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Introduction to Instructional Design

This study guide is a companion to − Carried out systematically − Individual performance: job
Mastering the Instructional Design − Based on open systems theory context, motivation, knowledge,
Process: A Systematic Approach by − Oriented to finding and applying skills, attitudes, abilities,
William J. Rothwell and H.C. Kazanas. the most cost-effective aptitude
solutions to human performance − Work-group performance:
problems and discovering structure, leadership,
Instructional Design quantum leaps in productivity cohesiveness, roles, norms
improvement through human (accepted beliefs)
(ISD) ingenuity.
• Five factors should be considered
• Based on General systems • Chief aim of instructional design whenever a human performance
theory (a.k.a. systems theory, is to improve: problem is identified:
open systems theory, systemic − Efficiency is usually − The job situation
theory) understood to mean the ratio − The performer
− Systems theory (descriptive) + between the resources needed − The behavior
problem solving (heuristic & to achieve results (inputs) and − The consequence
prescriptive) + ISD knowledge the value of results (outputs).
+ experience = expert in ISD − The feedback of the
− Effectiveness usually means consequence back to the
the match between results performer
• Two problem solving approaches: achieved and those needed or
− Algorithmic approach to desired.
problem solving. (Yes/no) − Appeal (ARCS Model of
Instructional Solutions
approach in which the process Motivation)
is bound to lead to the correct • The instructional solution is to
solution or outcome • Performance is defined as the equip individuals with new
− Heuristic approach to outcomes (ends or result) to which knowledge, skills, or attitudes.
problem solving is one which is purposeful activities (means) are • Management solutions do
based on general strategies directed. everything to affect human
rather than precise rules. Using − Human performance is the performance other than instruction
these strategies improves the result of human skills, or training or development.
chances of coming up with a knowledge, and attitudes. − Non-instructional or non-
solution, but does not learning solutions (a.k.a.
− Machine performance is the
guarantee a correction solution. management solutions)
result of machine activity.
− Company performance − Management solutions include
• Instructional design is: • Feedback methods
(organizational
− Focused on establishing and • Job performance aids
performance) is the result of
maintaining efficient and • Reward systems
organizational activities.
effective human performance
• Employee selection practices
− Guided by a model of human
• Factors that affect performance: • Organizational redesign
performance
Introduction to Instructional Design

Instructional solutions convey 3. 3rd level - Operational: a • Two kinds of criterion:


procedural how-to-do-it process − Performance
• Primary: Knowledge, Skill, Attitude • There are more than 100 different standards which are
• Secondary: Awareness, ISD models, but almost all are minimally acceptable job
Responsibility, Cooperation based on the generic "ADDIE" performance
model. Other well-known models benchmarks.
include the “Dick & Carey Model” − Performance
objectives which are
>The ADDIE model desirable job
performance targets.
• Analysis --> Design --> 3. Identify the gap
Development --> Implementation • Performance analysis
--> Evaluation focuses on identifying gaps
• Rapid prototyping (continual between desired (ideal) and
ISD Models feedback) has sometimes been actual (real) results.
cited as a way to improve the − Two models for
• A model is a simplified or abstract generic ADDIE model. performance analysis:
representation of a process, • Each of the 5 elements in the Comprehensive models,
device, or concept. A model of any process is also a subsystem for all Situation specific models
kind is designed to help understand the other elements. • Abbreviated performance
a problem, situation, process, or analysis to avoid groupthink
device. Provides a basis for a >Alternatives to when instructional designers
common understanding. are assigned late to a
instructional solution project.
• A comprehensive performance
model includes as many factors as
• Management solutions include
possible affecting human
− Feedback methods
performance in organizational
settings. − Job performance aids
• A situation-specific − Reward systems Analyze
performance model focuses on − Employee selection practices
an existing or suspected problem. − Organizational redesign • Assess learners
• Analyze work setting
>Levels of models >Instructional design • Job / Task analysis
solutions project
1. 1st level - Generic: highly abstract
and applies everywhere (ADDIE 1. Identify condition Conduct needs assessment
Model) • Collect information about the
2. 2nd level - Organizational: adapted
(find the problem)
condition
to a particular organization 2. Identify criterion
Introduction to Instructional Design

• To identify and define a usually carried out following a needs and solve specific human
performance gap. Identify gap needs assessment. performance problems as they
between current performance and exist at the present.
ideal performance. Training requirements analysis − Second, consider target
(TRA) learners who may need to
Needs assessment plan participate in future instruction,
• Specifies exactly what training is perhaps on a regular basis.
• Defined as a blueprint for collecting necessary. − Third, consider characteristics
information about instructional of a specific target group of
needs. Resembles a research plan 2.0 Conduct learner learners each time the
• Two categories: assessment (Learner instruction is delivered.
− Comprehensive needs
assessment planning & plan
profile) 3.0 Work setting analysis
(macro needs assessment)
See Appendix B.
− Situation-specific needs • Development environment - setting
assessment planning & plan in which instruction will be
• A learner profile is an assessment
1. Establish needs assessment prepared.
of the learners through a narrative
objectives • Delivery environment - setting in
description of the targeted
2. Identify target audience which instruction will be presented.
audience for instruction that sets
3. Establish sampling procedures • Application environment - setting in
forth key assumptions that will be
4. Determine data collection strategy which learners will be expected to
made about them as instruction is
and tactics apply what they learn.
prepared.
5. Specify instruments protocol
6. Determine methods of data • The three basic categories of
analysis learner characteristics are relevant 4.0 Performance work
7. Assess feasibility of the plan and a to a specific situation, performance analysis
description of how decision will be problem, or instructional need:
made based on the data − situation-related characteristics Job analysis
See appendix for developing − decision-related characteristics
needs assessment plans. − learner-related characteristics • Systematic examination of what
• Two approaches to assessment: people do, how they do it, and
Conduct needs analysis − The derived approach what results they achieve by doing
− The contrived approach it. It clarifies work titles,
• Determine cause of the problem • Three approaches to form: responsibilities, activities, and
and find a solution entry qualifications.
− Normative
− Pinpoints root causes of gap - • It identifies what people do and
− Descriptive
discovers the underlying causes thereby provides information for
− Historical
of gaps between the ideal or selecting, appraising,
• At three different points compensating, training,
desirable and the actual. It is
− First, before instruction is
prepared to meet identified
Introduction to Instructional Design

