvs u  ths
i i s; th fs f hih   y b fu d i th vid  f
hist y.
M y i st s m y b dud i f vu f bth  i i s. A d i
 ss ik this, th  i i s f ths b td f thi judgm t
d k dg i b f  sm  ight, but i sm  ss  must
st u   jtu s. O this subjt th t mi  t hist i s,
Livy d S ust, m y b qutd s uth itis, th f m f hm,
i m ti i g th mb ss d s f T qui , h h d b guity f
fm ti g t  s b  s i is t Rm, s ys, "th t thugh thy
ds vd t b t  td s  mis f thi guity  dut, yt th

ivig, hih thy d ivd f m th   f ti s, v id v


v y th  sid ti ." H   s th t th ights f mb ss d s
ud t b ud v by th mst  imi  ts f hstiity.
But th bs v ti m d by S ust,  ts th t ths h m
i th t i f mb ssy th t mb ss d s thmsvs. Th   f
ti s su y th i t d y th s m ivig t i i ,
hih it vid ty s t ths h f m but sub di t t i
th ubi missi . Th hist i s ys, th t "Bmi  s ig d
d t id th u  i i s f quity d tu  justi, th
i  f mity t th   f ti s, s h b gd t th t i f
Jugu th ; h h d m t Rm u d th dg f ubi f ith."
Equity d tu  justi qui  u ishm t t b i fitd  ALL
ff d s, h  s th   f ti s m ks x ti i f vu f
mb ss d s, d ths h h v th ubi f ith f thi tti .
Wh f  t t y  u ish mb ss d s, is  t y t th   f
ti s, hih hibits m y thi gs, th t   mittd by th   f
tu .
Th   f ti s, thus dvi ti g f m th   f tu , givs is
t ths i t t ti s d  jtu s, hih  i ith th
i i s f justi g  t xt si f ivigs th th  
f tu  st ity s. F if mb ss d s   ttd g i st
thi g m  th vi  d ig   st i t, thi ivigs
ud  f  xt  di y dv t g. Bsids, th su ity f
mb ss d s is m tt f muh g  t mm t t th ubi f 
th th u ishm t f ff s. B us  ti f th mis dut
f mb ss d m y b kd f f m th sv ig , by hm h is
s t, u ss th t sv ig huss t x s himsf t hstiitis
by vi g f his  ims. A bjti t suh ivigs is m d
by sm, h ss t, th t it is btt f    s t b u ishd
th f h ti s t b i vvd i  . But if sv ig h s
SECRETLY giv his s ti t th mis dut f his mb ss d , his
APPARENT i t ti s t u ish th t mb ss d i t d iv th
i ju d  f th ight t sk d ss by mm i g hstiitis.
O th th h d, th ight f mb ss d s ud st u  v y
si  y fu d ti if thy   u t b, f thi ti s, t y
  but thi  sv ig s. F s th i t sts f  s s di g,
d f ths ivi g mb ss d s,  i g   diff  t, d sm
tims v  sit, if ubi mi ist   bigd t  sut th
i i ti s f bth, th  ud b  t f his  dut, t hih
thy might t im ut sm dg  f b m. Bsids thugh sm
i ts  s  , s t dmit f  dubt, yt u iv s  d g is
suffii t t st bish th quity d utiity f g    . F
this  s it is tu  t su s, th t ti s h v g d, i
th  s f mb ss d s, t dis  s ith th t bdi , hih v y
 , by g   ustm, s t th  s f th t f ig u t y, i
hih, t y tim, h sids. Th h t , hih thy sust i , is
t th t f  di y i dividu s, but thy  s t th M jsty f th
Sv ig s, by hm thy  s t, hs  is imitd t   
ju isditi . As Ci , i his ighth Phii i, s  ki g f  t i
mb ss d , s ys, "h  id ith him th M jsty f th S t,
d th uth ity f th St t." F m h  it is  udd, th t
mb ss d is t bu d by th  s f th u t y, h  h sids.
If h mmit ff  f t ivi  tu , it m y ith b suff d
t ss u tid,  h m y b  d d t  v th u t y.
Pybius  ts i st  f mb ss d , h  s  d d t  v
Rm, f h vi g ssistd sm hst gs i m ki g thi s . H 

it is bvius hy th Rm s i fitd     u ishm t u 


mb ss d f T  tum, b us th T  ti s   t th t tim thi
 subjts, by ight f  qust.
If  im is f t ius tu , ffti g th gv m t,
mb ss d m y b s t hm, d his sv ig qui d t u ish, 
div him u , s   d f th G us h vi g d  t th F bi s.
But, s  h v bf   si y bs vd,  hum  s  f md
u  suh i i s, s, i  ss f xt m ssity, t dmit
f quit b  x ti s, m g hih th ivigs f mb ss d s
m y b k d. But ths xt m  ss f ssity m y,  di g
t th   f ti s, s i b s h  ft , i disussi g th
ffts f just d sm  , v t u ishm t i CERTAIN  ss,
thugh t i ALL. F it is t th t f u ishm t itsf, hih is
bjtd t, ith i s t t tim,  m  , but th xm ti is
  td t v t th g  t ubi vi, hih might is f m th
u ishm t f th ff d . T bvi t th f  y immi  t d g ,
if  th   mthd  b dvisd, mb ss d s m y b dt i d
d i t g td. Thus th Rm C sus sizd th mb ss d s f
T qui , viusy t ki g   t su  thi  s, t v t
th vid , hih thy might ff d, f m bi g dst yd. But if
mb ss d xits d h ds y vi t i su ti , h m y b
kid, t by  y f u ishm t, but u  th tu  i i  f
sf-df . Th G us th f  might h v ut t d th th F bii,
hm Livy  s vi t s f th   f tu .

. M ti h s bf  b f qu ty m d f th xm ti s, by hih


mb ss d s  ttd f m   s   st i t d vi ,
d it is u d std th t   s  bu d by t it g m t,
s it  , f m th tim f dmitti g mb ss d , t s t ths
xm ti s. It MAY d i dd smtims DOES h  , th t   
givs ti t th th t  mb ss d i b ivd, d if
  is s t, th t h i b t  td s  my. A d ti t
this fft  s m d by th Rm s t th Ati s, d,  th
 si , th j ti mb ss d s    d d t  v Rm, ith
m , if thy fusd t m y, f bi g t  td i th s m m 
s th Rm mb ss d s h d b t  td by thi ki g Tum ius, h
h d ut thm t d th. Th S m its t f b d th Rm s t g t y
u i i S m ium, u d i f f fiti g thi ivs,  , t  st,
thi  s  s fty.
Th bv   ds t bi d  , th ugh hs t it is
mb ss d s ss ithut  v. F , if thy  gi g t  my
f th t  ,  tu i g f m him,    g gd i y hsti
dsig , thy m y  fuy b t  td s  mis; hih  s d  by th
Ath i s i th  s f th mss g s ssi g bt th P si s
d S t s, d by th Iy i s i th t f ths, h  id  th
i t u s bt th Essi s d Rm s. X  h m i t i s th t
i  t i  ss thy m y b m d is  s, s Ax d m d ths,
h   s t f m Thbs d L d m t D ius, d th Rm s
ths, hm Phii s t t H ib , d L tius ths f th si s.
F t t  t mb ss d s ith y dg  f igu , EXCEPT UPON THOSE
SUFFICIENT GROUNDS, ud b dmd t  y b  h f th   f
ti s, but  s  ff  g i st th sv ig s, t hm thy
 gi g,  by hm thy  s t. Justi i f ms us, th t Phii
II, ki g f M d , s t mb ss d t H ib  ith  d ti s,
m  i g him t m k i , d th t, h this mb ss d
 s sizd d  id bf  th S t f Rm, thy dismissd him
ithut f th mst ti , t ut f s t t th ki g, but t
v t dubtfu  my f m bmi g didd  .

I. But if mb ssy, dmittd by ENEMY is  titd t  th


ivigs f th   f ti s, muh m  s is  , dmittd by
 UNFRIENDLY, but t  g gd i ACTUAL HOSTILITIES. Did us
Siuus s ys, th t mss g ith f g f t u  ims  th
su ity f  , v i th midst f  . Th L d m i s, h
h d mu d d th h ds f th P si s,   s id by th t t t
h v  fu dd v y disti ti bt ight d   g, s it is
k dgd by  ti s. F g   it s  y it d s u,
th t t ff  s  vi  t mb ss d s, hs h t s 
dmd s  d, is dfi  f th   f ti s, d T itus  s
th ivigs    disussi g, th ights f mb ssy, s tifid
by th   f ti s.
Ci , i his fi st s h g i st  s, sks, if mb ss d s ught
t t b s f i th midst f  my's u t y,  v i his  m ?
I um b th i st s f this ki d might b dud f m th
highst uth itis bth i t d md . A d it is ith  s th t
suh ivigs  v d, f i th midst f  m y i umst s
is, hih  t b didd but th ugh mb ss d s, d it is
th  y h  th ugh hih  s s f    b m d, d
 fi md.

II. It is f qu ty m d subjt f i qui y, hth th mb ss d


f sv ig , h h s x isd y t f  uty  igu , i b
subjt t th   f t i ti . Hist y fu ishs m y i st s,
i hih u ishm t h s b i fitd i suh m  . But hist y
is smtims thi g m  th  t gu f ti s m kd ith
i justi, d u gv b fu y. Wh  s th   f ti s, by its
ivigs, dsig s t su  th dig ity t  y f sv ig s
thmsvs, but s th t f th mb ss d s hm thy m y.
C squ ty th  is t it g m t u d std t b m d ith
th  tt , th t HE sh  b xm t, t  y f m y i t  tm t,
th t m y fft th i i , but f m suh ikis, s m y fft
himsf. S th t it  s m g imus s ,  f m b t th  
f ti s, hih Si i m d, h th Rm mb ss d s h d b
i-t  td by th C th gi i s, d th C th gi i mb ss d s  
b ught bf  him, u  his bi g skd, i h t m  thy shud
b t  td, h  id, t s th Rm mb ss d s h d b by th
C th gi i s. Livy dds, th t h s id, h ud d thi g u bmi g
th h t d  s f th Rm  .  ius M ximus ssig s
th s m  gu g t th C sus,   si simi , but i t
this. I dd ssi g H , thy s id, "th dg f f ith, hih u
st t h s giv ,  ss yu f m y suh f ." F v t th t
tim, C ius Asi , i vi ti f his ubi h t , h d b
std d th  i t is by th C th gi i s.
III. Th t i t f mb ss d , d  th  t b gi g t
him   titd t ui ki d f tti . Whih g v is t
th ss g i th i t s g f th H ds, "O Sv ig , d yu
m k m y  mss g f m th Rm itiz s? d d yu  f
th s m ivigs  my t i d v y thi g, hih b gs t m?"
A d by th Jui  , i ju y ffti g t  y mb ss d s, but
v thi tt d ts, is  u d t b vi ti f ubi ight.
But ths ivigs f tt d ts   y g td s f s
mb ss d himsf m y thi k   : s th t if y f thm h s
mmittd ff , h must b qui d t div u th ff d t
u ishm t. H must b REQUIRED t giv him u . B us  vi ,
i t ki g ff d f th t ds i ti must b usd. Wh th

Ah  s h d std sm L d m i s h    g ith th


Rm mb ss d s, th Rm s isd g  t ut y g i st th t,
s vi ti f th   f ti s. S ust's  i i i th  s f
Bmi h s   dy b f d t.
But shud th mb ss d fus t giv u suh ff d , d ss must
b sught i th s m m  , s ud b d  ith s t t th
mb ss d himsf. As t his uth ity v his hushd, d th
syum, hih h m y ff d i his hus t fugitivs, ths d  d
u  th g m t m d ith th  , t hm h is s t, d d t
m ithi th disi f th   f ti s.
IX. Nith  th mv b   ty f mb ss d ,  y thi g,
hih is k d  s   d g, b sizd f th dish g f
dbt, ith by ss f  ,  v by y  uth ity. F , t
giv him fu su ity, t  y his  s but v y thi g b gi g
t him must b ttd f m  m usi . If mb ss d th
h s  t td dbt, d, s is usu , h s  ssssi i th
u t y, h  h sids: fi st f , u tus i ti must b
m d t himsf, d, i  s f his fus , t his sv ig . But
if bth ths mthds f d ss f i, u s must b h d t ths
m s f v y, hih  usd g i st dbt s sidi g ut f th
ju isditi f th u t y.
X. N is th , s sm thi k, y  s t f , th t if suh
xt siv ivigs   st bishd,    ud b fu d ii g
t  t i t y  t t ith mb ss d ,  t fu ish him ith
ss y tis. F th s m u i hd gd i th  s f
mb ss d s, s i th t f Ki gs. As sv ig s, h f th bst
f  s s,   d bv th  h f g  m usi , fi d 
diffiuty i bt i i g  dit.
XI. Th im  t  f suh xm ti s m y b  siy i f d f m th
i um b i st s, i hih bth s  d d f  hist y bu d,
f  s u d t k  u t f th i-t  tm t f mb ss d s. Th
 hih D vid m d g i st th Amm its,  th t u t, ff ds
us mm b i st  f m hy  it; d s f   it ,
Ci  m y b itd, h dmd it th mst justifi b g u d f th
Mith id ti  .
[Iust ti : _PEACE_
_By G i Mh s--F m  i ti g i Lib y f C g ss._]

CHAPTER XIX.
ON THE RIGHT OF BURIAL.
Right f bu yi g th d d fu dd  th   f ti s--O igi
f this ight--Du t  mis--Whth du t ths guity
f t ius  ims--Whth t ths, h h v mmittd
suiid--Oth ights s uth isd by th   f ti s.
I. Th ight f bu yi g th d d is   f ths  igi ti g i th
vu t y   f ti s. Nxt t th ight f mb ss d s Di
Ch ysstm  s th t f bu yi g th d d, d  s it m  t,

s ti d by th u  itt   f tu : A d S  , th d , ks


th  , hih mm ds us t mmit th bdis f th d d t thi
 t  th, m g th UNWRITTEN  ts, but s ys, thy h v
st  g s ti th th RECORDED  s f  gs  giv. F , i
th  gu g f th Jish  it s, Phi d Js hus, thy  m kd
ith th s  f tu , d u d th m f tu ,  m h d
th ustms, th t  mm t  m ki d, d g  b t tu 
 s .
W fi d it sm h  s id by Ai , th t u mm tu   s
u  us t v th d d, d sm  it , i th  , bs vs
th t  m  dud t qu ity by tu i g t th mm
dust f th  th. T itus i f ms us, i b. vi. f his A s, th t,
h Tib ius m d g   m ss   f , h h d b  td
ith Sj us, d th t h f b d thm th its f bu i , v y  
 s st uk ith h  t s th  st ffis f hum ity fusd;
ffis, hih Lysi s th  t  s th mm h s f u tu .
As th i ts m su d th m  h t f v y   by thi
bs v   gt f ths ights, i  d t giv thm g  t
  f s tity, thy s ibd thi  igi t th uth ity d
i stituti s f thi Gds; s th t i v y t f thi  iti gs 
mt ith f qu t m ti f th ights f mb ss d s, d th ights
f bu i , s fu dd u  divi  i tm t.
I th T gdy f th Su i ts, Eu i ids  s it th   f th
Gds, d i th A tig  f S hs, th h i  m ks th fi g
 y t C  , h h d f bidd y   u d i f d th, t
giv th its f bu i  t Py is, "A hibiti , ik this,  s
t v d by th su m i,  by th t h v -b justi,
hih h s st bishd ths  s f s t f th d d:  did
I thi k th t yu ud mm d m t s t t sg ss th u  itt
d i vi b  s f Gd. Thy   t st bishd t-d y, 
yst d y, but f m  t ity d i f v b i f . Thi
su s  u k  . Am I th ugh f f m t , d by byi g his
u just mm ds, t i u th  th f H v ?"
Th uth ity f Is ts, d f H dtus, d th t f X  h , i
th sixth bk f his G i Hist y, m y b  d t i su  t f
th h u s, th t h v t  tims b id t th d d. I sh t,
ths ffis f hum ity  mm dd by th  s i i g tstim y
f th  t s, hist i s, ts, his h s d divi s f 
gs, h h v dig ifid thm ith th ms f th mst s  did
vi tus.
II. Th  sms t b  g   g m t f  i i u  th
 igi f fu   its, d th v ity f  ys, i hih thy  
 f md. Th Egy ti s EMBALMED, d mst f th G ks BURNED th
bdis f th d d bf  thy mmittd thm t th g v. Ci , i
th 22d h t f his s d Bk  L s, s  ks f th i t m t
 , hih is  i us, s th mst i t mthd, d th t, hih
is mst  g i  t tu , d i this h is fd by Pi y.
Sm thi k th t m id it s OLUNTARY dbt f tu , hih
thy k  th t, AT ANY RATE, thy ud b bigd t dish g. F
th divi  s t , th t th bdy shud tu t th dust, f m
hih it  s t k ,  s t ssd u  Ad m  y, but, s  fi d it
k dgd by th  iti gs f G  d Rm, xt dd t th h
hum . Ci , f m th Hy si y f Eu i ids, s ys, "E th
must b tu d t  th," d i th tfth h t f Sm 's

Esi sts, th  is ss g t th s m u  t, th t "th dust


sh  tu t th  th s it  s, but th s i it t Gd, h g v
it." Eu i ids h s   gd  this subjt i th h t f
Thsus i his Su i ts, "Suff th d d t b  id i th  f
th  th; f v y thi g tu s t its  igi  st t, th s i it
t h v , d th bdy t th  th: Nith f thm is giv i
 y ssssi , but  y f sh t us: Th  th s dm ds
b k th bdis, t hih sh h d giv bi th d u ishm t." I th
s m m  Lu tius  s th  th " ifi  t d mm
g v." Pi y s ds ibs th  th, s ivi g us t u bi th,
h ishi g u g th, su  ti g us t th v y  st, d, h 
th th ts f tu  h v f s k us, t ki g us t h m t 
bsm, d v i g us ith m t.
Th   sm, h thi k th t th ustm f bu i   s bqu thd
t us by u fi st  ts s tst m t y h  f su ti .
F   i st utd by Dm itus t biv, th t u bdis 
s vd i th  th u d th mis f st ti t if. A d
Ch isti s i tiu h v f qu ty s ibd th ustm f d t
bu i  t th s m h . P ud tius Ch isti t s ys, "Wh t 
b th m i g f h d ks,  s  did m um ts, x t th t
thy  th d sit is f bdis,  sig d t t d th, but t
tm  y s ?"
But th mst bvius x  ti is t b fu d i th dig ity f m ,
h su ssi g th   tu s, it ud b sh m, if his bdy  
ft t b dvu d by b sts f y. It is t f m ssi
th , s id Qui tii , t s v th bdis f m f m v gs f
bi ds d b sts. F t b t  by id b sts, s Ci  bs vs
i his fi st bk ON IN ENTION, is t b bbd f ths h u s, i
d th, hih  du t u mm tu . A d th Rm Pt, m ks
 m t ti v   f his h s, th t h h d  ius mth t  y
his bdy i th g v, but h ud b ft y t bi ds,  th 
i t th iv s fd f fishs. A . x. 557-560.
But t s  k f m sti high uth ity, Gd, by th muth f his
 hts, th  t s th ikd th t thy sh  h v bu i  ik th t
f th b uts, d th t th dgs sh  ik thi bd. Suh m 
d u d g i st th ikd, s u ishm t, shs th t it is
i dig ity d  t u tu , h , i th  ds f L t tius, th
im g f Gd is  st ut, t th i suts f b sts f y. But i suh
i dig ity if th   s v thi g  ug t t th fi gs f m ,
sti th kd ss d i fi mitis f u  ish b tu  shud t
b x sd t th y f d y.
C squ ty th ights f bu i , th dish g f hih f ms  
f th ffis f hum ity,  t b d id v t  mis, hm
st t f  f  h s t d ivd f th ights d tu  f m . F ,
s i gi bs vs,  imsity g i st th v quishd d th d d
must  s. A . xi. 104. B us thy h v suff d th  st f vis
th t  b i fitd. "W h v b t  , I g t, _s ys St tius_,
but u h t d h s f  , d  u  mity is bu id i th g v."
A d O t tus Mivit us ssig s th s m  s f  ii ti . "If
th  h v b st uggs m g th ivi g, yu h t d su y must b
s tisfid ith th d th f dv s y. F th t gu f st if is
 si d."
III. U  th i i s dv d bv, it is g d by  th t
ubi  mis   titd t bu i . A i  s it th mm ight
f  , ith hih, T itus s ys,   my i fus t m y. A d

th us, s ti g this, ,  di g t Di Ch ysstm, bs vd,


v hi th utmst g f  sti  ti us. "F th h d f
d th, _ s th  it just qutd bs vs_, h s dst yd   mity
t ds th f  , d ttd thi bdis f m  i sut."
Ex m s t this u s m y b fu d i v ius ts f hist y.
Ax d  d d ths f th  my, th t   kid t th b tt
f Issus t b h u d ith th its f bu i , d H ib  did
th s m t C ius F mi ius, Pubius Amiius, Tib ius G hus, d
M us, th Rm G  s. S th t yu ud su s, s ys Siius
It ius, h h d b yi g ths h u s t C th gi i G  .
Th Rm s t  td H , d Pm y Mith id ts i th s m m  . If
it   ss y t qut m  i st s, th  dut f Dmt ius 
m y  si s, d th t f A t y t ki g A h us might b md.
Wh th G ks   t  ith th P si s, i   t f thi
miit y  th thy s  t bu y  th d d b gi g t th ALLIES,
d h thy   vit ius, t bu y v th BARBARIANS. Aft
b tt, it  s usu  f bth sids t bt i  v t bu y th
d d. P us i s, i his u t f th Ath i ff i s, m ti s th
ti f th Ath i s h bu id th Mds, g di g it s t
f ity du t  m . W fi d f m th Jish  it s, th t f th
s m  s , thi high ists, h   f bidd t m 
d d bdy, if thy fu d  ,   bigd t bu y it. But Ch isti s
dmd BURIAL t f suh im  t , th t thy ud  thi
hu h-  t t b mtd d , d sd t df y th x  s s thy
ud h v d  t m i t i th  ,  t dm  tivs.
Th   sm f i st s t th  t y, but thy
by th u iv s  fi gs f m ki d, d suh  uty
th mst sm t ms. C udi  s it bdy dd
d d, d sti m  s t fus thm th v i g f

  b td
d  td i
t u d th
itt s d.

I . Rs ti g ths, h h v b guity f t ius  ims, th 


is  s t  t t i sm dubt, hth th ight f bu i  is du
t thm.
Th divi    i dd, th t  s giv t th Hb s, d hih is
f ught ith v y  t f vi tu d hum ity,  d d ths, h
   uifid, hih  s th mst ig mi ius ki d f u ishm t th t
ud b i fitd, t b bu id  th s m d y. Oi g t this  , s
Js hus bs vs, th Js id suh g d t bu i , th t th bdis
f ths, h   xutd ubiy s  imi s,   t k  y
bf  su -st, d mmittd t th g u d. A d th Jish  it s
 f  i i th t this  s i t dd s dg  f v   t th
divi  im g, ft hih m  s f md.
T  bu i  t  imi s must h v b th ti i th tim
f Hm : f   td, i th thi d bk f th Odyssy, th t
gisthus, h h d ddd th  im f mu d t th t f dut y,  s
h u d ith fu    m is by O sts, th s f th mu d d
ki g. It  s th ustm ith th Rm s, s m y b s f m U i ,
v t fus givi g th bdis f  imi s t thi  tivs, t
bu y. Th Em   s, Diti , d M ximi , i s i t, d d,
th t thy did t fus t div u , f bu i , ths, h h d
ds vdy b ut t d th f thi  ims.
I  di g th hist y f ivi  s;  fi d m  f qu t i st s
f i dig itis ff d t th d d, th i th u ts f y f ig
 s. I sm  ss, th bdis f xutd  imi s  x sd t
ubi vi, d hu g i h i s, ustm th  ity f hih is

v y muh dubtd bth by Thgi  d Piti   it s. S f


f m vi g f th ti,  fi d suh  it s bsti g iss
u  m y, h h d  d d fu   h u s t b id t ths, h
ud t thmsvs h v d th s m t th s. A ti f this
ki d  s d  by P us i s th L d m i , h, bi g u gd by th
  f Agi t t i t u  th P si s f thi t  tm t
f L id s, jtd th dvi, s u bmi g his  h t d
th G i m. Th Ph iss d bu i  v t Ki g J us
Ax d , h h d t  td th d d bdis f thi u t ym ith
v y ki d f i sut. Thugh i dd   t i  si s, Gd m y h v
u ishd sm ff d s ith th ss f suh ight, h did s by
vi tu f his   g tiv, hih  s him bv th st iti s
f   . A d h D vid x sd th h d f Gi h, it  s d  t
 , h  s i , d ds is f Gd, d might b justifid by
th t  , hih  fi d th m d ivigs f ighbu t th
Hb s.

. Th  is   thi g t im   t b bs vd, th t th u


v ii g m g th Hb s ith s t t bu yi g th d d,
 t i d x ti , s   i f md by Js hus, xudi g
ths, h h d mmittd suiid. N is it su isi g th t m k f
ig mi y shud b ffixd t ths,  hm d th itsf  t b
i fitd s u ishm t. A istt i th fifth bk f his Ethis,
s  ks f th i f my u iv s y tt hd t suiid. N is th
bs v ti t   k d by th  i i s f sm f th G i
ts, th t s th d d  vid f    ti , thy  t b
fftd ith by ss  sh m. F it is suffii t  s t
justify th ti, if th ivi g  b dt d f m mmitti g
ti s, f hih thy s m k f i f my st u  th d d.
I  siti t th Stis, d th s, h dmittd th d  d f
s vitud, sik ss,  y th   mity,  v th mbitius
v f g y t b just  us f vu t y d th, i  siti t
thm, th P t ists justy m i t i , th t th su must b t i d
i th ustdy f th bdy, f m hih it  t b  sd, but t
th mm d f him, h g v it. O this subjt th   m y fi 
thughts i Pti us, Oym id us, d M  bius  th d  m f
Si i.
B utus, fi g th  i i s f th P t ists, h d f m y
 dm d th d th f C t, hm h himsf ft  ds imit td. H
 sid d it s t f im ity f y   t ithd  himsf f m
his gi  t th su m bi g, d t sh i k f m vis, hih
h ught t b ith f titud. A d Mg sth s, s m y b s , i
St b bk X . m kd th dis b ti , hih th I di s gs
x ssd f th  dut f C  us: f it  s by  m s g  b
t thi t ts, th t y  , th ugh im ti , shud quit his st
i if. I th fifth bk f Qui tus Cu tius, th  is x ssi
f Ki g D ius t this fft, th t h h d th di by th 's
guity h d th by his  . I th s m m  th Hb s   d th
 s,  dismissi , s m y b s t  y i th Gs  f St.
Luk, h. ii. v. 19, but i th G k v si f th Od Tst m t,
G . xv. 2, d Numb. xx, t ds th  usi : d th s m  y f
s  ki g  s usd by th G ks. Put h, i s  ki g f  s ti ,
 s d th th tim, h Gd sh  iv us f m u st.

I. Th    t i th ights t, hih  thi  igi t


th vu t y   f ti s, suh s th ight f ssssi f m
 gth f tim, th ight f sussi t y   h dis i tst t,
d th ight suti g f m  t ts, thugh f u qu  ki d.

F thugh  ths ights, i sm m su , s i g f m th   f


tu , yt thy d iv thi  fi m ti f m hum  , hth it
b i  siti t th u  t i ty f  jtu ,  t  t i th
x ti s, suggstd by tu   s : i ts,  f hih h v b
sighty tuhd u  i u disussi s  th   f tu .

CHAPTER XX.
ON PUNISHMENTS.
Dfi iti d  igi f u ishm t--I h t m  u ishm t
 ts t st it justi--Th ight f u ishi g d by
th   f tu , t  , x t t ths, h  i  t
f th  ims d misdm u s t b u ishd--Diff  
f mtiv bt hum d divi  u ishm t--I h t s s
v g is tu y u  fu--Th dv t gs f u ishm t,
th fd--Th   f tu  s y   t i fit u ishm t
u  ff d , yt ith disti ti --Th g d hih th
  f ti s ys t th b fit f th i ju d ty, i th
i fiti f u ishm t--G   utiity f u ishm ts--Wh t
is dt mi d by th   f th Gs , i this s t--A s
t th bjti s fu dd u  th m y f Gd, s dis  yd i
th Gs --C it  u ishm ts bjtd t s utti g ff 
ssibiity f   t --Nt s f f iv t Ch isti s t
i fit u ishm ts, v h d t d s, by th   f
ti s--P suti s, f  t i ff s, t b  id 
i th m f th ubi d t f i dividu s--I t  ts
t u ish b by m --O  ts, h i vit b th ugh hum
i fi mity t u ish b--Ati s, ith di ty  i di ty
i ju ius t sity, t u ish b by hum  s--Th  s s
f th t xm ti --Th  i i , th t d  v b g td,
futd--P d sh t b  b bf  th st bishm t f
   --But t i   ss--A b s subsqu ty t th
st bishm t f  tis--I t  d xt   s s--O i i ,
th t th   b  just  s f dis  si g ith  s, x t
h  suh dis  s ti  b im id s uth isd by th  ,
x mi d d futd--Pu ishm t stim td by th ds t f
th ff d --Diff  t mtivs m d--Mtivs hih ught
t st i m f m si --S  f ff s  di g t th
 ts f th D gu--C ity f th ff d --Pu ishm t
mitig td f m mtivs f h ity, x t h  th   st  g
mtivs f  sit ki d--F iity  f mii ity f  ims
gg v ts thi tu --Cm y,   x is f-- is f
th Js d Rm s i i fiti g u ishm t--W  sid d s
u ishm t--Whth hstiitis  justy b mm d f
i t dd gg ssi s--Whth Ki gs d N ti s  justifid
i m ki g  t u ish ff s g i st th   f tu , t
immdi ty ffti g thmsvs  thi subjts--Th  i i ,
th t ju isditi is tu y ss y t uth is u ishm t,
futd--Disti ti bt th   f tu , d ivi ustms,
d th divi  vu t y  --Th qusti , hth   b
u d t k t u ish ts f im ity-- sid d--Th bi g f
Gd, h  k  --Rfus  t mb  th Ch isti igi t
suffii t  us f  --C u t  tm t f Ch isti s, justifi b
 us f  --O  dfi  f igi u ish b.

I. I th di g t f this t  tis, h  th  uss, f hih


 m y b u d t k ,   x  i d, it  s  sid d i t-fd
ight, ith s  ti f i ju is,  s u ishm t. Th
fi st f ths i ts h vi g b   dy  d u , th  tt , hih
 ts t u ishm ts, m i s t b disussd, d it i qui 
m  m  i vstig ti ; f th  igi d tu  f u ishm t, t
bi g  fty u d std, h s giv is t m y   s.
Pu ishm t t k i its mst g   m i g sig ifis th i f
suff i g, hih is i fitd f vi ti s. F thugh  bu m y
sm tims b im sd i st d f u ishm t; sti it is  sid d
i th t  s, s h dshi d g ivus bu d , d m y th f 
  y b  ssd ith suff i gs. But th i  v i s, hih
m  sm tims x sd t, by bi g xudd f m th i t u s
f sity d th ffis f if, i g t i ftius dis d s,
 th simi  uss, hih  s th  s ith th Js  u t
f m y g  im u itis, ths tm  y iv ti s  t t b
st ity t k f u ishm ts: thugh f m thi smb  t  h
th , thy  ft , by bus f t ms,  fu dd.
But m g th dit ts  id d by tu , s  fu d just, d
hih th i t Phis h s   th   f Rh d m thus, th
fi g m xim m y b  d, THAT IT IS RIGHT FOR E ERY ONE TO SUFFER
E IL PROPORTIONED TO THAT WHICH HE HAS DONE.
Whih g v  si t Put h, i his bk  xi, t s y th t
"justi is tt ibut f Gd, v gi g  t sg ssi s f th
divi   ; d  y it s th u d m su  f u d i gs
ith  h th . F thugh s td by th bit y  gg hi 
bu ds f t it y, th y f tu  ks u  , s f
subjts f   g  t m i ." Hi s givs fi  h t f
justi,  i g it th h i g mdy f  mishif. L t tius i
s  ki g f th divi   th  s it "  i  sid b mist k i
ths, h dg d hum  divi  u ishm t ith th m f  uty
 igu , im gi i g th t sm dg  f b m must  ys tt h t
th u ishm t f th guity." Wh t h s b s id f th i s b
 ti f  ty ith v y ff s is simi t th m k f
Augusti , "th t t m k u ishm t JUST, it must b i fitd f
sm  im." H is th x ssi t x  i th divi  justi,
h  th ugh hum ig  , th ff  is ft u disv b
thugh th judgm t m y b s .
II. Th   div sitis f  i i hth u ishm t ms u d th
k f ATTRIBUTI E  th t f STRICT justi. Sm f it t justi
f th tt ibutiv ki d, b us ff s  u ishd m   ss,
i   ti t thi  squ s, d b us th u ishm t is
i fitd by th h mmu ity, s it  , u  i dividu .
It is u dubtdy   f th fi st i i s f justi t st bish
qu ity bt th  ty d th ff . F it is th busi ss
f  s , s ys H , i   f his S ti s, t y u d
m su , by hih th  ty m y b f md u  s  ith th
ff , d i th  , h bs vs, th t it ud b  t y
t   s t u ish ith th k s v, h ds vd thi g
m  th th hi . I. S t. iii. v. 77, d 119. Th divi   , s
m y b s f m th xxv. Ch t f Dut  my, sts u  th s m
i i .
Th  is   s s, i hih  u ishm t m y b s id t b
m tt f st it justi. Thus, h  s y th t u ishm t is du

t y  ,  m thi g m  th th t it is ight h shud b


u ishd. N  y   i fit this u ishm t, but th  s ,
h h s ight t d s. N i th y f th  , v y  ty is
 sid d, s dbt isi g ut f  im, d hih th ff d
is bu d t y t th gg ivd ty. A d i this th  is smthi g
 hi g t th tu  f  t ts. F s s , thugh 
EXPRESS sti u ti b m d, is u d std t h v bu d himsf by 
th USUAL, d NECESSARY  diti s f s , s, u ishm t bi g
tu   squ  f  im, v y hi us ff d  s t h v
OLUNTARILY i u d th  tis f  . I this s s sm f th
Em   s  u d s t  u  m f t s i th fi g m  ,
"yu h v b ught this u ishm t u  Yu svs." I dd v y ikd
ti d  by dsig  s  sid d s vu t y  t t t submit
t u ishm t. F , s Mih  th E hsi bs vs  th fifth
bk f A istt's Nim h Ethis, th i ts g v th m f
 t t, t  y t th vu t y g m ts hih m m d ith  h
th , but t th big ti s isi g f m th s t  f th  .
III. But t hm th ight f u ishi g   y b gs, is m tt
t dt mi d by th   f NATURE. F thugh  s m y i t ut
th ssity f u ishi g th guity, it ds t s ify th PERSON,
t hm th xuti f it is t b mmittd.
N tu   s i dd ds s f i t ut th  s , th t it is
dmd mst SUITABLE f SUPERIOR ONLY t b i vstd ith th 
f i fiti g u ishm t. Yt this dm st ti ds t mu t t
ABSOLUTE NECESSITY, u ss th  d su  i b t k i s s
im yi g, th t th mmissi f  im m ks th ff d i f i
t v y   f his  s is, by his h vi g dg dd himsf f m
th k f m t th t f th b uts, hih  i subjti t m ;
dt i , hih sm Thgists h v m i t i d. Phis h s t
g d i this. F Dm itus su sd th t  tu y b gd
t su  i m it, d A istt  s f  i i th t bth i th
duti s f tu  d t th i f i   vidd f th us f
th su  i ts.
F m this  i i th  iss ss y  squ , th t i  s
h  th   qu  dg s f guit i t tis, th ight f
u ishm t b gs t ith .
I  f mity t hih, u S viu , i th  s f th m t k
i dut y,  u d th t hv f th us s  s ithut si ,
m i g si s f qu    mity, shud  st th fi st st . Jh viii.
7. H s id s f this  s , b us i th t g th m  s f th
Js   s  u t, th t, u d g  t d f s tity, th
mst   mus vis, d th mst ikd dis siti s     d.
A h t f th tims hih th A st h s i td i th mst
gi g u s, d hih h ss ith  f simi t h t
his divi  m st h d giv , "th f  thu t i xus b, O m ,
hsv thu t th t judgst: f h i thu judgst th thu
 dm st thysf; f thu th t judgst dst th s m thi gs." Rm.
ii. 1. A i b t hih th  is m k f S  's, th t " 
s t , hih is ssd by guity  s  h v y ight."
A d i th  , th s m  it bs vs, th t "if  k i t
u svs d  sid hth  h v b guity f th ff s 
 gi g t  dm ,  sh  b m  md t i u judgm ts."
I . A th t f u i qui y s ts th  d  sd by
u ishm t. F by h t h s hith t b s id, it  s  y m t t
sh th t i u ishi g th guity  i ju y is d  t thm. Sti

th bsut ssity f u ishm t ds t f f m th . F


th d f th guity  m y  si s h s b  sid d s th
mst b utus f tu  i th divi  d hum h t . P t is
b td f his s yi g th t "justi ds t i fit u ishm t
f th vis th t  d  d  t b t ivd; but t v t
th s m f m bi g d  f th tim t m." F m Thuydids 
fi d th t Did us i dd ssi g th Ath i s  th  dut f
th Mity  s, dviss thm "t f b u ishi g thi vd
i justi, u ss it  s b b th t th u ishm t ud b tt dd
ith sm gd fft."
Ths m xims m y b t u ith g d t hum u ishm ts: f   m
bi g s  y id t th by bd,  dg  f suff i g
shud b i fitd, but f sm  squ t gd. But th  s is
diff  t ith s t t Gd, t hm P t i judiiusy is
th bv s tim ts. F thugh th divi  u ss i u dubtdy
h v th gd f m i vi, s th  d f  u ishm t, yt th
b  f m ti f th ff d  t b th s bjt. Si  th
divi  justi, thugh tm  d ith m y must dh  t th t uth
f th v d  d, hih th  t s th ikd ith u ishm t 
dst uti .
Th h u th f  f Gd, s  s th x m  hd u t m ,
i b  squ  suti g f m his u ishm t f th ikd.

