Strength of Materials
Contents
Chapter 1: Stress and Strain
Chapter  2 : Principal Stress and Strain
Chapter  3 : Moment of Inertia and Centroid
Chapter  4 : Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Chapter  5 : Deflection of Beam
Chapter  6 : Bending Stress in Beam
Chapter  7 : Shear Stress in Beam
Chapter  8 : Fixed and Continuous Beam
Chapter  9 : Torsion
Chapter10 : Thin Cylinder
Chapter11 : Thick Cylinder
Chapter12 : Spring
Chapter13 : Theories of Column
Chapter14 : Strain Energy Method
Chapter15 : Theories of Failure
Chapter16 : Riveted and Welded Joint
Er. S K Mondal
IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET2003 batch, 12 years teaching
experienced, Author of Hydro Power Familiarization (NTPC Ltd)
Page 1 of 429
Note
Asked Objective Questions is the total collection of questions from:20 yrs IES (20101992) [Engineering Service Examination]
21 yrs. GATE (20111992)
and 14 yrs. IAS (Prelim.) [Civil Service Preliminary]
Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in the
material presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious or
otherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the
following email address: swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in
S K Mondal
Page 2 of 429
1.
It uses original cross section area of the specimen and also known as engineering stress or
conventional stress.
Therefore, T
P
A
P is expressed in Newton (N) and A, original area, in square meters (m2), the stress will be
expresses in N/ m2. This unit is called Pascal (Pa).
106
Pa =
106 N/
m2
N/mm2
Tt
P
10 kN
10q103 N
100N/mm2 100MPa
2
A 10 mm q10 mm
100 mm
The resultant of the internal forces for an axially loaded member is
normal to a section cut perpendicular to the member axis.
The force intensity on the shown section is defined as the normal stress.
%F
P
T lim
and Tavg
%Al 0 %A
A
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Chapter1
S K Mondals
Shear stress ( U )
When forces are transmitted from one part of a body to other, the stresses
developed in a plane parallel to the applied force are the shear stress. Shear
stress acts parallel to plane of interest. Forces P is applied
transversely to the member AB as shown. The corresponding
internal forces act in the plane of section C and are called shearing
forces. The corresponding average shear stress U
P
Area
1.2 Strain ()
The displacement per unit length (dimensionless) is
known as strain.
Tensile strain ( F t)
Ft
Compressive strain ( F c)
If the applied force is compressive then the reduction of length per unit length is known
as compressive strain. It is negative. Then c = (L)/ Lo
Let us take an example: A rod 100 mm in original length. When we apply an axial compressive
load 10 kN the final length of the rod after application of the load is 99 mm. So in this rod a
compressive strain is developed and is given by
Page 4 of 429
Chapter1
Fc
S K Mondals
%L L Lo 99 mm 100 mm 1mm
0.01 (Dimensionless)compressive
100 mm
100 mm
Lo
Lo
Shear Strain ( H ): When a
force P is applied tangentially to
the element shown. Its edge
displaced to dotted line. Where
E is
(H )
E
L
Let us take an example: A block 100 mm 100 mm base and 10 mm height. When we apply a
tangential force 10 kN to the upper edge it is displaced 1 mm relative to lower face.
Then the direct shear stress in the element
(U )
10 kN
10q103 N
1 N/mm2 1 MPa
100 mmq100 mm 100 mmq100 mm
1mm
0.1 Dimensionless
10 mm
TT
load
Instantaneous area
Where
and
T 1 F
True strain
L
FT
Lo
L
A
d
dl
ln ln 1 F
ln o 2ln o
Lo
A
d
l
Page 5 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
In true stressstrain curve, the stress however increases after necking since the crosssectional area of the specimen decreases rapidly after necking.
The flow curve of many metals in the region of uniform plastic deformation can be
expressed by the simple power law.