accountability, and disciplining − Always 1) identify who needs to tasks have a set of clearly defined
employees. give permission for a job steps that are observable.
1. Identify the jobs to be analyzed analysis to be conducted 2) • Subtask - one step in a task
2. Clarify the results desired from clarify how permissions are • Element - a step within a step of a
the analysis given 3) allow sufficient time for task. i.e., an element in shoveling
− Why is the job analysis being those permissions to be given. coal into a furnace is 'placing a
conducted and what results are 5. Analyze and use the results of hand on the shovel'
sought from it. the job analysis • Task listing - what do people do as
− Four purposes of job analysis − The results of the job analysis they carry out their work?
and their different approaches are expressed as job
p.134. descriptions, job specifications,
− A job specification usually task listings, or job performance
appears at the end of a job standards. Steps to perform a task analysis:
description (establishes 1. Identify jobs or tasks to be
minimum entry requirements). Task analysis analyzed
− Might also include a list of − Using the task listing identify
representative tasks called a • An intensive examination of how what tasks within a job are to
task listing. people perform work activities. be analyzed.
− Who will conduct the job • A task analysis is carried out to 1) − Identify type of task. There are
analysis determine components of 4 types: procedural
− What is the purpose of the competent performance 2) identify (synonymous with action tasks),
analysis activities that may be simplified or process (bound to a particular
− How will the results be used otherwise improved 3) determine process), troubleshooting, and
− What sources or methods will precisely what a worker must mental (unobservable).
be used to collect and analyze know, do, or feel to learn a specific 2. Clarify the results desired from the
job information work activity 4) clarify conditions task analysis
3. Prepare a plan that correctly needed for competent performance − Key questions 1) why is the
answers these questions 5) establish minimum expectations analysis being conducted 2)
a. Who will conduct the job (standards) for how well job what results are sought from it.
analysis incumbents should perform each 3. Prepare a plan to guide the task
b. What is the purpose of task appearing in their job analysis
the analysis descriptions. − Key questions: 1)who will
c. How will the results be conduct the task analysis 2)
used Terms whose task performance will be
d. What sources or methods examined 3) what approach will
will be used to collect and • Task - series of actions or be used to collect and analyze
analyze job information behaviors which accomplish a goal. task information.
4. Implement the job analysis plan Cognitive tasks are performed 4. Implement the task analysis plan
− Carry out the plan. mentally, such as evaluating, − The job is broken down into its
deciding, or discriminating. Action component parts, the
Introduction to Instructional Design

relationship between the parts • Steps in performance and causal


are examined and compared • Competency modeling has analysis
with correct principles of supplemented and sometimes Phase 1 - Performance Analysis
performance. Finally, the parts supplanted traditional task Step 1: Identify Organizational
are restructured to form an analysis. Needs
improved job or task, and • There is no standard definition of Step 2: Assess Performance
learning requirements are competency, so when confronted Needs
specified. with the word immediately ask: Phase 2 - Causal Analysis
5. Analyze and use the investigation's How is that term being used? And Step 3: Identify the symptoms
results what is its meaning in context? Step 4: Analyze the causes
• Behavioral events interviewing Phase 3 - Determining HR Solutions
Content analysis (subject matter (BEI) is the key methodology used Step 5: Develop Solutions
analysis) to assess competencies. Step 6: Implement the Solution
• Conducting BEI interviewing P161. Step 7: Evaluate for Continuous
• Is intended to 1) identify and Improvement
isolate single idea or skill units for
instruction 2) to act as an objective Performance & causal analysis
decision rule for including or
excluding topics from instruction • The PDS approach begins with
and 3) to provide guidance to performance analysis based on
sequence topics in instruction. the organization’s mission, goals, Design
strategies, and operational require-
1. Identify the subject or topic ments. Performance analysis is • Define and write performance
2. Investigate what experienced the identification of current or objectives
performers know about the topic anticipated deficiencies, or “gaps”, • Develop performance assessments
3. Investigate how people perform the in workforce performance.
mental (covert) activity by • Determine instructional
− Discrepancy between current methodologies
a. Asking them
performance and new • Structure and sequence of program
b. Observing results of work
performance. content
activity
• Determining the specific factors or 5.0 Identify and Write
c. Using other methods
“causes” that contribute to the
4. Conduct a literature search on the performance objectives
performance gap is called Causal
topic
5. Synthesize results using any one of
Analysis. (a.k.a. instructional or
several methods to develop a − Causal analysis is the critical behavioral objectives)
model of the subject link between identified
6. Describe the subject or content performance gaps and the • Performance objectives are an
appropriate solutions, and is a expression of a desired result of a
− Take into account competency
major strength of the PDS learning experience and focus on
models
approach. the results of instruction, what the
Competency modeling learners should know, do, or feel
Introduction to Instructional Design

upon completion of the learning they are linked to the goal • Three methods to identify
experience. and, when enacted, will lead prerequisites:
− Performance objectives are to the desired instructional 1. Hierarchical analysis
measurable. results. − Repeatedly ask
− Describes the results. what a learner needs
• Performance objectives are • Second method: Convert results to know to complete
distinguished from instructional & of task or content analysis into each work task and
organizational goals & activities performance objectives. subtask. Each task
− Goals are not measurable. − The results of the task analysis - implies a learning
− Activities describe behaviors what should workers know or do hierarchy. Hierarchical
leading to results and not the to perform competently. analysis is applied to
results themselves. 1. Establish instructional purpose. intellectual,
• The primary reason for a psychomotor, and
Identify performance planned instructional attitudinal skills, but
objectives (two methods) experience. not to verbal
− Increasing learners information.
• First method: Conduct goal knowledge 1. Flowchart the
analysis − Change attitudes relationship between
or feelings the work task and the
− Goal analysis is a means of
− Building skills required prerequisite
identifying and transforming
knowledge.
laudable but otherwise vague − Combining one or
2. Develop
goals (desires) into specific more of the other three
performance
measurable learning objectives choices
objectives from the
(targets) for learner 2. Classify learning
hierarchy.
accomplishment. tasks.
2. Cluster analysis
1. Identify and clarify the goal • What kind of instruction will
that instruction intends to − Is appropriately
be necessary to instruct
achieve. used with verbal
people to perform this task
2. Identify behaviors associated information or
or demonstrate this
with the goal. attitudes
knowledge?
3. Sort out unrelated items and − Draw a chart and
• Four possible answers:
then eliminate duplications. place an instructional
Knowledge, Feelings, Skills,
4. Describe precisely what goal at the top. Then
Some combination of the
learners should be doing to list below it the major
first three.
demonstrate goal categories of
3. Analyze learning tasks
achievement. These information that are
(Learning Task Analysis)
statements become implied by the goal.
• To identify prerequisite
performance objectives. 3. Procedural analysis
knowledge (what learners
5. Test the performance − The process of
should know before
objectives to ensure that identifying what
participating in instruction)
Introduction to Instructional Design

learners should know − Objectives consists of: list behavior (performance) with
to perform one task or • Behavior (or a verb first, then follow with
a series of related performance) - a statements about criterion and
tasks (a procedure). statement of performance condition.
− Appropriate for always begins with a verb
developing that is linked to the type of Behavioral Objectives:
performance task to be learned. Pro/Con
objectives for • Condition - explains what
intellectual skills, working conditions must • If objectives are too specific they
motor skills, and exist when the performer will inhibit creativity.
attitudes. demonstrates his or her • Con: Limits creativity and
1. knowledge, skill, or ability. assessment options.
Identify an Condition statements usually • Con: Restricts learning process to
instructional goal. begin with the word "given". what can be measured.
2. Given means the learner is • Con: Oversimplifies, can restrict
Flowchart steps in provided with some authenticity of instruction.
the procedure. equipment, resources, or • Pro: Sets expectations.
3. information with which to • Pro: Creates accountability
For each step function and cannot perform • Pro: Provides direction and keeps
(task) in the competently without them. focus
procedure, answer: • Criterion (or standard) -
what must the • Pro: Facilitates communication and
must be measurable. agreement.
learner, know, do, Measures may be expressed
or feel to perform. • Pro: Enables congruent
by quantity, quality, cost,
1. assessment.
time, or customer
Express the • Pro: Allows for determining when or
requirements. Process
answer by stating if intended outcomes have been
criterion - how well the
precise achieved.
learner should perform the
performance task. Such as "following
objectives. company procedures,
Instructional objectives
conforming to the org. safety
Write performance objectives worksheet
practices, within ten
minutes" Product criterion -
1. Classify performance describes the product of the Work Performance
objectives task or objectives.
task. Such as " to the client's subject- “On
− Does the objective focus on: satisfaction, with fewer than matter completion
Knowledge (cognitive three errors, ready for sale" topic of
instruction,
objective), Skill (psychomotor − Begin with something like: "On learners will
objective), Attitude (affective completion of instruction be able to…”
objective) learners will be able to…" Then Column Column 2 Column 3 Column 4
2. Write performance objective
Introduction to Instructional Design