. A d m ti  it h s s id th t "th


mdy t u dd s i it," i hih h
Put h: i th  i i f th f m "
u ishm t f dv s y," d i th t
st mdii  t t ubd mi d."

i f
g s
i is
f th

 my is h i g
ith Ci  d
mitig td by th
 tt "s tisf ti is

But dis siti ik this, h st i d f  disguis d f s


u i g, i b fu d by  m s suit b t th  s b su f
m , hs ffi it is t gu t d  t u th ffti s. N
i th t dis siti iv y s ti f m th   f tu , h
i  h dit ts, i i s t u it m i sity by gd i,
th th t s t thm by h ishi g imsity. F it is  id
d by  s , s  di g xim i h d f  s, th t  m
sh  d y thi g hih m y hu t th , u ss it b f th u s
f sm vid t d ss ti  gd. But th i f  my  sid d
sy f suh, is  b fit t us, but f s d im gi y  ,
ik th t d ivd f m su  fuus ihs  thi gs f th s m
ki d.[53]
I this  t ti v g is  dm d bth by Ch isti t h s
d h th his h s. I this s t, th  gu g f S 
 hs v y  t th  fti f Ch isti m s. H  s
v g, i its usu  d    t ti , t m f i hum ity,
diff i g f m i ju y  y i dg . F t i ti f i 
b  sid d s thi g btt th xus b si . Juv , ft
ds ibi g th diff  t tm  s, v hih v g x iss th mst
 fu dmi i , d shi g th mi b h t s v hih it h s
 i fu ,  uds it t b th  su  f itt d i fi m
mi d.
F m th di g gum ts it is  i th t u ishm t  t justy
b i fitd f m s i it f v g. W d th f  t  sid
th dv t gs tt di g its just i fiti .

I. This sms th mst     f vii g ths disti ti s

i th mtivs f u ishm t, hih h v b usd by P t i his


G gi s, d by T u us th his h i ss g qutd by Gius
i th fu t th h t f his fifth bk. Ths disti ti s sm t
sut tu y f m th  d f  u ishm t. P t i dd  sid s
th m dm t f th ff d , d th x m  giv t th s, s th
t i i  mtivs: but T u us h s ddd thi d, hih h  s
s tisf ti , d hih is dfi d by Cm s Ax d i us, t b
 ym t f vi,  t ibuti g t th b fit f bth th gg ivd
d v gi g ty. A istt ssi g v x m  s mtiv,
 fi s th bjt f u ishm t t th m dm t   ti f th
ff d . But Put h h s t m d th s m missi : f h h s s id,
th t "h  immdi t u ishm t fs th xuti f hi us
 im, it bth   ts t dt th s f m mmitti g th s m  im,
d dmi ist s sm dg  f  s ti t th i ju d d suff i g
 s ." A d this is h t A istt  s mmut tiv justi. But
ths m tt s qui  m  mi ut i qui y. W m y bs v th f 
th t th  is thi g  t y ith t hum  divi   , i
u ishm ts, hih h v th gd f th ff d ,  th t f th
i ju d ty,  f y  s s h tsv i vi.
Th th     ds  bt i d by th t ki d f u ishm t, hih
sm his h s h v  d  ti , sm h stism t, d th s
dm iti . P uus th L y , h s giv it th m f  ti ;
P t stys it ss f i st uti , d Put h mdii  f
th su, f mi g d h i g th suff  , hi it   ts s
i fu mdy. F s  dib t ts, by f qu t  titi ,
du   sity, hih i  s i t h bit, th bst mthd f
f mi g vis i thi  ist st g is t d iv thm f thi
st s vu by i fusi f subsqu t i . It is  i i
f th P t ists,   td by A uius, th t "im u ity d th
d y f  f  m  sv  d  iius t ff d th
y u ishm t h tsv ," d, i th  ds f T itus, "vi t
dis d s must b  u t d ith mdis   ti by st  g."

II. Th  f i fiti g th u ishm t, subs vi t t this  d,


is d by th   f tu  t y   f m t t judgm t, d
t im i td i simi  qu  ff s. This is vid t s f
s v b   f gs, f m th m xim f P utus, th t "t bst
m itd  f u  f i d is usfu, u   t i  si s, thugh
by  m s g tfu ffi." But i  ki ds f  st i t d
m usi , th diff   m d bt th  s s, h  d,
d h  t d t x is it is  i tm t f tu 
 , but   f th sitiv i stituti s f th ivi  . F 
suh tu  disti ti ud b m d, y f th th th t  s
ud i t ust  ts ith th ui us f suh uth ity,
i  sid ti f thi ffti . But  s, i  d t vid
imsitis, h v, ith s t t th uth ity f u ishi g, ssd
v th mm ki d d subsisti g m g m ki d, d  fi d it t
th  st dg s f  ti : s m y b s i m y  ds, d
tiu y i th d f Justi i , u d th tit f th POWER
OF RELATI ES TO CORRECT IN ORDER TO REFORM OFFENDERS. A d Cy us, i
th v. bk d viii. h t f X  h 's hist y f th Ex diti ,
dd sss th sdi s t th fi g u  t, "If I u ish y  
f his gd, I m ii g t submit t justi; but ud it t b
qu y  s b th t  ts d m st s shud submit t justi,
f h vi g  td hid  ,  th Su g b s  sib f h vi g
usd th i isi -k if, h  th ti t's  s qui d it?"
But this ki d f  tiv u ishm t ds t xt d t d th, hih
 t b  sid d, s b fit i itsf, x t INDIRECTLY d

BY WAY OF REDUCTION, s it is  d by Lgii s, h, i  d t


 fi m g tivs, du thm t thi gs f  sit ki d. Thus,
i M k xiv. 21, h u S viu s ys, th t it   btt f sm,
thy h d v b b , s, f i u b dis siti s, it is btt ,
th t is ud b ss vi, t di th t iv; si  it is  t i
th t by ivi g thy i g   s. Put h  s suh m st t
th s, but th g  tst st t thmsvs. G  s ys th t  it 
u ishm ts  i fitd t v t m f m di g h m by  g
u s f i iquity, d t dt th s by th f f u ishm t,
ddi g th t it is btt m shud di, h thy h v sus s
i ftd ith vi, s t b i u b.
Th   sm, h thi k th t ths  th  s s m t by th
A st Jh , h ds ibs thm s si i g si u t d th. But s
thi gum ts  t s tisf t y, h ity qui s th t   
shud b dmd i  igib, x t u  th  st g u ds. S
th t u ishm t ith suh  d i vi   y b i fitd f
im  t t  uss.

III. Th b fit  ui g t i ju d  s f m th u ishm t


f ff d  sists i his bi g su d i futu  g i st
u   f th s m i ju y f m th t ff d ,  f m th s.
Th   th   ys f v ti g this u  --by mvi g th
ff d --by d ivi g him f th  f di g h m,   sty by
m i g him t btt h bits f thught  ti , hih is th
f m ti dud by th u ishm t   dy s k f. It is t
v y ki d f u ishm t, hih  du suh ffts; it must b
  d  s iuus, t   t s x m , th t m y dt th s
f m th mmissi f th s m  ims. A vi ditiv u ishm t,
i fitd by i ju d i dividu ,  by y th  s , h it
is st i d by bu ds d imit ti s f this ki d, h s thi g
u  fu i it  sid i g th   f tu  by itsf, t f m 
hum d divi  i stituti s, d v y dv titius i umst ,
th t m y   t dvi ti f m th imitiv dit ts f tu . W
h v s id th t it m y b i fitd by y th i dividu , s 
s by th i ju d  s : f it is  f m b t tu , th t  
m shud ssist th . But s u judgm t is t t b bi ssd
by u ffti s, i  ss, h  u i t st is   d; si 
th f m ti f f miis i t st ts, judgs h v b i td, d
i vstd ith th  f u ishi g th guity, h by th tu 
ib ty f  s  d ss,  igi y d t i dividu s,  s
bishd,  t  st b idgd. A d it is  y i  s,  th s s
f i st , h   judii  mdy  b bt i d, th t this
tu  ib ty  ti us i f . Th  is i umst   td
f Juius C s , i b t this subjt. Whi h  s  y i
iv t st ti , bi g t k is  by sm i ts, ft h h d
dmd himsf by sum f m y, h id t th  su f
d ss. But his i ti bi g gtd, h fittd ut  t i
umb f shi s, tt kd d df td th i ts, d  d d thm
 t b  uifid.
Th ti f iv t i dividu s, x isi g u ishm t,  s th
 igi f si g mb ts, s f mii t th G m s bf  th
i t duti f Ch isti ity, d t yt suffii ty  id sid.
W  i f md by ius P t uus, i his s d bk, th t th
G m s   su isd t s th f ms f Rm ju is ud , d
ths dis uts, hih thy thmsvs didd by th s d, sttd
by  . By th Jish  , th  st i bd t th d sd  
d t ki mu d  , if t k by d th  s f fug.
A d th Jish i t t s bs v, th t i GENERAL th i fiti

f u ishm t, s t i ti f mu d , it i t ustd t  h d,


but th t f th judg: s it is diffiut f i dividu  i his
  s t md t his s tm t. Th s m ustm f i g
i dividu s t v g thi    gs v id m g th i t
G ks, s  fi d f m th  ds f Thym s, i Hm 's Odyssy.
But it v id mst i u t is, h  ubi u ts f justi  
t st bishd. F m h  St. Augusti dfi s ths  s t b just,
hih  i t dd t v g i ju is. A d P t, i his tfth bk
ON A COMMONWEALTH, justifis th  g ti f hstiitis, ti th
gg ss is dud t submit t just, d quit b t ms.
IX. GENERAL utiity hih  s  sid d s th thi d  d  sd
by u ishm t, m y b dividd i t th s m umb f ts, s th
b fit  ui g f m th  t i dividu s. F ths  th bjts
i vi, ith t v t th i dividu , h h s i ju d    s ,
f m di g i ju y t th s: bjt hih  b m ishd  y
by mvi g th ff d , dis mi g him f th m s f f th i ju y,
 by f mi g him:  it m y b i fitd t dt th s f m bi g
u d, by x m  f im u ity, t mmit ts f mst ti 
 mity. A d th i fiti f u ishm t, f suh  s s, is RIGHT
g td by th   f tu  t v y i dividu . U  this i i ,
Put h bs vs i th if f P id s, th t gd m  dsig d
by tu  f th ffi f  tu  m gist y, d su  i ity
b gs t ths, i hm th h t s f t uth d justi u it.
But s it qui s i fu dg  f ti  t x mi  i t f ts,
d  i  sid b sh  f ski d quity t ffix th xt t
f u ishm ts; i  d t v t qu s f m isi g th ugh th
sumi g  it, hih v y m  t t i s f his  isdm, d t
hih th s  v s t yid; i   gu td mmu itis,
it h s b usu  t st f th t ibu s f justi ths, h
  dmd  thy f suh h u ,  iky t bm s, f m thi
i tg ity d isdm. Dm itus h s s id, th  ud h v b 
 si f  s t v t v y m f m ivi g  di g t his 
humu , if   h d t d  i ju y t th . F  vy  s th  igi
f st if. But s  h v just bs vd, th t it h  s, i th  s
f v g, s i this ki d f u ishm t, i fitd f th s k f
x m , th   t s d m i s f i t  , i ths  s,
d m g ths  s s, th t  subjt t  CI IL ju isditi ;
d i  t i th  ss bsids. Thus y Hb ,  di g t th
ustms f th t  , if h shud tu  y f m Gd,  f m th
  f Gd,  shud sdu th s t f s  shi , might immdi ty
b ut t d th by y   h tsv . Th Hb s   th t t f
ZEAL, hih  s fi st d  by Phi h s, d hih ft  ds b m
ustm. Thus M tt thi s s J, h  s uti g himsf ith
G i its. I th s m m  , i th bk mm y  d th
thi d bk f M  bs, it is  td th t th  hu d d th Js
  ut t d th by thi  u t ym . N ud y th txt
b ssig d f st i g St h , d  s i i g g i st P u. Phi,
d Js hus bu d i i st s f this ki d. Th   m y u t is
h   m y t  th m i s f imitiv  , i th  y 
d t m st s v thi s vs, d t  ts v thi
hid  , xt di g v t i fit th u ishm t f d th. S th
E h i f S t might ut itiz t d th ithut th f m ity f
t i . F m h t h s b s id, it is  sy t i f h t u ishm t th
  f tu  uth iss, d h f it h s m i d i f .
X. W m  t  sid hth th   f th Gs  h s  fi d
th t ib ty ithi s bu ds. It h s b bs vd i th
t f this t  tis, th t it is t su isi g th t sm thi gs,

hih  d by tu  d ivi  , shud b f bidd by th


divi   , i g t its g  t  fti , d th su  i ity f its
 ds v y thi g th t hum tu   bst. T th tt i m t
f hih it is t u  s b th t vi tus shud b qui d, f
xdi g th sim   ts f tu . Ths ki ds f  ti th t
 v ith y m k f i f my,  y  m  t i ju y, but 
suitd t th g,  th i umst s f th suff  , if i fitd
by ths, h d iv suh  missi f m hum  s, f i st 
by  ts, gu di s,  m st s,  t i thi g  ug t t th
 ts f th Gs , s m y b  y u d std f m th tu  f
th thi g itsf. F thy  mdis t th mi d  ss h mss
th mdii s u g tfu t th  t  t th bdy. But s t
v g th  s is diff  t. F th i fiti f u ishm t,  y
t g tify s tm t, s f f m bi g  f m b t th Gs , h s
b sh bv t b  ug t v t th   f tu .
Th Jish   i dd t  y f bids th h ishi g f h t d g i st
ighbu , th t is,   f th s m u t y d  , but qui s
 t i mm ts f ki d ss t b bstd v u   mis f
th t ds i ti . Th Gs  th f , m h di g  m u d
th  ti f ighbu , t  y f bids us t hu t u  mis,
but mm ds us t d thm gd; mm dm t  y st td i th
Gs  f St. M tth. Yt th    mittd th Js t sk v g
f i ju is f m  g ivus ki d, t ith thi  h ds, but
by  i g t th judg. But Ch ist ds t giv us th s m
 missi , s  s f m th t  siti hih h m ks bt
th  missi s f f m tims, d ths f his   . "Yu h v
h d th t it  s s id y f y--but I s y u t yu, v yu
 mis, t."
F thugh h t fs  ts ui y t th  i g f
i ju y, d, i sm m su , b idgs this  missi , yt it sss
muh g  t  su  u  v g, jti g it s i dug 
suit b  y t m  im  ft, d   st t.
T i fit u ishm t by  y f t i ti  s dis vd f v by
ths f th Js, h   disti guishd f thi  th d isdm;
b us thy g dd t  y th LETTER, but th PURPOSE d SPIRIT
f th  . This  s f m Phi, i hs  iti gs  fi d th
Js f Ax d i , u  th   mity f F us, thi  sut ,
dd ssi g thmsvs t Gd i th fi g  gu g, "W d t
ji, O L d, i th   mity  u ishm t f  my, bi g
t ught by thy hy  s t f f th mis is f m ." A d i this
 s  m y y th t g   mm d giv by Ch ist t f giv
 h h v ff dd  i ju d us, th t is, ith t d,  t
ish thm vi, th ugh s tm t f th vi thy h v d  t us.
But h t  b s id f v g, t s g di g th st, but s
vidi g su ity f th futu ? H  t Ch ist qui s f his
f s th s m dis siti t d i ju is, tiu y, if th
ff d shs y b b sig s f   t . Luk xvii. 3. E h.
iv. 32. C. iii. 13. I ths ss gs fu missi is i t dd,
suh missi s st s th ff d t his f m situ ti f
f i dshi   fid : d  squ ty thi g  b qui d f
him u d th m f u ishm t. Bsids, if th     suh m ks
f   t , th  ti f ss is t t b u sud ith t
muh igu ; dt i  i f d f m th  t f Ch ist  ji i g
us t giv u th g m t  g ith th  k.
But if it is iky th t  iv  t ff  i b tt dd
ith immi  t i  v i  d v d g t u svs,  shud b

 t td ith suh su itis s m y b fftu , d t th s m


tim   t ith s itt judi s ssib t th ff d .
F v m g th Js, th   f t i ti  s t i us, s 
 i f md by Js hus, d th  it s f th t ti . But i
dditi t th x   i u d, hih th   t  ts f s s t
i t, th i ju d ty usu y ivd u i y fi  i st d f
t i ti ; th  ym t f x  s bi g  sid d sim y s
stituti , d t  ty.
It m i s  t  sid u ishm t, s vidi g f th PUBLIC d
t INDI IDUAL su ity, hih is m ishd ith by mvi g th
guity  s ut f th  y  by st i i g him f m di g f th
mishif,  by dt i g th s th ugh th sv ity f x m ,  
f hih m s it h s b  y vd   bishd by Ch ist; f
i givi g his  ts h ffi md th t h dst yd  t f th
 . Th   f Mss i dd, hih i ths s ts  s t m i
i f  s  g s th Jish Pity xistd, st ity  ji d
m gist ts t u ish mu d d th simi  ims. But if th
 ts f Ch ist ud xist i  ju ti ith th   f Mss,
s f s it im sd  it  u ishm ts, su y thy m y xist i
 ju ti ith hum  s, hih i this s t  but imit ti
f th divi   s.
XI. Sm, i su  t f  sit  i i , g th su m m y
f Gd, s it is dis  yd i th  v t, d hih is giv s
x m  f m , d f m gist ts, i tiu , t f,
h, i th x is f uth ity, xut th  s f th Dity. This
 i i m y i sm m su  b t u, but t t th t xt t, hih th
uth s f it i t d. F th g  t m y f Gd dis  yd i th 
v t h s ui f   t ff s g i st th imitiv
 ,  v g i st th   f Mss, bf  th tim th t m h d
ivd k dg f th Gs . F ff s mmittd ft th
mug ti f th Gs , s i y if thy  m id ith
h d d bsti y,  t  td ith muh sv  judgm ts th y
th t   d d by Mss. F Gd u ishs si s f th t ki d t
 y i futu  st t, but i th s t if. But f si s f th t
ki d, t bt i th t f m y d i dug , th ff d must
i fit u ishm t u  himsf, t i sight  t ivi  m  , but
ith h tft s , d suti t si  m .
I th s m m  it is m i t i d th t if m  tu td by
  t , thy  ENTITLED t im u ity. W d t s y th t m 
v tu td by si     t ; but it is t v y ki d f
v   k dgm t, by hih Gd is mvd t mit th WHOLE f
u ishm t, s  s f m th  s f D vid. As th su m judg
th f  might dis  s ith th fu  ty f th  , i fiti g
d th, d yt x is  i  sid b sv ity u  ff d s, s
 h m y dis  s ith th s t  f t  d th, t th s m
tim  vi g th si  t fi d  y g v by th st k f sm
  mity,  by th h d f hum justi.
XII. d XIII. A th bjti m d g i st  it  u ishm ts is
th t suh ki d f s t  d xuti is utti g ff  imi 
f m  ssibiity f   t . But ths, h m k th bjti ,
must k , th t i  ss f th t ki d, v  b d u ight judgs
us th g  tst  uti s, d suff    t b hu id  y t
xuti , ithut  s b tim d f fti d d
bh   f his  im:   t , hih thugh v td by th
i t si g h d f d th f m dui g th f uits f ightus ss,
 h v  s t su s, f m th  s f th thif d d  th

 ss, m y b  td ith Gd.


But if  th th h d it b s id th t  g if might h v b f
m  v i t s ius   t ,  m y bs v th t, i sm  ss,
th  y f S  m y b m d, th t t m f th t ds i ti d th
is ft th g  tst bssi g hih  b bstd; f , i th  ds
f Eusbius, thi   f ikd ss  t th is b sh t d,
 f md. Ths i dditi t th di g gum ts i th f m
t f this t  tis m y b dmd suffii t s t ths, h
ss t th t   it  u ishm ts, d v  u ishm ts, ithut
x ti ,  bishd by th  ts f u S viu . Th A st,
 sig i g t th ffi f ki gs th us f th s d, s x is
f his divi  mmissi t v g    gs, i st uts us t y f
ki gs, th t, s t u Ch isti s, i thi y   ity, thy m y b
tti t th i  t. A  d, hih v ft th i t duti
f th gs , ud t  siy b bt i d, i g t th d vity f
m ki d, if th vi  f sm   t st i d by th xm  y
u ishm t f th s. Suh uth ity is th m  ss y, h v
i th midst f s m y x m s d u ishm ts, th ivs f th
i  t  s y su . Th  h v b i dd, it  t b
d id, h y i st s h  th s t  f d th  s h gd f
th t f  tu   bu , ti, s   i f md by Did us,
fd by S b  , ki g f Egy t, i    d f his ity.
B s m bs vs th t th    s f Rm, i fiti g d th,  
mst f thm h gd by th Ch isti m   s f  t tims, d
th ki ds f u ishm t   substitutd, th t th guity might
iv d  im ssi s f   t , d thi u ishm t   t
s m  du b x m .
XI . F m h t h s b s id, it m y b i f d, h u s f it is f
iv t Ch isti , hth f m mtivs f  s  i t st,  f m
ths f th ubi gd, t t k u  himsf th u ishm t f
ff d , d tiu y t i fit d th. Athugh, s it h s b
s id bf , it m y, IN SOME CASES, b d by th   f ti s. A
 missi , th t h s giv is t th  ud b ti, v ii g i
sm u t is f fu ishi g dv tu  s ith ubi i st uti s d
mmissi s t h s d  tu  i ts, h v thy m y b fu d.
But ths dv tu  s m y b  sid d s dish gi g ubi duty
th th s ti g u  thi  uth ity.
X . A ustm t u ik t hih v is i m y  s, f t
i g i dividu s t b i g  imi  h gs g i st th s t thi
  su : th t ffi b gi g t  s s i vstd ith ubi
uth ity t u d t k it. S th t      t ibut t ds
shddi g th bd f th , but s t f ss y duty. I
f   t this ustm,   f th u i f Eib is xudd
f m th mmu i y biv h h d b i st um t  i  usi g
th s i ti  d th f th .
X III.[54] It is    t  sid hth  ikd ts  f
th t ki d, hih  u ish b by hum  s. I  y t hih 
m y s th t thy  t i y  t.--I th fi st  , m  ts
f th mi d,   imi  i t ti s, thugh by subsqu t  fssi ,
 sm th id t, thy m y m t th k dg f th s, 
t u ish b by hum  s. B us, s it  s vd i f m
t f this t  tis, it is t  s t t th   f tu , th t
INTENTIONS ONLY shud giv is t y ight,  big ti m gst
m . A d i this s s th m xim f th Rm   is t b t k , THAT
NO ONE DESER ES PUNISHMENT FOR MERE THOUGHTS. Yt this ds t v t
i t ti s, h thy h v i fu  u  th  dut, f m bi g

 sid d s tu  dds, d qu y ds vi g f u ishm t.


XIX. I th s d  , v ut d ts,  t b u ishd by m
h  thy is th ugh sm i vit b i fi mity f hum tu . F
thugh th   b  si , x t h  th  is f dm f i,
yt t b t  tims f  f m  i fi mity d si , is m  th
 b x td f m th  diti f m . S th t S t , Hi s
d S  m g th Phis h s; Phi m g th Js; Thuydids
m g th hist i s; d i um b  it s m g Ch isti s h v
m i t i d th t si is i t v ith u v y tu . N y i dd,
dubt m y b  t t i d hth suh ts  ighty d   y
b  d si s. F thugh smi g t b vu t y ti s, thy i
b fu d, h mi uty  sid d, t t d f m f  d
dib t x is f th i. "L s, _s ys Put h i th if f
S _, shud b f md t suit ssib  ss, th gis t m y
bt i v y b fii   d by u ishi g f ff d s, h  th
i dis imi t u ishm t f mutituds ud b tt dd ith  gd
fft."
Th   sm ti s, hih thugh t im ut b t hum tu 
itsf,  i vit b  squ s f th i fu  f bdiy h bits
 th mi d. Ati s ik ths  u ish b i hum u ts, i g
t th  imi ity f vu t y  t ti g,  f t suffii ty
gu di g g i st, ths h bits.
XX. I th thi d  , hum u ts f justi  t t k g iz 
f ths ff s, hih ith di ty  i di ty, fft th
ubi  i dividu s. F   s  b ssig d, hy suh ff s
shud t b ft t th judgm ts f Gd, hs -si g y must
k  thm, hs quity i igh thm, d hs   u ish
thm. It ud b u ss y th f , d sum tuus i hum
t ibu s t ssum suh disi s. Hv  must x t f m this
u ths  tiv ki ds f u ishm t, dsig d f th f m ti
f ff d s, v h  thi  dut is   y i ju ius t th s.
Nith  ths ti s u ish b, hih  di ty  sit t
th vi tus f m ssi , ib ity,  g titud, i th  f m 
f hih vi tus tu  justi s f  m usi .
XXI. Th i t, ss iy t b  sid d xt, is th  i i ,
hth it is  fu sm tims t g t d . F th Stis
m i t i it t t b  fu, s m y b s f m f gm t i
Stb us, u d th tit f MAGISTRACY, f m Ci 's s h f
Mu  , d t ds th  usi f S  's bks  Cm y; but
thi gum ts  f  ius, d u subst ti . Thy s y "th t
d is th missi f  ty, th t OUGHT t b id; but is
m ds v y thi g, hih h OUGHT t d." H  th f  y is i
th us f th  d OUGHT. F if it m s th t ff d s
 ty, th t is, th t h m y b u ishd ithut i justi, it i
t ss iy f th t th  s h ds t u ish him, is
di g h t h ught t t d. But if th  d b t k t im y th t
gd m ,  is m , ught t  v ts, t x t th  ty,
it m y b bs vd i  y th t THIS ds t  ys h  , d
th f , i this s s, th  ty  u ishm t m y b  sid d,
t s dbt, but  y  missi . A d this i hd gd, bth
bf  d ft th st bishm t f    s.
XXII. Bf  th st bishm t f    s, u ishm t, by d
 dubt, might b i fitd; b us by th   f tu , v y
ff d m d himsf subjt t u ishm t; but it is t tu 

d i vit b  squ  f its bi g  fu, th t it shud b


 f d. F this d  ds u  th  ti bt th  ds, f
hih u ishm ts   st bishd, d th u ishm ts thmsvs. If
th  ds  sd th f   t immdi ty ss y, i m 
i t f vi,  if th  ds f diff  t ki d, but t ss is
d s ut y shud b dvisd,  th t th  ds  igi y dsig d
m y b bt i d by sm th m s, i  ths  ss, th ight f
u ishm t m y b s vd, th  bi g  immdi t  si t i fit
it. Thus f i st , h  ff  is k  t v y f, th  
b  immdi t  si f ubi u ishm t, by  y f xm  y
x su , hih i sm  ss might b v i ju ius t sity th
th dutiv f dv t g. U  hih Ci  i tt t his
b th m ks  ti  t m k, s ti g   Zuxis, bs vi g,
th t "h d h   b b ught i t u t, h ud t h v b
 sd, but th   s  ssity th t s h shud b m d f
him, i  d t b i g him t t i ."--I th xt   th ight d
 d f u ishm t m y b dis  sd ith, h  m 's  s vis, 
ths f his f miy  suffii t t utigh th  sid ti f his
ff s. "F , _i th  ds f S  _, t f ki d ss i ss
th f ut f i ju y."--A d i th  st  , h   f   ts
u  ff d , s m s f  ti d m dm t,  h  th
i ju d ty is s tisfid ith k dgm t f th ff , th
 si f u ishm t is d   y. It  s this mtiv t m y,
hih th s f D vid h d i vi, h  h bs vs th t it bhvs
th ightus t b m ifu. F s  u ishm t, s i y f th
m  sv   st, h s i it sm thi g, hih th' t  ug t t
justi, is t v i , t  st, ith h ity,  s  siy suff s
us t f b i fiti g it, u ss th t f b  is  sd by sm
ighti , just , d m  u d i b mtiv f h ity.
XXIII. C ss m y u h  it is bsuty ss y t i fit
u ishm t, s u  t ius, d t ius  imi s,  h  it
is f th ubi gd, t dis  s ith th t sv ity,  h 
th judii  uth itis m y us thi  dis ti i mitig ti g
  f i g th s t  f th  . U  hih S   ti  ty
m ks, th t th x is f  ity shud  ys b t f f 
dib ti . As t th dis uts f th Stis  ths i ts, thy
, i th  i i f Ci  d th s, db ts u   ds th
th thi gs:  squ ty thy  ss  thy f his hi 
 tm  ti .
XXI . Th  sms t b g  t diffiuty i didi g h t is t
b d , subsqu ty t th st bishm t f    s; b us
gis t is bu d, i sm m su , by his   s. But this, s it
 s vd i f m t f this t  tis, is  y t u ith s t
t th gis t , i his i dividu   ity, s iv t mmb f
th st t, but t i his ubi h t , i hih h  s ts
th h M jsty d Auth ity f th st t itsf. As suh, h 
 ti y    th  : f it is th tu  f  hum  s, t
d  d u  th i f th m k , t  y f thi  igi , but s
f thi du ti . Yt  giv ught t, u  t ivi  g u ds, t
   st tut, f , i s di g h ud b ti g g i st th us
f sv ig justi. But s th gis t h s  t    th
h f  , s i th  s f sm tiu  s ,  i dividu 
ti , h m y  x its igu , i g it t m i i th
s ts, s it std bf . As x m  f this, th ti s f
th Dity m y b itd, h,  di g t th tstim y f L t tius,
i  ti g his  s, did t d iv himsf f th x is f his
m y, t g t d s. "Th Em   , _s ys Augusti _, m y  
his s t , d d  s  imi ; b us, _ s h fu th

x  i s it_, th  s h h s  t m k  s, is t IN ARIABLY


bu d t bs v thm." Yt this ivig f d ti g f m th tt
must v b usd but f th mst im  t t  s s. Athugh suh
 s s  t b isy dfi d, yt it is  t i th t, si  th
st bishm t f ivi  , m  ighty  s  qui d t uth is
suh d s, th bf  th t  id. B us u ishm ts h v d ivd
dditi  s ti f m th uth ity f th  , hih ught t b
s td d bs vd.
XX . Th  s s f  si g y   f m th  tis f th  ,
 f t ki ds, ith i t   xt .
A i t   s , t justify d tu  f m th s t  f th
 , must b  , h  th u ishm t is sv  h m d ith th
ff .
XX I. A xt   s is   isi g f m sm f vu b
i umst  i th h t f th ff d ,  sm f i h s th t
m y b  t t i d f his futu   dut. A d ths  s s i h v
th mst ight i  ss, h  th tiu mtivs f m ki g th
   s t   t. F thugh g    s , u  sd by y
th f ighti ki d, m y suffii ty uth is th  ti f
 ; yt h  th ui  s , f hih th t    s m d, h s
 sd t xist, th  x ti f it,  v tt  dis  s ti
i b tt dd ith ss d g t th u iv s  uth ity f   i
g  .
Suh dis  s ti i dd is mst  b, h  ff  h s b
mmittd th ugh ig  , thugh th ty s mmitti g it is t
 ti y f  f m b m,  th ugh sm i vi ib i fi mity f mi d,
i  hih  ss, Ch isti u i h v y t th x m 
f Gd, h, u d th d v t, i td m y suh ff s
t b t d f by  t i x i t y ff i gs: Lvit. iv. d v.:
d, i th N Tst m t, h h s x ssy d d his i t ti t
d suh ff s, u  du   t . Luk xxiii. 34.; Hb. iv.
15. d v. 2.; 1 Tim. 1. 13. A d Ch ysstm bs vs, th t Thdsius,
im ssd ith ths  ds f u S viu , "F th , f giv thm, f
thy k  t h t thy d,"  s d t g t d t th   f
A tih.
XX II. A d h  it is vid t, h mist k F di d squz is
i his judgm t, h h m i t i s th t th   b  just  s
f dis  si g ith  , th t is, f  si g y   f m
its big ti s, x t h  th  giv , u  bi g  sutd,
x ssy d s th t h v i t dd it shud b bs vd t
its fu xt t. F h ds t m k th   disti ti bt
quit b i t t ti , d th  ti   x ti f  . F
hih  s , i th  , h  vs Thm s, d Stus, b us
thy s y th t   is bi di g thugh th tiu  s f its
bi g m d m y h v  sd, s if thy su sd th t th m  tt f
th    s th su  f its big ti ,  i i hih thy v
did  t t i . S f f m v y  x ti mi g u d th id f
quity,   y s  d; ths  x ti s m y b f y g td
 fusd, hih ud t b d  i m tt s f quity, t hih
v ts f h ity  ths f  s b iy d t st ity
b g. F th  is g  t diff   bt th    f  
u  f i  u g t g u ds, d gis t 's d i g th t t th
tim f ssi g th   h h d t th tiu ff    s i
 tm  ti .