T = K(T)n
Relation between the ultimate tensile strength and true stress at maximum
load
The ultimate tensile strength Tu
Pmax
Ao
Pmax
A
Ao
or
Ao
e FT
A
Pmax Pmax Ao
q
Tu e FT
A
Ao
A
or not?
Page 6 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
125
dl
ln
0.223
100
l
FT
Lo
Ao
50
ln 0.223
40
A
FT
ln
or not?
be
fracture also.)
used
for
the
Ao
50
ln 0.357
35
A
FT
ln
L
But not FT
Lo
140
dl
ln
0.336 (it is wrong)
100
l
A relationship similar to that for length changes holds for threedimensional (volume) change. For
volumetric strain, Fv
, the relationship is Fv
= (VV0)/V0 or Fv
= V/V0
P
K
Where V is the final volume, V0 is the original volume, and V is the volume change.
Volumetric strain is a ratio of values with the same units, so it also is a dimensionless
quantity.
Page 7 of 429
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S K Mondals
p
Where p is pressure.
K
PL
=
A
W
PL
1.7 Modulus of rigidity or Shear modulus of elasticity (G) = =
J
AG
'p
'v
v
'p
'R
R
2G 1 P
9KG
3K G
3K 1 2P
[VIMP]
For a linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous material, the number of elastic
constants required to relate stress and strain is two. i.e. any two of the four must be
known.
If the material is nonisotropic (i.e. anisotropic), then the elastic modulii will vary with
additional stresses appearing since there is a coupling between shear stresses and
normal stresses for an anisotropic material.
Let us take an example: The modulus of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80
GPa, respectively. Find all other elastic modulus.
2G 1 P 3K 1 2 P
9KG
we may find all other elastic modulus
3K G
easily
Poissons Ratio ( P ) :
Bulk Modulus (K) :
1 P
3K
E
2G
E
1 2P
E
200
1
1 0.25
2G
2 u 80
E
3 1 2 P
200
133.33GPa
3 1 2 u 0.25
x
x
The theory of isotropic elasticity allows Poisson's ratios in the range from 1 to 1/2.
Poisson's ratio in various materials
Page 8 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Material
Poisson's ratio
Material
Poisson's ratio
Steel
0.25 0.33
Rubber
0.48 0.5
C.I
0.23 0.27
Cork
Nearly zero
Concrete
0.2
Novel foam
negative
We use cork in a bottle as the cork easily inserted and removed, yet it also withstand the
pressure from within the bottle. Cork with a Poisson's ratio of nearly zero, is ideal in this
application.
Lo Original length
L f Final length
Initial thickness(t o )
e1 u e2
1.13 Elongation
PL
AE
Let us take an example: A Mild Steel wire 5 mm in diameter and 1 m long. If the wire is subjected
to an axial tensile load 10 kN find its extension of the rod. (E = 200 GPa)
PL
AE
10 u 1000N
Sd2
S u 0.005
Modulous of Elasticity (E )
Therefore Elongation(G )
m2
1.963 u 105 m2
10 u 1000 u 1
2.55 u 103 m
2.55 mm
Elongation of a bar of varying cross section A1, A2,,An of lengths l1, l2,ln respectively.
l
P l1 l2 l3
n
E A1 A2 A3
An
Page 9 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Let us take an example: A composite rod is 1000 mm long, its two ends are 40 mm2 and 30 mm2 in
area and length are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. The middle portion of the rod is 20 mm2 in
area and 500 mm long. If the rod is subjected to an axial tensile load of 1000 N, find its total
elongation. (E = 200 GPa).
Answer: Consider the following figure
P l1 l 2 l 3
E A1 A2 A3
300 mm 500 mm 200 mm
1000 N
u
3
2
200 u 10 N / mm 40 mm 2 20 mm 2 30 mm 2
0.196mm
4PL
S Ed1 d 2
PL
S
E d1 d 2
4
i.e.
PL
EA eq
Let us take an example: A round bar, of length L, tapers uniformly from small diameter d1 at one
end to bigger diameter d2 at the other end. Show that the extension produced by a tensile axial load
P is =
4PL
.