1 3) Other methods of measuring how the problem originated.


performance: They may sometimes be led
Performance Criterion Condition
− An advisory committee. forward to see what will happen
Begin What will the Describe how Begin with − An external assessment center if the problem is not solved.
with a learner know well the “given” or
verb or do? learner should “when” and − An attitude survey. − This sequencing method is
know or be describe the − A group discussion. sometimes called deia res, a
able to do the conditions that
− An exit interview. Latin phrase meaning that
performance must exist for
instruction begins "in the middle
(make it the learner to − A performance appraisal.
measurable) perform of things".
• Whole-to-part sequencing of
7.0 Sequencing objectives
performance objectives − Learners are first presented
6.0 Develop performance
with a complete model or a
measurements • Sequencing the objectives description of the full
becomes the basis for an complexities of a physical
1) Identify: instructional outline (instructional object (such as an automobile
− What should be measured? syllabus in step 9.0). engine or the world globe),
− How should it be measured? abstraction (such as steps in a
2) Steps in preparing instruments: Approaches model of instructional design),
a) Clarify the purpose of or work duty (such as writing a
measurement and selecting a • Chronological sequencing of letter). Instruction is then
type of instrument objectives organized around parts of the
b) Giving the instrument a − Content is arranged by time whole. For instance, learners
descriptive title. sequence with the presentation are then led through each part
c) Conducting background of later events preceded by of an automobile engine, each
research. discussion of earlier ones. nation on a world globe, each
d) Drafting or modifying items. Typically used with history. step in a model of the
e) Sequencing - or reviewing the Instruction is sequenced from instructional design process, or
sequence of - items. past to present. each task comprising the work
f) Trying out the instrument on a • Topical sequencing of objectives duty.
small-group representative of − Learners are immediately − Learners should be presented
the learner population. immersed in the middle of a with an overarching logic to
g) Revising the instrument based topical problem or issue. For govern what they should know.
on the small-group tryout. example, today's newspaper In this way, they can see how
h) Testing the instrument on a headline may be of topical each part relates to a larger
larger group. significance to a given conceptual system.
i) Using the instrument - but performance objective, and it • Part-to-whole sequencing of
establishing a means of tracking could be used as a starting objectives
experience with it. point for instruction. Learners − When performance objectives
j) Revising the instrument - or are then led back in time to see are sequenced from part to
specific items - periodically.
Introduction to Instructional Design

whole, learners are introduced known, learners are deliberately procedure. Iders analyze how
to each part of a larger disoriented at the outset of people learn the skill or process
objective, abstraction, or work instruction. In short, information. This analysis is
duty. By the end of instruction, instructional designers conducted using techniques
they should be able to consciously set out to "put the such as information processing
conceptualize the entire object learners in over their heads." It analysis, information mapping,
or abstraction or performance is sometimes called discovery or learning hierarchy analysis.
the entire duty. For example, learning. This approach Performance objectives are then
learners could be oriented to an dramatizes how little they really sequenced around each step
organization by visiting, know about a subject or the ("chunk of knowledge" or
investigating, and charting work performance of a task or work "specific skill"_ that learners
activities in each department. duty with which they already must possess to master a task
They should eventually be able feel smugly familiar. or work duty. On occasion,
to describe the activities of − The aim of this approach is to training is not necessary for
each organizational part and motivate learners for a step-by-step learning to occur.
thus (presumably) the entire subsequent learning task. It Learners may be coached
organization. gives then an uncomfortable through a task by means of a
• Known-to-unknown sequencing of experience that leads them to job aid, such as a checklist or
objectives question their own knowledge, step-by-step description of a
− When performance objectives thereby demonstrating to them procedure. Alternatively, they
are sequenced from known to that they need to learn more. may be coached through a task
unknown, learners are • Step-by-step sequencing of with a decision tool such as a
introduced to what they already objectives flow chart, diagram, or
know and are gradually led into − When performance objectives electronic tool.
what they do not know. This are sequenced, learners are • Part-to-part sequencing of
method argues that learners introduced to a task or work objectives
bring their experience to bear duty through either of two − When performance objectives
on what they learn. methods. The first method is are sequenced part to part,
Consequently, it is essential for based on the steps of the task learners are treated to a
instruction to build on what the or work duty itself. Iders begin relatively shallow introduction
learner already knows. analyzing how the task or duty to a topic, move on to another
Sequence instruction from what is performed. They then topic that is also treated
the learner already knows about sequence instruction around superficially, move on to a third
the subject to what the learner each step in the task or each topic that is treated
does not know about the task included in a work duty. superficially, eventually return
subject. − The second method is based on to the original topic for in-depth
• Unknown-to-known sequencing of the knowledge that learners exposure, and so on.
objectives must already posses or they − The aim is to ensure that
− When performance objectives must have mastered the skills learners are introduced to
are sequenced unknown to to be capable of learning the topics and then hear more
Introduction to Instructional Design

about them gradually as they 1. Describe observable achieve the outcomes of


are elaborated on in subsequent behaviors? instruction.
rounds of the spiral. 2. Describe measurable • An instructional strategy is also a
• General-to-specific sequencing of behaviors? translation of a philosophical or
objectives 3. Match behaviors to
theoretical position regarding
− When performance objectives the task? instruction into a statement of the
are sequenced from general to way in which instruction should be
Describe or imply
specific, all learners are conditions… carried out in specific
introduced to the same circumstances.
a. Affecting the job,
foundation of knowledge at the task, or content to be
• Once an instructional strategy has
same skills. Later however each taught? been decided on, it becomes a
learner specializes. This method product that can be used 1) as a
…SEE p. 186
of sequencing is sometimes prescription to develop
called the pyramidal or core instructional materials 2) as a set
structure method. All learners of criteria to evaluate existing
are exposed to certain topics 8.0 Specify instructional materials 3)as a set of criteria and
(the core) but may specialize strategies a prescription to revise existing
(by exposing themselves to material 4)as a framework from
topics around the core Strategies vs. tactics which class lecture notes,
interactive group exercises, and
Worksheet for judging homework assignments can be
• Tactics are the way instructional
performance objectives planned.
strategies are implemented. They
Directions: For each objective consider • The instructional strategy describes
are detailed approaches and
each question and mark a check () activities used by a designer to in writing, though not in the detail
for the appropriate response to each accomplish a strategy. typical of final instructional
question in the center column. Then materials comprising a module,
make notes to yourself for revision in What is an instructional strategy? unit, or lesson. In the instructional
the right column. If yes is answered to strategy designers should match
every question then the objective the method with the objectives.
• A strategy is an overall plan,
meets all required criteria and will not
method, or series of activities
need to be revised. If you answer no to Classifying the instructional
aimed at obtaining a specific goal.
any question, the objective does not strategy (macro or micro)
• An instructional strategy is a plan
meet all required criteria. It should be
for systematically exposing
revised. • Macro instructional strategy -
learners to experiences that will
an overall plan governing a
help them acquire verbal
discrete learning experience, such
information, establish cognitive
Question Response Notes for as a course or module. A plan to
strategy, or develop intellectual
revision help learners achieve the terminal
skills, motor skills, or new
Does the objective Yes ( ) No () performance objective. Think of it
attitudes. It is a blueprint that
as a big picture road map for an
shows what must be done to
Introduction to Instructional Design