H vi g thus f  sid d th tu  f dis  s ti s, 


vi f th m its u  hih thy m y b g td.

d t

XX III. F m h t h s b s id bv, it  s th t i u ishm ts,


t thi gs  t b g dd, th ff , d th bjt f hih
thy  i fitd. It is  s t t justi th t    shud
iv g  t u ishm t th h ds vs; u  hih Ci , i
  f his tt s, bs vs, th t, "th s m md ti , hih is
mm dd i  th thi gs, ught t b bs vd i u ishm ts."
P i i th f   s u ishm t stim ti f dm it; but this
qu ity st bishd bt  im d u ishm t, s ys Dmsth s i
his Ltt i bh f f th hid  f Lyu gus, is t th  y thi g
t b  sid d: th bjt d i t ti s f th di qu t must
b ighd d t k i t th u t. But, if   b t k t i fit
 m  u ishm t th is du f ff ; it m y b g  t 
ss, i   ti t th utiity t b d ivd f m th .
XXIX. I x mi i g th diff  t dg s f guit,  ught t t k
i t th u t th mtivs hih im d th ff d t mmit th
t--th mtivs, hih ught t h v st i d him th f m, d h
f h  s  b f yidi g t ith . S  y   ds ikd
ti ithut sm mtiv,  s f st i s himsf f th tu  f
m , s t dight i suh ts f m u  m ig ity. Mst m  d
 y by th i dug  f thi tits, hih  g d si . U d
th m f tit s m y b m h dd th st  g dsi  f
vidi g vi, hih is th mst  s t t tu , d th f  t
b k d m gst th mst  ud b f  dsi s. S th t ff s
mmittd f th s k f vidi g d th, im is m t, i , 
xt m  t  g  y dmd th mst xus b.
Whih g v  si t Dmsth s t s y, "th t   justy m 
x s  td g i st ths, h, bu di g i ihs, mmit vi
ti s, th g i st ths, h  im d by  t t d th s m.
Hum  judgs   ys  dy t m k   f ssity: but
h   th is u itd ith i justi,  txt  b  dd i
xus." O this s , Pybius xuss th A i s, f h vi g
gtd, h th  t d ith im  di g d g thmsvs, t fufi
th t ms f df siv t  ty m d ith th G ks g i st th
Ati s.
Bsids th dsi  f vidi g vi th   th dsi s t di g
t sm gd, ith    im gi y. R  dv t gs,  sid d
t f m vi tus, d ths ti s, hih h v vi tuus t d y,
 ith suh s giv dight thmsvs,  , ik bu d  f
ihs,  u  ths thi gs, hih dmi ist t  su . Am g
dv t gs u y im gi y,  m y k th t f dsi i g t x
th s, f m s i it f iv  y, th th f m y  ud b
i t ti ,  th  f g tifyi g s tm ts, hih th f th
thy dvi t f m tu  justi th m  shki g thy  t tu 
fi g. Ths tits th A st h s ds ibd i t ms f m kd
 su ,  i g thm, th "ust f th fsh, th ust f th y, th
id f if." H  th fi st mmb f th s t  x sss th
v f  su , th s d im is th i s ti b v f ihs,
d th thi d m h ds th u suit f v i g y, d th dsi  f
v g.
XXX. Th v y i justi f  ff s ught t b GENERAL mtiv
ith m , t st i thm f m th mmissi f thm. F t s t
  t  sid i g si s f y ki d, but ths, hih xt d
thi  squ s by d th ff d himsf, d fft th s.

A d i justi is th m  hi us d  imi  i


g  t ss f th i ju y, hih it i fits.

  ti t th

I th highst k f  ims d misdm u s th f ,  m y


  ths, hih   id i t m t xuti : d  i
th s   fi d ths  imi  dsig s, hih h v dd sm
dg s, but t t th  st st g f m ti . F th gg v ti
f  imi  i t t is m su d by th  gth t hih it gs. I
ith  ss th t ki d f i justi is mst t ius, hih t ds t
distu b th mm   f sity, d th f  is i ju ius t
g  t umb s. P iv t   gs f i th xt dg . Th g  tst
f hih  ths ffti g if, d v y g  t, thugh smh t
i f i i th dg s f   mity,  ths, th t distu b th  
f f miis, hih is fu dd  th m i g- t t. A d th  st
ds i ti f   gs  ths ffti g th   ty f i dividu s,
ith by t ki g it ith   vi ,  bt i i g  i ju i g it by
f udu t m s.
Sm  f  i i th t m  u t  d f divisi might h v
b usd; but th t hih is h  fd is th s m usd by Gd
himsf i th div y f his mm dm ts. F u d th m f
 ts  i udd t  y ths, h  tu y suh, but
sv ig i s, m gist ts, d u s f v y ds i ti , hs
uth ity is th ky-st  f th f b i f sity. Nxt fs th
hibiti f mu d ; th hibiti f dut y, s vi ti f
th m i g b d; th hibiti f thft, d f s vid : d
th  t gu f ff s  uds ith th hibiti f  imi 
dsi s. Am g th immdi t  uss t st i th mmissi f
 im, t  y th  uty f th t itsf, but  th mt d
ssib  squ s shud b t k i t th u t. If fi  is
bgu ,  th b i s, th t k ut th  vs,  b k d , th
 t t b i gs u  his  h d th bd f thus ds, d 
th guit f th t ui by hih thy  ish.
I dditi t th g   h t s f i justi bv ds ibd, 
m y x th  im f bi g u dutifu t  ts, u ki d t  tivs,
 u g tfu t b f t s, hih   h f thm vi ti f
tu , d i sm s ts f ivi  . Th  titi f ths
ff s t gg v ts thi   mity: b us ikd h bits 
smtims  s th ikd ti s. H   m y m h d th
tu  justi f th t u, hih th P si s fd, m i g
th st if f ff d ith his s t t sg ssi . A d this
ught t h v sm ight i  ss h   im ds t  igi t
f m h bit, but f m mm t y  si . But t s, h  u s
f f m titud h s b h gd i t u v id u s f
ikd ss. F i suh  ss, Gd himsf h s d d by th muth
f his  ht Ezki, th t h h s  g d t th f m if.
Ev f   it s h v th s m  vis u  th subjt; f
Thuydids bs vs, th t dg  y f m ightus t ikd
u s i u s dub u ishm t: f ff s   st d b i
ths, h k  th diff   bt ight d   g. I this s t
 is d dmi ti  du t th isdm f th imitiv
Ch isti s, h, i stim ti g th m g itud f ff s, ighd
th di g d th subsqu t  dut f t sg ss g i st
th ti , f hih h  s t b u ishd, s m y b s f m th
u i f A y , d th u is. It hight s th   mity f
ff , h  it is mmittd i vi ti f x ss hibiti
f th  . F , i th  gu g f T itus, "th f f hibiti
m y smtims   t s st i t, but h  m   t i
dfi  f th t, f d sh m h v st  thi f ."

XXXI. Th  ity f th  s t, ith s t t judgm t,


dis siti , g, du ti , d v y th i umst  must b t k
i t  sid ti , h  k f sist ,  submissi t th
suggsti s f ikd i i ti s. Th thught f immdi t d g
ugm ts f , d  t, u  yd i i f ms g ; s th t i
ith  s th  m dit ts f  s  t b h d. Off s
th f  s i gi g f m th i fu  f suh im ssi s,  f
ss dius m xi th ths isi g f m th v f  su ,
 th i dug  f h t d. B us th  is ss xus f ti s
f th  tt ki d, th d y,  tt  f b  f hih ud
 si  s ius i  v i . F it must  ys b k t i
mi d, th t h  th   m   fu im dim ts t th x is
f judgm t, d m  u g t  su sivs t tu  fi g, th
 imi ity f ff  is   ti by sft d. A d ths  th
us f m su i g th dg s f d  u ishm t.
XXXII. Th Pyth g  s m i t i th t justi is i   ti i g
th u ishm t t th ff : u hih  t b dmittd t
th fu xt t f qui i g gg ss t suff thi g m 
th b  quit  f th i ju y h h s  si d. F this is t
v i  ith th mst  ft  s, hih i  ss f thft smtims
qui  fu fd, d smtims fivfd stituti t b m d. A d
th Ath i  , bsids m i g thif t y dub th v u
f h t h h d t k s t d him t m y d ys' im is m t. Am g
th I di s, s   i f md by St b, th  s , h h d m imd
th ,  s  dm d, i dditi t th  ty f t i ti , t
s his h d. N is it ight, s Phi, i x  i i g th u ishm t
f mu d , justy bs vs, f th suff i g f i  t d guity
 s t b x ty th s m. A d h  it is  sy t s hy  t i
 ims t  id i t tu  xuti , d th f  ss i ju ius
th ths, hih  s,  u ishd  y   ti by t th
dsig .--I this m  f s it sss   t  td by th Jish  ;
d by th Rm  , ths h  kd  dy md t mmit mu d .
C squ ty g  t dg  f u ishm t is du, h  th  imi 
i t ti is m td. But s d th is th sv st u ishm t th t
 b i fitd, d   th t  v b   td; th s t  f
 hum   sts th : thugh by th ustm f sm u t is d th
is m id ith t tu , i  ss f xt m t ity.
XXXIII. I m y i st s, th m g itud f u ishm t   y b
m su d by th situ ti f th  s  hm it is t b i fitd.
Thus fi  im sd u  th  ud b h vy s t , thugh
it ud s y fft th ih; d m f high k ud f
th ight f disg , th t ud but ighty tuh ig b
 s . Suh disti ti s  f qu ty usd by th Rm  , ft
dg  ti g i t ts f ti ity; f ut f m hih th   f
Mss is  ti y f . A d th bv us m y b  sid d s th
s  f stim ti g th diff  t dg s f u ishm t.
XXXI . Thugh u ishm t ds t xd th bu ds f justi, yt i
 t i  ss it m y b mitig td i f vu f  imi , f m mtivs
f m y, x t h  suh  ity t th guity is dmd  uty t
th i  t, hs s fty is th by  d g d. F th s  f
 imi  is ft  u gm t t his   sv  i i iquity,
d t th t f th s, h   u gd by th x m . Nssity
i dd qui s th sh st mdis f th su ssi f  ims;
s i y, h  th i  tivs f h bit d f iity t mmit thm
v i.

XXX . Th divi    giv t th Hb s u ishd th st i g f
 tt f m stu  ith m  sv ity th b  ki g i t hus,
 u t f th  s ith hih th f m f ths  ims might
b mmittd. Exd. xxii. 1-9. Justi i s  ki g f th Sythi s,
ds ibs thm s " u ishi g thft ith m  sv ity th y th
 im; f s thy h v  v d h bit ti s t tt thi fks,
d h ds f m d d ti s, h t ud b s f, if thivi g  
d?" Thugh th FAMILIARITY f  t i  ims m y v t us f m
bi g su isd t thi  t ti , it by  m s dimi ishs thi
t ity,  dm ds mitig ti f u ishm t. But, s S tu i us
s ys, "th gi t-st ids f  ims must b im dd ith th st  gst
b ds." I t i s f ff s, m y m y b i dugd, but i th
ssi g f  s sv ity shud b g dd: F th GENERAL tu 
f   qui s th t ff s shud b u sud ith igu : but i
t i s, i hih i dividu s  th bjts   d, th  m y b
i umst s t gg v t  dimi ish th ff : hih  vs m
f th dis ti y x is f igu   ity.
XXX I. d XXX II. Th i i ti t mitig t  tis, h 
th u g t mtivs t  f  thm   g xist, is i t f
m ssi  fty disti t f m th biti f u ishm t
tgth .
N h s y thi g b mittd, th t might t d t  u this
diffiut d di t qusti . But v y i t,  t ust, h s b
x mi d i its    , ith s ti g th m g itud f
 ims, s m su d by th i ju y d , th h bitu  mmissi f suh
ff s,  th i fu  f th mtivs, suffii t t  u g 
st i thm. I dd th h t f th ff d ff ds th mst
 usiv m s f judgi g f his  ity t mmit th  im; d
th t f th suff  ft  t ibuts smthi g t ds  bi g us
t stim t th du   ti f th  ty. Th i umst s f
th tim, h --th  , h -- th f iity, ith hih  im
is  t td, t d t gg v t,  ss its   mity. Th  gth
f tim i t v i g bt  imi  dsig d its xuti givs
us sm   tu ity t x mi  h f th  t t  s tu td
by m iius u s. But th t u m xi f  im is t b
disv d, ty f m th tu  f ths tits, t hih it
s its bi th; d ty,  th th h d, f m th tu  f th
mtivs hih ught t h v st i d thm. By this  ss f tits
th m g itud f  im m y b judgd f; d th  squ s  th
mtivs hih shud   t t st i thm.
XXX III. It h s b sh bf , d it is t uth fu dd u 
hist i  f t, th t  s  u d t k , s ts f u ishm t, d
this mtiv, ddd t th t f d ss f i ju is, is th su , f m
hih th dutis f ti s,  ti g t  , t k thi is. But it
is t v y i ju y, th t  b  st ud i t just g u d f  .
F  s, hs v g  is m t t tt th i  t, d t f 
u  th guity, d t g d v y  s, s suffii t  t f
thi x ti . S th t th  is muh t uth i th  i i f S t ,
h s ys th t th   t ivi  d mm ff s, hih it is btt
t ss v u tid, th t u ish.
XXXIX. Th m xim  id d by C t, i his s h i df  f th
Rhdi s, th t it is t ight y   shud b u ishd u  th
b  sus ii f his h vi g i t dd t mmit gg ssi  i ju y,
 s  id i th t  ; b us  sitiv d  f th
  f Rhds ud b gd g i st thm,   s th  y th
f by d th CONJECTURE f thi  v i g i thi iy. But this

m xim is t u iv s y t u.


F h  i t ti h s dd t y ut d d visib sig s f
i s ti b mbiti d i justi, it is dmd   bjt f
j usy, d v f u ishm t. U  this i i , th Rm s, s
m y b s f m Livy's u t i th xii. bk d xxx. h t f
his hist y, thught thmsvs justifid i d i g  g i st
P sus, Ki g f M d , u ss h g v s tisf t y f, th t h
h d  hsti i t ti s g i st thm, i th v  d miit y
m m ts, hih h  s  i g. A d   i f md by th s m
hist i s, th t th Rhdi s u gd it s u st bishd by th
 s d ustms f  iviizd st ts; th t if y   ishd th
dst uti f  my, h ud t u ish him ith d th, u ss h
h d tu y d  smthi g t ds v it.
But it is t v y u just dsig , thugh i di td by sm ut d
t, hih  uth iz d di t hstiitis. F if th tu 
mmissi f  ims d gg ssi s is, i sm  ss,   t b
v kd, muh m  i it b m k f dib t  uti t us
th s m f b , h  thi g fu th th th u  dsig f
gg ssi  s. A f b  hih Ci  justifis u  th
ssibiity th t th  my m y h v   td f his dsig , bf  th
xuti f it. N  usiv i f    b d  f m th sv ity
f Ms i L  g i st  i t dd ts f im ity d mu d . F , i
m i g hum  s ith th divi  u ss, hs d ths   t
su d,   i b t u i t   ; d th im us f g ,
h  it is tt dd ith  f t   squ , is  s i hih th
i fi mity f hum tu   s f d . F th' th  ts f
th d gu  dsig d t  y st i t u  u  fu dsi s
s  s u  u  fu ti s, yt i dditi t th s i itu 
s s, th t hih is  d th  ,  xt  mm dm t is
t ths dis siti s th t  m ifstd by sm   t. This
i t t ti m y b ddud f m ss g i th gs  f St. M k,
. x. 19, h  th hibiti t df ud is immdi ty dd by
th i ju ti t t st . S th t i t dd gg ssi s  t t b
u ishd by f  f ms, x t i  ss f t ity, h  th v y
dsig th  t s  squ s f th g  tst d g . A u ishm t
th f  must h v i vi ith su ity g i st futu  gg ssi s,
 ti f th i ju y d  t ti   iv t h u ,  it
must b usd s x m  f fu sv ity.
XL. It is   s t bs v th t ki gs d ths h  ssssd
f sv ig  h v ight t x t u ishm t t  y f
i ju is ffti g immdi ty thmsvs  thi  subjts, but
f g ss vi ti s f th   f tu  d f ti s, d  t th
st ts d subjts. F th ib ty f i fiti g u ishm t f th
  d f  f sity, hih b gd t i dividu s i th
 y gs f th  d,  s  v td i t th judii  uth ity f
sv ig st ts d i s; ight dvvi g u  thm t  y
s u s f th s, but s subjt t th  t u f   thy
 . F th t is ight, hih  b g t  subjt. It is
v s f t  v th  ti  ss ti f m 's  ights, 
th u ishm t f his   gs, t his  judgm t; f h  t b
 ti y disi t std i his   us. P ti ity i m k him f 
sh t f,  judi i m k him xd th bu ds f justi. It
 s th thm f is bstd u  th h s f tiquity, th t
i thi mst duus u d t ki gs thy v gd th   gs f th s
th th thi  . U  this i i  th   b  hsit ti
i  u i g   s t b just, th t  m d u  i ts, g  
bb s, d  mis f th hum . S f this  i i g s

ith th t f I  tius d th s, h m i t i   t b  fu


g i st ths h h v  u d th tis d   f tu . A  i i
di ty th v s is hd by it i , squz, Az ius, Mi ,
d th s, h dm gg ssi d  t i , his gv m t,
 his subjts,  ivi ju isditi v th gg ss , th  y
justifi b  t f i fiti g u ishm t, tiu y th
u ishm t f hstiitis. F thy su s u ishm t t b fft
u y isi g f m th uth ity f ivi  , h  s,  di g t
th fs st bishd i th bgi i g f this t  tis, it  s sh
t b ight suti g  ti y f m th   f tu .
If th  i i f ths, f m hm  diff , b dmittd,   my
i h v ight t u ish th , by th suti f just  ;
ight, hih tithst di g is d d  fi md by th ti
f  ti s, t  y ft th df t f  my, but du i g th
 ti u  f  ; d th t t, t f m y ivi ju isditi ,
but f m tu  ight, hih v id  g bf  th fu d ti f
st ts, d hih sti xists i  its f , i  s, h  th
mmu ity  sists f f miis disti t, d u itd s th subjts f
  sv ig .
XLI., XLII., XLIII. But  t i  uti s  ss y t v t
us f m bi g  id  y by  i i th t ivi ustms, thugh
fu dd u  just  s s, d ivd m g m y ti s,  t b
k d s t f th   f tu . A d i th xt  , it is
ss y t gu d g i st  um ti g s hibiti s f tu   ,
thi gs hih  t vd t b s, s  t i ki ds f m i gs th
t ki g f i t st f th us f m y, d th sitiv i ju ti s
f th divi ,  Ms i  . Th thi d u is, t m k u t
disti ti bt g   i i s, suh s th duty f ivi g
 di g t th dit ts f  s , d ths f m  tiu
thugh t ss bvius m i g; s th duty f f b i g t t k h t
b gs t th . T hih m y t uths m y b ddd thugh t quit
s  sy f h si : m g hih m y b md th  uty f th t
ki d f u ishm t, hih  sists i v g, dighti g i th i
f th . This is mthd f f simi t th t hih u s i
m thm tis, th ss f hih iss f m sf-vid t t uths t
dm st ti s, th  tt f hih, thugh t i tigib t 
ik, u  du x mi ti bt i ss t.
As th i m tt s f ivi  , ig   is dmd xus, s ith
s t t th   f tu , h v i fi mity f u d st di g f ms
i vi ib bst uti t th k dg f its us, suh i fi mity
m y b gd s vi di ti . F s, i  ss f u vid b
ig   g  t dg  f th guit f si is mvd; s it is i
sm m su  sft d h v this ig   subsists, thugh it m y
b i g t f m gig . A d f this  s , A istt m s
b b i s, i thi ud, u f md st t, t  s s, hs tits
  d d siky by dis s. Put h s bs vs th t th  
 t i i fi mitis d dis d s, hih tu y i ft th su.
O  f , by  y f  usi  m y dd th t  s u d t k
t i fit u ishm t m y b sus td f i justi, x t th  b
m ifst d   mus gg ssi s, ith th  s i i g  uss, t
vi di t ti s f h vi g u s t ms.
XLI . Th g ss f th  k h s ss iy d t th  sid ti
f ff s g i st Gd; th  ity  im  ity f u ishi g
hih by f  f ms is fit subjt f i qui y.
Admitti g th ffi m tiv t f th qusti ,  m y bs v th t s

i si sti  ff i s Bish s  i t ustd ith C thi, 


g    ; s ki gs, bsids th   f thi  immdi t st ts
d subjts, m y b g dd s tt s f th hum . Th bst
gum t,  th g tiv sid f th qusti , g i st th justi f
suh  s, is th suffii y f th divi  m i t  t v g its
   gs. Yt th s m m y b s id f th ff s. F th Dity
sssss suffii t  t u ish thm, thugh h  vs thm
t th s t  f hum t ibu s. Sm i u g d m i t i th t
th ki ds f ff s  u ishd  y i  ss, h  th s 
u i ju d   d g d by th mmissi f thm. O th th h d,
it m y b s id th t m u ish t  y ff s, hih di ty hu t
th s, but v ths, hih fft thm i di ty, s suiid d
th simi  ims.
Athugh igi is   bt th su f m d his
M k  , its i fu   hum m s is f  i  sid b
im  t . S th t P t h d  s t   it th bu k f
uth ity d  , d th b d f v y thi g v  b i si 
 d d disi i . Ev y f s  i i i divi  thi gs, s ys
Put h, is  iius, bt yi g itsf i th dis d s f th
im gi ti , h v it t ks t, d s i gs u i t ti . S
th t A istt k s th   d su  t f igi th fi st f
ubi   s. This is t uth yi g t t y tiu st t,
but t  gv m ts, d t hum sity i v y sh . A v 
hih X  h m ks th h t isti f g  t d is i ,
tt ibuti g t Cy us d ti f his fi m  su si th t th m 
his subjts f d Gd, th m  bdi t h shud fi d thm t his
 s, d th m  tt hd t his  s . But   mv th mtivs
f igi , s ys Tuy, d yu dst y f ith, th i t u s
bt m d m , d justi th mst x t f  vi tus.
Th  i i s f E iu us ff d suffii t f f this: f i
b ishi g th vid  f Gd f m his systm, h m d justi
thi g but m ty m, s i gi g f m hum  v ti s, fu dd 
sf-i t st, d st i i g m f m th mmissi f  ims by 
th i i  but th t f f .
But th  is id s h , th th i t  f  f i d  d t
st ts,  hih igi   ts. I th s t sity, hih
v y ki gdm, st t,  u t y f ms ithi itsf, th   f
igi m y  si y b su id by th i fu  d xuti
f mu ii   s. But i  th t s ti s f th g  t mmu ity
t  g, h  ivi  s  si t, d t ibu s giv  y t th
disi f th s d, th   f tu  d f ti s, fu dd u 
th f f Gd, d bdi  t his i, is th st d d f ight
t hih Ki gs d Sv ig st ts  ; vi ti f hih is
g dd s vi ti f th divi   .
XL . But t t k s vi f th subjt,  must bs v th t
t u igi , hih is th s m t   ids f tim, sts u 
fu vid t d u iv s y k dgd t uths. Th fi st f hih
is th bi g d u ity f Gd,--th s d, th t Gd is t y f
th thi gs, th t  b s , but f tu  t subim t b th
bjt f hum   ti ,  f hum sight,--th thi d is, th t ith
th y f his vid  h g ds th v ts f this  d, d
gu ts thm ith th mst quit b d u  i g judgm ts,--th
fu th is, th t h is th   t f  thi gs, x t himsf. A d
ths fu t uths  u fdd d  id d i qu  umb f
mm dm ts, th fi st f hih  i y d s th u ity f Gd--th
s d f bids y  s t ti , by i ti g  im g, t b m d f

th t bi g, h is i visib t m t  y. T itus b s tstim y t


th s i itu  tu  f th Jish igi : f h s ys, th t "th
Js h v thi g but m t    ti f   Gd, d thy k
u  v y ttm t t  s t him u d th   f hum f m,
s f ti f his h v y tu ."--F m th thi d mm dm t
 ddu his k dg f  hum t s ti s, v f u v y
thughts; m isi  u  hih th big ti d s tity f
 ths is fu dd. F Gd is it ss v f th s t dsig s
f th h t, s th t v y sm  th is   t his justi
d his  , f th vi di ti f t uth, d th u ishm t f
f shd.--Th fu th mm dm t s ts us ith u t f th
  ti f th  d, t mmm t hih Gd i td th s bb th,
mm di g it t b bs vd ith dg  f v   bv v y
th s  d i stituti . F th vi ti f y th its, suh
s ths s ti g f bidd m ts,  s ft t th dis ti y
u ishm t f th  : but ff s g i st th s bb th    it ;
b us,  sid i g th tu  d dsig f its  igi , suh  tm t
im id disbif, th t th  d  s   td by Gd. N th
  ti f th  d by Gd ff ds t it f f his gd ss,
isdm, t ity d  : d th fft f this  tm  tiv
k dg is th ff i g f h u , v,  shi d bdi  t
Gd. S th t A istt s ys th t th m , h d is th t Gd ught t
b h u d,   ts vd, shud b t ught t  u  his   ,
t by  s i g, but by u ishm t. A d, i th  , h bs vs
th t sm ti s      t i  si s, but v   f
th m jsty f Gd is quisit t  tims, d i   s.
Th t uth f ths  tm  tiv  i i s m y u dubtdy b vd
f m th tu  f thi gs; th  st f hih fs is th vid 
f s s, shi g th xist  f thi gs, hih tu y  ds us t
 sid th tim, h thy h d  bi g.
But s   t b t u d st d ths gum ts d th s f
th s m ki d, it is suffii t t bs v th t i  gs d 
u t is f th  d, ith v y f x ti s, ths  i i s h v
fu d g    ti ith ths h   t  i i thi
d i gs, d i g uus i thi dsig s, t im s u  th s, d
ith m y, h h d t muh s g ity t b divd thmsvs. But
h mid suh v ity f  s, ustms, d  i i s, th  is s
g   g m t u    i t; th t g m t m y b ddud s
f, th t suh bif s its  igi t th imitiv gs f
th  d, f m h  it h s b d ivd t us: h   sid t
th t it h s v b  y futd, it is suffii t  s t
st bish u f ith.
XL I. Th  is  xus th f  f th jti f ths  i i s,
v i  ss, h  th  is  i tuitiv s g ity t disv 
fs,  t m h d d  s: s th   s m y guids bth i
tu  d  s t  d m t th k dg f ths t uths, d
s  sid gum ts h v v b dud t st bish  t y
bif. But s hum u ishm ts f m th subjt f u s t
i qui y, it is ight t m k disti ti bt  i i s thmsvs,
d th m  f dvi ti g f m thm. Th bif i su m bi g,
d i th  t u f his vid  v hum ff i s, is   f
ths u iv s  t ts t b fu d i  igi s, hth t u 
f s. A d i  ity t d y th bi g f Gd, d t d y th
i t s  f his vid  i hum ff i s, mu ts i its m 
 squ s t th s m thi g. A d it is f this  s ths t
 i i s h v b i s by u itd i  gs, d m g v y
iviizd  . C squ ty  fi d, th t i   gv d

st ts, hsm  s h v b  td t st i ths, h distu b


ths  i i s, hih h v  ys b g dd s th hif su  t
f si   d ; d   tm t, sh t ths  i i s, h s
 ys b  sid d s  tm t sh t sity itsf, hih it
 squ ty h s ight t u ish.
XL II. Th   th t uths t qu y sf-vid t, suh s ths,
th t th   t m  Gds th  ; th t  visib thi g, ith
th  d,  th h v s,  th su ,  th i is Gd; th t th
 d, d th m tt f hih it is f md, h v t xistd f m
 t ity, but   m d by Gd. S th t  s th k dg f
ths t uths disfigu d, d mst  ti y bit td m g m y
ti s by th  s f tim. A d this might th m   siy h  ,
s th     g  visi s m d t s v th u ity f
ths t uths, hih   t  sid d s ss ti  t th v y
xist  f  igi . Th   i dd giv t th t  , h
  i st utd i th  k dg f ths t uths, by th muths
f th  hts, by mi s s ith thi  ys,  b ught t
thi  s by th   ts f th mst u dubtd tstim y, th t  ,
thugh it x sss th g  tst bh   f th  shi f f s
gds, ds t i fit th u ishm t f d th u    vitd f
th t  im, but  y i tiu i st s, h  thy h v sdud
th s i t id t y,-- h  st t h s i t dud th  shi
f u k  Gds,-- h  th t u  shi f Gd, d bdi  t
his  s h v b f s k f th  shi f th st s, hih St.
P u  s s vi g th   tu  bv th   t , ff , hih
 s, f sm tim, u ishd m g th ds d ts f Es u. Ths
t h ff d thi hid  t Mh, th t is, t S tu ,  
u ishd ith d th. Yt th C its, d th ighbu i g ti s,
h h d  g b su k i t th mst d vd su  stiti s,   t
 sig d by Gd t immdi t u ishm t, but   ft t fi u th
m su  f thi  ims. A d th    th ti s, h , i th
 gu g f S i tu , Gd i kd t th tims f this ig  . Wh 
m h v h d  m s f ivi g t th k dg f t u Gd, s
thi su  stiti s d   s  xus b, s h , i ds it f
k dg, thy h v difid D m s, d vis, hih thy k  t b
suh, thi su  stiti s  t t b  d   s, but im itis.
A d  ss im ius is th su sd hm g, th t is id t Gd ith
th bd f i  t hum vitims, d D ius ki g f th P si s,
d G ki g f Sy us,  mm dd f bst i i g f m suh
tis. Put h i f ms us f sm b b i s, h ud h v b
u ishd by th Rm s f ff i g hum vitims t th dity, h d
thy t  dd th tiquity f th ustm, hih  s dmittd s
xus, thugh thy   st ity  ji d t t f th s m
ustm i futu .
XL III. F m th ki d f vid   hih Ch isti ity sts, it
is  i th t  f  shud b usd ith ti s t mt its
 t . It is t m y by tu  gum ts it  g i ss t;
f it h s m d dditi f m y thi gs t tu  igi . Its
vid  sts u  th hist y f Ch ist's su ti , d u 
th mi s  f md by himsf d his A sts. S th t it is
m tt f f t vd by th mst u d i b vid , d f g  t
tiquity. Th f  dt i  f this ki d  t b th ughy
ivd u  th fi st h i g f it, ithut th s t ssist 
f Gd: ssist  t giv s  d f th m it f  ks; s
th t h v it is ithhd  ss  iusy bstd; it is d  f
 s s, hih thugh just,  g  y u k  t us, d th f 
t u ish b by hum judgm ts. F it is th ustm i th s  d
 iti gs t ssig th divi   su  s th  us f thi gs u k 

t us.
Th  is th  s f  ss ight, hih is th t Ch ist
bi g th uth f   , i h v    b ught t mb 
his dt i  by th f f hum u ishm ts. N is th  s
t   k d by th bjti d  f m th b f th
m i g-su  , h  it is s id th mss g s  mm dd t
m  th gusts t m i . F th t m, COMPEL, h  sig ifis
thi g m  th  st  t  ty, s s, i hih it is usd i
th ts f th N Tst m t, im yi g  st qust m d t
y  .
XLIX. But t bst ut th t h s f Ch isti ity by i s d
 tis is u dubtdy  t y t tu    d  s : f
th dt i  f Ch ist, t f m  th  u ti s ddd by th
i v ti s f m ,  t i s thi g hu tfu, but v y thi g b fii 
t sity. Th thi g s  ks f itsf, d v ths h  
st g s t th dt i  itsf   bigd t k dg th t uth
f this. Pi y s ys th t th Ch isti s bu d thmsvs by  th t
mmit ith thft,  bb y,  t vi t thi  d. It  s
mm s yi g "C ius Sius is gd m , but h is Ch isti ."
N i dd  y d g b h dd f m th s  di g f
dt i s,  u td t i s i  g  t s tity f m  s, d th
u st i i s f bdi  t  fu sv ig s. Phi h s  dd
b utifu s yi g f Augustus, h bs vd th t th ssmbis f th
Js   t B h i vs,  mti gs t distu b th ubi
 , but shs f vi tu.
L. It sms u just t  sut ith u ishm ts ths h iv
th   f Ch ist s t u, but  t t i dubts    s  sm
xt  i ts, t ki g thm i mbiguus m i g  diff  t f m
th i t Ch isti s i thi x  ti f thm. A i t hih is
vd by h t h s b s id bv, d by th i t x m  f th
Js. F , ssssi g  , hih d thm t i fit tm  
u ishm ts, thy v x isd th t uth ity u  th S ddus,
h d id th dt i  f su ti : dt i  f th g  tst
t uth, thugh but f i ty div d i th t  , d u d ty i 
i ti f  ds d i umst s.
But if th  shud b y ighty   , th t dis i g judgs ud
 siy fut by   t s  d uth ity,  t th  i i s
f tiquity; h  t it ud b ss y t m k   f
i g ftd  i i s, th t h v g  u t f m i s b t f
th hum mi d, d f th z us tt hm t f v y   t his 
t ts; vi hih G  s ys is m  diffiut t b  di td
th y  stituti  dis s.