S d1 d 2 E
If d2 = 2d1, compare this extension with that of a uniform cylindrical bar having a diameter equal to
the mean diameter of the tapered bar.
Answer: Consider the figure below d1 be the radius at the smaller end. Then at a X cross section XX
located at a distance from the smaller end, the value of diameter dx is equal to
Page 10 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
dx
2
d1 x d 2 d1
2 L 2 2
x
or d x d1 d 2 d1
L
d1 1 kx
d 2 d1 1
u
L
d1
Where k
We now taking a small strip of diameter 'd x 'and length 'd x 'at section XX .
Elongation of this section 'd x ' length
d G
PL
AE
P .dx
S d x2
uE
4
4P .dx
2
S .^d1 1 kx ` E
d G
4P dx
S Ed 1 kx
2
1
x 0
4PL
S E d1d 2
Comparison: CaseI: Where d2 = 2d1
Elongation G I
4PL
S Ed1 u 2d1
2PL
S Ed12
dm
d1 d 2
2
d1 2d1
2
3
d1
2
PL
AE
2
16
9
Page 11 of 429
9
8
P .L
S 3
d1 .E
42
16PL
9S Ed12
Chapter1
S K Mondals
WL
=
2AE
The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when subjected to
a direct axial load equal to its own weight will be half.
(ii) Total extension produced in rod of length L due to its own weight X per with
length.
Z L2
2EA
1.14
U gL2
WL
2 Amax E
6E
Structural members or machines must be designed such that the working stresses are less
Working stress V w
Vy
n
V ult
n1
n=1.5 to 2
factor of safety
n1 2 to 3
Vp
n
Vp
Proof stress
V y or V p or V ult
Vw
If the elongation or contraction is not restricted, i. e. free then the material does not
experience any stress despite the fact that it undergoes a strain.
The strain due to temperature change is called thermal strain and is expressed as,
H
x
D 'T
The free expansion or contraction of materials, when restrained induces stress in the
Page 12 of 429
Chapter1
D E 'T
Vt
x
S K Mondals
Thermal stress produces the same effect in the material similar to that of mechanical
stress. A compressive stress will produce in the material with increase in temperature
and the stress developed is tensile stress with decrease in temperature.
Let us take an example: A rod consists of two parts that are made of steel and copper as shown in
figure below. The elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion for steel are 200 GPa and
11.7 106 per C respectively and for copper 70 GPa and 21.6 106 per C respectively. If the
temperature of the rod is raised by 50C, determine the forces and stresses acting on the rod.
D 'T L
GT
6
1.1025 mm Compressive
But according to diagram only free expansion is 0.4 mm.
Therefore restrained deflection of rod =1.1025 mm 0.4 mm = 0.7025 mm
Let us assume the force required to make their elongation vanish be P which is the reaction force at
the ends.
PL
AE Steel
PL
AE Cu
P u 500
P u 750
2
2
S
S
9
9
u 0.075 u 200 u 10 u 0.050 u 70 u 10
4
4
or P 116.6 kN
or 0.7025
V Steel
116.6 u 103
P
ASteel
S
4
u 0.075
N/m2
26.39 MPa
V Cu
P
ACu
116.6 u 103
S
4
u 0.050
N/m2
59.38 MPa
Page 13 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Compatibility Equation:
G st G sf
G Bt G Bf
Equilibrium Equation:
V s As
V B AB
Assumption:
1. L = Ls
LB
2. D b ! D s
3. Steel Tension
Brass Compression
G sf = Expansion of the steel tube due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion.
= BD in the above figure.
G Bf = Compression of the brass rod due to internal force developed by the unequal expansion.
= BD in the above figure.
And in the equilibrium equation
Tensile force in the steel tube = Compressive force in the brass rod
Where, V s = Tensile stress developed in the steel tube.