entire planned learning experience, select an expository • Learning is an experience


akin to a syllabus for a college instructional strategy. oriented process. Learning is
course. A macro-instructional • Learning centers around the intensely personal. Set in the
strategy is typically specified first. communication process. mental world of the learner,
• Micro instructional strategy - is Learning occurs through it results not so much from
a specific plan governing each part exposure to environmental manipulation of
of the learning experience , such as variables outside the environmental variables
a unit or lesson within a course or learner; instructing is a outside the learner as from
module. A plan to help learners process of manipulating the learners own internalized
achieve enabling objectives. An those variables to achieve insight, reflection, and
example would be an outline for predetermined ends. experience.
one planned learning experience or Learning occurs as people 1) Structure opportunities for
course session. receive, understand, apply, learners to receive important
and act on information experiences and observe or
Two categories to base an directed to them by others. reflect on them
instructional strategy upon Learners are passive 2) Question the learners about
recipients of instructional the experience and observe
1. Based on the philosophy of messages, instructors or learner reactions
learning and instructing instructional designers are 3) Help learners think about the
− Instructional strategy active transmitters of those general principles and
continuum (expository messages, and the significant emotional
instruction at one end and instruction itself is experiences they have
discovery instruction at the synonymous with the experienced.
other): message. 4) Structure opportunities for
− Expository instructional 1) Present information to learners to apply what they
strategy: All learning is a passive learner have learned to actual
process of reception -> 2) Test learner on their recall or situations and problems
expositive instructional understanding of the 2. Based on events of instruction and
strategies. message conditions of learning
• A form of reception learning 3) Present opportunities for − Examine the performance
wherein learning occurs learners to practice or apply objectives in order to determine
through a communication the message and what type of learning is to be
process and exposure to 4) Present opportunities for facilitated.
environmental variables learners to generalize what − The instructional strategy is
outside the learning: they have learned to real chosen based upon the type of
instruction manipulates situations or problems. learning.
those variables. When − Discovery instructional − Identify the events of
instructors believe that strategy: All learning is a instruction to be used (e.g.
learning occurs through a process of learner discovery -> Gagne and Briggs, or other).
communication process they experiential instructional Events of instruction constitute
strategies.
Introduction to Instructional Design

what should be done in a to become involved in, and • The range of media
planned learning experience committed to, learning − Instructional media range from
and the instructional strategy • The learning and working simple to complex. A medium
details how well they will or environments also influence the that does not require much
should be done. appropriate choice of instructional advance preparation can be
1. Select instructional strategy and strategy. If the two environments considered simple, while one
identify its step in the learning are the same, as is the case with requiring much preparation can
experience. on-the-job training, an expository be considered complex. A
2. Detail each step. strategy is usually most efficient; if medium that appeals only to
they are different then a discovery one sense can be considered
Select the most appropriate strategy usually works best. simple; a medium that appeals
strategy Generally, the closer the to more than one sense can be
relationship between conditions in considered complex.
• No single (universal) instructional the learning and working − Classification scheme from
strategy for every learning environment, the greater the complex to simple media.
situation. likelihood that learners will be able • Consider the following when
• An instructional strategy grows out to apply on the job what they learn deciding which medium is best to
of an analysis of the work tasks during instruction achieve performance objectives?
that learners are being instructed − What are the desired outcomes
to perform and form the Select appropriate tactics of instruction? Do they provide
corresponding performance clues about what medium or
objectives established to achieve • The choice of instructional tactic is media to choose. Also ask,
those desired results. often more of an art then a science − What constraints on time,
• Any instructional strategy can be equipment, staff skills, audience
used to carry out any instructional Select media and delivery preferences, and cost affect this
event. However, no one method(s) planned learning experience?
instructional strategy works − How often will this planned
uniformly well under all conditions • Choosing media learning experience have to be
• If learners are inexperienced, then − Medium is the way an revised in the future?
expository strategy is usually the instructional message is • Select delivery method
most efficient approach. Exposition communicated to the learner:
− A delivery mode means the
leads learners through a subject at books; programmed tests,
choice about the conditions
a uniform rate, with the pace set computers; slides or tapes;
under which instruction is to be
more by the instructor than by the video and film.
offered.
learner. If learners are − Media selection model (media
− Make a selection of delivery
experienced they will often rebel model) is a decision making aid
mode based on the
against an expositive strategy. intended to guide selection of
performance objectives to be
They often prefer a process of instructional media according to
achieved. If many people share
discovery that makes full use of their instructional and cost
the same instruction need,
their experiences and allows them effectiveness.
select mass instruction.
Introduction to Instructional Design

Consider delivery mode for the − Gagne's nine events or another − Secure copyright permissions.
entire learning experience on set of instructional events are Always assume material
the basis of the terminal reflected in the working outline. acquired or purchased is
objective then reconsider media 2. Conducting research copyrighted. Most government
selection for each enabling − Conduct research to identify documents are not copyrighted.
objective. materials available inside or Request permission to use the
− Limitations of time, equipment, outside the organization. material, write directly to the
staff skills, and cost affect − Describe the materials copyright holder. State where
choice of deliver mode. available. the material will be used (in-
Managers and sometimes • Ask, have you ever seen any house?), how much will be used
learners even have preferences. procedure manuals, (the entire document or only
Consider constraints and checklists, descriptive part of it?), how many copies
manager/learner preferences. booklets, or training manuals are to be made (will all
− Four basic choices for delivery on [subject name]? participants in the training be
mode: • Who do you know in this given a copy?), who will receive
• Mass instruction involving organization who is the copies (who are the
many learners especially knowledgeable learners?), why the material is
• Group instruction involving about his subject? needed (training only?
few learners Promotional use?), and how
• What department might
• Individualized instruction often future requests will be
have needed, in the past, to
involving only one learner at made (how many times will the
do special training on the
a time material be used each year?). A
subject?
fee may need to be paid.
• Direct experience involving − Conduct research for materials
real-time learning, such as − Arrange instructional materials
outside the organization. First,
informal on-the-job training. by modifying them as needed.
network with designers in other
5. Preparing tailor-made
organizations.
instructional materials
9.0 Select or Design 3. Examining existing instructional
− Traditional components of an
Instructional Materials materials
instructional package:
− Compare existing materials to a
list of criteria on an evaluation • Learner directions or guide
1. Prepare a working outline (a.k.a. sheets are instructions for
syllabus) checklist. Can the existing
materials be used as they are, learners. They explain how
− A working outline summarizes to use the instructional
with minimal revisions? What
the contents of the planned package.
revisions, if any, must be made?
learning experience. This • Instructional materials
Are the performance objectives
outline is based on the contain the actual content of
to be met by learners so unique
instructional strategy and on instruction.
as to prevent use of anything
measurable, sequenced • Tests are student evaluation
except tailor made materials?
performance objectives that tools
4. Arranging or modifying existing
were written previously.
materials
Introduction to Instructional Design