CHAPTER XXI.
ON THE COMMUNICATION OF PUNISHMENT.
H ss is  i b t u ishm t--Sv ig P i s 
St ts s b f th mis dut f thi subjts, h thy
k  it, d d t  d vu t v t it--Sv ig s bu d t
t tt ff di g subjts, but t div thm u  u ish
thm--Th ights f su i ts b g t th u f tu t d t

t th guity--Su i ts m y b ttd hi th i qui y


i t thi  s is sti  di g--H f st ts  m b t
u ishm t--A th diff  t x ti s st td--Chid  t
s b f th ff s f  ts--Th m  gv m t f
Gd i this s t  sid d--I dividu s t s b f
ff s, t hih thy h v t giv  s t--Hi s, h f
s b f th ts f thi st s.
I. Th xt t i f i qui y  ts t th mmu i ti f
u ishm t, s i fitd u  m is, h, i th t  ity,
 t b s id t b u ishd f th guit f th s, but f thi
 . A d f m h t h s b s id bv u  th ss sust i d f m
i ju y, it m y b u d std h  th  s s, th t m u d this
ds i ti . F th t  shi i ss, d th t  shi i guit
 gu td by  y th s m i i s. Yt th big ti t
 i ss ds t  ys im y guit, x t h  th  h s b
y t ius m i, i hih  s v y d m g  d s th ty,
h h s  si d it, i b t m k  ti . S th t  s s
 d i g th mmissi f y ikd  hsti t, givi g th
quisit  s t t it, su yi g th gg ss ith ssist , 
tti ,  , i y th sh , t ki g f th  im, by givi g
u s, mm d ti ,  ss t t his t,  h thy h v  t
f bid th mmissi f suh t, by f b i g t x is thi
uth ity,  by fusi g t ff d th suu , hih thy  bu d
by th   f tu ,  by t  ty t giv t th i ju d ty, by t
usi g ith th ff d th t  f dissu si , hih thy h v
ight t d,   sty by   i g h t thy ught t m k k  , i
 ths  ss, suh  s s  u ish b s m is, if thy
  vitd f th t dg  f m i, hih  stituts  im, d
m its u ishm t: i ts hih h v bf  b disussd.
II. Th  s i b m d   by x m s. A ivi mmu ity is
 m  bu d th y th sity by t f i dividu  mmb s,
x t th t t b d  by its x ss  s t d uth ity,  it h s
gtd t dis v suh di g. H  it is f m y sti u td
i mst  t  tis th t  ts  gg ssi s  t b s ibd
t st t, x t ths, hih  d  i th m f th sv ig ,
d by  s s ti g x ssy u d th uth ity f his mmissi .
S f th is t s b f th mis dut f his hid  ,
m st f th t f his s v ts,  u f th ts f ths
u d him, u ss th   s i y f ths sm  iv , 
 u gm t i mti g th t mis dut,  ths ts.
I th  s f sv ig 's s  sibiity f th ts f his
subjts, th   t thi gs t b  sid d, hih qui  mi ut
i qui y, d m tu  dib ti , d ths  th f b ,
d th  u gm t  tti , hih h h s sh t thi
t sg ssi s.
As t f b , it is k dgd i t, th t h h k s f
di qu y, hih h ith f bids  u ishs, h h is bth
b d bu d t d s, h bms ss y t th guit th f.
Ci , i his s h g i st Pis, s ys, "it m ks  g  t diff  
s i y i  su, hth h h sss th gv m t by mvi g
ui us  s, d m ki g mishivus s hs,  suff s th s t d
th s m. If s v h s mmittd mu d ith th k dg f his
m st , th m st bms s b f th  ti  dd, s it  s
d  ith his  u  ."

But, s  h v s id bf , bsids th k dg f dd, t


 stitut tii ti i th guit, th  s s k i g it,
must ssss th  t v t it. A d this is h t is m t by th
g  h s, th t th k dg f  im, h it is  d d t
b u ishd, is t k i th s s f f b    iv , d
it is su sd th t th  s , h ught t h v v td it, did
t d s. I this   k dg im is  u   f i, d
 iv   u   f dsig . A m st th f  is t bu d by
th t f s v, h h s  imd his f dm, d d  y thi g i
ds it f his m st , b us th k dg f  im ithut biity
t v t it, by dissu   sm th m s,  t b  st ud
i t t f guit. S  ts  bu d by th ts f hid  ; but
 y i  ss h  thy h v th hid  u d thi uth ity. O
th th h d, th' by h vi g thm i thi  , thy might h v
v td thi mis dut, thy i t b s b f it, u ss
thy h d k dg f it s. F th  ught t b  u  
f k dg, d f b    u gm t t i vv y   i
th guit f th 's ti s; i umst s  f hih by ity
f  s i g m y b id t th  ti bt sv ig s d
subjts:  ti fu dd  i i s bth f tu  d ivi
 .
III. Th m tt th t ss iy ms xt u d  sid ti
is th  s f ths, h s  di qu ts f m u ishm t. It
 s bf  bs vd th t,  di g t th   f tu ,   
ud i fit u ishm t, but  s  ti y f  f m th guit
f th  im hih h  s gi g t u ish. But si  st bishd
gv m ts   f md, it h s b sttd u, t  v th
ff s f i dividu s, hih fft thi  mmu ity, t ths
st ts thmsvs,  t thi u s, t u ish  d thm t
thi dis ti . But thy h v t th s m  y uth ity, 
dis ti , s ti g ff s, hih fft sity t  g, d
hih th i d  d t st ts  thi u s h v ight t u ish,
i th s m m  , s i v y u t y  u ti s  d f
 t i misdm  s. Muh ss is y st t t ib ty t ss v
i y f its subjts  ims ffti g th i d  d t st ts 
sv ig s. O hih u t y sv ig st t  i  h s ight
t qui  th  t u ish y f its subjts ff di g i th
bv md s t: ight ss ti  t th dig ity d su ity f
 gv m ts.
I . But s it is t usu  f   st t t  th md f 
f th t  t h t it is u d th txt f i fiti g
u ishm t u  ff d , it is ss y th t th  , i
hs ki gdm ff d sids, shud u  th m  i t f th
gg ivd ty, ith u ish him itsf,  div him u t th
dis ti f th t ty. I um b i st s f suh dm ds t
div u ff d s u bth i s  d d f  hist y. Thus
th th Is its qui d th B j mits t div u ff d s,
Jud. xx.--A d th Phiisti s dm dd f th Hb s th su  d f
S ms , s  imi , Jud. xv.--I th s m m  th G us m d
dm d th t th F bii shud b su  d d f h vi g fught g i st
thm. Sy t, s S ust i f ms us, u gd Bhus t div
u Jugu th , d by s di g t iv th Rm s f m th bitt
ssity f im i ti g HIM f his   us  dut i th s m
guit ith th t mst ds  t vi i . Yt  ths i st s  t
b u d std t s st ity bi di g    Sv ig P i  t
th tu  su  d f ff d s, but i g thm th t tiv f
ith u ishi g  div i g thm u . F it  s u  this g u d,
s   i f md, th t th E s m d  u  th L d m i s,

b us th  tt gtd t u ish thi subjts, h h d


mmittd gg ssi s u  th t  ; th t is, thy h d ith
u ishd  div d thm u : f th big ti m y b t k ith
 y, th t bi g ft t th hi f th gg ivd  s ,  ti ,
i  d t m k th s tisf ti th m  m t.
Th su  d h  m t is thi g m  th div i g u itiz
 subjt t th  f th st t t did u  his u ishm t.
But this  missi ith givs  t ks  y y ight, it  y
mvs im dim t t th suti f ight. Wh f  if th t
th   m k  us f th  mittd ight, th ff d , h
h s b div d u , is i suh situ ti , th t h ith MAY 
m y NOT b u ishd: ith f hih m y h  i th  s f m y
ff s. But th ight f st t, s t th  jym t f its 
 s, d m y th dv t gs, is t st by y tiu t
ithut f m  d  d judgm t, u ss i y  y it h s b
viusy  td, th t  t i ts,   t i missi s, sh 
mu t t f fitu  f sm tiu ights d ivigs. I
th s m m  , gds, if su  d d, but t  td, i m i
th   ty f th f m   . But if th su  d f itiz
h s b  td, d, by sm id t, th  s s su  d d
sh  ft  ds tu hm, h i   g b itiz , x t
by sm  t f g . Wh t h s b s id f u ishi g  givi g u
gg ss s, is t  y t ths, h  ys h v b subjts
f th sv ig , i hs dmi i s thy   fu d, but t ths
s, h, ft th mmissi f  im, h v fd t sm   f
fug.

. N d th s muh t kd f ights f su i ts, d th


i vi b tu  f syums t   k th gum t th t h s b
dv d. F th dv t gs f suh tti  dsig d  y f
ths, h  th vitims f u m itd  suti , t f ths
h h v mmittd  ims i ju ius t m ki d, d dst utiv t
sity. Gyi us, th L d m i , s m y b s i th xiii. bk
f Did us Siuus, s  ki g f th ights f su i ts, s ys, th t
thy    igi y i t dud, s m su s f m ssi t th
u f tu t, d t s  f m iius d  t ff d s, h
h v thi g but u ishm t t x t. A d itt ft h s ys, h
suh m , m td by m i,  ity h v u gd i t vis, thy
h v  ight t t k f misf tu   t  th m f su i ts.
F th t is ivig g td by th  s f tu  t th i  t,
h  b t d by th h d d  ssiv st ks f i f tu .
But th fug f m ssi is ithhd, h  v y i  f if
h s b m kd ith  uty d i justi. Thus  di g t th t  ,
hih t ks f th isdm f its divi  uth , syums    
t ths h h d kid y   by   s i g f m thi h d:
s vs t   d  s f fug, but dib t mu d  s,
 ths, h h d distu bd th  fu  d f th st t, fu d 
tti v f m th t f Gd. Phi, i x  i i g this  
s ys, th t v th tm  ff ds  fug t th im ius.
Th m  i t f th G ks td u  th s m i i . It
is s id th t th Ch idi s fusd t div u N u ius t th
G i s, d th  s gd  s his h vi g  d himsf f
th h gs m d g i st him. Th   s m g th Ath i s t
ddi td t M y; it is m ti d by Ci , P us i s, S vius, d
s by Th hius, d it is ds ibd t fu  gth by St tius i
th xii. bk f his Thb is. Th t x  i s t h t ds i ti f
m it ff dd sht : it  s, h s ys, t ths h   d iv f m
thi hms by th   mity f  ,  st i d f thi ki gdms by

usu  s. T itus i th thi d bk f his A s, d 60th h t ,


 b ts th ustm, v ii g i his tim m g th itis f
G , f m ki g it t f igi t tt ff d s f m th
u ishm t du t thi  ims. Suh ff d s th f  ught ith
t b u ishd,  div d u ,  , t  st,  d d t ithd .
P sus th M d i ki g,  i g himsf t M tius f m th
h g f s  i g ths, h h d ttm td th if f Eum s;
s id, " s s s I  s isd by yu f thi bi g i M d i , I
 d d immdi t s h t b m d f thm,  m t iy mm di g
thi  tu  b ishm t f m my ki gdm."
Th ight f dm di g th su  d  u ishm t f  imi s th t
h v fd i t th ki gdms, h s, i mst ts f Eu  , du i g
th s t, d th immdi ty di g  tu is, b g  y
x isd i  ss, h  th  ims   suh s fftd th s fty
f th st t,    tt dd ith t ius t ity. It h s b
usu  t ss v , ith mutu   iv ,  ims f i f i ki d,
x t h  it h s b g d t th  t y by x ss t  ty. N
 it b   d th t h  bb s d i ts h v g i d t uy
f mid b  , it h s ft b dmd t f hum  iy bth
i Sv ig P i s, d St ts t x is f b  t ds thm,
th th t d iv thm t g  t ts f ds  ti by t  ti g
thm ith  th igu , hih thy ds v.

I. If th t, f hih fugs d su i ts  usd, is t


hibitd by th   f tu   f ti s, th m tt must b
didd by th ivi   f th u t y, f m hih thy m. This
 s ivd  i i i i t tims, s  fi d f m th  gu g
f Ashyus, i hs T gdy f th Su i ts, th Ki g f A gs,
dd ssi g umb f th d ught s f D us,  thi mi g
f m Egy t, s ys, "If th s s f Egy t x is  t u v yu,
m i t i i g th t thy  uth isd t d s by th   f th st t,
s bi g th  st id by bd, h  sist thm? It is f
yu t v th t,  di g t th  s f yu u t y, thy h v 
uth ity v yu."
II. d III. It h s ft b b td t i f disussi ,
hth h mmu ity  b u ishd f mis dut. A d this is
th     f th t i qui y.
It  s sh i f m t f this t  tis, th t bdy iti
thugh it m y sm t v y by sussi f  mmb s,  ti us
th s m, s  g s it t i s its f m. I hih  s it sms i b
t u ishm t  ss th i dividu s. O th th h d bdis
iti sm t ssss m y ivigs ui t thmsvs, suh
s h vi g mm t  su y, mm s ,  s, d th simi
dv t gs. But th   sm disti ti s, hih thy tiu y
d iv f m th INDI IDUALS f hih thy  m sd. Thus  s y
th t U iv sitis   d,  G is s b v,  di g t th
umb f  d  g  t m , hih thy s tivy  t i .
M it is disti ti f this ki d, s bi g gift f tu  t
i dividu s,  i dividu  qui m t, hih  ubi bdy,
OF ITSELF,  h v. S th t u  th d th  d tu  f ths
m it ius i dividu s, th dg  f m it, hih y ubi sity
d ivd f m thi s , must bm xti t. I th s m m  ,
th dbt f u ishm t hih is  sid d s isi g f m sm t f
dm it, must  s ith th dbt f th i dividu  di qu ts.
A i is justy mm dd f  su i g th v g  t td u 
th P si s by Ax d , t tim, h ths, h h d mmittd

th  igi  gg ssi s  th G ks, h d  g b  id i thi


g vs. H sss ik s t  u  th bu i g f P s is, s
t i ti f h t th P si s h d d  t Ath s. Suh ts f
t i ti , ft  s f y s, h v b vi di td by sm
 it s, s imit ti f th s, but u  i g g ss f divi 
justi. But  must mmb th t th  ys f Gd  t s u  ys,
 is th x is f his justi t b m su d by u u ss. F
if ds d ts   im  m it f th ti s f thi FOREFATHERS,
ith is it ight thy shud b u ishd f THEIR t sg ssi s.
Th  squ s f m it i dd m y b t smittd ithut i ju y, d
th f  ithut i justi; but it is t s ith u ishm ts.
IX. H vi g thus sh th t mmu i ti f u ishm t is ss iy
 td ith tii ti i guit, it m i s t  sid
hth u ishm t  b xt dd t ths, h    y   d
i th  im. I  d t u d st d this  y, d t v t th
mist ks th t m y is f m simi ity f x ssi , h  th 
is  simi ity f f ts, it i b ss y t m k us f sm
 uti s.
X. I th fi st   th  is diff   bt ss DIRECTLY
 si d by y t, d   suti g but INDIRECTLY f m it.
N it m y b  d di t i ju y t d iv y   f h t
ui y b gs t him s his ight. A i di t i ju y is th t
hih v ts y   f m ssssi g h t h th is ud h v
d , by dst yi g th  diti  m s, hih g v him suh
ight. As x m , U i s ys, "if y   h s   d  i
his  g u d, by hih th subt us st  ms f  t , th t
ud h v ssd t th  ds f th ,  ut ff, h   f ut
is im ut b t th  s h h s  y x isd his  ight." A d
i th  , h s ys, it m ks g  t diff  , hth y
  di ty ds i ju y,  is  y i di ty d u i t ti y
i st um t  i v ti g th f m  i g dv t gs, hih h
ud th is h v  jyd. A d it is bsu d, s ys P uus, th
g  uth ity, f m t b  d ih bf  thy ssss th
m s f bi g s. Thus h th   ty f  ts is f fitd, it
is ft s i  v i  by thi hid  ; thugh it  t b
 sid d s di t u ishm t i fitd u  thm, b us th t
  ty ud v h v b thi s, u ss th  ts h d t i d
it t thi  st b  th. O hih A h us h s m d just bs v ti ,
i s yi g, th t, by th u ishm t f th f th , hid  s th t
hih ud h v m t thm f m him, but thi gs, hih thy d t
iv f m him, suh s th gifts f tu ,  ths d ivd f m
y th qu t , m i u tuhd. Ci   ts th t i this m 
th hid  f Thmists   dud t  t,  ds h thi k
it u just th t th hid  f L idus shud sh  th s m f t. A d
h s ys th t it is i t ustm, d th ivd us g f 
st ts, th h dshi f hih v thss  s g  ty sft d by th
 s f Rm t  t  id. Thus h h   is im i td
i th mis dut f th m j ity, hih hds th  s t tiv
h t f th st t, d  squ ty ss its ivi ib tis,
its f tifi ti s, d th ivigs, th ss ffts i  t
i dividu s, but  y i ths thi gs, hih thy ud t h v
 jyd, x t s b gi g t th t mmu ity.
XI. Bsids,  must bs v, th t th ff  f   m m y smtims
 si i  v i   ss t th , d yt th t ff  m y t
b  sid d s th immdi t  us f th ti , hih is g u dd
 th x is f ight. This m y b x  i d by x m . Thus
if y   h s  g gd f th 's dbt, h b i gs himsf i t

th dimm md i th i t v b, th t bi g bu d f y


  is th xt st g t ui ; but it is MAN'S OWN PROMISE, d
NOT ANOTHER'S HA ING INCURRED A DEBT, th t is th    us f his
big ti . F s  s , h h s giv su ity f u h s , is
t,   y s  ki g, bu d by th PURCHASE, but by his  PROMISE:
s if y   h s  g gd t b s  sib f di qu t, it is
his  ENGAGEMENT, d t th ACT OF THAT DELINQUENT, hih   ts
his big ti . A d h  th i  v i  f th t ki d hih y  
i u s, must b m su d t by th di qu y f th , but by his
  t  t i t y suh vu t y  g gm t. I  squ 
f hih     giv su ty t suff d th f th ; b us 
  h s suh  v his  if, s t t k it  y himsf, 
t b bu d t f fit it f th . Thugh th i t G ks d
Rm s thught th is, d th f  thy m i t i d th t su ty
might b ut t d th f y  , s m y b s i th  k 
st y f D m d Pythi s, d hst gs   f qu ty u ishd i
this m  .
Wh t h s b s id f if m y b id t th imbs s, hih 
m h s ight t t ith, x t f th s v ti f th h
bdy. But if y   h s  g gd t suff b ishm t, t submit t
u i y fi ,  y th m s f s tisfyi g justi, y thi g h
suff s  this u t i t, st ity s  ki g, b  sid d s
PERSONAL u ishm t, but s th  f m  f g m t.
Smthi g ik this u s i th ight, hih y   sssss
d  d t  th 's i, bth ith s t t th ight f
i dividu s t iv t   ty, d t th m  xt siv ight t
dms s ssssd by st t. F if y   is d ivd f suh
thi g i g t th 's f ut, h  th xutiv  d ivi g th t
 s , is t i fiti g u ishm t  HIM, but  y x isi g
i ight.
XII. d XIII. H vi g  id d ths disti ti s,  m y bs v th t
it is im ssib th t i  t  s shud suff f th 's
 im. This ds t d f m th  s s giv by P uus, h
m i t i s th t u ishm t is dsig d f th f m ti f th
ff d . F it sms ssib th t x m  m y b m d, xt di g
by d th  s f th  imi  himsf, h it ffts, i its
 squ s, ths, h   y  td t him. S th t it is t
f th s k f x m   y th t u ishm t is i fitd, but b us
th big ti th t iss f m th dm it f th ff di g ty.
N v y dm it must b f  s  tu , s it ds f m
m 's  i, v hih h is su sd t x is  ft
 t u.
XI . I th   giv t th Hb s, Gd th  t s t v g th
im ity f f th s u  thi hid  . But h h s sv ig dmi i
v u ivs d subst , s bi g his gift, hih h m y t k
 y f m y  , h v h  ss, ithut ssig i g his  s s.
Th f  if h thi ks   t t k  y by m tu   vi t
d th th hid  f Ah , S u, J b m  Ah b, h is x isi g
v thm th ight f sv ig ty, s  s th t f u ishm t;
im si g by th t fu x m  th m  sv   ty u  th
 ts. F if thy su viv thi hid  , hih  s h t th divi 
  h d mst i vi, d th f  did t xt d ths th  ts by d
th tim f g  t g d-hid  ,  id t hih th g f m
might  h, it is  t i th t  ts ud b sv y u ishd by
suh sight, th mst ffiti g f y thy ud it ss. O if thy
shud t su viv suh v t, t di u d suh h si

ud b g  t   mity.
But it is   t m k th t x m s ik ths  v m yd
by Gd, x t g i st  ims ffti g his divi  M jsty, s f s
 shi ,  ju y  s  ig. I dd ths th  ts f divi  v g 
 t  ys  f d; s i y h  y xt  di y vi tu
shi s i th h t s d  dut f th hid  : s m y b s i
th xviii. h t f th  hsy f Ezki. Put h h s disussd
this t i ith g  t qu  i his bk  th mt v g  f
Gd.
As th Gs  s  y u fds th futu  u ishm ts f th ikd,
 th th  ts  t i d i th t  v t t mi t i th
 s s f th ff d s thmsvs. But th  ys f vid  i
ths s ts  t th u hih m  f. F Gd, v
ithut y f   t  im, is th sv ig  d d dis s f
hum if, mmissi hih m is  y d t xut g i st
th  t t s f  t i  ims. Wh f  s th t s m divi   
f bids  ts t b ut t d th f th ff s f hid  , s
it xm ts hid  f m th s m u ishm t f th ti s f thi
f th s:  ity hih is g  ty mm dd by Js hus d Phi.
Th s m mm d ti is bstd by Is ts u  th  s f Egy t;
d by Di ysius f H i ssus u  ths f Rm.
X . But if it is u just i hum  s t u ish th mis dut f
 ts i th  s s f thi hid  , h muh m  sv   s th
  f th P si s d M d i s xt di g th  tis f  ims
g i st th st t t v y b h f th ff d 's  tivs, i th
mst mt dg ,   su ssi g  th s i igu ?
X I. X II. d X III. Wh t h s b s id s ti g th u ishm t
f hid  f th ff s f thi f th s  f f th s, m y b
id t th  ti subsisti g bt sv ig s d subjts. F
it is  ti s i gi g f m th  t t f sity, hih m ks
th sv ig th ss ti  h d, if d su f th t bdy, i hih
his   f m th mmb s. As th ivi mmu ity th f  ith its
sv ig  h d f ms but   bdy, th   b  s ti f
i t sts, but h t ffts   t must b judii   s vi b
t th h.
XIX. Why shud hi , it h s b smtims skd, b bu d by th
dbts f his st , d t f th ffts f his u ishm t f
mis dut? t hih s m y b giv , th t th hi  s ts
th  s f th d sd t i his m its  dm its, hih 
u y  s , but i his   ty; tifii  md f s vi g
u b k th h i f sussi d ds t.
XX. A d h  it fs, th t if i dditi t th dm it f
ff , y  g u ds f big ti shud is  td ith th
u ishm t, thy must b dish gd t   y s u ishm t, but
s dbt. Thus th hi i b i b t y th sts  dd by
judgm t ft  tstd suit, hih is  sid d i th ight f
 t t.

CHAPTER XXII.
ON THE UNJUST CAUSES OF WAR.

Diff  s bt   d u b mtivs--W t ius


ithut ith f ths mtivs--W s f u d , u d th
mst  usib txts, t justifi b--C uss  ty,
but t  y just--U ss y dv t g--Dsi  f btt
si--Disv y f thi gs b gi g t th s--I  ity f th
 igi    s--W t  ys justifi b u d th txt
f ss ti g ib ty--O f im si g b fii  gv m t
u    g i st thi i--Em   's t si s t
u iv s  m i  futd--P t si s f th Chu h--Im  ft
big ti s--Diff   bt  s  igi y u just d ths
ft  ds bmi g s.
I. I f m t f this  k, h  th justi f   s
disussd, it  s bs vd th t sm  s   fu dd u   
mtivs d th s  y u  u b txts. This disti ti
 s fi st tid by Pybius, h  s th txts,
{proph e}, nd
he re l  ue, { 
 }. Thu Alex nder m de
w r upon D ru, under
he pre
ene o vengng
he ormer wrong done
y
he Per n
o
he Gree. Bu

he re l mo
ve o
h
old nd
en
erprng hero, w 
he e y qu
on o we l
h nd domnon,
whh
he exped
on o Xenophon nd Agel u h d opened
o h vew.
In
he  me m nner, dpu
e ou
S gun
um urnhed
he
C r
h gn n w
h COLOURABLE MOTI ES or
he eond Pun w r, u
,
n REALITY,
hey ould no
roo
he ndgn
y o h vng onen
ed
o

re
y, whh
he Rom n h d ex
or
ed rom
hem
n un vour le
momen
; nd more epe lly 
her pr
 were revved y
her
reen
uee n Sp n. The re l  ue gned y Thuydde
or
he Peloponne n w r, were
he je loue en
er
ned y
he
L ed emon n o
he
hen growng power o
he A
hen n,
hough
he
qu rrel o
he Coryre n, Po
d en, nd o
her eond ry 

e were
m de
he o
enle re on.
II. There re ome who h ve ne
her o
enle re on, nor ju
 ue

o ple d or
her ho
l
e, n whh,  T 
u  y,
hey eng ge
rom
he pure love o en
erpre nd d nger. A dpo
on
o whh
Ar
o
le gve
he n me o ero
y. And n
he l 
oo o h
Nom he n E
h, he  ll 
loody ruel
y
o onver
rend
n
o eneme, whom you m y l ugh
er.
III. Though mo
power, when eng gng n w r, re derou
o olour
over
her re l mo
ve w
h ju
 le pre
ex
, ye
ome,
o
lly
dreg rdng uh me
hod o vnd
on, eem le
o gve no e

er
re on or
her ondu
,
h n wh

old y
he Rom n L wyer o
roer, who eng ed, wh
rgh
he h d
o
hng, whh he h d
ezed, repled, 
w  h own, e ue he h d
en 
n
o h
poeon? Ar
o
le n
he
hrd oo o h Rhe
or, pe ng o

he promo
er o w r, ,  
 no
unju
or neghourng
people
o e enl ved, nd 
hoe promo
er h ve no reg rd
o
he
rgh
 o unoendng n
on? Cero, n
he r
oo o h
Oe, pe  n
he  me 
r n, nd  ll "
he our ge, whh 
onpuou n d nger nd en
erpre,  devod o ju
e, olu
ely
undeervng o
he n me o v lour. I
hould r
her e ondered 
ru
l erene ou
r gng every prnple o hum n
y."
I . O
her m e ue o pre
ex
, whh
hough pl ule
r
gh
,
wll no
e r
he ex mn
on nd
e
o mor l re

ude, nd, when

rpped o
her dgue, uh pre
ex
 wll e ound r ugh
w
h

nju
e. In uh ho
l
e,  y Lvy, 
 no

r l o rgh
,
u
ome oje
o ere
nd unruly m
on, whh 
 
he he
prng. Mo
power, 
  d y Plu
rh, employ
he rel
ve

u
on o pe e nd w r,  urren
pee, or
he purh e o
wh
ever
hey deem expeden
.
By h vng eore ex mned nd e
lhed
he prnple o ju
nd
nee ry w r, we m y orm e

er de o wh
goe
o on

u
e

he nju
e o
he  me. A
he n
ure o
hng  e
een y
on
r 
, nd we judge o wh
 rooed y omp rng 
w
h wh

 
r gh
. Bu
or
he  e o perpu
y, 
wll e nee ry
o

re
upon
he le dng pon
.
I
w  hewn ove
h
pprehenon rom neghourng power re
no
uen
ground or w r. For
o u
horze ho
l
e 
deenve me ure,
hey mu
re rom
he nee
y, whh ju

pprehenon re
e; pprehenon no
only o
he power, u
o
he
n
en
on o ormd le 

e, nd uh pprehenon  moun

o mor l er
n
y. For whh re on
he opnon o
hoe  y no
me n
o e pproved o, who l y down  ju
ground o w r,
he
on
ru
on o or

on n neghourng oun
ry, w
h whom

here  no ex
ng
re
y
o proh
uh on
ru
on, or
he
eurng o 
rong hold, whh m y
ome u
ure perod prove
me n o nnoy ne. For  gu rd g n
uh pprehenon, every
power m y on
ru
, n 
 own
err
ory, 
rong wor, nd o
her
ml
ry eur
e o
he  me nd, w
hou
h vng reoure
o 
u l
w r. One  nno
u
dmre
he h r 
er, whh T 
u h  dr wn
o
he Ch u, nole nd hgh-pr
ed people o Germ ny, "who,
_he  y_, were derou o m n
nng
her gre
ne y ju
e,
r
her
h n y 
 o ungovern le r p 
y nd m
on--provong
no w r, nv dng no oun
re, polng no neghour
o ggr ndze

hemelve,--ye
, when nee
y promp
ed, le
o r e men w
h
rm n
her h nd
momen
' w rnng-- gre
popul
on w
h
numerou reed o hore
o orm well moun
ed  v lry-- nd, w
h ll

hee dv n
ge, upholdng
her repu

on n
he md
o pe e."

I.[55] Nor  n
he dv n
ge
o e g ned y w r e ever ple ded 
mo
ve o equ l wegh
nd ju
e w
h nee
y.
II. nd III. Ne
her  n
he dere o emgr
ng
o more
 vour le ol nd lm
e ju
y n

 upon neghourng
power. Th,  we re normed y T 
u, w  requen
 ue o w r
mong
he nen
Germ n.
IX. There  no le nju
e n e

ng up l m, under


he pre
ene
o newly dovered

le,
o wh
elong
o no
her.
Ne
her  n
he wedne, nd mpe
y, nor ny o
her n p 
y o

he orgn l owner ju


y uh l m. For
he

le nd rgh
y
dovery  n pply only
o oun
re nd pl e,
h
h ve no owner.
X. Ne
her mor l nor relgou vr
ue, nor ny n
elle
u l exellene
 requ
e
o orm good

le
o proper
y. Only where r e o
men  o de

u
e o re on 
o e n p le o exerng ny 

o ownerhp,
hey  n hold no proper
y, nor wll
he l w o h r
y
requre
h

hey hould h ve more
h n
he nee re o le. For

he rule o
he l w o n
on  n only e ppled
o
hoe, who re
 p le o pol
 l or ommer l n
eroure: u
no

o people
en
rely de

u
e o re on,
hough 
 m

er o ju
dou
,
whe
her ny uh 
o e ound.

I
w  n urd
y
hereore n
he Gree
o uppoe,
h
derene
o m nner, or neror
y o n
elle
m de
hoe, whom
hey were
ple ed
o  ll  r r n,
her n
ur l eneme. Bu

o
roou
rme 
rng

he very roo
nd ex
ene o oe
y,
he
ore
ure o proper
y enung rom
hene  que
on o deren

n
ure, elongng
o punhmen
, under
he he d o whh 
w 
dued.
XI. Bu
ne
her
he ndependene o ndvdu l, nor
h
o 

e,
 mo
ve
h
 n
ll
me ju
y reoure
o rm,  
ll peron INDISCRIMINATELY h d n
ur l rgh

o do o. For where
ler
y   d
o e n
ur l rgh
elongng
o ll men nd 

e,
y
h
expreon  under
ood rgh
o n
ure, n
eeden

o every
hum n olg
on or on
r 
. Bu
n
h
 e, ler
y  poen o
n neg
ve ene, nd no
y w y o on
r 

o ndependene,
he
me nng o whh ,
h
no one  y
he l w o n
ure doomed
o
erv
ude,
hough he  no
ordden y
h
l w
o en
er n
o uh
ond
on. For n
h ene no one  n e  lled ree,  n
ure
le ve hm no

he prvlege o hung h own ond
on:  Alu
u
per
nen
ly rem r, "
he
erm, reedom nd erv
ude re no
ounded
n
he prnple o n
ure, u
re n me uequen
ly ppled
o men
ordng
o
he dpo
on o or
une." And Ar
o
le dene
he
rel
on o m 
er nd erv n

o e
he reul
o pol
 l nd no

o n
ur l ppon
men
. Whenever
hereore
he ond
on o erv
ude,
e
her peron l or pol
 l, u
, rom l wul  ue, men hould
e on
en
ed w
h
h


e, ordng
o
he njun
on o
he
Apo
le, "Ar

hou  lled, eng erv n
, le
no

h
e n nxou
onern?"
XII. And
here  equ l nju
e n
he dere o redung, y ore
o rm, ny people
o 

e o erv
ude, under
he pre
ex
o

 eng
he ond
on or whh
hey re e
qu led y n
ure.
I
doe no
ollow
h
, e ue ny one  

ed or p r
ul r
ond
on, no
her h  rgh

o mpoe 
upon hm. For every
re on le re
ure ough

o e le
ree n
he hoe o wh
m y e
deemed ueul or prejud l
o hm, provded no
her h  no ju
rgh

o on
roul over hm.
The  e o hldren h  no onne
on w
h
he que
on, 
hey re
nee rly under
he dplne o o
her.
XIII. I
would  re h ve een nee ry
o reu
e
he oolh opnon
o ome, who h ve red
o
he Rom n Emperor domnon over
he
mo
remo
e nd unnown n
on,  B r
olu, deemed l wyer o
he
r
emnene, h d no
pronouned 
herey
o deny
hoe pre
enon.
Th opnon h  een ul
upon
he Rom n Emperor' ome
me h vng

yled hmel Soveregn o
he whole world;
erm whh 
w 
no
unuu l or m ny people
o pply
o
her own oun
ry. Thu n

he rp
ure we nd Jude requen
ly  lled
he whole nh 
ed
e r
h;
hereore when
he Jew, n
her prover l expreon,  lled
Jeru lem
he en
re o
he world, no
hng more 
o e mpled
h n

h

w  
u
ed n
he mddle o Jude .
A
o
he rgumen
n  vor o unver l domnon rom 
 eng o
ene l
o m nnd, 
m y e oerved
h
ll 
 dv n
ge re
oun
er l ned y 
ll gre
er d dv n
ge. For  hp m y e
ul

oo l rge
o e onvenen
ly m n ged, o n empre m y e
oo
ex
enve n popul
on nd
err
ory
o e dre
ed nd governed
y one he d. Bu
gr n
ng
he expedeny o unver l empre,
h

expedeny  nno
gve uh rgh
,   n e qured only y
re
y
or onque
. There were m ny pl e ormerly elongng
o
he Rom n
Empre, over whh
he Emperor h 
preen
no on
roul. For w r,

re
y, or eon h ve m de m ny h nge, y whh
he rgh
 o

err
ory h ve p ed
o o
her 

e or overegn prne, nd
he

nd rd o deren
ommun
e, whe
her ngdom or ommonwe l
h,
now w ve n pl e, whh
he Rom n E gle one overh dowed w
h h
wng. Thee re loe nd h nge,
h
h ve een experened y
o
her power no le
h n
h
, whh w  one m
re o
he world.
XI . Bu

here h ve een ome, who h ve er
ed
he rgh
 o
he
hurh over unnown p r
 o
he world,
hough
he Apo
le P ul
hmel h  exprely  d
h
Chr
 n were no

o judge
hoe
who were w
hou

he p le o
her own ommun
y. And
hough
he
rgh
o judgng, whh elonged
o
he Apo
le, mgh
n ome
 e pply
o worldly onern, ye
n 
 gener l n
ure 
w  o
ele
 l r
her
h n n e r
hly nd-- judgmen
no
exered
y re nd word, u
y
he word o God, propoed
o ll men nd
d p
ed
o
her peul r rum
ne-- judgmen
exered y
dpl yng or w
hholdng
he e l o dvne gr e,  
mgh
e
mo
expeden
--l 
ly, 
w  judgmen
exered n upern
ur l
punhmen
; n punhmen
 proeedng rom God, le
he punhmen

o An n , Elym , Hymen eu, nd o
her.
Chr
hmel,
he prng, rom whene ll
he power o
he hurh w 
derved, nd whoe le 
he model or
he hurh
o ollow,  d,
h ngdom w  no
o
h world,
h
, w  no
o
he  me n
ure,
w
h o
her ngdom, o
herwe, le
he re
o overegn, he would
h ve m n
ned h u
hor
y y
he power o
he word. For  he h d
ple ed
o  ll up
he d o Legon; he would h ve  lled up ho
 o
Angel nd no
o men. And every exere o h rgh
w  perormed
y
he nluene o dvne, nd no
o hum n power; even when he drove

he eller ou
o
he
emple. For
he ROD w 
he EMBLEM nd no

he
INSTRUMENT o dvne wr
h,  UNCTION w  one SIGN o he lng, nd
no

he HEALING POWER ITSELF. S
. Augu
n on
he xv Ch p
er o
S
. John, nd 36 ver. nv
e Soveregn Prne n
o
h ngdom, n

hee
erm, "He r, O Jew, nd Gen
le, he r, O e r
hly Soveregn, I
wll no
o
ru
your u
hor
y, or my ngdom  no
o
h world.
Be no
l rmed, le Herod, who
remled, when he he rd
h
Chr

w  orn, nd lew o m ny nnoen


hldren, hopng
o nlude
he
S vour n
h
 l m
y. H e r hewed 
el n ruel wr
h. Bu

my ngdom,  y Chr
,  no
o
h world. Thereore en
er
h
ngdom w
hou
e r. Come w
h  
h, nd provoe no

he ng
o
nger y your del y."
X . There   u
on
oo nee ry
o e gven, g n
dr wng

oo loe p r llel e
ween nen
nd modern
me. For 
 u

eldom
h
ny one  n ddue  e ex 
ly onorm le
o h
own rum
ne. To dr w uh pre
ex
 rom
he n
erpre

on o
prophey 
he hghe
preump
on. For no prophey
h
 ye

o
e ullled  n e unolded w
hou

he d o prophe
 pr
.
The
me even o even
,
h
re er
n, m y e pe our no
e.
Nor  
every pred
on, unle 
e omp ned w
h n expre
omm nd rom God,
h
 n ju
y reoure
o rm: ome
me ndeed
God rng h pred
ed degn
o
her ue y
he me n o wed
n
rumen
.
X I. A
he mpere
olg
on o h r
y, nd o
her vr
ue o
he
 me nd re no
ognz le n our
o ju
e, o ne
her  n
he
perorm ne o
hem e ompelled y ore o rm. For 
 no

he

mor l n
ure o du
y
h
 n enore 
 ulllmen
, u

here mu

e ome leg l rgh


n one o
he p r
e
o ex 

he olg
on. For

he mor l olg
on reeve n dd
on l wegh
rom uh rgh
.
Th olg
on
hereore mu
e un
ed
o
he ormer
o gve w r

he h r 
er o ju
w r. Thu peron who h  onerred  vour,
h  no
, 
r
ly pe ng, RIGHT
o dem nd re
urn, or
h
would
e onver
ng n 
o ndne n
o on
r 
.
X II. I
 nee ry
o oerve
h
w r m y e ju
n 
 orgn,
nd ye

he n
en
on o 
 u
hor m y eome unju
n
he oure
o 
 proeu
on. For ome o
her mo
ve, no
unl wul IN ITSELF,
m y 
u
e
hem more powerully
h n
he orgn l rgh
, or
he

nmen
o whh
he w r w  egun. I
 l ud le, or n
ne,

o m n
n n
on l honour; 
 l ud le
o purue pul or
prv
e n
ere
, nd ye

hoe oje
 m y no
orm
he ju
 le
ground o
he w r n que
on.
A w r m y gr du lly h nge 
 n
ure nd 
 oje
rom
he
proeu
on o rgh

o
he dere o eondng or uppor
ng
he
ggr ndzemen
o ome o
her power. Bu
uh mo
ve,
hough l m le,
when even onne
ed w
h ju
w r, do no
render
he w r ITSELF
unju
, nor nv ld
e 
 onque
.