Let us take an example: See the Conventional Question Answer section of this chapter and the
of 429
question is Conventional Question IES2008Page
and14its
answer.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
(i) V max
(ii) V max
UZ 2L2
2
and G L
and G L
UZ 2L3
12E
UZ 2L3
3E
1.18 Creep
When a member is subjected to a constant load over a long period of time it undergoes a slow
permanent deformation and this is termed as creep. This is dependent on temperature. Usually at
elevated temperatures creep is high.
The materials have its own different melting point; each will creep when the homologous
temperature > 0.5. Homologous temp =
Testing temperature
> 0.5
Melting temperature
c2
Creep strain at any time = zero time strain intercept + creep rate Time
= 0
Where,
c1 , c2 are constants V
c1 V c2 u t
stress
1.19 If a load P is applied suddenly to a bar then the stress & strain induced will be double
than those obtained by an equal load applied gradually.
Page 15 of 429
Chapter1
Vd
V 1 1
S K Mondals
2h
,
L
being stress & strain produced by static load P & L=length of bar.
A
2 AEh
1 1
P
PL
1.21 Loads shared by the materials of a compound bar made of bars x & y due to load W,
Px
W.
Py
W.
Ax Ex
Ax Ex Ay E y
Ay E y
Ax Ex Ay E y
PL
Ax Ex Ay E y
i)
True elastic limit: based on microstrain measurement at strains on order of 2 106. Very low
value and is related to the motion of a few hundred dislocations.
ii) Proportional limit: the highest stress at which stress is directly proportional to strain.
iii) Elastic limit: is the greatest stress the material can withstand without any measurable
permanent strain after unloading. Elastic limit > proportional limit.
iv) Yield strength is the stress required to produce a small specific amount of
deformation. The offset yield strength can be determined by the stress
corresponding to the intersection of the stressstrain curve and a line
parallel to the elastic line offset by a strain of 0.2 or 0.1%. ( H = 0.002 or
0.001).
Page 16 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
The offset yield stress is referred to proof stress either at 0.1 or 0.5% strain used for design
and specification purposes to avoid the practical difficulties of measuring the elastic limit or
proportional limit.
v) Tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength (UTS) V u is the maximum load Pmax divided
by the original crosssectional area Ao of the specimen.
vi) % Elongation,
Lf Lo
, is chiefly influenced by uniform elongation, which is dependent on the
Lo
Ao Af
Ao
Reduction of area is more a measure of the deformation required to produce failure and
its chief contribution results from the necking process.
Because of the complicated state of stress state in the neck, values of reduction of area
are dependent on specimen geometry, and deformation behaviour, and they should not be
taken as true material properties.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Let us take an example: A 10 mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50 mm gauge length. The load
corresponding to the 0.2% offset is 55 kN and the maximum load is 70 kN. Fracture occurs at 60 kN.
The diameter after fracture is 8 mm and the gauge length at fracture is 65 mm. Calculate the
following properties of the material from the tension test.
(i)
% Elongation
(ii)
Fracture strength
S
4
u 0.010 m2
2
u 0.008 m2
7.854 u 105 m2
5.027 u 105 m2
(i) % Elongation
L L0
u 100%
L0
65 50
u 100 30%
50
A0 Af
u 100%
A0
7.854 5.027
u 100%
7.854
Py
Ao
55 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
PFracture
Ao
Pmax
Ao
36%
70 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
700 MPa
60 u 103
N/m2
5
7.854 u 10
764MPa
0.0045
891 MPa
Chapter1
(vii) Plastic strain H P H total H E
1.25 Elasticity
This is the property of a material to regain its original shape
after deformation when the external forces are removed. When
the material is in elastic region the strain disappears
completely after removal of the load, The stressstrain
relationship in elastic region need not be linear and can be
nonlinear (example rubber). The maximum stress value below
which the strain is fully recoverable is called the elastic limit.
It is represented by point A in figure. All materials are elastic
to some extent but the degree varies, for example, both mild
steel and rubber are elastic materials but steel is more elastic
than rubber.