• Instructor directions or guide needed to complete the performance objectives and


sheet are the instructors’ instruction, and self-check instructors’ activities
counterparts of learner activities or tests to assess intended to foster that
directions or guide sheets. student progress. 2) Gear it achievement.
− Prepare and format instructional toward participants in • Trainers’ guides are usually
materials instructor-centered, group- group-oriented classroom
• Detailed outlining paced instruction. In this instruction.
summarizes the content of format, the manual should 6. Selecting or preparing learning
the planned learning also describe the program’s activities.
experience or series of purpose, terminal − Select existing learning
related learning experiences performance objectives, and activities
– based on the instructional organization. I should also − Prepare individual learning
strategy and media that contain highlights of the activities
were selected earlier. Adds program contents, handouts, − Prepare group learning
detail to the simple working activities, tests, space for activities
outline. notes, and other material.
• Storyboarding is a visual • Instructor directions or guide
sheets frequently take the
10.0 Evaluating Instruction
representation of materials.
Consider attaching pictures, form of lesson plans,
Levels of evaluation
guide sheets, whatever detailed outlines intended to
representing each step in guide instructors through
group or individualized • Level 1 – Participant reactions
the designated instructional toward learning experience
experience to a backdrop. instructional activities. A
lesson is the most detailed (attitude survey)
• Format refers to the layout • Level 2 – determine what was
of instructional materials in a level of instructional
planning. actually learned/learning outcomes
given medium. (performance/post-test)
• Student manuals are • A lesson plan should usually
be developed directly from − Knowledge measured with
typically formatted in two achievement test
ways: 1) Consisting of many an outline describing
instructional content. It − Kills measured with
individualized learner guide
should reflect previous performance test
sheets each following one
decisions made about − Attitudes measured with
lesson within a series of
instructional strategy, questionnaire
related learning experiences.
The manual begins with a media, and sequence of • Level 3 – Transfer (job
program description, a performance objectives. application)&Course evaluation
statement of program • Scripts are similar to lesson • Level 4 – Organizational results
purpose, terminal objectives, plans in that they can be
relationships among lessons used to establish the link Type Purpose
(organization of the series), between learners’ Levels Form. Sum.
equipment and supplies achievement of desired 1  
Introduction to Instructional Design

2   evaluation and what information − What specific program issues


3   they need from it. are particularly worth pre-
4   − Identify who will participate in testing before widespread
the formative evaluation. delivery of instruction?
2. Assess information needs of the − How much should the formative
Formative product evaluation target audience evaluation focus solely on
− Designers are usually interested instructional issues, and how
• The process of appraising in how they can revise much (if at all) should it focus
instructional materials during instructional materials or on such other important but
preparation. Its key purposes are to delivery methods to make them non-instructional issues as
provide instructional designers with more effective for learners. equipment needs, staff needs,
descriptive and judgmental − Key decision makers are usually financial resources required,
information about the value of interested in how well the facilities needs, and non-
instruction. Descriptive information materials meet previously instructional needs of
outlines the value of instructional identified instructional needs participants?
components. In contrast, and solve human performance − What positive but post-
judgmental information assesses problems. instructional outcomes of the
how much learning results from the 3. Consider proper protocol planned learning experience
instructional materials when used − How much do the targeted can be anticipated? What
with learners and places a value on audiences expect to be negative post-instructional
those results. consulted about a formative outcomes can be anticipated
evaluation before, during, and − How accurate are the pre-
Formative process of after it is conducted? requisites previously identified?
evaluation − What permissions are necessary 6. Formulate a study design
to carry out the study? 7. Formulate a management plan to
• Provides descriptive and − Whose permissions are guide the study
judgmental information about necessary?
planned learning experiences. − What formal or informal steps Approaches to conducting
are necessary to secure the formative evaluation
Develop a formative evaluation necessary permissions to
plan conduct a formative evaluation, • Expert reviews of material with
select subjects, collect data, SMEs
1. Determine purposes, objectives, and feedback results? − Focused on content of
audience, and subjects 4. Describe the population to be instruction
− Why is this evaluation being studied and select the subjects via − Focused on delivery of
conducted? sampling procedures. instruction
− Consider who wants the 5. Identifying other variables of • Management or executive
evaluation and why. importance rehearsals
− Clarify who will review the − What settings should be used − Describe to management what
results of the formative for the formative evaluation? content is covered and how
Introduction to Instructional Design

they are to be delivered to gain − Critics of gap analysis state that assessment. Used for correcting a
and reinforce stakeholder it focuses on deficiencies. specific performance problem that
support. Designers are finding fault and affects only a few people. For
• Individualized pre-tests and pilot- thus making training a form of instance, a micro training need
tests punishment. To emphasize the exits when one supervisor reveals
• Group pretests and pilot tests positive change, appreciative no knowledge of how to fire an
inquiry, designers may tend to employee and another employee
focus on the future and gear possesses that knowledge. This is
training as a means of more often used than the other
preparing people for the future type. And the primary reasons for
and building on their strengths, this are: Relatively few
rather than emphasizing organizations establish an
deficiencies based on the past instructional plan or training
alone. curriculum across all job
• Needs analysis - determine categories. Situation-specific needs
causes of gap and recommend often have built-in management
solutions. support.
• Comprehensive-needs
assessment planning is broad,
covering large groups inside or
outside and organization.
Sometimes called macro needs
Definitions assessment. Used to determine the
continuous and relatively
predictable training needs of all
• Feedback is either incidental or
newly hired workers since they
intentional
must be oriented to their jobs. The
− Incidental feedback -growing
results are used to establish an
out of specific situations in a
organization's curriculum - an
spontaneous way.
instructional plan - covering basic
− Intentional feedback growing training for each job category. A
out of situations deliberately curriculum provides long-term
designed to provide people with direction to organized learning
evaluative information about activities.
how or what they do.
• System – an integrated set of
• Needs assessment - to identify elemetns that interact with each
and define a performance gap. other.
Identify gap between current
• Situation-specific needs
performance and ideal
assessment planning is
performance.
sometimes called micro needs
Introduction to Instructional Design