CHAPTER XXIII.
ON DOUBTFUL CAUSES.
Orgn o mor l dou
--The d

e o onene,
hough erroneou,
no

o e vol
ed--Oppo
e opnon uppor
ed y rgumen
, or
y u
hor
y--In dou
ul nd mpor
n
m

er
he  er de o

he que
on
o e ollowed--In uh  e 
 rgh

o 
n
rom w r--Dpu
e e

led y onerene or r


r
on--Chr
 n
du
e--Whe
her ngle om
 llow le n order
o vod
w r--In  e o equ l dou

he l m o
he preen
poeor
o
e preerred--Where ne
her p r
y  n poeon, l m
o e
dvded--Whe
her w r  n e ju
on o
h de, expl ned y
d
n
on.
I. There  muh
ru
h n Ar
o
le' oerv
on
h
mor l re onng
 n never moun

o
he er
n
y o m
hem
 l demon
r
on.
Be ue n m
hem
 l re onng, ll
he gure re ondered
n
he 
r 
, purely y
hemelve, nd w
hou
rel
on
o
he
rum
ne o
me or pl e, o
h

here  no
hng
o w rp
he
judgmen
rom
he oje
mmed
ely under onder
on. Bede
he
gure n gener l orm dre
on
r 

o e h o
her. Thu, or
n
ne,
here  no n
ermed
e lne e
ween 
r gh
lne nd
urve.
Bu

 no
o n mor l, where
he le 
rum
ne v ry
he
uje
, nd dm
l

ude o n
erpre

on, e

lng
he pon

o
ru
h nd ju
e e
ween
wo ex
reme. So
h
e
ween wh

rgh
nd wh
 unl wul
here  mddle p e, where 
 e y
o
nlne
o
he one de, or
o
he o
her. Th o on n mgu
y
omewh
le
he dul
y o dedng
he pree momen
, where
he

wlgh
egn, nd where 
end. From hene Ar
o
le onlude
h


 ome
me dul

o de
ermne, e
ween
wo ex
reme, wh
lne

o ondu
ough

o e hoen or reje
ed.
II. Bu

mu
e l d down  nee ry prnple,
h
l
hough
n 
on m y n re l
y e ju
, ye

he p r
y dong 
, 
er
weghng every rum
ne,  nno
reonle
he 

o h
onene, he nur ome degree o gul
. "For wh
ever  no
o
 
h, _ y
he Apo
le_,  n;" where, y
he
erm  
h he me n
deler
e judgmen
o
he mnd. For God h  gven onene
jud l power
o e
he overegn gude o hum n 
on, y depng
whoe dmon
on
he mnd  
uped n
o ru
l h rdne. For

o
en h ppen
h
judgmen
 n pon
ou
no
hng er
n, u

he

e; nd when uh dou
 nd he

on  nno

 
orly
e le red up,
he rule o Cero   e one
o ollow, who  y,

h

 n exellen
njun
on, whh ord u
o do
hng o

he re

ude or mpropre
y o whh we en
er
n dou
.
Bu

h rule  nno
e ppled, where o
wo
hng, n
he hoe
o whh
here  equ l dou
,
he one mu
e done, n whh  e

h
mu
e ele
ed, whh eem
o e
he le 
unju
. For on ll
o on, where hoe  nno
e voded,
he le o
wo evl
ume
he ppe r ne o vr
ue.
III. Bu
n dou
ul  e, 
er ex mn
on,
he mnd eldom rem n
neu
er, u
nlne
o one de, or
he o
her, peru ded e
her y

he mer
 o
he  e, or y repe
or
he judgmen
o
hoe, who
h ve delvered n opnon upon
he que
on. Now
he mer
 o
he  e
re derved e
her rom
he  ue,
he ee
, or o
her onom
n

rum
ne.
I . To pprehend uh d
n
on properly, pr 
e nd pene
r
on
re nee ry, nd where men h ve no
n
hemelve  p 
y or

he 
ve exere o judgmen

ehove
hem
o ollow
he m xm
o o
her, who re d
nguhed y
her wdom nd experene.
For, n
he opnon o Ar
o
le,
hoe
hng re pro ly ju
, or

rue, whh eem o


o ll, or
o
he gre
er p r
o men o wor
h.
And
h 
he me
hod o judgng purued y Soveregn Prne, whoe
eng gemen
 n
he  r o le llow
hem u
l

le leure
or 
udy nd deler
on. Thu
he nen
Rom n never under
oo
w r,
ll
hey h d onul
ed
he  red ollege, e
lhed or

h
purpoe, nd
he Chr
 n Emperor  rely ever dd o w
hou

dvng w
h
he Bhop, n order
o e pprzed o ny
hng
heren

h
mgh
e
relgon.

. I
m y h ppen n m ny dpu
ed pon
,
h

he n
rn mer
 o

he  e, or
he opnon o
he le rned, re equ l on o
h de. When

h
h ppen, 
he m

er n duon re o no gre


mpor
ne,

here  no
hng
o l me n
he peron,
h
m e h hoe e
her
w y. Bu
n m

er o momen
, where
he lve o men re

e,
he
deon hould nlne
o
he  er de, ordng
o
he prover l
m xm, whh pronoune 
e

er
o qu

he gul
y
h n
o ondemn

he nnoen
.
I. W r
hen eng n oje
o uh wegh
y m gn
ude, n whh
he
nnoen
mu
o
en e nvolved n
he uerng o
he gul
y,
e
ween w verng opnon
he  l ne hould nlne n  vour o pe e.
There re
hree me
hod, y whh ndependen
n
on m y e

le
her
dpu
ed rgh
 w
hou
omng
o
he deon o
he word.

II. The r


me
hod 
h
o onerene. For, n
he word

o Cero, "
here eng
wo me
hod o dedng qu rrel,
he
one y duon nd
he o
her y ore,
he ormer, peul r
h r 
er
 o m n, nd
he l

er, o
he ru
e re
on: when

he r
o
hee me
hod  l, men re olged
o h ve reoure

o
he l

er." M rdonu, n
he Polyhymn o Herodo
u, l me

he Gre n, who, eng un


ed n one l ngu ge, mgh
e

le
her
qu rrel y meenger o pe e, y her ld, nd nego

on, r
her

h n y w r.

III. The o
her me
hod 
h
o omprome, whh
e pl e
e
ween
hoe, who h ve no ommon judge. Among nnumer le n
ne
o
h nd n nen
h
ory, we m y ele

h
gven y Xenophon
n h oun
o Cyru, where
h
prne
e
he ng o
he
Ind n or r
r
or e
ween hmel nd
he ng o Ayr . The
C r
h gn n n
her dpu
e w
h M n preer e

lemen
o

h nd eore deon o w r. Lvy


oo norm u
h

he Rom n

hemelve, n dpu
e w
h
he S mn
e, m de n ppe l
o
he
ommon lle o o
h.
The oe o dedng w r nd pu

ng n end
o
he on
en
on o
rme w  gned, ordng
o S
r o,
o
he Drud o
he G ul,
nd upon
he
e
mony o
he  me wr
er, 
ormed p r
o
he
pre
ly un
on mong
he Ier n.
Surely
hen 
 mode o
ermn
ng
her dpu
e,  l nng

her power, nd e

lng
her pre
enon wor
hy
o e dop
ed y
Chr
 n Kng nd S

e. For , n order
o vod
r l eore
judge who were 
r nger
o
he
rue relgon,
he Jew nd Chr
 n
ppon
ed r
r
or o
her own, nd 
w  pr 
e reommended
nd enjoned y S
. P ul, how muh more ough
uh pr 
e
o e
reommended nd enored,
o g n
he 
ll noler end o preven
ng

he  l m
e o w r.
Thee nd m ny o
her re on o no le mpor
ne mgh
e dv ned
or reommendng
o Chr
 n power gener l ongree or
he
dju
men
o
her v rou n
ere
, nd or ompellng
he
rer 
ory
o um

o equ
le
erm o pe e.
IX. A
hrd me
hod o
ermn
ng dpu
e, w
hou
ho
l
e, w 
y lo
, pr 
e ommended y Don Chryo
om n h peeh on
he
n
erpo
on o or
une n dre
ng  r, nd 
w  ommended
long eore hm y Solomon n
he xv. h p
er o h Prover.
X. Ne rly rel
ed
o
he l 
n med me
hod 
h
o ngle om
,
pr 
e reommended under
he de
h
y
he rque o
wo lve
qu rrel mgh
e deded, whh would o
herwe h ve o

he lood o

hou nd. In Lvy we nd Me


u ddreng Tullu n
he ollowng

erm, "le
u
ry ome me
hod o de
ermnng
o whom
he pre-emnene
h ll elong, w
hou
w 
ng
he lood o e h people." S
r o  y

w 
he pr 
e o
he nen
Gree, nd Aene  propoed 

o
Turnu, 
he mo
equ
le w y o e

lng
her pre
enon. I

dered
oo 
he u
om o
he nen
Fr n.
XI. Al
hough n dou
ul  e, o
h de re ound
o deve every
me n o vodng ho
l
e, ye

 du
y more numen
upon

he l m n

h n upon
he mmed
e poeor o wh
ever m y e
he
uje
o dpu
e. For 
 rule no
only o vl, u
o n
ur l
l w,
h
, where
he pre
enon re equ l,
hoe o
he poeor re

o e preerred.

To
he oregong rem r n dd
on l oerv
on m y e m de,
h

ny one, nowng h pre
enon
o e ju
,  nno
produe uen

proo
o onv

he n
ruder o nju
e, he  nno
l wully h ve
reoure
o rm, e ue he h  no OSTENSIBLE RIGHT, y whh he  n
ompel
he n
ruder
o relnquh
he poeon.
XII. Bu
where
he rgh
 mguou, nd ne
her p r
y h 
poeon,
he pre
ender, who reue
o dvde
he l m, m y
re on ly e h rged w
h nju
e.
XIII. From wh
h  een  d 

muh g

ed que
on, whe
her,
prnp l mover o w r,
here

here re d
n
on proper
o

he word JUST.

wll no
e dul

o e

le
w
h repe

o
hoe, who re
he
 n e ju
e on o
h de. For
e m de n
he v rou ep

on o

A
hng   d
o e ju
, e
her 
o 
  ue, or 
 ee
.
The  ue
oo m y e onned e
her
o ju
e n PARTICULAR
ep

on, or
hey m y e ex
ended o 
o nlude under
h

n me every nd o re



ude. Ag n, p r
ul r ep

on m y e
dvded n
o
wo nd, one rel
ng
o
he ACTION, nd
he o
her
o

he gen
.[56] An gen
m y e  d
o 
ju
ly, when, n wh
he
doe, he omm
 no re h o STRICT LAW,
hough h ondu
m y no
e
onorm le
o equ
y.
In PARTICULAR ep

on o
he word ju
e, w
h reg rd
o
m

er n dpu
e, 
 nno
n w r, ny more
h n n leg l
proeedng, pply
o o
h de. For
here  n e no mor l prnple,
omm ndng u, under
he  me rum
ne, o
h
o DO, nd
o ABSTAIN
rom p r
ul r 
on. I
m y h ppen ndeed
h
ne
her o
wo
ellgeren
power m y 
unju
ly. For no one  n e h rged w
h

ng unju
ly unle he now
h
he  dong o; u

here re
m ny, who re no
w re o
he n
ure, ex
en
, nd onequene o

her me ure. Thu n l w-u


, o
h p r
e m y nerely eleve

h

hey h ve ju
e on
her de. For m ny
hng o
h n l w nd
 
, whh would e
lh rgh
, m y e pe
he no
e o men.
In GENERAL ep

on, n 
on m y e  lled ju
, where
he
gen
 ree rom every nd o l me. Ye
n m ny  e n gen
m y
dev
e rom
he 
r
rule o leg l ju
e, nd e l le
o no
l me, when
h
dev
on  owng
o un vod le gnor ne,
here
h vng een ne
her
me nor oppor
un
y uen
or hm
o now

he u
ne, or perh p ex
ene o
he l w. So 
m y h ppen n
l w-u
,
h
o
h p r
e re ree no
only rom
he mpu

on
o nju
e, u
rom ll l me, epe lly where e
her o
hem 
l
g
ng m

er no
on h own, u
on no
her' oun
;  or
n
ne where gu rd n  
ng or h w rd, he would no
e
u
horzed n  ndonng even dou
ed rgh
. Ar
o
le  y
h
n
m

er o dpu
ed rgh
ne
her de  n e h rged w
h nju
e;
onorm ly
o whh opnon Qun
l n oerve
h
n uprgh

ple der m y e eng ged on e


her de o
he que
on. Ar
o
le
ur
her oerve
h
p ng ju
judgmen
 n mguou
erm,
gnyng
h
judge de
ermne e
her ordng
o
he 
r

le

er o
he l w, or ordng
o
he d

e o h own onene.
And, n no
her pl e, he h   d
h
gvng wrong judgmen

hrough
gnor ne  no 
o nju
e.
Bu
n m

er o w r nd pe e, where uh wegh


y nd v red
n
ere
 on ll de re onerned, 
would e dul

o o
n
judgmen
purely mp r
 l, nd 
r 
ed rom ll peron l mo
ve,

unle
here e
he mo
le r nd unden le evdene on
he pon
 n
que
on.
I we denomn
e
hng
o e ju
, rom 
 ee
n onerrng
er
n rgh
, n
h ene 
 pl n
h
n w r
here m y e
ju
e on o
h de. In
he  me m nner, en
ene no

r
ly
leg l, or poeon no
pere
ly ju
m y never
hele oner
er
n rgh
.

CHAPTER XXI .
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST RASHLY ENGAGING IN WAR, E EN UPON JUST GROUNDS.
Rel x
on o rgh
n order
o vod w r--p r
ul rly
pen l
e--Sel-preerv
on mo
ve or ore rng
ho
l
e--Pruden
 l rule n
he hoe o dv n
ge--Pe e
preer le
o
he ex
ermn
on o ho
le power--Fore r ne
pruden
n neror power--W r no

o e under
en, u
rom
nee
y.
I. Al
hough 
eem no

o  ll w
hn
he mmed
e provne o

re
e, en

led
he RIGHTS OF WAR,
o en
er n
o n nve
g
on o
o
her mor l du
e, whh
he rel
on o w r nd pe e prere, ye


m y no
e mproper lgh
ly
o
ouh upon er
n error, whh 

 nee ry
o ov
e, n order
o preven
ny one rom uppong,

h
, 
er e
lhng
he rgh
o w r, he  u
horzed, INSTANTLY
or
ALL TIMES,
o  rry h prnple n
o 
on, nd
o redue h

heory
o pr 
e. So  r rom
h, 
requen
ly h ppen
h


n 
o gre
er pe
y nd re

ude
o yeld rgh

h n
o enore

.
I
w  eore hewn, n 
 proper pl e how honour le 

o e
reg rdle o our own lve, where we  n preerve
he lve, nd
promo
e
he l 
ng wel re o o
her. A du
y
h
hould oper
e w
h
gre
er ore upon Chr
 n, who h ve eore
her eye on
nu lly

he ex mple o hm, who ded


o  ve u, whle we were eneme nd
ungodly. An ex mple whh  ll upon u, n
he mo
e
ng m nner,
no

o n
upon
he rgorou proeu
on o our ju
e
rgh
,
where 
 nno
e done u
y
he  l m
e, whh w r o on.
I rgumen
 nd mo
ve le
hee w n
ed u
hor
e, und ne o
u
hor
e mgh
e ddued or
her uppor
.
II. M ny re on mgh
e rough

o du de u rom urgng
he ull
nl
on o punhmen
. There  n ovou n
ne n
he ondu

o 
her, who onnve
m ny  ul
 n
her hldren. Bu
whoever,
 u
horzed
o punh no
her, ume
he h r 
er o overegn
ruler,
h
, o 
her; n lluon
o whh S
. Augu
n,
ddreng Coun
M rellnu,  y, "O Chr
 n Judge, ull
he
oe o pou 
her."
Some
me ndeed men re o rum
ned,
h

o relnquh rgh

eome no
only l ud le 
, u
de
o repe

o
h
l w,
whh omm nd u
o love our eneme: l w
o e repe
ed nd oeyed
no
only or 
 n
rn v lue, u
 eng preep
o
he gopel.
By
he  me l w, nd or
he  me re on, we re omm nded
o pr y or
nd
o promo
e
he wel re nd  e
y o Chr
 n Prne nd Kng,

e ue
her wel re nd  e
y re o een
 l
o
he order, pe e,
nd h ppne o oe
y.
III. W
h repe

o
he p rdon o oene omm

ed g n

ourelve, l

le need e  d,  
 nown
o e le dng l ue
n
he ode o Chr
 n' du
y,
o whh he re dly nd reely
um
, nowng
h
God or Chr
'  e h  orgven hm. Thu
reve led l w dd  n
on
o wh
w  nown y he
hen
o e n
m le preep
. Cero h  dr wn ne h r 
er o C e r, n whh
he ommend
he exellene o h memory
h
ould reolle
every

hng u
njure. We nd m ny nole ex mple o
h exellen

vr
ue n
he wr
ng o Moe nd n v rou o
her p r
 o
rp
ure. Thee, nd
hee mo
ve ALONE, when
hey  n  ely e
ompled w
h re uen

o eep
he word w
hn 
   rd. For

he de
o love nd ore r ne
o our eneme  n olg
on, whh

 honour le
o dh rge.
I . I
 o
en du
y, whh we owe
o our oun
ry nd ourelve,

o ore r h vng reoure


o rm. A
er
he ollege o her ld h d
pronouned w r
o e ju
we re normed y Plu
rh n
he le o
Num ,
h

he Sen
e ur
her deler
ed, whe
her 
w  expeden

o under
e 
. Aordng
o our S vour' e u
ul nd n
ru
ve
p r le, ng, when he  olged
o go
o w r w
h no
her ng,
hould r

down, n expreon mplyng n 
o deler
on,
nd onder w
hn hmel, whe
her, w
h
en
hou nd men he 
le
o enoun
er one who  omng g n
hm w
h
wen
y
me

h
numer: nd  he nd hmel unequ l
o
he on
e
, eore

he enemy h  en
ered h
err
ore he wll end n em y
o hm
oerng
erm o pe e.

. In ll  e o deler
on, no
only
he ul
m
e u

he
n
ermed
e oje
 le dng
o
he prnp l end re
o e
ondered. The n l oje
 lw y ome good, or
le 

he
ev on o ome evl, whh moun

o
he  me. The me n re never

o e ondered y THEMSEL ES, u


only 
hey h ve
endeny
o
he
propoed end. Whereore n ll  e o deler
on,
he propor
on,
whh
he me n nd
he end e r
o e h o
her, 
o e duly weghed,
y omp rng
hem
oge
her: mode o omp ron, n whh
here re

hree rule nee ry


o e oerved.
The r

hng, n mor l pon
o vew,
o e ondered , wh

endeny
he dered oje
h 
o produe good or evl; nd, 
he
ormer h 
he preponder ny, we re
hen
ler
y
o hue 
.--In

he eond pl e,  
ppe r dul

o dede, whe
her
he good
or
he evl predomn
e, we m y hue
he oje
, , n
he hoe
nd ue o our me n, we  n gve
urn
o  r,
h
m y
hrow

he preponder ne n
o
he  le o dv n
ge--or l 
ly 
he good
nd
he evl e r no propor
on
o e h o
her, nor
he me n, AT THE
FIRST IEW, ppe r dequ
e
o
he end, , n purung n oje
,

he
endeny
o good, omp red w
h
he
endeny
o evl e gre
er

h n
he evl 
el when omp red w
h
he good; or 
he good,
n omp ron o
he evl, e gre
er
h n
he
endeny
o evl, n
omp ron o
he
endeny
o good,[57] we m y dede n  vour o 
.
Cero h 
re
ed
hee 
rue pon
 n more popul r nd ple ng
m nner
h n 
r 
re onng would llow. Applyng ll
he e u
e
o eloquene
o elud
e mor l
ru
h, he  y, "

he hegh
o
olly nd preump
on UNNECESSARILY
o expoe ourelve
o d nger. In
enoun
erng  l m
e we mu
m

e
he ondu
o phy n who
ue gen
le remede w
h we ly on

u
on. Bu
n on

u
on

o 
ronger  
, epe lly, n vrulen
dorder,
hey mu

h ve reoure
o more powerul,
hough more d ngerou expeden
. In

he  me m nner, lul plo


would no

emp

o  e
he wnd
dre
ly, u
would
 ou
n order
o vod 
 ury."

I. An ex mple o evl,
h
ough
y ll pole me n
o e
voded,  urnhed y
he onul

on mong
he 

e o G ul,
who, ordng
o
he oun
o T 
u, deler
ed, whe
her
hey
hould m e hoe o ler
y or pe e. By ler
y  here me n
vl
ler
y,
h
,
he rgh
o governng
hemelve, nd rem nng
ndependen


e; nd y pe e  me n
uh pe e  would preven

he whole people rom eng ex


ermn
ed,  l m
y le
h
whh
eel
he Jew, when
her 
y w  eeged y T
u.
In uh  e re on 
el d

e
he hoe o pe e, 
he only
me n o preervng le, whh 
he mmed
e g
o God, nd
he
ound
on o every leng. So
h

he Almgh
y,  we re d n
h  red volume, deem 
ndne, when n
e d o de
royng
people, he perm

hem
o e redued
o l very. Thereore he
dmonhe
he Herew, y
he mou
h o h prophe
,
o urrender
o

he B ylon n, r
her
h n
o de y pe
lene nd  mne.
Wh
h  een  d o um

ng
o d dv n
ge, nd ome  l m
e
or
he preerv
on o le or ler
y, m y e ppled
o every oje

o de r v lue. A Ar
de  y, 
 mor l du
y n 
orm,
o
 ve
he hp y  
ng overo rd
he good, u
no

he rew.

II. In ex 
ng punhmen

 nee ry
o ue
he pre u
on o
vodng ho
l
e w
h power o equ l 
reng
h. For
o venge
wrong, or
o er
rgh
y ore o rm requre uperor
y o

reng
h. So
h
no
only prudene, u
reg rd or
her uje

wll
ll
me de
er ruler rom nvolvng
her people n
he
 l m
e o w r. A prnple o ju
e
oo,
he ole dre
re o
hum n  r, ndng overegn nd uje

o e h o
her y
her
mu
u l n
ere
, wll
e h
h leon o pre u
on. For rep r
on
mu
e looed or

he h nd o
hoe, who rng on
he  l m
e
o w n
on nd unnee ry w r. Lvy  ll
h
ju
, whh 
nee ry w r, nd 
 pou  ue, when no hope  le
, u
n
reoure
o rm.
III. I
 u
now nd
hen  ue o uh mperou nee
y
our, 
o dem nd
he deon o
he word, nd
h
, when, 
Floru  y,
he deer
on o rgh
wll e ollowed y  l m
e
 r more ruel,
h n
he ere
w r. Sene  y, "
h

 rgh

o mee
d nger, when equ l h rm would reul
rom queng n n
njury," nd n
h, he  uppor
ed y T 
u, who  ll "w r
h ppy exh nge or mer le nd neure pe e," nd
he  me
nm
ed wr
er n no
her pl e oerve,
h
" n oppreed people
m y reover
her ler
y y d rng en
erprze, nd,  dee
ed
hey
 nno
e redued
o gre
er uje
on
h n eore;" en
men
, w
h
whh Lvy ord, n n mng "pe e, when oupled w
h erv
ude,
 r more grevou  l m
y,
h n ll
he horror o w r." Bu

 no

o,  Cero  y, where dee


wll e

ended w
h prorp
on,
nd v
ory w
h ond ge.
IX. Ano
her nee ry pre u
on rel
e
o
he TIME, when 

proper
o under
e w r, whh depend upon due  lul
on,
whe
her
here re reoure nd 
reng
h uen

o uppor
our ju

pre
enon. Th  onorm le
o wh
w   d y Augu
u,
h
no
w r hould e under
en, u
where
he hope o dv n
ge ould e

hewn
o over l ne
he pprehenon o run. Spo Ar nu, nd
Luu Aemlu P ulu ued
o pe  n
erm no
n ppl le
o
h
uje
, or
hey  d "
w  never rgh

o
ry
he even
o 

le,
u
under ex
reme nee
y, or  vour le rum
ne."
The ove pre u
on re o gre
ue, where we hope y
he dre d nd
 me o our prep r
on
o omplh our oje
w
h l

le or no
d nger.

CHAPTER XX .
THE CAUSES OF UNDERTAKING WAR FOR OTHERS.
Soveregn m y eng ge n w r
o uppor

he rgh
 o
her
uje
--Whe
her n nnoen
uje
 n e delvered up
o
n enemy
o vod d nger--W r ju
ly under
en n uppor
o
oneder
e upon equ l, or unequ l
erm--For rend--For
ny men--Omon o
h du
y no
l m le, rom mo
ve o
el-preerv
on--Whe
her w r m y e ju
ly under
en n deene
o no
her' uje
, expl ned y d
n
on.
I. In pe ng o ellgeren
power, 
w  hewn
h

he l w o
n
ure u
hore
he er
on no
only o our own rgh
, u
o

hoe lo elongng


o o
her. The  ue
hereore, whh ju
y

he prnp l eng ged n w r, wll ju


y
hoe lo, who ord

ne
o o
her. Bu
whe
her ny one prede over n houehold,
or 

e,
he r
nd mo
nee ry  re 
he uppor
o h
dependen
 or uje
. For
he houehold orm u
one ody w
h
he
m 
er, nd
he people w
h
he overegn. So
he people o Ir el
under
he omm nd o Johu
oo up rm n uppor
o
he Geon
e,
whom
hey h d udued. Our ore
her,  d Cero
o
he Rom n,
o
en eng ged n w r
o uppor

he rgh
 o merh n
, whoe veel
h d een plundered. The  me Rom n who would reue
o
e rm or
people who were only lle, dd no
he

e
o er
y ore o
rm
he njured rgh
 o
he  me, when
hey e me
her uje
.
II. Ye

he  ue o ny uje
, l
hough 
m y e ju
 ue, doe
no
lw y nd overegn or ruler
o
e rm: u
only when 

 n e done w
hou
nonvenene
o ll, or
he gre
er p r
o
her
uje
. For
he n
ere
 o
he whole ommun
y, r
her
h n
hoe
o p r
ul r p r
, re
he prnp l oje
 o overegn'  re;
nd
he gre
er ny p r
,
he ne rer 
 l m nd pre
enon
pproxm
e
o
hoe o
he whole.
III. Some h ve m n
ned
he po
on,
h
 n enemy requre

he urrender o 
zen, however nnoen
,
he dem nd mu

unque
on ly e ompled w
h, 
he 

e 
oo eele
o re


. Th opnon  
rongly on
rover
ed y quez, u
 we

end

o h me nng more


h n h word, we h ll nd 

o e
he dr

o h rgumen
,
h
uh 
zen ough
no

o e r hly  ndoned,
whle
here rem n ny pole hope o pro
e
ng hm. For 
 e n pon
, he llege
he ondu
o
he I
l n In n
ry, who,
upon reevng ur ne o pro
e
on rom C e r, deer
ed Pompey,
even eore he w  redued
o olu
e dep r: ondu
whh he
deervedly repro
e n
he 
ronge

erm.

Bu
whe
her n nnoen

zen m y e gven up n
o
he h nd o n
enemy
o vod mmnen
de
ru
on, whh would o
herwe  ll upon

he 

e,  pon

h
HAS BEEN ormerly, nd IS 
ll dpu
ed y

he le rned, ordng
o
he e u
ul  le, whh Demo
hene
old
o
he wolve, who dem nded o
he heep
he urrender o
he dog, 

he only
erm o pe e. The l wulne o
h  dened no
only y
quez, u
y one, whoe opnon
h
wr
er ondemn,  e rng
ne r ppro h
o perdy. So
u hold 
 n e
lhed m xm,
h

uh 
zen  ound
o delver hmel up:
h quez dene,
e ue
he n
ure o vl oe
y, whh every one h  en
ered n
o
or h own dv n
ge, requre no uh
hng.
No onluon  n e dr wn rom hene, exep

h

zen  no

ound
o
h y ny RIGHT STRICTLY SO CALLED, whle

he  me
me

he l w o h r
y wll no
uer hm
o 
o
herwe. For
here re
m ny du
e no
properly nluded n
he de o 
r
ju
e. Thee
re reg rded  
 o good wll,
he perorm ne o whh  no
only
rowned w
h pr e, u

he omon o
hem  nno
e pe enure.
Suh 
he omplexon o
he ollowng m xm,
h
every one hould
preer
he lve o n nnumer le nd nnoen
mul

ude
o h own
peron l nd prv
e wel re. Cero, n deendng Pulu Sex
u,
 y, "I I were
ng voy ge w
h my rend, nd h ppenng
o
mee
w
h lee
o pr
e,
hey
hre
ened
o n our l

le  r,
unle
he rew urrendered me 
he v
m
o ppe e
her ury,
I would ooner
hrow myel n
o
he deep,
h n uer my omp non
ou
o
her e
on
o me
o enoun
er ure de
h, or even mmnen

d nger."
Bu

er e
lhng
h pon
,
here rem n dou
, whe
her ny
one  n e COMPELLED
o do wh
he  BOUND
o do. So
u dene
h,
nd n uppor
o h rgumen
quo
e
he  e o rh m n, who,

hough ound rom mo


ve o h r
y
o upply
he w n
 o
he needy,
 nno
e ompelled
o do o. Bu

he
r n 
on o equ l w
h e h
o
her, mu
e regul
ed upon prnple very deren
rom
hoe

h
regul
e
he mu
u l rel
on o overegn nd uje
. For n
equ l  nno
ompel n equ l
o
he perorm ne o ny
hng, u
wh

he  
r
ly ound y l w
o perorm. Bu
uperor m y ompel n
neror
o
he perorm ne o OTHER du
e ede
hoe o PERFECT
OBLIGATIONS; or
h
 rgh
peul rly nd een
 lly elongng

o
he n
ure o uperor
y. Thereore er
n legl
ve provon
m y e m de, en 
ng
he perorm ne o uh du
e,  eem
o
p r
e o
he n
ure o enevolene. Phoon,  
 men
oned n
Plu
rh' lve,  d
h

he peron, whom Alex nder dem nded, h d
redued
he ommonwe l
h
o uh d
re,
h
 he dem nded even h
de re
rend Nole, he hould vo
e or delverng hm up.
I . Nex

o uje
, nd even upon n equ l oo
ng w
h
hem, 
o
l m o pro
e
on, re lle, n me nludng, n 
 onequene
nd ee
, o
h
hoe, who h ve ormed uordn
e onne
on w
h
no
her power, nd
hoe who h ve en
ered n
o eng gemen
 o mu
u l

ne. Ye
no uh omp 
  n nd e
her o
he p r
e
o
he
uppor
or proeu
on o unju
w r. And
h 
he re on, why
he
L ed emon n, eore
hey wen

o w r w
h
he A
hen n, le
ll

her lle
ler
y
o dede or
hemelve upon
he ju
e o

he qu rrel. To whh n dd


on l oerv
on m y e m de,
h
no
lly  ound
o 
n
he proeu
on o heme, whh ord no
pole prope
o h ppy
ermn
on. For
h would e dee
ng

he very end o ll ne, whh re on


r 
ed rom mo
ve o pul
dv n
ge, nd no
or p r
p
on n run. Bu
ny power 

olged
o deend n lly even g n

hoe, w
h whom 
 lre dy
onne
ed y u
ng
re
e, provded
hoe
re
e on
n no
expre ond
on proh
ng uh deene. Thu
he A
hen n mgh

h ve deended
he Coryr e n, IN A JUST CAUSE, even g n

he
Corn
h n,
her more nen
lle.