1.26 Plasticity
When the stress in the material exceeds the elastic limit, the
material enters into plastic phase where the strain can no
longer be completely removed. Under plastic conditions
materials ideally deform without any increase in stress. A
typical stress strain diagram for an elasticperfectly plastic
material is shown in the figure. MisesHenky criterion gives a
good starting point for plasticity analysis.
Page 19 of 429
S K Mondals
Chapter1
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Page 20 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Two identical circular rods of same diameter and same length are subjected to
same magnitude of axial tensile force. One of the rods is made out of mild steel
having the modulus of elasticity of 206 GPa. The other rod is made out of cast
iron having the modulus of elasticity of 100 GPa. Assume both the materials to
be homogeneous and isotropic and the axial force causes the same amount of
uniform stress in both the rods. The stresses developed are within the
proportional limit of the respective materials. Which of the following
observations is correct?
[GATE2003]
(a) Both rods elongate by the same amount
(b) Mild steel rod elongates more than the cast iron rod
(c)
Cast iron rod elongates more than the mild steel rod
(d) As the stresses are equal strains are also equal in both the rods
PL
1
or G L f
[AsP, L and A is same]
GATE1. Ans. (c) G L
AE
E
G L mild steel ECI 100
? G L CI ! G L MS
EMS 206
G L C.I
GATE2.
PL
AE
200 u 1000 u 2
0.04 u 0.04 u 200 u 109
m 1.25mm
The ultimate tensile strength of a material is 400 MPa and the elongation up to
maximum load is 35%. If the material obeys power law of hardening, then the
true stresstrue strain relation (stress in MPa) in the plastic deformation range
is:
[GATE2006]
0.30
0.30
0.35
(b) V 775H
(c) V 540H
(d) V 775H 0.35
(a) V 540H
GATE3. Ans. (c)
A true stress true strain curve in
tension V kH n
k = Strength coefficient = 400
(1.35) = 540 MPa
n = Strain hardening exponent =
0.35
Chapter1
S K Mondals
bending load, the fatigue life of the shaft in the presence of the residual
compressive stress is:
[GATE2008]
(a) Decreased
(b) Increased or decreased, depending on the external bending load
(c) Neither decreased nor increased
(d) Increased
GATE4. Ans. (d)
Net stress pattern obtained when loading a surface treated beam. The reduced
magnitude of the tensile stresses contributes to increased fatigue life.
GATE5.
Fatigue strength of a rod subjected to cyclic axial force is less than that of a
rotating beam of the same dimensions subjected to steady lateral force because
(a) Axial stiffness is less than bending stiffness
[GATE1992]
(b) Of absence of centrifugal effects in the rod
(c)
The number of discontinuities vulnerable to fatigue are more in the rod
(d) At a particular time the rod has only one type of stress whereas the beam has both
the tensile and compressive stresses.
GATE6. Ans. (d)
Chapter1
S K Mondals
GATE7. Ans. (d) For longitudinal strain we need Young's modulus and for calculating transverse
strain we need Poisson's ratio. We may calculate Poisson's ratio from E 2G (1 P ) for
that we need Shear modulus.
GATE8.
(a) 2(1 P )
1
(c) (1 P )
2
(b) 2(1 P )
(d )
1
(1 P )
2
The relationship between Young's modulus (E), Bulk modulus (K) and Poisson's
ratio () is given by:
[GATE2002]
(b) K
(a) E
3 K 1 2P
3 E 1 2P
(c) E
3 K 1 P
(d) K
2G 1 P
3K 1 2P
3 E 1 P
9KG
3K G
Fur
2200 u
0.004
Nm
2S
[GATE2004]
1.4Nm
GATE11. The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm2 cross sectional area. It is loaded
at four points, K, L, M and N.