Needs Assessment Plan


• Steps in developing needs assessment plans
− First clarify why you are doing an assessment.
− Beyond clarification, the appropriate place to start depends on the problem that is to be
solved, the number of people affected by it, and the time span available for the intended
solution.
− Comprehensive needs assessment plan
• Establishing a long-term plan for an organization or an employee job category should
begin by locating a current organizational chart and information about strategic
business plans, job categories in the organization, common movements from each job
category to others, existing human performance problems in each job category, and
individual training needs. They should then identify for each job category the
knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for employees to perform competently. They
should use the skills list as the basis for a curriculum by job category, team,
department, or geographical site.
− Situation-specific needs assessment plan
• Designed to close a performance gap through instruction. Begin by clarifying what you
know about the gap. SEE p66. What is happening now? What should be happening?
How wide is the performance gap between what is and what should be. How important
is the performance gap? How much of the performance gap is caused by deficiencies in
knowledge, skills, or attitudes? What solutions are cost-effective and feasible? What
unintended side effects of taking corrective action can be predicted?
• Once these questions are answered, then move on to establish objectives, identify the
target audience, select sampling procedures, decide on appropriate data collection
methods, specify instruments and protocols, choose methods of data analysis, and
describe how decisions will be bade based on the data.
1. Establishing objectives of a need assessment
• The needs assessment objectives spell out the results sought from needs assessment.
• The needs assessment objectives provide direction and clarify why the problem is
worth solving and what the ideal assessment outcomes will be.
• Begin by clarifying what results are to be achieved from the needs assessment.
• This should produce a mental picture of the desire conditions existing at the end of the
assessment process.
• Once the vision has been formulated then a short (one-to two page) proposal for
conducting the needs assessment. The proposal should be used as a selling tool and as
a formal request.
• Results include agreement among stakeholders about what the needs are and what
instruction should meet them, also a sense of what learners must know, do, or feel to
overcome the deficiency of knowledge causing the performance problem, and finally, a
clear sense of the final work product of the needs assessment.
• Objectives can take different forms in a needs assessment plan.
2. Identifying target audience
• Whose instructional needs are to be addressed in solving the performance problem?
Who must be persuaded by the results of needs assessment to authorize instructional
projects and provide resources for carrying them out? Must identify target audience to
answer these questions.
• A needs assessment really has at least two target audiences - performers and decision-
makers.
• Performers are employees whose instructional needs will be identified through the
needs assessment process. They correspond to subjects in a research project.
• A needs assessment will have to identify who is presently affected by the performance
problem, how much they are affected, and where they are located.
Introduction to Instructional Design

− In micro needs assessment it may be possible to identify only a few


individuals
− In most macrotraining needs assessment projects, it will be necessary to
consider instructional needs by employee job categories or departments.
3. Establishing sampling procedures
• A sample is a small, representative group drawn from a larger group called a
population. Sampling is the process of identifying smaller groups for examination. It is
used to economize the time and expense of gathering information about needs, and is
often the focus of some questions.
• Any sample will deviate to some extent from the "true" nature of the population from
which it is drawn, a principle known as sampling error. Sampling error cannot be
eliminated, but it can be predicted and conclusions can be reached in a way that takes
its effects into account.
• A sampling procedure is the method used to select a sample.
• Instructional designers commonly use any of four types of sampling procedures. To
determine which to use consider the objectives of the needs assessment, the degree of
certainty needed in the conclusions, the willingness of decision makers in the org. to
allow information to be collected for the needs assessment study, and the resources
(time, money, and staff) available:
− Convenience or judgmental sampling - used most often - a type of non-
probability sampling in that the subjects for review are chosen for convenience or
accessibility rather than representativeness. Can yield biased results
i. Select some number of cases to include in the sample based on convenience,
access, or intuition.
ii. Choose the sample based on the results of step 1
− Simple random sampling - a type of probability sampling in which each
subject in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the study.
Appropriate when the population is large.
i. Clarify the nature of the population
ii. List the population
iii. Assign an identification number to each member of the population
iv. Select the sample by using any method that permits each member of the
population an equal chance of being selected
− Stratified sampling - more sophisticated. Appropriate when the population
is composed of subgroups differing in key respects. In needs assessment subgroups
may mean people in different job classes, hierarchical levels, structural parts of the
org. or geographical sites. Might also mean classification of people by age,
education, prior job experience, appraisal rating. The important point is that
stratified sampling ensures that each subgroup in a population is represented
proportionally in a sample
i. Clarify boundaries of population
ii. Identify relevant subgroups within the population
iii. List members of each subgroup
iv. Assign numbers to each member of each subgroup
v. Determine the percentage of the population is made up of members of each
group
vi. Select the sample at random (each subgroup should be represented in
proportion to its representation in the population.
− Systematic sampling - very simple to use. Make a list of everyone in the
org. Then divide the number of persons by 10 percent. Finally, select every tenth
name on the list.
4. Determining data collection strategy and tactics
• How will information about instructional needs be collected? Five methods are typically
used to collect information about instructional needs:
Introduction to Instructional Design

− SEE p77 for strengths and weaknesses of each


− Interviews
− Direct observation
− Indirect examination of performance or productivity measures
− Questionnaires
− Task analysis
− Other possible collection methods include: Key informant or focus groups,
Nominal group techniques, Delphi procedure, Critical incident method, Competency
assessment, Assessment center, Exit interviews
• Interviews are structure or unstructured conversations focusing on needs.
− Focus these conversations on key managers' perceptions about the
performance problem and the planed instruction necessary to solve it.
− To plan interviews: prepare a list of general topics or specific questions;
identify people who are knowledgeable about training needs; meet with the
knowledgeable people and pose questions about training needs; take notes during
or immediately following the interview.
• Direct observation
− First hand examinations of what workers do to perform and how they do it.
− Planned or unplanned
− Include specialized forms or not
− Indirect examinations of performance or productivity measures
− They are indirect because they are unobtrusive and thus do not require
instructional designers to observe workers performing.
− Indirect examinations may be structured ( in which results of observations
are recorded on a checklist) or unstructured (in which the researcher's feelings and
perceptions about results are recorded.
• Questionnaires
− Mail surveys or web-based surveys, consist of written questions about
instructional needs.
• Task analysis
− Series of techniques by which work procedures are carried out.
• Key informant
− Key informant groups or focus groups rely on highly knowledgeable people or
committees composed of representatives from different segments of stakeholders.
They are knowledgeable about the performance problem.
• Nominal group technique (NGT) p73 for steps
− Formation of small groups in which the participants do not, during the earliest
stages of data collection, actively interact. They are in name only, thus, nominal
groups
• Delphi procedure p73 for steps
− Substitutes written questionnaires for small -group interaction as a means of
collecting information about training needs.
• Critical incident method p74 for steps
− Collect information about critically important (critical) performance in special
situations (incident).
• Competency assessment p74 for steps
− To identify and isolate the characteristics of idea (exemplary) performers.
− Those characteristics are used as the foundation for preparing instruction
that is designed to raise average performers to ideal performers.
• Assessment center p75 for steps
− Not a place. Rather a method for collecting information.
• Exit interviews p 75 for steps
Introduction to Instructional Design