. A
hrd  e 
h
, where 
ne h  no
een exprely
promed
o rendly power, nd ye
 due on
he ore o
rendhp,  
 n e gven w
hou
nonvenene.
Upon
h prnple Ar h m
oo rm n deene o h nm n Lo
:
nd
he Rom n h rged
he An

e
o omm
no 
 o pr y upon

he Gree,  eng people o


he  me ndred w
h
he I
l n. I

w  no unuu l
hng w
h
he Rom n
o egn, or
le 

o
hre
en

o egn w r no
only n uppor
o lle,
o whom
hey were ound y

re
y, u
n uppor
o ny rendly power.

I. The l 
nd mo
ex
enve mo
ve 
he ommon
e o one COMMON
NATURE, whh lone  uen

o olge men
o 
e h o
her.
II. I
 que
on, whe
her one m n  ound
o pro
e
no
her, or
one people no
her people rom njury nd ggreon. Pl
o
hn
h

he ndvdu l or 

e no
deendng no
her rom n
ended volene
 deervng o punhmen
. A  e or whh provon w  m de y
he
l w o
he Egyp
 n.
Bu
n
he r
pl e 
 er
n
h
no one  ound
o gve

ne or pro
e
on, when 
wll e

ended w
h evden
d nger.
For m n' own le nd proper
y, nd 

e' own ex
ene nd
preerv
on re e
her
o
he ndvdu l, or
he 

e, oje
 o
gre
er v lue nd pror onder
on
h n
he wel re nd eur
y o
o
her ndvdu l or 

e.
Nor wll 

e or ndvdu l e ound
o r
her own  e
y, even
when
he ggreved or oppreed p r
y  nno
e releved u
y
he
de
ru
on o
he nv der or oppreor. For under ome rum
ne

 mpole ueully
o oppoe ruel
y nd oppreon,
he
punhmen
o whh mu
e le

o
he e
ern l judge o m nnd.

III. Though 
 rule e
lhed y
he l w o n
ure nd o
o l order, nd rule onrmed y ll
he reord o h
ory,
h

every overegn  upreme judge n h own ngdom nd over h own
uje
, n whoe dpu
e no oregn power  n ju
ly n
erere.
Ye
where Bur, Ph l r or Thr  n Domede provoe
her
people
o dep r nd re
ne y unhe rd o ruel
e, h vng

hemelve  ndoned ll
he l w o n
ure,
hey loe
he rgh
 o
ndependen
overegn, nd  n no longer l m
he prvlege o
he
l w o n
on. Thu Con
n
ne
oo up rm g n
M xen
u nd
Lnu, nd o
her Rom n emperor e
her
oo, or
hre
ened
o
e

hem g n

he Per n, 
hey dd no
de
rom pereu
ng
he
Chr
 n.
Adm

ng
h

would e r ugh
w
h
he gre
e
d nger 
uje
 were llowed
o redre grev ne y ore o rm, 

doe no
nee rly ollow
h
o
her power re proh
ed rom
gvng
hem 
ne when l ourng under grevou oppreon. For
whenever
he mpedmen

o ny 
on  o peron l n
ure, nd no

nheren
n
he 
on 
el, one peron m y perorm or no
her,
wh
he  nno
do or hmel, provded 
 n 
on y whh ome
nd erve m y e rendered. Thu gu rd n or ny o
her rend m y

under
e n 
on or w rd, whh he  n p 

ed rom dong
or hmel.
The mpedmen
, whh proh
 SUBJECT rom m ng re
ne, doe
no
depend upon
he n
ure o
he OCCASION, whh would oper
e equ lly
upon
he eelng o men, whe
her
hey were uje
 or no
, u

upon
he h r 
er o
he peron, who  nno

r ner
her n
ur l
lleg ne rom
her own overegn
o no
her. Bu

h prnple doe
no
nd
hoe, who re no

he lege-uje
 o
h
overegn or
power. Ther oppo
on
o hm or
he 

e m y ome
me e onne
ed
w
h
he deene o
he oppreed, nd  n never e on
rued n
o n

o
re on. Bu
pre
ex
 o
h
nd  nno
lw y e llowed,

hey m y o
en e ued 
he over o m
ou degn. Bu
rgh

doe no
nee rly loe 
 n
ure rom eng n
he h nd o wed
men. The e 
ll on
nue h nnel o l wul n
eroure,
hough
ome
me n vg
ed y pr
e, nd word re 
ll n
rumen
 o
deene,
hough ome
me welded y roer or  n.

BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.
WHAT IS LAWFUL IN WAR.
Wh
 l wul n w r--Gener l Rule derved rom
he
l w o n
ure--S
r
gem nd le--Arr ngemen
o
he
ollowng p r
--Fr
rule, ll
hng nee ry
o
he
end l wul--Rgh
reul
ng no
only rom
he orgn o
w r, u
rom  ue growng ou
o
he  me--Cer
n
onequene ju
 le,
hough no
orgn lly l wul--Wh

me ure re l wul g n



hoe who urnh n enemy w
h
upple--S
r
gem--Neg
ve--Po
ve--Some
me llow le
o
ue word n ene deren
rom
he gener l ep

on--A
le ordng
o
he
rue no
on o 
njurou
o
he rgh

o o
her--F lehood llow le n order
o deeve hldren or
m dmen--Any one ddreng no
her w
hou
n
en
on
o deeve,
no
nwer le or
he monep
on o
hrd peron--A peron
no
nwer le or
he wlul m
e o
hoe
o whom he
pe --The 

ou
hre
 o peron n u
hor
y--F
on
llow le n order
o  ve
he lve o
he nnoen
, or
o promo
e
o
her equ lly mpor
n
purpoe--Deep
on l wul g n
n
enemy, u
no
nludng prome, or o
h--To ore r ung

h prvlege n 
o genero
y nd Chr
 n mpl
y--No

llow le
o urge o
her
o wh
 unl wul or
hem, u
no
or
u
o do--Allow le
o ue
he erve o deer
er.
I. H vng, n
he preedng oo, ondered y wh
peron, nd or
wh
 ue, w r m y e ju
ly del red nd under
en,
he uje

nee rly le d
o n nqury n
o
he rum
ne, under whh w r
m y e under
en, n
o
he ex
en
,
o whh 
m y e  rred, nd
n
o
he m nner, n whh 
 rgh
 m y e enored. Now ll
hee
m

er m y e vewed n
he lgh
o prvlege reul
ng mply rom

he l w o n
ure nd o n
on, or 
he ee
 o ome pror


re
y or prome. Bu

he 
on, whh re u
hored y
he l w o
n
ure, re
hoe
h
re r
en

led
o

en
on.
II. In
he r
pl e,  
h  o on lly een oerved,
he me n
employed n
he puru
o ny oje
mu
, n gre
degree, derve

he omplexon o
her mor l h r 
er rom
he n
ure o
he end
o
whh
hey le d. I
 evden

hereore
h
we m y ju
ly v l
ourelve o
hoe me n, provded
hey e l wul, whh re nee ry

o
he

nmen
o ny rgh
. RIGHT n
h pl e me n wh


r
ly o  lled, gnyng
he mor l power o 
on, whh ny one
 memer o oe
y poee. On whh oun
, peron,  he h 
no o
her me n o  vng h le,  ju
ed n ung ny orle
me n o repellng n

,
hough he who m e 
,  or n
ne,
older n 

le, n dong o,  gul


y o no rme. For
h 
rgh
reul
ng no
properly rom
he rme o no
her, u
rom
he
prvlege o el-deene, whh n
ure gr n

o every one. Bede,
 ny one h  SURE nd UNDOUBTED ground
o pprehend mmnen
d nger
rom ny
hng elongng
o no
her, he m y eze 
w
hou
ny reg rd

o
he gul
or nnoene o
h
owner. Ye
he doe no
y
h

ezure eome
he propre
or o 
. For
h
 no
nee ry
o
he
end he h  n vew. He m y DETAIN 
 pre u
on ry me ure,
ll
he  n o
n 
 
ory ur ne o eur
y.
Upon
he  me prnple ny one h  n
ur l rgh

o eze wh

elong
o hm, nd  unl wully de
ned y no
her: or, 
h

mpr 
 le, he m y eze ome
hng o equ l v lue, whh  ne rly

he  me  reoverng de
. Reovere o
h nd e
lh
proper
y n
he
hng o rel med; whh 
he only me
hod o
re
orng
he equ l
y nd rep rng
he re he o vol
ed ju
e.
So
oo when punhmen
 l wul nd ju
, ll
he me n olu
ely
nee ry
o enore 
 exeu
on re lo l wul nd ju
, nd every


h
orm p r
o
he punhmen
, uh  de
royng n enemy'
proper
y nd oun
ry y re or ny o
her w y,  ll w
hn
he lm

o ju
e propor
on le
o
he oene.
III. In
he eond pl e, 
 gener lly nown
h

 no

he
ORIGIN only o ju
w r whh 
o e vewed 
he prnp l oure
o m ny o our rgh
, u

here m y e  ue growng ou
o
h
w r
whh m y gve r
h
o dd
on l rgh
. A n proeedng
l w,

he en
ene o
he our
m y gve
o
he ueul l
g n
o
her
rgh
 ede
hoe elongng
o
he orgn l m

er o dpu
e. So

hoe who jon our eneme, e


her  lle or uje
, gve u
rgh
o deendng ourelve g n
THEM lo. So
oo n
on
eng gng n n unju
w r,
he nju
e o whh he now nd ough

o now, eome l le


o m e good ll
he expene nd loe
nurred, e ue he h  een gul
y o o onng
hem. In
he
 me m nner
hoe power, who eome uxl re n w r under
en
w
hou
ny re on le ground, on
r 
degree o gul
nd render

hemelve l le
o punhmen
n propor
on
o
he nju
e o
her
me ure. Pl
o pprove o w r ondu
ed o  r, 
o ompel
he
ggreor
o ndemny
he njured nd
he nnoen
.
I . In
he
hrd pl e, n ndvdu l or ellgeren
power m y, n
he
proeu
on o l wul oje
, do m ny
hng, whh were no
n
he
on
empl
on o
he orgn l degn, nd whh n THEMSEL ES 
would
no
e l wul
o do. Thu n order
o o
n wh
elong
o u, when

 mpole
o reover
he pe
hng, we m y
e more
h n
our due, under ond
on o rep yng wh
ever  ove
he re l v lue.
For
he  me re on 
 l wul
o

 hp m nned y pr


e, or
houe ouped y roer, l
hough n
h
hp, or
h
houe
here

m y e m ny nnoen
peron, whoe lve re end ngered y uh

.
Bu
we h ve h d requen
o on
o rem r,
h
wh
 onorm le

o rgh

en n 
 
r
e
ene  no
lw y l wul n mor l
pon
o vew. For
here re m ny n
ne, n whh
he l w o
h r
y wll no
llow u
o n
upon our rgh
w
h
he u
mo

rgour. A re on or whh 


wll e nee ry
o gu rd g n

hng, whh  ll no
w
hn
he orgn l purpoe o n 
on, nd

he h ppenng o whh mgh


e oreeen: unle ndeed
he 
on
h 
endeny
o produe dv n
ge,
h
wll  r ou
wegh
he
onequene o ny den
l  l m
y, nd
he pprehenon o evl
re y no me n
o e pu
n ompe

on w
h
he ure hope o
ueul ue. Bu

o de
ermne n uh  e requre no ordn ry
pene
r
on nd dre
on. Bu
wherever
here  ny dou
, 

lw y
he  er w y
o dede n  vour o no
her' n
ere
,
h n

o ollow
he en
o our own nln
on. "Suer
he
re
o grow,
_ y our dvne
e her_, le 
n roo
ng up
he
re you roo
up

he whe
lo."
The gener l de
ru
on, whh
he Almgh
y, n rgh
o h upreme
M je
y, h  ome
me dereed nd exeu
ed,  no
rule, whh we
 n preume
o ollow. He h  no
nve
ed men, n
he exere o
power, w
h
hoe
r nenden
overegn rgh
. Ye
he hmel,
no
w
h
ndng
he unh nge le n
ure o h overegn wll, w 
nlned
o p re
he mo
wed 
e, 
en rgh
eou peron
ould e ound
heren. Ex mple le
hee m y urnh u w
h rule

o dede, how  r
he rgh
 o w r g n
n enemy m y e exered
or rel xed.

. I
requen
ly our  m

er o nqury, how  r we re
u
hored
o 
g n

hoe, who re ne
her eneme, nor wh
o
e
hough
o, u
who upply our eneme w
h er
n r
le. For we
now
h

 pon
, whh on ormer nd reen
o on h  een
on
e
ed w
h
he gre
e
nmo
y; ome whng
o enore w
h
ll m gn ry rgour
he rgh
 o w r, nd o
her 
ndng up or
he
reedom o ommere.
In
he r
pl e, d
n
on mu
e m de e
ween
he ommod
e

hemelve. For
here re ome, uh  rm or n
ne, whh re
only o ue n w r;
here re o
her g n, whh re o no ue n
w r, u
only dmn
er
o luxury; u

here re ome r
le, uh
 money, provon, hp nd n v l 
ore, whh re o ue
ll

me o
h n pe e nd w r.
A
o onveyng r
le o
he r
nd, 
 evden

h
ny
one mu
e r ned  n enemy, who upple n enemy w
h
he me n
o proeu
ng ho
l
e. Ag n

he onvey ne o ommod
e o

he eond nd, no ju


ompl n
 n e m de.--And 
o r
le o

he
hrd l , rom
her eng o dou
ul nd, d
n
on
mu
e m de e
ween
he
me o w r nd pe e. For  power  nno

deend 
el, u
y n
erep
ng
he upple en

o n enemy,
nee
y wll ju
y uh 
ep, u
upon ond
on o m ng
re
or
on, unle
here e ome dd
on l re on
o
he on
r ry.
Bu

he onvey ne o good
o n enemy
end
o o
ru
ny
ellgeren
power n
he proeu
on o l wul rgh
, nd
he peron
o onveyng
hem poee
he me n o nowng 
; 
h
power, or
n
ne,  eegng
own, or lo dng por
, n expe

on o
peedy urrender nd pe e,
he peron, who urnhe
he enemy
w
h upple, nd
he me n o prolonged re
ne, wll e gul
y
o n ggreon nd njury
ow rd
h
power. He wll nur
he

 me gul
,  peron would do y 
ng de
or
o e pe rom
pron, nd
herey
o der ud h red
or. H good m y e
en y
w y o ndemn
y, nd n dh rge o
he de
. I
he peron h  no

ye
omm

ed
he njury, u
only n
ended
o do o,
he ggreved
power wll h ve rgh

o de
n h good, n order
o ompel hm
o
gve u
ure eur
y, e
her y pu

ng n
o h h nd ho
ge, or
pledge; or ndeed n ny o
her w y. Bu

here re evden
proo
o nju
e n n enemy' ondu

he peron who uppor
 hm n uh
 e, y urnhng hm w
h uour, wll e gul
y no
 rely o
vl njury, u
h gvng 
ne wll moun

o rme 
enormou,  
would e
o reue rmn l n
he very  e o
he
judge. And on
h
oun

he njured power m y proeed g n
hm 
rmn l, nd punh hm y on
on o h good.
Thee re
he re on, whh ndue ellgeren
power
o ue
m ne
oe,  n ppe l
o o
her 

e, upon
he ju
e o
her
 ue, nd
her pro le hope o ul
m
e ue. Th que
on h 
een n
rodued under
he r
le, whh reer
o
he l w o n
ure,
 h
ory upple u w
h no preeden

o dedue 
 e
lhmen

rom
he volun
ry l w o n
on.
We re normed y Polyu, n h r
oo,
h

he C r
h gn n
ezed ome o
he Rom n, who were  rryng upple
o
her eneme,

hough
hey 
erw rd g ve
hem up, upon
he dem nd o
he Rom n.
Plu
rh  y
h
when Deme
ru h d nve
ed A

 , nd
en
he
neghourng
own o Eleu nd Rh mnu, he ordered
he m 
er nd
plo
o hp,

emp
ng
o onvey provon n
o A
hen,
o e
h nged,  he degned
o redue
h

y y  mne:
h 
o
rgour de
erred o
her rom dong
he  me, nd y
h
me n he m de
hmel m 
er o
he C
y.

I. W r, or
he

nmen
o
her oje
, 
 nno
e dened,
mu
employ ore nd
error 
her mo
proper gen
. Bu
dou

 ome
me en
er
ned, whe
her 
r
gem m y e l wully ued n
w r. The gener l ene o m nnd eem
o h ve pproved o uh
mode o w r re. For Homer ommend h hero, Ulye, no le or
h l
y n ml
ry 
r
gem,
h n or h wdom. Xenophon, who
w  phloopher  well  older nd h
or n, h   d,
h

no
hng  n e more ueul n w r
h n well-
med 
r
gem, w
h
whom Br d , n Thuydde gree, del rng 

o e
he me
hod rom
whh m ny gre
gener l h ve derved
he mo
rll n
repu

on.
And n Plu
rh, Agel u m n
n,
h
deevng n enemy  o
h
ju
nd l wul. The u
hor
y o Polyu m y e dded
o
hoe
lre dy n med; or he
hn,
h

hew gre
er
len
n gener l

o v l hmel o ome  vour le oppor


un
y
o employ 
r
gem,

h n
o g n n open 

le. Th opnon o poe


, h
or n, nd
phloopher  uppor
ed y
h
o Theolog n. For Augu
n h 
 d
h
, n
he proeu
on o ju
w r,
he ju
e o
he  ue
 no w y e
ed y
he

nmen
o
he end, whe
her
he oje

e omplhed y 
r
gem or open ore, nd Chryo
om, n h
e u
ul l

le
re
e on
he pre
ly oe, oerve,
h

he
hghe
pr e re e
owed on
hoe gener l, who h ve pr 
ed
ueul 
r
gem. Ye

here  one rum
ne, upon whh
he
deon o
h que
on
urn more
h n upon ny opnon even o
he
hghe
u
hor
y, nd
h
, whe
her 
r
gem ough

o e r ned 
one o
hoe evl, whh re proh
ed under
he m xm OF NOT DOING
E IL, THAT GOOD MAY ENSUE, or
o e reoned  one o
hoe 
on,
whh,
hough evl IN THEMSEL ES, m y e o moded y p r
ul r
o on, 
o loe
her rmn l
y n onder
on o
he good,

o whh
hey le d.

II. There  one nd o 


r
gem, 
 proper
o rem r, o
neg
ve, nd no
her o po
ve nd. The word 
r
gem, upon
he
u
hor
y o L eo,
en n neg
ve ene, nlude uh 
on,
 h ve no
hng rmn l n
hem,
hough  lul
ed
o deeve, where
ny one, or n
ne, ue degree o dmul
on or one lmen
,
n order
o deend h own proper
y or
h
o o
her.[58] So
h

undou
edly
here  ome
hng o h rhne n
he opnon o Cero,
who  y
here  no ene o le,
h
wll llow e
her mul
on,
or dmul
on
o e pr 
ed. For  you re no
ound
o dloe

o o
her ll
h
you e
her now or n
end; 
ollow
h
, on
er
n o on, ome 
 o dmul
on,
h
, o one lmen

m y e l wul. Th 
len
, whh Cero, n m ny p r
 o h
wr
ng, nowledge
h

 olu
ely nee ry or 

emen

o poe. The h


ory o Jerem h, n
he xxxv
h h p
er o h
prophey, urnhe rem r le n
ne o
h nd. For when
h

prophe
w  n
errog
ed y
he ng, repe
ng
he even
o
he
ege, he pruden
ly, n ompl ne w
h
he ng' order, one led

he re l m

er rom
he nole, gnng deren
,
hough no

 le re on or
he onerene, whh he h d h d. In
he  me m nner,
Ar h m  lled S r h, h 
er, n ppell
on ued  ml rly


h

me
o deno
e ne r rel
on y lood, one lng
he
rum
ne o her eng h we.
III. A 
r
gem o po
ve nd, when pr 
ed n 
on, 
 lled en
, nd when ued n onver
on 
reeve
he n me o
le or  lehood. A d
n
on  m de y ome, e
ween
hee
wo
nd o 
r
gem, who  y,
h
word re gn o our de , u


on re no
o. Bu

here  more o
ru
h n
he oppo
e opnon,

h
word o
hemelve un omp ned y
he n
en
on o
he pe er,
gny no
hng more
h n
he n r
ul
e re would do o ny one
l ourng under gre, or ny o
her p on: whh ound ome under

he denomn
on o 
on, r
her
h n o peeh. Bu
hould 
e
 d
h
eng le
o onvey
o o
her
he onep
on o h mnd,
y word d p
ed
o
he purpoe,  peul r g
o n
ure, y whh
m n  d
nguhed rom o
her p r
 o
he nm
ed re
on,
he

ru
h o
h  nno
e dened.
To whh we m y dd
h
uh ommun
on m y e m de no
only y
word, u
y gn or ge
ure, le
hoe ued
o
he dum; 

m e no derene, whe


her
hoe gn or ge
ure h ve ny n
ur l
onne
on w
h
he
hng
hey re n
ended
o gny, or whe
her
uh onne
on  only gned
o
hem y u
om. Equv len

o
uh gn or ge
ure  h ndwr
ng, whh m y e ondered, 
dum l ngu ge, dervng 
 ore no
merely rom
he word ued, nd

he p r
ul r orm o
he le

er, u
rom
he re l n
en
on o

he wr
er,
o e g
hered rom
hene:--
o e g
hered e
her rom

he reeml ne e
ween
he h r 
er nd
he n
en
on,  n
he
Egyp
 n heroglyph, or rom pure  ny,  mong
he Chnee.
Here lewe no
her d
n
on  nee ry
o e ppled n
he
 me m nner,  w  done eore, n order
o remove ll mgu
y n
ung
he
erm o THE LAW OF NATIONS. For 
w 
here  d,
h

he
l w e
lhed y ndependen
nd ep r
e 

e, whe
her or no

hoe l w mpled ny mu
u l olg
on, were denomn
ed
he LAW
OF NATIONS.[59] So
h
word, ge
ure, nd gn, m de ue o
o
onvey me nng, mply n olg
on, n ll
he peron onerned,
o
reeve nd employ
hem n
her ommon ep

on. Bu

he employmen

o OTHER MEANS, omng under NONE OF THOSE DESCRIPTIONS,  nno


e
on
rued n
o vol
on o ny o l on
r 
, l
hough ome m y

e deeved
herey. I

he REAL NATURE o
he 
on
h
 here
poen o, nd no

he ACCIDENTAL rum
ne

endng
hem: uh

on or n
ne,  o on no mhe; or 
hey do o,
here
 no gul
, where
here  no
re herou degn.
We h ve n n
ne o
he ormer nd n
he ondu
o our S vour,
who, on
he w y
o Emm u, pre
ended
o
he dple,
h
he w 
gong ur
her; here w  h rmle 
r
gem, unle we n
erpre

he
word,  expreve o h n
en
on
o h ve gone ur
her,  he h d
no
een preven
ed y
her eor
 nd en
re
e
o de
n hm. And
n no
her p r
o
he  red h
ory 
  d,
h
he n
ended

o h ve p ed y
he Apo
le on
he e ,
h
, he n
ended
o
h ve done 
, h d he no
een o e rne
ly mpor
uned y
hem
o go
n
o
he hp. There  no
her n
ne
oo n
he ondu
o P ul,
who rumed Tmo
hy,
hough he new
he Jew would onlude rom

hene,
h

he ordn ne o rumon, whh n re l
y h d een
olhed, w  
ll ndng upon
he deend n
 o Ir el, nd
h

P ul nd Tmo
hy were o
he  me opnon. Where  P ul h d no uh
n
en
on, u
only hoped, y
h
me n,
o open or hmel nd
Tmo
hy w y
o more  ml r n
eroure w
h
he Jew. Ne
her ould
n ordn ne o
h
nd, when
he dvne olg
on w  repe led, ny
longer e deemed o uh mpor
ne, nor ould
he evl o
empor ry
error, reul
ng rom
hene, nd 
erw rd
o e orre
ed, e
reg rded  equv len

o
he oppor
un
y, whh P ul
hough

o g n,
o m ng 
onduve
o
he n
rodu
on o Chr
 n
ru
h.
The Gree F
her h ve gven
he n me o ECONOMY, or MANAGEMENT

o 
r
gem o
h nd. On
h uje

here  n dmr le
en
men
n Clemen
o Alex ndr , who, n pe ng o good m n,
 y
h
"he wll do m ny
hng or
he ene
o h neghour
lone, whh he would no
o
herwe h ve under
en."
One o
hee 
r
gem w  pr 
ed y
he Rom n, who, durng
he

me
h

hey were eeged n
he C p
ol,
hrew ome lo ve o
re d n
o
he enemy'  mp,
h

mgh
no
e uppoed
hey were
preed y  mne. The egned lgh
, whh Johu ordered h people

o m e,
o 
hm n h degn upon A, ord n n
ne o

r
gem o
he eond nd;
he enung mhe o whh m y e
ondered,  ome o
he ee
 o l wul w r. The ORIGINAL DESIGN
o
h
pre
ended lgh
doe no

ll e

he que
on. The
enemy
oo 
or proo o e r; nd he w 
ler
y
o do o,
w
hou
de rrng
he o
her o h rgh

o m rh
h w y, or
h
,
w
h n eler
ed or re
rded mo
on, w
h hew o our ge, or n
ppe r ne o e r,  he mgh
judge 
mo
expeden
.
H
ory urnhe u w
h nnumer le ex mple o deep
on pr 
ed
w
h ue upon n enemy, y umng h rm, engn, olour, or
unorm; ll whh m y e ju
ed upon
he  me prnple. For ll

hee re 
on, whh ny one m y v l hmel o
h ple ure,
y dep r
ng rom
he uu l oure o h ml
ry y
em. For uh
pon
 o dplne nd y
em depend upon
he wll nd  ny o
he
ml
ry omm nder n e h 

e, r
her
h n upon ny nv r le
u
om, equ lly ndng upon ll n
on.
IX. Thoe gn, y whh
he d ly n
eroure o le  m n
ned,
orm uje
o more wegh
y duon, w
h whh
he onder
on
o le or  lehood  nee rly n
erwoven.
All 
r
gem o
h nd re o dre
vol
on o ll mor l
prnple, o
h n
her n
ure nd onequene,
h
lmo
every

p ge o
he reve led wll o God del re
her ondemn
on. Solomon
dere rgh
eou,
h
, good m n,  one, who hold every
 le word n de
e

on, depre
ng
he le 
ppe r ne o
deep
on: nd
he Apo
le' njun
on ord w
h
hee en
men
,
n
ru
ng h dple no

o le
o one no
her.
Nor  
n
he hgh 
nd rd o pere
on lone, whh
he dvne
reord preen
,
h
uh reommend
on o  r, open, nd nere
de lng 
o e ound. I

he
heme o pr e w
h poe
 nd
phloopher, nd
he ngry hero o
he Gre n poe
del re,
h

he de
e

he m n,  n nern l eng, who u

er one
hng w
h
h
ongue, whle he one l no
her n h he r
. Bu
m ng ome
llow ne or poe
 
on--we nd even
he gr ve, oer, nd
dernng, S
gr
e derng  lehood,  vle, nd omn le
reuge, nd p n
ng
ru
h  lovely oje
,
h
mu
ex
or

he
w rme
pr e.
Thee re ll gre
nd hgh u
hor
e n  vour o open de lng.
Ye

here re n me o no le wegh
, o
h mong  red nd pro ne
wr
er, whoe opnon re vnd
on o 
r
gem, when ued upon
PROPER o on. One wr
er pe  o  e, where 
r
gem m y e
ued, even or
he ene
o
he peron, on whom 
 pr 
ed, nd
ddue
he n
ne o phy n, who, y me n o deep
on,
over me
he perverene o p
en
, nd wrough
 lu
ry ure.
X. To reonle uh v re
y o dord n
opnon, 
m y e
nee ry
o deve ome w y o ex mnng  lehood o
h n 
 more
ex
enve, nd more onned ep

on. Nor  pe ng n un
ru
h,
UNAWARES,
o e ondered n
he n
ure o le, u

he  lehood,
whh ome w
hn
he lm
 here dened, 
he KNOWN nd DELIBERATE
UTTERANCE o ny
hng on
r ry
o our re l onv
on, n
en
on, nd
under
ndng.
Word, or gn, mpor
ng
he  me me nng  word, re gener lly

en or onep


on o
he mnd, ye

 no le or ny m n
o
u

er  lehood, whh he eleve


o e
rue; u

he prop g
on
o
ru
h, whh ny one eleve
o e  le, IN HIM moun

o
le. There mu
e n
he ue o
he word
hereore n INTENTION
o
deeve, n order
o on

u
e  lehood n
he proper nd ommon
ep

on. Conequen
ly, when ny one ngle word, or
he whole

enour o doure, dm


 o more gn
on
h n one, e
her
y
he ue o ome popul r phr e, ome
erm o r
, or n
ellgle
gure o peeh, n
h
 e 
he pe er' n
en
on orrepond
w
h ny one o
hoe me nng, he  nno
e h rged w
h ung
 lehood, l
hough 
 pole
h
he rer m y
e h word n
very deren
ene. I

rue
h
ung uh n mguou me
hod
o pe ng on ALL OCCASIONS  no

o e pproved o,
hough
here
re p r
ul r rum
ne under whh 
m y e reonled w
h
honour nd ju
e. In ommun
ng nowledge, or n
ne,
here
 no h rm n ung me
phor, n rony, or n hyperole, gure o
peeh,
endng e
her
o dorn or
o elud
e uje
. There re
 e
oo, where y
h dou
ul mode o expreon 
m y e proper

o vod n urgen
nd mper
nen
que
on. There  n n
ne o

he ormer nd n our S vour'  yng,


h
"our rend L z ru
leepe
h," where
he dple under
ood hm,   he were pe ng
o
he rerehng re
o n ordn ry leep: nd when he poe o
re
orng
he
emple, whh he me n
h own ody, he new
h

he
Jew ppled wh
he  d
o
he MATERIAL EDIFICE o
he Temple. In
he
 me m nner he requen
ly ddreed
he mul

ude n p r le, whh

hey ould no
under
nd y  rely he rng, w
hou

h
dol
y

o mnd, nd

en
on, whh
he uje
requred. Pro ne h
ory

oo urnhe u w
h n ex mple o
he eond nd, n
he ondu

o 
ellu, who,  T 
u norm u, g ve N ru dou
ul nd
mguou nwer, n order
o vod h urgen
que
on;  ny
expl
del r
on mgh
h ve een

ended w
h d nger.
On
he o
her h nd, 
m y h ppen
o e no
only enur le, u
even
wed
o ue uh m nner o pe ng, where e
her
he honour o God
or
he wel re o m nnd  onerned, or ndeed ny m

er, whh
dem nd expl
vow l, nd open de lng. Thu n on
r 
 every

hng nee ry
o
her ulllmen
ough

o e ully dloed
o

hoe onerned. There  n ppo


e expreon o Cero, who  y,

h
every degree o deep
on ough

o e  nhed rom ll on
r 
,
nd
here  n
he old A
hen n L w prover, onorm le
o
h,
whh  y,
here mu
e no
hng, u
open de lng n m re
.
XI. In 
r
ne o peeh uh mgu
y  exluded rom
he no
on
o le. The ommon no
on o le
hereore  ome
hng poen,
wr

en, m red, or n
m
ed, whh  nno
e under
ood, u
n
ene deren
rom
he re l me nng o
he pe er. Bu
le, n

h 
r
er ep

on, h vng ome
hng unl wul n 
 very
n
ure, nee rly requre
h
d
n
on hould e m de e
ween

nd
h
l

ude o expreon lre dy expl ned. And 
h
ep

on e properly ondered,
le 
ordng
o
he opnon
prev lng n ll n
on, 
eem,
h
no o
her expl n
on o 

nee ry
o e gven, exep

h

 vol
on o
he ex
ng
nd perm nen
rgh
 o
he peron,
o whom doure, or p r
ul r
gn, re dre
ed. I
 vol
on o
he rgh
 o ANOTHER; or

 evden
,
h
no one  n u

er  lehood w
h vew
o mpoe
upon hmel. The rgh
 here poen o re peul rly onne
ed w
h

h uje
. They mply
h
ler
y o judgmen
, whh men re
under
ood, y nd o

greemen
,
o owe
o e h o
her n
her
mu
u l n
eroure. For
h, nd
h lone 
h
mu
u l olg
on,
whh men n
ended
o n
rodue,  oon 
hey eg n
o ue peeh,
or o
her gn o equ l mpor
. For w
hou
uh n olg
on
he
nven
on o
hoe gn would h ve een pere
ly nug
ory. I

requ
e
oo,
h


he
me doure  m de, uh rgh
or
olg
on hould rem n n ull ore.
A rgh
m y ndeed h ve ex
ed nd 
erw rd h ve eome oole
e,
owng
o
he re or ourrene o ome new rgh
: whh 
he  e
w
h de
,
h
m y e rele ed y qu

ne, or non-perorm ne o


ond
on. I
  r
her requ
e,
o on

u
e IOLATION OF THIS
RIGHT,
h

he enung njury hould mmed
ely e

he PERSON
ADDRESSED:  n on
r 
,
here  n e no nju
e, u
wh
e

one o
he p r
e, or peron onerned.
And perh p under
he he d o
h rgh
, 
m y no
e mproper
o
gn pl e
o
h
TRUE SPEAKING, whh Pl
o, ollowng Smonde,
l e w
h ju
e, n order
o orm more 
rng on
r 
w
h

h
 lehood, o o
en proh
ed n Srp
ure, y
he n me o  le
w
ne
o, or g n
, our neghour, nd whh Augu
n, n denng
le,  ll n n
en
on
o deeve. Cero lo n h oe l y
down
ru
h, 
he   o ju
e.
The rgh