− Are planned or unplanned conversations carried out with an organization's


terminating employees to record their perceptions of employee training needs in
their job categories or work groups.
5. Specifying instruments protocol
• What instruments should be used during the needs assessment, and how should they
be used? What approvals or protocols are necessary for conducting the needs
assessment, and how will the instructional designer interact with members of the
organization? These questions must be addressed in a needs assessment plan. The first
has to do with specifying instruments and the second has to do with specifying protocol
• Commercially available vs. tailor made instruments
6. Determining methods of data analysis
• How will the results of the needs assessment be analyzed once the information has
been collected? Must be answered in a needs assessment plan.
• Selecting data analysis methods depends on the needs assessment design,
corresponding to a research design, that has been previously selected. They include
− Historical - heavily qualitative; describe conditions of past
− Descriptive - presented in either qualitative as narrative or quantitative with
frequencies, modes, means, and medians. A frequency is a count of how often a
problem occurs or an event happens.
− Includes interview studies, questionnaires, document review
− Developmental
− Case or field study - heavily qualitative; describe conditions of present
− Correlation
− Causal-comparative
− True experimental
− Quasi-experimental
− Action research
7. Assessing the feasibility of the needs assessment plan
• Before finalizing the needs assessment plan, instructional designers should review it
with three important questions in mind
− Can it be done with the resources available?
− Is it workable in the organizational culture?
− Has all superfluous information been eliminated from the plan?
• Other questions worth consideration include: how well does it take into account the
decision making process of the organization? Whose opinions are most valued and how
does the plan take their opinions in to account?
Introduction to Instructional Design

Learner Analysis
Select learner characteristics for assessment:
• Who is the intended and appropriate learner? The answer will help define the target
population, target group, or target audience.

What learner characteristics should be assessed?


• Assessing learner characteristics resembles segmentation, the process used to categorize
consumers by similar features. In advertising, segmentation gives advertisers the ability to
target messages to the unique needs and concerns of their audiences. Truly, learners are
consumers of services provided by instructional designers.
• The three basic categories of learner characteristics are relevant to a specific situation,
performance problem, or instructional need: situation-related characteristics,
decision-related characteristics, and learner-related characteristics.
o Situation-related characteristics stem from events surrounding the decision to
design and deliver instruction. The chief focus of the instructional design efforts
should be directed to those most affected by it. When assessing situational
characteristics of learners, instructional designers should begin by asking this
question: what are the possible relationships between the performance problem and
the learner? Does the performance problem itself suggest unique characteristics of
the learners who should receive instruction? If so, what are they? Will those
characteristics remain the same - or change over time? If they will change, in what
ways will they change?
o Decision-related characteristics pertain to those making decisions about learner
participation in instruction. When assessing these characteristics, iders should ask
the following question: who makes decisions about permitting people to participate
in instruction? Iders should clarify before preparing training materials who will make
decisions about participation. There are several ways to do this. Establish a formal
committee of people from inside the organization. The members of the committee
can give advice about who should participate, predict who is likely to participate,
and offer practical guidance for attracting appropriate participants by targeting the
needs of decision makers.
o Learner-related characteristics stems from the learners themselves. There are two
kinds 1) prerequisite knowledge, skills, or attitudes is sometimes called simply a
prerequisite. In classical treatment, Blank defines a prerequisite as a characteristic,
trait, or ability that students should possess to be successful on the job. Four types
1) physical traits 2) previously learned skills [ability to read, write, compute, use
machines…] 3)previously learned knowledge 4) previously learned attitudes
[employability skills such as appropriate dress, punctuality, interpersonal relations
at work, policies and procedures].
• Other learner-related characteristics:
o Demographic characteristics include: age, gender, race
o Physiological characteristics include: heart condition, lung capacity, and general
physical condition
o Experience characteristics include: length of service with the organization, length of
service in the job, experience with present job activities prior to job entry, and
similar experience
o Learner sensitivity such as gender neutral language.
o Physiological characteristics include sensitivity to chemicals, prior medical history,
genetic heritage, including tendency to certain forms of disease.
o Aptitude includes talent and skills; knowledge includes education, basic skills, and
specialized previous training. Attitudinal feelings include feelings about the topic,
training, the job, performance problems, and the organization. Some individuals
have a higher aptitude because they are gifted with talents that others do not
Introduction to Instructional Design

possess, and those talents are synonymous with aptitudes. Employers sometimes
administer aptitude tests. When test scores are available they can be a rich source
of information about learners.
o Experience (the amount of time a targeted learners have spent in their employment
position) is one of the most important learner characteristics to consider in
designing instruction. Because? When people first enter an organization they are
often highly motivated to learn. Second, experience affects the selection of
appropriate instruction methods. Learners with the least experience need the most
guidance. Simply, they do not know what they do not know.
o Knowledge is associated with what learners know about the subject of instruction,
the performance problem, learning needs, and organizational policies and
procedures. What if anything is known about the learner's knowledge of these
subjects? What assumptions, if any, are safe to maek about what they know before
they enter instruction? Have learners had much or little formal education generally?
Have they had specific, previous instruction on the subject at another institution? If
so, how was the subject treated?
o Learning styles refers to the ways people behave and feel while they learn. Several
classic questionnaires are available for assessing the learning style of individuals.
They may be administered. Alternatively, learners may simply be asked how they
learn best, and the results can be used at that stage to modify instruction.
o Learning competence is how well individuals have learned how to learn. People may
need to be trained how to learn better.
o Attitudinal characteristics refers to learners feeling about performance that they
voice to other people. What learners think about a subject, the performance
problem that instruction is designed to solve, their own learning needs, the
organization, and other important issues. One way iders can assess attitudes is to
prepare and administer a simple attitude survey to representatives of the targeted
audience. Another way is to field-test instructional manuals and then administer an
attitude survey to participants in small-group discussion.
o Geographical location affects learners needs and willingness to participate in
instruction.
o Job category refers to the learners' job duties and responsibilities within the
organization. i.e., hourly employees may not need the same instruction as
managers.
o Life cycle stage pertains to the individual's age and stage of development. In each
stage of development, the individual experiences central life crises that stimulate
interest in learning about issues related to those crises. Consequently, the life cycle
stages of prospective participants in instruction are worth some consideration by
instructional designers.
o Career stages or career prospects may also influence learners. Classic Dalton,
Thompson, and Price career stage model (apprentice --> colleague --> mentor -->
sponsor).
• Considerations
o Iders must remember two key points as they identify prerequisites. First, if trainees
enter instruction lacking essential knowledge or skills, then these essentials must
be furnished to them. Second, competent legal advice should be sought before
people are screened out of instruction that is necessary for job advancement or
security, particularly when physical traits are the prerequisite. Instruction is subject
to the laws, regulations, and court decisions affecting equal employment
opportunity and equal access for the disabled.

Determining methods for assessing learner characteristics:


• When should learner characteristics be assessed? At three different points in the
instructional design process.
Introduction to Instructional Design

o First, before instruction is prepared to meet identified needs and solve specific
human performance problems as they exist at the present.
o Second, consider target learners who may need to participate in future instruction,
perhaps on a regular basis.
o Third, consider characteristics of a specific target group of learners each time the
instruction is delivered.
• How should learners be assessed? Using either of two methods:
o The derived approach (simplest) - can an ider identify learner characteristics of
obvious importance to a given performance problem, instructional need, or
organizational constraint through brainstorming? If yes, they can derive relevant
learner characteristics.
o The contrived approach - if they cannot be identified through the derived approach
then iders should derive a list of characteristics worthy of consideration. Go through
a general list item by item and ask whether each item is related to the performance
problem.