o dovery o
he whole
ru
h m y e relnquhed y
he
expre onen
o
he peron, who re eng ged n
re
y:
he one
m y del re h n
en
on no

o dloe er
n pon
, nd
he o
her
m y llow o
h reerve. There m y e lo

preump
on,
h

here re ju
re on or uh reerve whh m y perh p e nee ry

ou
o reg rd
o
he rgh
 o
hrd peron: rgh
 whh, n
he
ommon judgmen
o ll oer men, m y e uen

o oun
er l ne
ny olg
on n e
her o
he peron eng ged n
he
re
y
o m e
ull dloure o h vew nd en
men
.--Thee prnple,
duly ondered, wll upply m ny nerene
o reonle ny eemng
on
r d
on n
he opnon,
h
h ve een dv ned.
XII. In
he r
pl e, m ny
hng m y e  d
o m dmen, or
hldren,
he LITERAL MEANING o whh m y no
e
rue, w
hou

nurrng
he gul
o wlul  lehood. A pr 
e whh eem
o e
llowed y
he ommon ene o ll m nnd. Qun
l n, pe ng o
he
ge o puerl
y,  y, 
 perod o le, when m ny ueul
ru
h
m y e
ugh
n
he dre o 
on.--Ano
her re on gven ,
h

 hldren nd m dmen poe no pere


power o judgng, mpo
on
o
h
nd  n do no njury
o
her rgh
, n uh repe
.
XIII. Seondly, when onver
on  ddreed
o ny one, who  no

herey deeved, l
hough
hrd peron, no
mmed
ely ddreed,
m y moneve
he m

er,
here  no wlul  lehood n
he  e.
No WILFUL FALSEHOOD
ow rd
he peron ddreed: e ue he eel no
gre
er njury rom
hene,
h n n n
ellgen
he rer would do rom

he re
l o  le, or
he ue o me
phor, rony, or hyperole
n peeh. I
 nno
e  d
h
n njury  done
o
he peron,
who den
lly nd urorly he r m

er, nd moneve 
:
or eng no w y onerned,
here  no olg
on due
o hm. A
he moneve
hng ddreed
o ANOTHER, nd no

o HIMSELF,
he mu

e upon h own he d ll
he onequene o
he m
e.
For, properly pe ng,
he doure, WITH RESPECT TO HIM,  no
doure, u
n nexpreve ound
h
m y gny one
hng  well
 no
her. So
h

here w  no
hng wrong n
he ondu
o C
o
he
Cenor, who m de  le prome o 
ne
o h oneder
e, nor
n
h
o Fl u, who normed o
her
h
Aemlu h d
en
he
enemy' 
y y 
orm, l
hough
he enemy were deeved y 
. Plu
rh
men
on n n
ne o
he  me nd n
he le o Agel u. Here no
ommun
on w  m de
o
he enemy, nd
he prejude he u
ned w 
n den
l
hng no w y unl wul n 
el, e
her
o e whed or
or proured.
XI . In
he
hrd pl e, whenever 
 er
n
h

he peron, on
whom deep
on  pr 
ed, dover
h

he n
en
o 
w 
o
do hm erve; he wll no
eel 
 grev ne, nor  n 
ome
under
he 
r
denomn
on o le or  lehood. I
wll e no
more n INJURY,
h n 
would e THEFT n ny one, preumng upon n
owner' onen
,
o
e ome
hng elongng
o
h
owner, n order

o onver


o h ue n very ene l w y. For n  e o
no
orou er
n
y, PRESUMPTION m y e
en or expre onen
.
Bu

 evden

h
no m n would CONSENT
o reeve n INJURY.
From hene 
ppe r,
h
peron  gul
y o no
re hery, who
ue unounded or 

ou mo
ve
o onole rend n d
re,
 Arr dd
o P e
u upon
he de
h o h on, o whh
here 
n oun
n Plny' Ep
le, or n gener l, who n perlou

u
on hould v l hmel o  le n
ellgene,
o enour ge h

roop, y whh perh p v


ory mgh
e g ned.
I
m y e oerved lewe,
h

he njury done
o
he reedom o
judgmen
, n uh  e, o le onequene, e ue 
 u

momen
ry, nd
he re l  
 oon dovered.
X . There  our
h  e, whh e r ne r n
y
o
hoe

ove men
oned, nd
h
, when ny one, poeng pre-emnen

u
hor
y, order no
her, n uordn
e  p 
y,
o exeu
e ome
deve or 
r
gem, onduve e
her
o h ndvdu l, or
o
he
pul wel re. Whh Pl
o eem
o h ve h d p r
ul rly n vew,
n llowng
hoe n u
hor
y
o v l
hemelve o pre
ex
, or

r
gem. The  me wr
er  very orre
n h no
on o no
m ng
uh deve h r 
er
 o
h
u
hor
y, whh elong
o
he
upreme eng. For ll uh deve, however ju
 le
hey m y e n
CERTAIN CASES, 
rongly e
r y
h
mpere
on, whh  nep r le
rom ll hum n y
em.
The 
r
gem, whh Joeph employed
o o
n ur
her dovere
w
hou
m ng hmel nown
o h re
hren,  muh ommended y
Phlo,  m r o gre
poly, when, on
r ry
o
he onv
on
nd eelng o h own mnd, he ued
hem o eng pe, nd

erw rd h rged
hem w
h
he
. I
w  y 
r
gem o
he  me
nd,
h
Solomon g ve proo o h npred wdom, when he ued
he
FICTITIOUS
hre
o dvdng
he lvng hld n order
o dover
he
re l mo
her.
X I. The 
h  e, whh llow 
r
gem
o e pr 
ed, 

h
, where 
m y e
he ONLY me n o  vng
he le o n nnoen

peron, o o
nng ome oje
o equ l mpor
ne, or o dver
ng
no
her rom
he perpe
r
on o ome horrd degn. The he
hen
poe
h  gven e u
ul llu
r
on o
h n h pr e o
Hypermne
r , whoe ondu
he  ll " plendd 
r
gem, ennolng

he vrgn
o ll po
er
y."
X II. I
 evden

h
m ny wr
er o nowledged wdom, nd oer
judgmen
, h ve  rred
he pon
 r
her
h n h  een done n
h

re
e, n llowng
he ue o  le repreen

on
o n enemy. In
 e, where pul eneme re onerned,
hey m n
n,
h


l wul
o dev
e rom
hoe 
r
rule o vowng nd dlong
ll our n
en
on, whh
hey prere, on ll o
her o on. Suh

he opnon o Pl
o nd Xenophon mong
he Gree, o Phlo mong

he Jew, nd Chryo
om mong Chr
 n. I
m y no
perh p e m

o 
e, n
h pl e,
he me ge en
y
he men o J eh Gle d

o
he Ammon
e, y whom
hey were eeged, nd lo
h
o
he
prophe
Elh , nd

he  me
me
o men
on
he ondu
o leru
L evnu, who o 
ed o h vng lled Pyrrhu.
The
hrd,
he our
h nd 
h oerv
on ove m de, m y e
llu
r
ed rom wh
  d y Eu
r
u, Arhhop o Ne, "An
le nd uprgh
ounellor  no
olged
o dloe
he whole

ru
h: or
here m y e o on, when 
m y e nee ry or hm
o
reommend
he me n o deevng n enemy, or
o employ ome 
r
gem

ow rd rend, where 


m y
urn
o h dv n
ge."
X III. Wh
h  een  d o  le pe ng mu
e under
ood 
ppled
o rm
ve del r
on, whh  n e prejud l
o no
peron, u
pul eneme: 
 n y no me n e
en
o nlude
prome. For prome oner upon
he peron,
o whom
hey re m de,
peul r rgh

o l m
her ull perorm ne. And
h  rule,
whh mu

e pl e, even e
ween pul eneme; rule
o whh
ex
ng ho
l
e re no
llowed
o orm n exep
on. I

m xm proper
o e enored n TACIT,  well  n EXPRESS greemen
:
 when p rley or onerene  dem nded,
here  lw y n IMPLIED
prome,
h
o
h de h ll

end 
w
h pere
 e
y. Bu

hee
re pon
 reerved or
he duon o no
her p r
o
h
re
e.

XIX. I
wll e nee ry
o repe
n oerv
on m de eore, w
h
repe

o o
h, o
h o
he rm
ve nd promory nd, where

w  m n
ned
h

hey exlude ll exep
on, ll men
l
reerv
on
ow rd
he peron,
o whom
hey re m de, eng reg rded
no
merely  olemn
r n 
on w
h
h
ndvdu l, u


ed 
ppe l
o God. Suh n ppe l
o
he upreme eng dem nd
he
perorm ne o n o
h, even  
g ve
he ndvdu l no rgh

o
he
 me.
A

he  me
me 
w  oerved,
h
worn del r
on  no
le
one o ny o
her nd, where n ppl
on o
erm deren
rom

her uu l me nng m y upply


he pe er w
h n exue or ev dng

her mpor
. Bu

ru
h requre every del r
on nd prome
o e
m de n
erm, whh 
 uppoed
h
every m n o n
egr
y nd
le r judgmen
wll under
nd, purnng

he mpou
hough
,
h

men m y e deeved y o
h,  hldren re y
oy nd
rle.
XX. Some n
on nd ndvdu l ndeed h ve reje
ed
he ue o
hoe

r
gem, whh even
he l w o n
ure llow
o e employed 
me n o el-deene g n
n enemy. Bu

hey dd o, no
rom ny
opnon o
her unl wulne, u
rom nole lo
ne o mnd,
nd rom ondene n
her own 
reng
h. Ael n h  preerved
 yng o Py
h gor , "
h

here re
wo
hng, n whh m n
ppro he ne re

o God, n lw y pe ng
he
ru
h, nd dong good

o o
her." Ar
o
le, omewhere n h E
h,  ll pe ng
ru
h,

he reedom o gre
oul, nd Plu
rh  y,
h
 lehood 
he
qu l
on o l ve. Bu
n dherene
o
ru
h, n mpl
y o
he r
,  no

he only du
y requred o Chr
 n, n
h repe
,

hey re omm nded


o 
n rom ll v n doure,  h vng or

her ex mple hm, n whoe mou


h
here w  ound no gule.
XXI. W
h repe

o
he 
on o men,
here  no
her rule whh
m y properly ome under
h he d, nd
h
,
he unl wulne o
urgng or peru dng ny one
o do n unl wul 
. For n
ne, no
uje
h  rgh

o l
h h nd g n
h overegn,
o delver
up
own w
hou
pul u
hor
y, or
o depol h neghour o h
good. I
would e unl wul
hen
o enour ge
he uje
o n enemy,
 long  he on
nue h uje
,
o do ny o
hee 
. For
he
peron, who urge no
her
o do wed 
, m e hmel p r
ner
n h gul
. Nor  n 
e reeved  ju
nwer,
h
urgng
uje

o
he perpe
r
on o uh deed  no
hng more
h n
employng
he l wul me n o de
royng n enemy. For
hough 
m y
e nee ry nd ju

o de
roy hm,  pole, ye

h
 no

he
w y, n whh 
hould e done. Augu
n h  well oerved,
h


m e no derene whe


her ny one hould omm
rme hmel, or
employ no
her  h n
rumen
.
Bu
employng
he pon
neou oer o deer
er  no
on
r ry
o

he l w o w r, nd  very deren

on rom
h
o edung
uje
rom h lleg ne.
[Illu
r
on: _WAR AND PEACE_

_Th  ron
pee
o L
n ed
on o Gro
u' De Jure Bell
 P , pulhed
Am
erd m n 1670. I
 n
ended
o e
ymol l o W r nd Pe e 
ng under
he dre
on Ju
e,

hee
hree gure ormng
he en
r l group._

CHAPTER II.
IN WHAT MANNER THE LAW OF NATIONS RENDERS THE PROPERTY OF SUBJECTS
ANSWERABLE FOR THE DEBTS OF SO EREIGNS. THE NATURE OF REPRISALS.
No one u
n her ound y
he 
o no
her--Proper
y o uje

nwer le or
he de
 o overegn, ordng
o
he l w
o N
on--C p
ure o peron nd proper
y 
er 
 
on
reued y
he ggreor--Repr l--Peron l  e
y o
uje
--D
n
on m de y
he l w o N
on n
h repe
.
I. The rgh
 rung rom
he l w o N
on re
he pon
 nex

o
e ondered, whh m y e reerred e
her
o w r n GENERAL, or
o

hoe o PARTICULAR derp


on.
W r n GENERAL re
hoe, whh properly r
ome under no
e.
By
he LITERAL l w o n
ure, no one  ound y
he 
on o
no
her, exep

he peron, who ueed
o h proper
y. For
he
n
rodu
on nd e
lhmen
o proper
y n
rodued nd e
lhed
lo
he power o
r nerrng 
w
h ll 
 numr ne. The
Emperor Zeno however pronoune 
repugn n

o n
ur l ju
e or
one m n
o e mole
ed or
he de
 o no
her. A prnple, whh
g ve re
o
he d
n
on n
he Rom n l w,
h

he we ould
no
e ued or her hu nd, nor
he hu nd or h we, nor on
or h 
her, nor 
her or mo
her or
her on. Nor,  Ulp n
le rly 

e 
, ould ndvdu l e nwer le or
he de
 o

he ommun
y, nd more epe lly 
h
ommun
y e poeed o
proper
y. Indeed 
h
were no

he  e ndvdu l ould only
e olged
o on
ru
e
her due propor
on,  memer o
h

ommun
y.
Sene  y, " ny one lend money
o my oun
ry, I m no

o e
ondered  h de
or, nor
o
e
he de
upon myel,
hough I m
ound
o p y my due propor
on o 
." There w  pe l provon
m de n
he Rom n l w,
h
one pe  n
hould no
e ound or
he
de
 o no
her, nd 
 l d down  rule,
h

he good o
one peron h ll no
e d
r ned or
he de
 o no
her, even 

hey e pul de


; nd n Ju
n n' Novel, pledge or o
her re
ordden, nd
he  ue gned or 
, e ue 
 unre on le

h
one peron hould nur
he de
, nd no
her e ound
o
he
p ymen
o 
, n ex 
on
o whh
he n me o ODIOUS  gven. Kng
Theodor C odor,  ll 
hong lene or one m n
o e
de
ned  pledge or no
her.
II. Al
hough n
he preedng oerv
on
here m y e gre
de l o

ru
h, ye

 pole, nd ndeed ppe r 
u lly
o e
he  e,

h

he volun
ry l w o n
on n
rodued
he pr 
e o renderng
ll
he orpore l, nd norpore l proper
y, elongng
o
he uje

o ny 

e or overegn, l le
o
he de
, whh
h


e or
overegn m y h ve nurred, e
her peron lly, or y reung
o m e
uh rep r
on,  m y e due or
he njure nd ggreon, whh

hey h ve omm

ed.
Ye

h  pr 
e, whh no
hng u
nee
y ould ju
y; or,
on ny o
her ground, 
would e openng door
o nnumer le 
 o
w n
on ggreon nd nju
e g n
ndvdu l. A
he proper
y o



e nd overegn  nno
o
en o e ly  ll n
o n enemy' h nd,

h
elongng
o ndvdu l, who re more numerou, nd whoe
proper
y  onequen
ly more expoed. So
h
rgh
 o
h nd re

o e reoned mong
hoe, whh Ju
n n  y, re
he oprng o

ern nee
y,
he  l m
e o men drvng
hem
o
he ue o uh
me n.
Bu

hough pr 
e le
h owe 
 n
rodu
on
o NECESSITY, 

 no
o  r
v r ne w
h
he l w o n
ure, 
o exlude CUSTOM
nd TACIT greemen
rom h vng ome h re n 
 e
lhmen
. For we
nd
h
ure
e re ound y no o
her
e, u

h
lone o h vng
gven
her onen
. Bede, 
mgh
e ly e uppoed,
h


w 
he e
me
hod o redre g n

he uje
 o no
her 

e,
where
he ggreved peron ould no
o e ly proeu
e
her rgh
,
or o
n ndemn
e,
he l m or njure o 
r nger eng u

l

le under
ood, nd perh p 
ll le reg rded n oregn l nd.
Suje
, eng
hu l le
o
he lo o
her proper
y,
ondu
o
her ellow uje
, or y
h
o
he 

e,
ome
me eel 
h rdhp, whle on o
her o on, 

prove
her gre
e
eur
y g n
ggreon rom
he
no
her power.

y
he
mgh

would
uje
 o

Th

h w  reeved u
om ppe r no
only rom
he regul r
w r,  rred on y one 

e g n
no
her,
he rule oerved n
whh re o
en n med n
he m ne
oe ued on uh o on:

he orm o whh m y e een n


he r
oo o Lvy, where 

 d, "I del re w r g n

he nen
n
on o
he L
n, nd
lewe g n

he repe
ve ndvdu l"; nd
he  me wr
er, n
h
hr
y r
oo, norm u,
h
, upon
he que
on eng pu

o
he people,
hey were ed, whe
her 
w 
her ple ure
h

w r hould e del red g n


Phlp, nd g n

he M edon n,
h uje
.--Bu

he  me u
om lo prev led, even eore
he
ommenemen
o 
u l nd open ho
l
e e
ween
wo 

e, when
mu
u l 
 o ggreon y
he uje
 o e h power ould e
reg rded  no
hng u

he eve, nd prelude
o del r
on o w r.
The word ued y Agel u
o Ph rn  zu wll erve
o elud
e

h pon
: he  d; "Whle we were rend
o
he ng o Per , we

re
ed hm nd h uje
 n rendly m nner: now we re eneme,
you  n expe
no
hng rom u u
ho
l
e. Thereore, Ph rn  zu,
whle you hue
o on
nue v  l
o
he Kng, we wound hm
hrough
your de."
III. The A
hen n h d me
hod omewh
le
h o eeng redre,
whh
hey  lled { ndrolps }, sezure of men's persons,
whch w s l d down n the Attc l w n the followng terms, "f n
one h s been murdered n foregn countr, the ne rest rel tves
of the dece sed re uthorzed to seze n three subjects of th t
countr, but not more th n three, tll the perpetr tors of the deed be
punshed, or t le st delvered up to the h nds of justce for th t
purpose."
In ths c se we fnd th t the person l lbert of subjects, whch m 
be consdered s knd of ncorpore l rght, ncludng the rght of
resdng where the ple se, or dong wh tever the m  thnk proper, s
m de nswer ble for the debt of the st te, who s bound to punsh the
crmn l cts of her subjects: so th t the subject suffers constr nt,
tll the st te h s dsch rged the debt, whch t s bound to p ; nd
b the p ment of ths debt s me nt the punshment of the gult. For
lthough the Egpt ns, s we le rn from Dodorus Sculus, m nt ned

th t nether the person, nor lbert of n one ought to be bound or


constr ned for debt, there s nothng n t repugn nt to the l w
of n ture, nd b the pr ctce not onl of the Greeks, but of other
n tons, the opposte opnon seems to h ve been est blshed.
Arstocr tes, who w s contempor r wth Demosthenes h d m de moton
for decree, th t f n one klled Ch rdemus, t mght be l wful
to seze hm, wherever he w s to be found, nd th t n one, who
ttempted to rescue th t person, should be deemed n enem. Demosthenes
fnds f ult wth m n p rts of ths decree. For n the frst pl ce,
Arstocr tes h d omtted m kng proper dstncton between murder nd
l wful puttng to de th, the l tter of whch s n ct of justce:
n the next pl ce, he h s s d nothng of brngng the person to
regul r tr l: besdes, t w s not the persons, mong whom the murder
h d been commtted, but those who fterw rds receved the murderer,
th t were to be decl red enemes. Demosthenes s s, th t "the regul r
l w prescrbes, th t f the persons n whose dstrct murder h s
been commtted, nether punsh, nor delver up the perpetr tor of the
crme, three of ther people sh ll be l ble to be sezed. But ths
decree, llowng the persons n whose dstrct t h s been commtted to
esc pe wth mpunt, not even n mng THEM, p sses sentence upon those,
who n conformt to the common l ws of hum nt h ve receved the
fugtve, f the do not delver hm up, whch would be bre ch of the
protecton due to suppl nt."
The fourth pont, n whch he bl mes Arstocr tes, s for h vng
c rred m tters to the extremtes of open nd ctu l w r, n c se,
where the l w onl uthorzed the sezure nd detenton of p rtcul r
persons. Of these rguments, the frst, the second, nd the fourth,
re b no me ns desttute of weght. But the thrd rgument, unless t
be confned entrel to the crcumst nce of ccdent l de th, or th t
necess rl occ soned b defendng one's self, m  be reg rded more
s n or torc l floursh th n just nd sold re son. For the l w of
n tons extends the prvleges, nd ch r cter of suppl nts to those
onl, who h ve left ther countr on ccount of msfortune, nd not
owng to crmes. Indeed f the l w of n tons m de no such dstncton,
the persons, mong whom crme h s been commtted, nd who m  be
suspected of h vng counten nced the deed, nd those who b rel refuse
to punsh or delver up the gult fugtve, would be upon n equ l
footng s to rght. So th t t w s ether USAGE, whch GRADUALLY
ntroduced the bove nterpret ton of th t l w, to whch Demosthenes
ppe ls, or t w s fterw rds more EXPRESSLY ESTABLISHED, n order
to vod such c vls. For no one c n den the truth of one of these
postons who h s ttended to the observ ton of Julus Pollux, th t
"the sezure nd det nder of persons c n be enforced, whenever power
c nnot obt n the surrender of fugtve murderers, whch the dem nd.
In ths c se the ggreved power or ndvdu l m  seze nd det n n
three of the people belongng to the st te, whch refuses to m ke th t
surrender."
It s upon the s me prncple th t n power m  det n the subjects of
nother st te, n order to procure the rele se of n subjects of her
own, unjustl sezed, nd mprsoned b th t st te.
IV. Another method of obt nng redress for n vol ton of persons,
or propert s b h vng recourse to wh t, n modern l ngu ge, re
c lled REPRISALS, whch the S xons nd Angles denomn ted WITHERNAM,
nd to whch the French g ve the n me of LETTERS OF MARQUE, nd those
were usu ll obt ned from the crown.

V. It s gener ll understood th t recourse m  be h d to ths method


of redress not onl g nst foregn ggressor, but lso g nst
debtor, f justce c nnot be obt ned n due tme: but n NOTORIOUS
c ses, whch dmt of no doubt, ths rght m  be enforced even beond
the strct letter of the l w. For even n DOUBTFUL m tters, the
presumpton wll lw s be n f vour of judges pponted b publc
uthort. For t s unlkel th t the should GREATLY, or WANTONLY
exceed ther power; espec ll when, f so nclned, the h ve not the
s me me ns of enforcng ther decrees g nst foregners, s g nst
ther fellow subjects. Indeed even n dsputes between subjects of
the s me countr, the c nnot nnul just debt. PAULUS, the L wer,
s s th t REAL DEBTOR, though dsch rged, owng to some nform lt
or n blt of the l w to enforce p ment, stll rem ns debtor
ccordng to the l w of n ture.
And when, n consequence of judc l sentence, credtor, under
pretext of sezng hs own propert, h d t ken from debtor somethng
whch dd not belong to hm though t w s n hs possesson: upon the
dsch rge of the debt, doubt rsng whether the thng should be
restored to the debtor, Sc evol m nt ned th t t cert nl ought to
be restored.
There s dfference between the two c ses. For subjects, AS SUCH,
c nnot m ke n volent resst nce to the executon of sentence,
whch the m  not deem s tsf ctor, nor c n the prosecute n rght
n opposton to the l w. FOREIGNERS m  use volent me ns to enforce
rght: tho' the re not justfed n usng such me ns, whle there s
n possblt of obt nng redress n leg l, nd pe ce ble m nner.
It s on such grounds th t reprs ls re m de upon the persons nd
propert of the subjects, belongng to power, who refuses to gr nt
redress nd rep r ton for njures nd ggressons. It s pr ctce
not lter ll en cted b the l w of n ture, but gener ll receved
through custom. It s pr ctce too of the gre test ntqut: for n
the eleventh book of the Il d, we fnd Nestor gvng n ccount of
the reprs ls, whch he h d m de upon the Epe n n ton, from whom he
took gre t number of c ttle, s s tsf cton for prze whch hs
f ther Neleus h d won t the El n g mes; nd for debts due to m n
prv te subjects of the Pl n kngdom. Out of ths boot the kng
h vng selected hs own due, equt bl dvded the rest mong the other
credtors.
VI. It h s been receved opnon wth m n n tons, th t reprs ls
mght be m de even upon the LIVES of nnocent subjects, owng to the
rght, whch t w s supposed th t ever one h d over hs own lfe,
nd whch mght be tr nsferred from the ndvdu l to the st te. A
doctrne, whch, s t w s proved n the frst book of ths tre tse,
c n never be reconcled ether to sound relgon or mor lt. Indeed
person m  ACCIDENTALLY, though not INTENTIONALLY be klled b us
n ttemptng to prevent hm from volentl obstructng us n the
prosecuton of l wful rght. Yet f such n ccdent l c l mt could
be foreseen, the l w of ch rt, settng so pre-emnent v lue upon
the lfe of m n, would n such c se prescrbe the forbe r nce of our
rght.
VII. But on ths, s well s other ponts, we must t ke c re not to
confound the n tur l nd fund ment l l w of n tons, wth the cvl nd
conventon l l w of p rtcul r st tes.
B the l w of n tons ll the perm nent subjects, both n tves nd

settlers, of n offendng st te or soveregn re l ble to suffer


reprs ls: but the s me rule does not bnd those, who re p ssng
through countr, or onl resdng n t for tme. For such
reprs ls re knd of pledges, lke publc burdens, m de nswer ble
for the publc debts, from whch foregners, beng tempor r resdents,
though owng obedence to the l ws, re tot ll exempt.
In the s me m nner, Amb ss dors, but not those sent from n enem to
our enemes, nd ther propert, re exempt from such condtons b the
l w of n tons. B the CIVIL LAW too of m n countres n excepton s
m de n f vour of women nd chldren, of men of letters, nd those who
re tr vellng for the purposes of tr de. But b the l w of NATIONS
the goods of ll re l ble to reprs ls, s w s the c se t Athens,
respectng the sezure of persons. In m n pl ces, b the cvl l w,
the rght of m kng reprs ls s obt ned of the soveregn, nd n
others, of the judges.
B the l w of n tons the propert of ll c ptures s devoted to
dsch rge the debt, nd defr  the expenses ncurred, the rem nder of
whch, fter due s tsf cton obt ned, nd pe ce concluded, should
be restored. B the cvl l w the persons nterested re summoned
to ppe r, the propert s sold b publc uthort, nd the mone,
ccrung from thence, dvded mong ll who re enttled to sh re of
the s me. But these nd other ponts of the s me knd re to be le rned
from cvl ns, who re convers nt n such m tters, nd p rtcul rl
from B rtolus, who h s wrtten upon reprs ls. Ths subject m  be
closed wth one observ ton, th t wll n some me sure tend to soften
the rgour of ths stern, but necess r rght, nd th t observ ton
s, th t such s b not dsch rgng debt, or gr ntng redress, h ve
occ soned reprs ls to be m de, re bound, n justce nd honour, to
m ke good the losses of those, who h ve thereb suffered.

CHAPTER III.
ON JUST OR SOLEMN WAR ACCORDING TO THE LAW OF NATIONS ON DECLARATIONS
OF WAR.
Solemn w r, ccordng to the L w of N tons between dfferent
st tes--A people, though eng ged n unjust w r, to be
dstngushed from pr tes nd robbers--Ch nge n the condton
of bellgerents--Form l w r c n be m de b the Soveregn power
lone--Decl r ton of w r--The L w of N ture, L w of N tons,
respectng the s me--Decl r ton, condton l, bsolute--Forms of
decl r ton ntroduced b the cvl l w--W r decl red g nst
Soveregn ncludes hs subjects, nd lles--The re son wh lles
re ncluded--Decl r tons, wh necess r to est blsh cert n
effects--Whether ctu l w rf re mmed tel follows decl r ton,
consdered--Whether the vol ton of n Amb ss dor's rghts to be
just ground of w r.
I. In the frst book of ths tre tse t w s observed, th t ccordng
to the best wrters, w r s defned to be just, not on ccount of the
CAUSES solel, n whch t orgn tes, nor on ccount of the MAGNITUDE
of ts objects, but from cert n, pecul r, effects of rght, wth
whch t s ttended.

But to wh t knd of w r such n ppell ton most dul belongs wll be


best understood b consderng the defnton, whch the Rom n L wers
h ve gven of PUBLIC or NATIONAL enem. "Those, _s s Pomponus_, re
PUBLIC nd LAWFUL ENEMIES, wth whose STATE our own s eng ged n w r:
but enemes of ever other descrpton, come under the denomn ton of
pr tes nd robbers." Wth th t opnon Ulp n entrel ccords, m kng
n ddton l observ ton, th t "f n one be t ken b robbers, s he
s not l wful prsoner of w r, he c nnot cl m of hs own st te the
rght of postlmnum. But f he be t ken prsoner b publc enem of
the st te, beng consdered s prsoner of w r, he s enttled b the
rght of postlmnum to be restored to hs former condton."
These opnons re supported b th t of P ulus, who m nt ns, th t
persons c ptured b pr tes stll contnue free, th t s, re not to
be consdered s prsoners, for whom n exch nge m  be dem nded. So
th t b the opnon of the Rom n L wers t s evdent, th t no w r
s consdered to be l wful, regul r, nd form l, except th t whch s
begun nd c rred on b the soveregn power of e ch countr. Ccero, n
hs fourth Phlppc, descrbes " publc nd uthorsed enem to be
the person, who possesses the cvl nd mlt r powers of the st te,
who c n comm nd the tre sur, nd the servces of the people n support
of hs me sures, nd who, s occ sons offer, h s power to conclude
tre tes of pe ce nd mt."
II. A st te, though t m  commt some ct of ggresson, or njustce,
does not thereb lose ts poltc l c p ct, nor c n b nd of pr tes
or robbers ever become st te, lthough the m  preserve mong
themselves th t degree of subordn ton, whch s bsolutel necess r
to the subsstence of ll socet. For wth the l tter, the commsson
of crme s the SOLE bond of unon, where s the former, though not
lw s free from bl me, but occ son ll dev tng from the l ws of
n ture, whch n m n c ses h ve been n gre t me sure oblter ted,
stll regul te ther conduct b the tre tes, whch the h ve m de,
nd cert n customs th t h ve been est blshed, beng unted mong
themselves for the mutu l support of l wful rghts, nd connected wth
foregn st tes b known rules of st ndng polt.
The Schol st, upon Thucddes, rem rks th t the Greeks, t the tme
when pr c w s reckoned l wful, forebore commttng m ss cres, or
nghtl depred tons, nd c rrng off the oxen th t were necess r
for the plough. We re nformed b Str bo, th t other n tons too, who
lved b plunder, fter the h d returned home from ther pred tor
vo ges, sent mess ges to the owners, whom the h d plundered, to know
f the would redeem the c ptures t f r prce.
In mor ls, the whole sstem often derves ts n me from some one of the
prncp l p rts, s Ccero rem rks, n the ffth book of hs BOUNDS
of GOOD nd EVIL, nd G len observes th t mxture s often c lled
b the n me of ts chef ngredent. So th t Ccero s not ltogether
correct n s ng, th t st te s not merel dse sed, but entrel
destroed, b the njustce of ts component nd le dng members. For
morbd bod s stll bod, nd st te, though dre dfull dse sed,
s stll poltc l beng, s long s ts l ws nd trbun ls nd other
necess r p rts of ts consttuton rem n, to dmnster justce nd
gve redress to foregners, no less th n to prv te subjects n ther
ctons g nst e ch other.
There s be utful observ ton n Don Chrsostom, who comp res the
l w of st te, p rtcul rl th t br nch of t rel tng to the l w of
n tons, to the bod nm ted b the soul, upon the dep rture of whch

the corpore l fr me becomes m ss of lfeless cl : n the s me m nner


poltc l socet c nnot subsst wthout the gudng nd controulng
prncple of l w. Arstdes, encour gng the Rhod ns to h rmon,
observes, th t even under tr nnc l government m n good l ws m  be
found.
These re ponts, whch m  be cle red up b ex mples. Thus Ulp n
m nt ns th t those who re c ptured b pr tes c nnot be consdered
s prsoners of w r: but f c ptured b the Germ ns, for nst nce,
or n n ton l enem, the lose ther lbert for tme. But the
Germ ns, s we re nformed b C es r, thought cts of plunder, f
commtted n foregn terrtor, no dsgr ce. T ctus s s th t the
C tt ns, noble r ce of people n Germ n, nd the G r m nt ns were
ddcted to the s me h bts of plunder, et stll ret ned ther r nk
mong st tes.--Such s the dfference between n ton l nd poltc l
bod, nd b nd of men untng together SOLELY FOR THE COMMISSION OF
CRIMES.
III. A ch nge m  occur not onl n the stu tons of ndvdu ls, s
n those of Jephth h, Ars ces, nd Vr tus, who, from beng le ders
of volunt r b nds, bec me l wful comm nders; but the s me h s lso
h ppened wth respect to whole communtes, whch beng orgn ll
composed of nothng but freebooters h ve, b the gr du l course nd
ch nges of tme, rsen to the r nk nd dgnt of st tes.
IV. Wh t h s been s d wth respect to the rght of m kng form l nd
l wful w r, beng vested n the soveregn power lone, ncludes those
who h ve n sh re n the soveregn power, s the dfferent communtes
formng the St tes Gener l of m n commonwe lths. The s me rule wll
hold good of those, who re not SUBJECTS of superor st te, but
joned to t n confeder c b n unequ l tre t: nnumer ble nst nces
of whch re to be found n hstor. Ths w s the c se between the
Rom ns nd ther lles, the Volsc ns, the L tns, nd the Sp n rds:
nd ll whom we re d of beng eng ged n w rs, whch were consdered s
l wful nd just.
V. But to m ke w r just, ccordng to ths me nng, t must not onl
be c rred on b the soveregn uthort on both sdes, but t must
lso be dul nd form ll decl red, nd decl red n such m nner, s
to be known to e ch of the bellgerent powers. Ccero, n the frst
book of hs offces, ponts out "the equt of the rules prescrbed
b the Rom n L w for the decl r ton of w r, from whence t m  be
concluded th t no w r s regul r or just, but such s s undert ken to
compel resttuton, nd to procure ndemnt for njures, nd th t too
ccomp ned wth form l decl r ton." Lv lso n the s me m nner
deems n observ nce of these rules requste to form the ch r cterstc
of just w r. And descrbng n ncurson of the Ac rn n ns nto
Attc , nd ther r v gng the countr, he s s th t "those cts of
rrt ton ended n decl r ton of JUST nd REGULAR w r on both
sdes."
VI. In order to underst nd ll these ponts cle rl respectng the
decl r ton of w r, n ccur te dstncton must be m de between the
prncples, whch re founded on the l w of n ture tself, nd those,
whch, though not derved mmed tel from th t source, re stll found
to be just: t wll be necess r lso to ex mne, wh t s requred b
the l w of n tons tow rds obt nng, IN WAR, ll the consequences,
prvleges nd effects of th t l w, nd, t the s me tme, to
nvestg te the consequences nd rghts rsng from the pecul r l ws
nd customs of p rtcul r n tons.

To repel force, or to punsh delnquent, the l w of n ture requres


no decl r ton. And, s Thucddes rel tes, Sthenel d s, one of the
Ephor, m nt ns th t "where we h ve been njured, not b WORDS, but
b ACTIONS, the m tter c nnot be decded b WORDS nd FORMS." And
Ael n, fter Pl to, observes th t t s not the decl r ton of the
Her ld, but the voce nd l w of n ture, whch procl m w r, undert ken
to repel force. Hence Don Chrsostom, n ddressng the Ncomed ns,
s s th t m n w rs re begun wthout n decl r ton.
Upon the s me ground Lv condemns the conduct of Menppus, gener l
belongng to Antochus for h vng klled some Rom n ctzens before
n decl r ton of w r h d been m de, or even before sword h d
been dr wn, or drop of blood splt, to shew th t hostltes
were ntended. B ths objecton he proves th t ether form l
decl r ton, or some ct ndc tve of hostltes w s deemed requste
to justf ctu l w rf re.
Nether, f we follow the l w of n ture, s there n more occ son for
notce or decl r ton, where n owner ntends to l  h nds upon HIS
OWN PROPERTY. But whenever one thng s t ken n return for nother,
or the propert of debtor s sezed for the recover of debt, nd,
espec ll, f n one ntends sezng the propert of those, who re
subjects to the debtor, form l dem nd must be m de, s proof th t
recourse to such securt s the onl me ns left of obt nng redress
nd s tsf cton. Such dem nd s necess r bec use th t s not
PRIMARY nd ORIGINAL rght, but SECONDARY rght, SUBSTITUTED n the
pl ce of the prm r nd orgn l, b the rtfc l rules of cvl l w.
In the s me m nner to justf n tt ck upon soveregn power for the
ggressons nd debts of ts subjects, prevous remonstr nce, nd
proper dem nd of justce must be m de to th t power. For t s onl b
refusng to punsh the gult, or to gr nt ndemnt to the njured,
th t st tes or soveregns c n be mplc ted n the msconduct of ther
subjects.[60] But even where the l w of n ture does not drectl
prescrbe th t such remonstr nce or dem nd should be m de, et the
common prncples of hum nt nd equt wll recommend the[61] use
of n me ns, th t m  prevent recourse to the c l mtes of w r. The
comm ndment gven b God to the Hebrews, to send mess ge of pe ce to
n st te or ct, before the beg n n ntended tt ck, w s desgned
s spec l comm nd to th t people, et some h ve confounded t wth
the gener l l w of n tons. For t w s not ANY knd of pe ce th t w s
me nt b th t njuncton, but onl such pe ce s mposed terms of
SUBJECTION nd TRIBUTE. We re nformed b Xenophon, th t when Crus
went nto the countr of the Armen ns, he sent messengers to the kng,
to dem nd the trbute nd number of troops, whch h d been stpul ted
b tre t.
But to obt n the pecul r rghts nd consequences resultng from the
l w of n tons, decl r ton of w r b one of the p rtes, t le st,
f not b both, s bsolutel requste n ll c ses.
VII. Those decl r tons re ether condton l or bsolute. A
condton l decl r ton s th t whch s coupled wth dem nd of
resttuton or redress. Under the n me of resttuton, the FECIAL LAW
of Rome, th t s the LAW RESPECTING DECLARATIONS OF WAR, comprehended
not onl the cl ms, whch OWNERSHIP est blshed, but the prosecuton
of EVERY rght rsng from crmn l or cvl c uses.
Hence the decl r tons were couched n terms, requrng restor ton,

s tsf cton, or surrender. Here, b the term, surrender, the p rt


ppe led to s understood to h ve the opton ether of punshng the
offender, hmself, or delverng hm up to the ggreved person. Ths
m nner of dem ndng resttuton s, ccordng to the testmon of
Pln, c lled CLARIGATION, th t s, LOUD nd FORMAL DEMAND. Lv
gves us n ex mple of condton l nd qu lfed decl r ton, wheren
the ggreved power denounces " determned resoluton to prosecute
her rghts wth the utmost volence, f the ggressor wll not m ke
rep r ton nd tonement for the njur he h s done." T ctus lso
rel tes the subst nce of dsp tch sent to C ecn b Germ ncus,
wheren he decl res, th t "f the rngle ders of the mutnous nd
rebellous legons re not mmed tel punshed, he wll dv nce wth
hs rm, nd put the whole to the sword."
An ABSOLUTE decl r ton of w r s ssued, where n power h s lre d
begun hostltes, or commtted cts whch c ll for exempl r
punshment. Sometmes ndeed condton l, s followed b n bsolute
w r, though n such c se the l tter s not ctu ll necess r, but
onl confrm ton of the former. Ths g ve rse to the form, whch
s s, " n ppe l s hereb m de g nst such people, s unjust nd
refusng to gr nt redress." There s nother form lso purportng,
th t "the prncp l her ld of the Rom n ctzens h s m de known to the
prncp l her ld of the ncent L tns, nd to the L tn people, th t
redress s dem nded of them b just nd l wful w r, on ccount of ll
the dsputes whch the h ve refused to settle, nd the ndemntes
whch the h ve been bound to gr nt, nd h ve refused; nd th t ths
s the onl me ns rem nng to recover ll th t h s been unjustl
det ned." There s lso thrd mode of decl r ton, whch runs n
the followng tenour; "Snce the ncent people of the L tns h ve
commtted ggressons g nst the people of Rome, the people of Rome,
wth the dvce nd consent of the sen te, decl re w r g nst them,
nd n the n me of the sen te nd people of Rome ther purpose s thus
publshed."
But th t n c se of RENEWED w rs such decl r ton s not bsolutel
necess r, ppe rs from the crcumst nce of ts beng m de n due form
t the ne rest g rrson, nd not PERSONALLY to the offender hmself,
ccordng to the nswer gven b the her lds, when the were consulted
n the c se of Phlp of M cedon, nd fterw rds respectng Antochus.
Where s decl r ton for the FIRST tme should be m de to the enem
hmself. Indeed n the w r g nst Prrhus the decl r ton w s m de
to one of hs solders, n the Fl mn n Crcus, where, s Servus
observes n hs notes on the sxth book of the Aened, he w s comm nded
to purch se pece of ground, s h ndle for dspute. A proof lso
th t IN SOME CASES decl r ton s superfluous m  be t ken from the
crcumst nce th t w r s frequentl decl red b BOTH SIDES, whch w s
done b the Corcr e ns nd Cornth ns n the Peloponnes n w r,
though decl r ton b one of the p rtes would h ve been suffcent.
VIII. As to the use of the c duceum, or st ff wth the fgure of two
sn kes twsted round t, whch mb ss dors c rred, when the sued
for pe ce, t w s ceremon pecul r to the GREEKS, nd not derved
from the GENERAL l w of n tons. The ROMANS n the s me m nner h d
p rtcul r customs, such s usng verv n n formng ll nces,
throwng blood spe r, s decl r ton of w r, renouncng ll
former frendshp nd ll nce t the expr ton of thrt d s, fter
s tsf cton h d been dem nded nd refused, nd g n throwng nother
spe r. None of these PECULIAR customs ought to be confounded wth the
GENERAL l w of n tons. For Arnobus nforms us, th t n hs tme m n
of them h d f llen nto dsuse, nd even n the tme of V rro some of

them were omtted. The thrd Punc w r ndeed w s not decl red tll the
moment of ts ctu l commencement.
IX. A decl r ton of w r, m de g nst soveregn, ncludes not onl
hs own subjects, but ll who re lkel to become hs ssoc tes, s
thereb the m ke themselves ccessores n the w r. And ths s wh t
the modern l wers me n, when the s  th t, n bddng def nce to
Prnce, we bd def nce to ll hs ssoc tes. For the gve the
n me of def nce to decl r ton of w r. B whch s understood the
w r c rred on wth the power g nst whom t h s been decl red. Thus
upon w r beng decl red g nst Antochus, there w s no occ son for
sep r te decl r ton g nst the Aetol ns, who h d openl joned
Antochus. For, s the her lds n ther nswer justl observed, the
Aetol ns h d, b th t ct, volunt rl brought w r upon themselves.
X. But f fter the concluson of such w r t should be deemed
expedent to tt ck n other n ton or kng for h vng furnshed
supples nd ssst nce tow rds th t w r, new decl r ton of w r
wll be necess r. For th t n ton or kng s then to be consdered,
not s n ccessor, but s prncp l enem. And therefore t w s
wth re son s d, th t the w r of M nlus g nst the G l t ns, nd
th t of C es r g nst Arovstus, were not just w rs ccordng to the
l w of n tons. For w r w s m de upon them not s ccessores, but s
prncp ls. So th t for ths purpose, s the l w of n tons would h ve
requred decl r ton, n the s me m nner the Rom n l w would h ve
requred new order of the Sen te.
For on the moton beng m de for the w r wth Antochus, the queston
w s lso put, whether t should not t the s me tme be m de wth hs
dherents. The s me rule lso beng observed g nst Kng Perseus, t
must be understood, s ncludng the dherents durng ll the tme th t
w r wth those prnces contnued; nd mplc tng ll, who n re lt
g ve them support.
XI. The re son wh decl r ton s necess r to consttute wh t s
deemed, ccordng to the l w of n tons, just w r, s not th t whch
some wrters ssgn. For the llege th t t s to prevent ever
ppe r nce of cl ndestne nd tre cherous de lng: n openness, whch
m  be dgnfed wth the n me of m gn nmt, r ther th n enttled
m tter of rght. On ths pont, we re nformed th t some n tons h ve
gone so f r, s to settle nd m ke known the ver tme nd pl ce of
gener l eng gement.
But w vng ll conjecture, more s tsf ctor re son m  be found n
the necesst th t t should be known for CERTAIN, th t w r s not
the PRIVATE undert kng of bold ADVENTURERS, but m de nd s nctoned
b the PUBLIC nd SOVEREIGN uthort on both sdes; so th t t s
ttended wth the effects of bndng ll the subjects of the respectve
st tes;-- nd t s ccomp ned lso wth other consequences nd rghts,
whch do not belong to w rs g nst pr tes, nd to cvl w rs.
XII. There s much truth ndeed n the observ tons, whch some h ve
m de, nd whch the h ve produced ex mples to confrm, th t even n
w rs of ths knd ll c ptures become the l wful prze of the c ptors.
Yet ths s onl p rt ll true, nd th t too, ccordng to the l w
of n ture, nd not ccordng to the volunt r l w of n tons. For the
l tter onl m kes provson to secure the rghts of n tons, s WHOLE
communtes, nd not of those, who, s n cvl w rs, form but ONE PART
of n ton.

The s me wrters re mst ken too n the supposton th t defensve


w rs requre no decl r ton. For t s no less necess r to shew b
w  of vndc ton th t t s defensve w r, nd t the s me tme
b publc decl r ton to gve t the ch r cter of n ton l nd
l wful w r, n order to est blsh those rghts nd consequences, th t
h ve been lre d mentoned, nd whch wll here fter be more full
expl ned.
XIII. The m nt n nother poston lso, whch s b no me ns
true, nd th t s, th t power ought not IMMEDIATELY to follow up
decl r ton of w r wth ctu l hostltes, s Crus dd to the
Armen ns, nd the Rom ns to the C rth gn ns. For the l w of n tons
requres the nterventon of no DEFINITE tme between the decl r ton
nd the commencement of w r.
There m  ndeed be some c ses, where n tur l justce wll render such
del  proper. Thus, for nst nce, where rep r ton for njur, or
the punshment of ggressors s dem nded, t s but re son ble to w t
tll t c n be known, whether the just dem nd wll be compled wth or
rejected.
XIV. In order to est blsh the s me consequences, decl r ton wll
be equ ll necess r too, where the rghts of Amb ss dors h ve been
vol ted. Yet t wll be suffcent for t to be m de n the m nner,
n whch t m  be done wth the gre test s fet. As n m n other
m tters, n pl ces whch fford no securt, s tsf cton s dem nded
b denunc ton or summons.

CHAPTER IV.
ON THE RIGHT OF KILLING AN ENEMY IN LAWFUL WAR, AND COMMITTING OTHER
ACTS OF HOSTILITY.
Gener l expl n ton of the effects of form l w r--Dstncton between
l wful nd nnocent mpunt--Mert of the l tter--Ex mples
dded to expl n t--Gener l effects of former w r consdered
wth respect to l wful mpunt--The re son of ther
ntroducton--Hstorc l testmones--B ths rght ll persons,
found wthn n enem's terrtor, objects of hostlt--Also ll
gong thther before the w r--The subjects of n enem l ble to
be sezed everwhere, except protected b the l ws of neutr l
terrtor--C se of women nd chldren--C se of prsoners--Of those
whose volunt r offer of surrender s rejected--Uncondton l
surrender--Ret l ton--Obstn te defence--Host ges.
I. Servus n hs comment on the p ss ge of Vrgl, where th t poet
s s th t w r "wll uthorse mutu l cts of destructon nd r pne,"
n tr cng the fec l or her ld's l w to Ancus M rtus, nd even beond
hm to stll more remote perod, rem rks th t, "f ever the persons
or propert of subjects, belongng to the Rom n st te, were sezed
nd c rred off b n other n ton, the prncp l Her ld, or Kng t
rms went out wth the s cred mnsters, who presded t the m kng of
solemn tre tes, nd proceedng to the verge of the terrtores of the
offendng n ton, decl red wth loud voce the c use of the w r, nd
the refus l of th t n ton ether to restore wh t h d been sezed, or

to delver up the ggressors to justce. After ths he threw spe r to


ndc te th t w r nd ll ts consequences were from th t moment begun."
The comment tor h d prevousl observed th t the ncents g ve the n me
of r pne to ever ct of hostlt even where there w s no ct of
plunder commtted; nd the lkewse c lled ever knd of resttuton
s tsf cton.
B ths expl n ton we le rn th t whenever w r s procl med between
two st tes or soveregns, t s ccomp ned wth cert n rghts or
consequences, whch do not NECESSARILY belong to w r tself. And ths
s perfectl conform ble to the ex mples from the Rom n L wers, whch
h ve been before produced.
II. But t wll be proper to consder how f r the l wfulness, whch
Vrgl spe ks of, extends. For the term l wful sometmes mples
wh tever s just nd pous n ll respects, lthough the pursut of
dfferent course m  perh ps be more l ud ble: ccordng to the
expresson of St. P ul, who s s, " ll thngs re l wful to me, but
ll thngs re not expedent." Ulp n s spe kng of seller, who, t
the expr ton of cert n perod, s not nswer ble for the s fet
of goods, whch buer h s neglected to t ke w , s s he, wll et
thnk hmself bound n EQUITY to preserve them wth ll m gn ble
c re. On some occ sons when t s s d, th t men m  LAWFULLY do
thng, the expresson onl me ns th t dong such ct wll not subject
them to hum n nd leg l pen ltes, but t b no me ns ndc tes
th t the cton s strctl conform ble to the rule of relgon nd
mor lt. Thus mong the L ced emon ns nd Egpt ns ste lng w s
llowed: n ndulgence th t b no me ns took w  the GUILT of theft.
Ccero n the ffth of hs Tuscul n questons, spe kng of Cnn ,
be utfull nd justl ponts out ths buse of the word, LAWFUL. "He
seems to me, _s s he_, wretched m n ndeed for h vng done those
cts, nd for h vng been n stu ton, where the mght be thought
l wful. It c n never be l wful for n m n to do wrong: but we f ll
nto gre t mst ke n the use of th t word: for we consder thng
to be l wful, whch n one m  do wth mpunt." Ths s the me nng,
n whch the term s gener ll understood, s the s me or tor, n
ddressng the judges n beh lf of R brus Posthumus, observes, "t
behoves ou to consder, wh t s becomng our ch r cter, nd not wh t
the rgour of the l w llows ou to nflct. For f ou consult the
full extent of our uthort, ou m  m ke w  wth n ctzen ou
ple se."
In the s me m nner legsl tors, s t w s proved n former book of
ths tre tse, re not ccount ble, n ther legsl tve c p ct, to
n hum n trbun l, for the l ws, whch the m ke, et the c nnot, n
mor l pont of vew, v l themselves of ths tr nscendent power to
en ct thng th t s evdentl unjust. In ths sense we often meet
wth dstncton m de between wh t s proper or rght, nd wh t s
l wful. Thus Ccero, n hs speech for Mlo, m kes the LAW OF NATURE
the st nd rd of wh t s RIGHT, nd LEGAL AUTHORITY, the st nd rd of
wh t s l wful.
III. Thus qu lfed, the nno nce of n enem, ether n hs person or
propert, s l wful. Ths rght extends not onl to the power eng ged
n just w r, nd who n her hostltes confnes herself wthn
the pr ctce est blshed b the l w of n ture, but e ch sde wthout
dstncton h s rght to emplo the s me me ns of nno nce. So th t
n one t ken n rms, even n nother's terrtor, c nnot be tre ted

s robber, m lef ctor, or murderer, nor c n even th t neutr l power,


n whose terrtor he s t ken, tre t hm s n enem, for beng found
n rms.
IV. Ths prncple w s est blshed b n tons to prevent others from
nterferng n ther dsputes, or gvng the l w to them respectng the
rghts of w r. Besdes, f ths were not the c se, neutr l powers would
frequentl be nvolved n the w rs of others. A re son whch the people
of M rselles urged n the dspute between C es r nd Pompe. The
lleged th t the h d nether suffcent judgment to determne on whch
sde justce l , nor, f the could determne, h d the strength to
gve effect to ther decsons.
A spect tor ndeed s but ll qu lfed to judge, how f r, even n
the most just w r, self-defence, the tt nment of ndemnt, or the
punshment of n ggressor, m  be c rred. These re ponts, whch,
on m n, f not most, occ sons must be left to the conscence nd
dscreton of the bellgerents themselves: mode f r prefer ble to
th t of ppe lng to the med ton, nd decson of dsnterested
nd neutr l powers. Lv h s gven n ddress of the Ach e ns to the
sen te, n whch the sk, "how ther v lng themselves of the rghts
of w r c n ever be f rl c lled n queston, or m de subject of
dscusson?"
Besdes the mpunt ttendng cert n ctons done n w r, the
cquston of terrtor b the rght of conquest s nother topc of
consder ton, whch wll here fter be ex mned.
V. The l wfulness of njurng or destrong the person of publc
enem s supported b the testmon of m n of the best wrters, both
poets, mor lsts, nd hstor ns. In one of the tr gedes of Eurpdes,
there s proverb, whch s s, th t "to kll publc enem, or n
enem n w r s no murder." Therefore the custom of the ncent
Greeks, whch rendered t unl wful nd mpous to use the s me b th,
or to p rt ke of the s me festvtes nd s cred rtes wth person
who h d klled nother n tme of pe ce, dd not extend to n one who
h d klled publc enem n w r. Kllng n enem s ndeed everwhere
c lled rght of w r. "The rghts of w r, _s s M rcellus n Lv_,
support me n ll th t I h ve done g nst the enem." And the s me
hstor n gves the ddress of Alcon to the S guntnes, where he s s,
"You ought to be r these h rdshps, r ther th n suffer our own bodes
to be m ngled, nd our wves nd chldren to be sezed nd dr gged
w  before our ees." Ccero n hs speech n defence of M rcellus
p sses hgh encomum upon the clemenc of C es r, who, "b the l ws
of w r nd the rghts of vctor, mght h ve put to de th ll, whom
he h d sp red nd protected." And C es r observes to the Edu ns, th t
"t w s n ct of kndness n HIM, to sp re those whom the l ws of w r
would h ve uthorsed hm to put to de th."
But the rghts of w r, for whch these wrters ple d, could not
PERFECTLY JUSTIFY the puttng prsoners to de th, but could onl gr nt
IMPUNITY to those who v led themselves of the b rb rous custom. There
s wde dfference however between ctons lke these, nd destrong
n enem b proper me ns of hostlt. For, s T ctus s s, "n the
lesure hours of pe ce the merts nd demerts of ever c se m  be
ex mned nd weghed, but, n the tumult nd confuson of w r, the
nnocent must f ll wth the gult": nd the s me wrter, n nother
pl ce, observes, th t "there re m n ctons, whch the prncples
of hum nt c nnot ENTIRELY pprove, but whch the polc of w r
requres." And t s n ths, nd no other sense th t Luc n h s s d,

"the complexon of rght m  be ssgned to wh t s wrong."


VI. Ths rght of m kng l wful wh t s done n w r s of gre t extent.
For n the frst pl ce t comprses, n the number of enemes, not onl
those who ctu ll be r rms, or who re mmed tel subjects of the
bellgerent power, but even ll who re wthn the hostle terrtores,
s ppe rs from the form gven b Lv, who s s, th t "w r s decl red
g nst the soveregn, nd ll wthn hs jursdcton." For whch
ver good re son m  be ssgned; bec use d nger s to be pprehended
even from THEM, whch, n contnued nd regul r w r, est blshes the
rght now under dscusson.
Reprs ls do not come ex ctl under the s me rule. For lke t xes,
the were ntroduced for the dsch rge of publc debts, for no p rt
of whch tempor r resdents, or foregners re nswer ble. Therefore
B ldus s rght n hs observ ton, th t, fter w r s ctu ll begun,
much gre ter l ttude s llowed, th n n the b re rght of m kng
reprs ls. So th t wh t s s d of foregners, who enter nto n
enem's countr, nd resde there, fter w r s vowedl decl red nd
begun, s undoubtedl true.
VII. But persons, who h d gone to resde there before the w r w s
begun, seem b the l w of n tons to be ncluded n the number of
enemes, unless wthn re son ble tme the chuse to wthdr w. So
th t the Corcr e ns, when gong to besege Epd mnus, g ve le ve to
ll str ngers to wthdr w, denouncng th t the would otherwse be
tre ted s enemes.
VIII. But the persons of n tur l-born subjects, who owe perm nent
lleg nce to hostle power m , ccordng to the l w of n tons, be
tt cked, or sezed, wherever the re found. For whenever, s t w s
s d before, w r s decl red g nst n power, t s t the s me tme
decl red g nst ll the subjects of th t power. And the l w of n tons
uthorses us to tt ck n enem n ever pl ce: An opnon supported
b most leg l uthortes: thus M rc n s s "th t deserters m  be
klled n the s me m nner s enemes, wherever the re found." The
m  be l wfull klled there, or n ther own countr, n the enem's
countr, n countr belongng to no one, or on the se . But s to
the unl wfulness of kllng, or volentl molestng them n neutr l
terrtor, ths protecton does not result from n person l prvleges
of THEIR OWN, but from the rghts of the SOVEREIGN of th t countr.
For ll cvl socetes h d n undoubted rght to est blsh t s
st ndng m xm th t no volence should be offered to n person wthn
ther terrtores, nor n punshment nflcted but b due process of
l w. For where trbun ls ret n ther uthort n full vgour, to tr
the merts of ever offence, nd, fter mp rt l nqur, to cqut
the nnocent, or condemn the gult, the power of the sword must be
restr ned from nflctng promscuous de th.
Lv mentons the crcumst nce of seven C rth gn n g lles rdng
t nchor n port belongng to Sph x, who w s then t pe ce wth
the C rth gn ns nd Rom ns. Scpo rrved t th t tme, wth two
g lles, whch mght h ve been tt cked nd sunk b the C rth gn ns,
before the could enter the port: brsk wnd rsng c rred them n,
before the C rth gn ns could wegh nchor; but out of respect to the
kng's uthort the durst not tt ck the Rom ns n hs h rbour.
IX. But to return to the subject, whch s, to decde how f r the
power of l wfull destrong n enem, nd ll th t belong to hm,
extends. An extent of whch we m  form some concepton from the ver

crcumst nce, th t even women nd chldren re frequentl subject to


the c l mtes nd ds sters of w r. There s no occ son to llege
n ths pl ce, s n ex mple, the conduct of the Hebrews, who slew
the women nd chldren of the Heshbontes, nd who were comm nded to
execute venge nce upon the C n ntes, nd upon ll, who were nvolved
n the s me gult. Those ex mples, where God MANIFESTLY nterposes hs
comm nds, re not to be dr wn nto precedent for uthorsng ctons
of the SAME knd on DIFFERENT occ sons. For the supreme nd dsposng
power of God c n never properl be comp red wth th t, whch men re
llowed to exercse over e ch other. The Ps lmst's expresson of the
B blon n chldren beng d shed g nst the stones s much stronger
proof of the custom commonl prev lng mong n tons, n the use of
vctor, to whch the l ngu ge of Homer be rs close resembl nce,
where the poet s s, th t "n the cruel r ge of w r, even the bodes of
nf nt-chldren were d shed g nst the ground." Thucddes rel tes,
th t when Mc lessus w s c ptured b the Thr c ns, the put ll,
even women nd chldren to the sword. Arr n rel tes the s me of
the M cedon ns, when the took the ct of Thebes. And Germ ncus
C es r, ccordng to the ccount of T ctus, l d w ste whole c ntons
of the M rs ns, people of Germ n, wth fre nd sword, to whch
the hstor n dds, "wthout sp rng ether ge or sex." The Jewsh
women nd chldren too were exposed b Ttus, to be torn to peces b
wld be sts t publc spect cle. Yet nether of those gener ls were
thought defcent n hum nt, so much h d custom reconcled the mnds
of men to ths b rb rous us ge. So th t the m ss cre of the ged, lke
th t of Pr m b Prrhus, s no w  surprsng.
X. The rght of puttng prsoners of w r to de th, w s so gener ll
receved m xm, th t the Rom n S trst h s founded n d ge upon
t, nd s d, "th t when ou c n sell prsoner for sl ve, t would
be bsurd to kll hm." Words whch mpl the full power of dong so,
f the c ptor thought proper. The comment tors ndeed ssgn the ct
of s vng, s the derv ton of the L tn word, _servus_, sl ve.
Thus Thucddes spe ks of the prsoners t ken t Epd mnus, nd klled
b the Corcr e ns, nd H nnb l s reported to h ve m ss cred fve
thous nd prsoners t once. Nor w s ths power lmted b the l w of
n tons to n p rtcul r tme, though t w s controuled b gre ter
restrctons n some pl ces, th n n others.
XI. Besdes m n ex mples occur of suppl nts, beng klled. Both
ncent poets nd hstor ns rel te such ctons, s ordn r
pr ctces, uthorsed b the l ws of w r. Augustn commends the Goths
for sp rng suppl nts, who h d fled to churches for refuge, nd dds
b w  of comment, th t "the deemed t unl wful to v l themselves of
the power, whch h d usu ll been llowed b the l ws of w r."
Nor dd those who offered to surrender lw s experence the lent
nd merc, whch the sought thereb. T ctus rel tes, th t when the
ct of Uspes w s nvested, the beseged sent deput ton wth offers
of n mmed te surrender, nd of no less th n ten thous nd sl ves,
on condton th t the free-born should rem n unhurt. The terms were
rejected--A proof th t such rejecton w s thought conform ble to the
rghts of w r.
XII. But even fter n uncondton l surrender, we fnd th t those, who
h d c ptul ted were sometmes put to the sword. In ths m nner the
prnces of Pomet were tre ted b the Rom ns, the S mntes b Sll ,
the Numd ns nd Vercngetorx b C es r. It w s lmost st ndng
pr ctce wth the Rom ns to crown ther trumphs wth the de th of
n enem's gener ls, whether m de prsoners ctu ll n the feld,

or b c ptul ton. Ccero notces ths custom n hs ffth speech


g nst Verres. Lv m  be consulted on ths pont n m n p rts of
hs hstor, p rtcul rl n the twent-eghth book: nd T ctus lso
n the 12th book of hs Ann ls. The l tter wrter, n the frst book
of hs HISTORY, rel tes th t G lb ordered ever tenth m n of those,
whom he h d, upon ther e rnest supplc ton, dmtted to surrender,
to be behe ded: nd C ecn , fter the c ptul ton of Aventcum,
punshed Julus Alpnus, one of the le dng men, wth de th, s
chef promoter of the w r, le vng the rest to the merc or cruelt of
Vtellus.
XIII. Hstor ns sometmes ccount for ths rght of puttng enemes
to de th, espec ll prsoners, or suppl nts, ether on the score
of ret l ton, or for obstn te resst nce. These m  sometmes be
the re l, but c nnot be the JUSTIFIABLE motves of such proceedngs.
For the l w of ret l ton, strctl nd properl so c lled, must be
drectl enforced upon the person of the delnquent hmself. Where s,
n w r, wh t s c lled ret l ton frequentl redounds to the run of
those, who re no w  mplc ted n the bl me. The gener l consequences
of w r re thus descrbed b Dodorus Sculus, "the could not be
gnor nt, _s s he_, h vng le rnt from experence, th t ll beng
nvolved n the common fortune of w r, the re l ble on both sdes n
defe t, to suffer the s me c l mtes, whch the themselves would h ve
nflcted upon the conquered p rt."
But s the Ne polt ns repl to Bels rus, n Procopus, no one c n be
thought deservng of punshment for resolute dherence to the sde
on whch he s eng ged, espec ll when ctu ted b n tur l nd just
motves n hs choce of th t sde. So f r from ncurrng gult b such
resoluton, t s on the other h nd more crmn l for n one to
desert hs post: nd so t w s judged b the mlt r l ws of ncent
Rome. Lv s s, t w s c pt l offence, for whch no fe r of d nger
could be ple ded s n excuse. So th t n the rgd pplc ton of
ths rght, OWING TO ITS IMPORTANCE, ever one s left to use hs own
dscreton, nd there m  be tmes nd crcumst nces, n whch the l w
of n tons wll justf ts full exerton.
XIV. The s me rght w s exercsed upon host ges lso, not onl upon
those who h d bound themselves, s t were, b conventon, but even
upon those, who h d been delvered up b others. Two hundred nd fft
host ges were once m ss cred b the Thess l ns, nd the Volsc Aurunc
to the mount of three hundred b the Rom ns. It s to be observed
th t chldren were sometmes gven, s host ges, whch we fnd w s
done b the P rth ns, nd b Smon, who w s one of the M cc bees. And
n the tmes of Porsen t w s usu l to delver women, s host ges:
pr ctce, whch, s T ctus nforms us, w s followed b the Germ ns.
XV. As the l w of n tons permts m n thngs, n the m nner bove
expl ned, whch re not permtted b the l w of n ture, so t
prohbts some thngs whch the l w of n ture llows. Thus spes, f
dscovered nd t ken, re usu ll tre ted wth the utmost severt. Yet
there s no doubt, but the l w of n tons llows n one to send spes,
s Moses dd to the l nd of promse, of whom Joshu w s one.
Persons of th t descrpton m  sometmes be LAWFULLY emploed b
those, who re eng ged n n EVIDENTLY just w r. Others too, who h ve
not such evdent proofs of the justce of ther c use, m  ple d the
rghts of w r s vndc ton for emplong such persons.
But f n re to be found, who dsd n to v l themselves of such

prvlege, or opportunt, no rgument ether FOR, or AGAINST the


LAWFULNESS of emplong spes c n be dr wn from ther conduct, whch
proceeds r ther from nobleness of mnd, nd confdence n open
strength, th n from n decded opnon upon the subject.

CHAPTER V.
ON THE RIGHT TO LAY WASTE AN ENEMY'S COUNTRY, AND CARRY OFF HIS EFFECTS.
An enem's propert m  be w sted nd plundered--Thngs deemed s cred,
how f r exempted--Str t gem, how f r permtted.
I. Ccero, n the thrd book of hs offces, h s s d th t there s
nothng repugn nt to the LAW OF NATURE n spolng the effects of n
enem, whom b the s me l w we re uthorzed to kll. Wherefore t s
not surprsng th t the s me thngs should be llowed b the LAW OF
NATIONS. Polbus, for ths re son, n the ffth book of hs hstor,
m nt ns, th t the l ws of w r uthorse the destructon of n enem's
forts, h rbours, nd fleets, the sezure of hs men, or c rrng off
the produce of hs countr, nd ever thng of th t descrpton. And we
fnd from Lv th t there re cert n rghts of w r, b whch n enem
must expect to suffer the c l mtes, whch he s llowed to nflct,
such s the burnng of corn, the destructon of houses, nd the plunder
of men nd c ttle. Almost ever p ge of hstor bounds n ex mples
of entre ctes beng destroed, w lls levelled to the ground, nd
even whole countres w sted b fre nd sword. Even n c ses of
surrender, towns h ve sometmes been destroed, whle the nh bt nts
were sp red-- n ex mple of whch s gven b T ctus, n the t kng of
Art x t b the Rom ns; the nh bt nts opened ther g tes nd were
sp red, but the town w s devoted to the fl mes.
II. Nor does the l w of n tons, n tself, consdered p rt from other
dutes, whch wll be mentoned here fter, m ke n exempton n f vour
of thngs deemed s cred. For when pl ces re t ken b n enem, ll
thngs wthout excepton, whether s cred or not, must f ll s crfce.
For whch t s ssgned s re son, th t thngs whch re c lled
s cred, re not ctu ll excepted from ll hum n uses, but re knd
of publc propert, c lled s cred ndeed from the gener l purposes, to
whch the re more mmed tel devoted. And s proof of ths, t s
usu l, when one n ton surrenders to nother st te or soveregn, to
surrender, long wth other rghts, ever thng of s cred knd, s
ppe rs b the form cted from Lv n former p rt of ths tre tse.
And therefore Ulp n s s, th t the publc h ve propert n s cred
thngs. Conform bl to whch T ctus s s, th t "n the It l n towns
ll the temples, the m ges of the Gods, nd ever thng connected
wth relgon belonged of rght to the Rom n people." For ths re son
n ton, s the L wers, P ulus nd Venuleus openl m nt n, m ,
under ch nge of crcumst nces, convert to secul r uses thngs, th t
h ve before been consecr ted: nd n overrulng necesst m  justf
the h nd, whch h s formerl consecr ted the object n emplong t s
one of the resources nd nstruments of w r. A thng whch Percles
once dd under pledge of m kng resttuton: M go dd the s me n
Sp n, nd the Rom ns n the Mthrd tc w r. We re d of the s me
ctons done b Sll , Pompe, C es r, nd others. Plut rch n hs lfe
of Tberus Gr cchus s s th t nothng s so s cred nd nvol ble,

s dvne offerngs: et no one c n hnder these from beng removed


or ppled to other purposes t the ple sure of the st te. Thus Lv
mentons the orn ments of the temples, whch M rcellus brought from
Sr cuse to Rome, s cqustons m de b the rght of w r.
III. Wh t h s been s d of s cred thngs nd edfces pples lso to
nother knd of solemn f brcs, nd those re sepulchr l structures,
whch m  be consdered not merel s repostores of the de d, but s
monuments belongng to the lvng, whether f mles or st te