Developing a profile of learner characteristics:


• Summarize results of learner assessment in a learner profile. A learner profile is a
narrative description of the targeted audience for instruction that sets forth key
assumptions that will be made about them as instruction is prepared.

What to include in a learner profile?


• Necessary background knowledge, skills, attitudes, and physical traits - what should the
learner already know or be able to before instruction begins? What should he feel about it?
What minimum physical traits are necessary for success in the instruction?
• Other necessary learner characteristics - assumptions made about learners' demographic
or physiological characteristics, aptitudes, experience, learning styles, attitudes, job
categories, value systems, life cycle stages, or career stages.

How should a profile of learner characteristics be developed?


• There are three basic ways to develop a profile of learner characteristics for instruction:
• Normative profile - is established judgmentally, without necessarily considering the
existing market of learners. It summarizes characteristics of the idea or desired learner.
Work along with operating supervisors and managers.
• Descriptive profile - examine characteristics of an existing group and simply describe
them. It summarizes characteristics of the probable or likely learner.
• Historical profile - establish characteristics of those who actually participate in instruction
over a period of time. Summarizes characteristics of historical learner.
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Preparing Instructional Objectives

Directions: Use this worksheet as a job whenever you draft performance objectives. In column 1
below, write a description of the work task or subject-matter topic on which the objective is to be
based. Then, moving across the worksheet complete columns 2 to 4.

Work task or subject Performance objectives


matter topic: On completion of instruction, learners should be able to…
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4
Begin with a verb Performance Criterion Condition
Answer this question: Describe how well the Begin with “given” or
What will the learner learner should know or “when” and describe
know or do? be able to do the the conditions that
performance (Make must exist for the
sure it is measurable.) learner to perform.
Introduction to Instructional Design

Behaviors Specified In Instructional


Objectives and Corresponding Test Items
Type of test item Brief description of test-item Behavior (verb specified in the
format instructional objective)
Essay A type of test item requiring a Construct
(Example: “What are the chief learner to respond in essay Define
advantages and disadvantages format. This type of item is Develop
of the essay format as a test appropriate for assessing Discuss
item?”) higher levels of cognition – Generate
such as analysis, synthesis, Locate
and evaluation. Solve
State
Fill-in-the-blank A type of test item requiring Construct
(Example: “The ___ - in-the- the learner to fill in the blank Define
blank is a type of test item.”) with an appropriate word or Identify
phase. Scoring can be Locate
objective because the required Solve
response is quite specific – State
often only one word is correct.
Completion A type of test item that closely Construct
(Example: “A type of test item resembles the fill-in-the-blank Define
that requires the completion of type, except that the learner is Develop
a sentence is called the ___.”) asked to complete a sentence Discuss
stem. Generate
Identify
Locate
Solve
State
Multiple-choice Kemp calls multiple-choice Discriminate
(Example: “A type of test item “the most useful and versatile Identify
requiring the learner to choose type of objective testing.” Locate
from more than one possible Learners must choose Select
answer is the (a) multiple- between three and five options Solve
choice; (b) essay; (c) or alternatives as the answer
completion.”) to the question.
True-false A type of test item in which Discriminate
(Example: “A true-false test learners are asked to Locate
item is less versatile than a determine whether a Select
multiple-choice one.”) statement is true or false. Solve
Matching A type of test item in which Discriminate
learners are asked to match Locate
up items in one column with Solve
items in another column
Project A type of test in which learners Construct
(Example: “Write an essay are asked to demonstrate the Develop
question to describe ten steps ability to perform a task they Generate
in preparing an assessment have (presumably) learned Locate
instrument.”) through participation in an Solve
instructional experience.
Introduction to Instructional Design

Structure of a Course
COURSE INTRODUCTION
1. Table of contents
2. Preface/introduction
3. Course introduction
4. Pre-requisites
5. Learner materials
6. Evaluation plan
7. Feedback plan
8. How to use
MODULE 1 INTRODUCTION
1. Motivation
2. Objectives
3. Background
4. Transition to unit
UNIT 1.1
1. Motivation
2. Objectives
3. Background
4. Transition
5. Content
6. Examples
7. Learning activity
8. Feedback
Repeat #5, 6, 7, & 8 for each intermediate Learning Objective (lesson)
9. Key points
10.Transition
MODULE 1 CLOSING
6. Summary
7. Integrative activity
8. Practice test
9. Key points
10. Transition
MODULE X
Repeat module introduction and closing for each module in the course
UNIT X.1
Repeat unit content for first unit of module
UNIT X.X
Repeat unit content outline for remaining units of the module
COURSE CONCLUSION
9. Review goals and objectives
10.Test & next steps
11.Training transfer
12.Course evaluation
13.Future classes
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Assess the Performance Problem

1. Describe the optimal performance.

2. Describe the actual performance.

3. Describe the performance need, or discrepancy between optimal and the actual.

4. Identify possible causes of the discrepancy or need.

5. Identify possible solutions.

6. Write a problem statement with proposed solutions.


Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Analyse Learners

1. How would you characterize the potential learners?

Who performs this job?

What prior experience and/or training have they had?

What is their motivation for training?

2. What are the prerequisite knowledge and/or skills the learners must have to undertake
this training?

3. Are there characteristics of the learners that might affect their capacity to learn?

4. Estimate numbers required training.

5. Where are learners located?

6. When should training be given (e.g. a specific period for the year, in relation to specific
tasks, etc.)?
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Analyse Job


Job:

Functions Duties Tasks Criticality Frequency


(1=Low / 5 = (Low / Moderate /
High) High)
1.0 … 1.1 … 1.1.1 …
1.1.2 …
1.1.3 …

1.2 … 1.2.1 …
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Analyse Tasks


Duty:

REF Task Select for training


Option On Prerequis Job Traini
al the ite Aid ng
Job
1.X

REF Knowledge – Skills – Key Messages Select for training


Option On Prerequis Job Traini
al the ite Aid ng
Job
1.XK1
1.XK2
1.XK3
1.XS1
1.XS2
1.XS3
1.XM1
1.XM2
1.XM3
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Sequencing & High Level Design


Duty:

REF Task TLO Eval Source Delive


ry
Exists Extern Devel
al op

REF Task TLO Eval Source Delive


ry
Exists Extern Devel
al op
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Detailed Lesson Plan


1. Course Title:
2. Delivery Strategy:
3. Module Title:
Module Objective:
4. Unit Title:
Terminal Learning Objective (TLO):

Transition:

Sequenced Conte Instructional Learner Materia Time Transiti


learning nt Strategy (really Responses ls Estimat on
objectives tactics) /Feedback es
(ILO/TLOs) Examples/Learnin
g Activities
Introduction to Instructional Design

Worksheet: Write Units


Unit No. & Title:

Unit Objective:

Module No. & Topic:

Module Objective (ILO):

Instructional
Text & Graphics Supporting Material
Elements
1. Objective

2. Motivation

3. Background

4. Transition

5. Content

6. Examples

Lesson No. & Title:

Module No. & Topic:

7. Learning Activity

8. Feedback

9. Key Points