[GATE2004, IES 1995, 1997, 1998]
Assume Esteel = 200 GPa. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is:
(a) 1 m
(b) 10 m
(c) 16 m
(d) 20 m
GATE11. Ans. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then
PL
AE
GATE12. A bar having a crosssectional area of 700mm2 is subjected to axial loads at the
positions indicated. The value of stress in the segment QR is:
[GATE2006]
Page 23 of 429
Chapter1
P
(a) 40 MPa
GATE12. Ans. (a)
Q
(b) 50 MPa
S K Mondals
R
(c) 70 MPa
S
(d) 120 MPa
F.B.D
V QR
P
A
28000
MPa
700
40MPa
[GATE2004]
GATE14. Ans. (d) Frictional force required = 2000 N
Force needed to produce 2000N frictional force at YY section =
So for each side we need (Fy) = 10000 N force
Page 24 of 429
2000
0.1
20000N
Chapter1
10000 u 50
100
S K Mondals
5000N
(a) V r
0, V z
(b) V r z 0, V z
(c ) V r
0, V z z 0
(d ) V r z 0, V z z 0
GATE15. Ans. (a) Thermal stress will develop only when you prevent the material to
contrast/elongate. As here it is free no thermal stress will develop.
Tensile Test
GATE16. A test specimen is stressed slightly beyond the yield point and then unloaded.
Its yield strength will
[GATE1995]
(a) Decrease
(b) Increase
(c) Remains same
(d) Becomes equal to ultimate tensile strength
GATE16. Ans. (b)
[GATE1999]
Chapter1
WL
2AE
WL
2u
S D2
4
?G u L
uE
& Gu
S K Mondals
1
D2
IES2.
The deformation of a bar under its own weight as compared to that when
subjected to a direct axial load equal to its own weight will be:
[IES1998]
(a) The same
(b) Onefourth
(c) Half
(d) Double
IES2. Ans. (c)
IES3.
[IES2003]
IES7.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Keeping the nominal diameter of threads equal the diameter of unthreaded portion
of the bolt
One end fixed and the other end free
(d)
IES7. Ans. (a)
Two tapering bars of the same material are subjected to a tensile load P. The
lengths of both the bars are the same. The larger diameter of each of the bars is
D. The diameter of the bar A at its smaller end is D/2 and that of the bar B is
D/3. What is the ratio of elongation of the bar A to that of the bar B? [IES2006]
(a) 3 : 2
(b) 2: 3
(c) 4 : 9
(d) 1: 3
PL
IES8. Ans. (b) Elongation of a taper rod G l
S
ddE
4 1 2
G lA d2 B D / 3 2
or
G lB d2 A D / 2 3
IES9.
A bar of length L tapers uniformly from diameter 1.1 D at one end to 0.9 D at
the other end. The elongation due to axial pull is computed using mean
diameter D. What is the approximate error in computed elongation? [IES2004]
(a) 10%
(b) 5%
(c) 1%
(d) 0.5%
PL
PL
IES9. Ans. (c) Actual elongation of the bar G l act
S
PL
Calculated elongation of the bar G l Cal
S D2
uE
4
G l act G l cal
D2
? Error %
u 100
1 u 100% 1%
G l cal
1.1D u 0.9D
IES10.
The stretch in a steel rod of circular section, having a length 'l' subjected to a
tensile load' P' and tapering uniformly from a diameter d1 at one end to a
[IES1995]
diameter d2 at the other end, is given
(a)
Pl
4 Ed1d 2
(b)
pl.S
Ed1d 2
IES11.
(c)
pl.S
4 Ed1d 2
(d)
4 pl
S Ed1d 2
PL
S
d1d2 E
4
d1 d 2
2
d1d 2
d1d 2
2
d1 d 2
2
Poissons ratio
IES12.
In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the xdirection, the Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings)
[IAS 1994, IES2000]
Page 27 of 429
Chapter1
Hy
Hx
(b)
Hy
Vx
S K Mondals
(c)
Vy
Vx
(d)
Vy
Hx
Which one of the following is correct in respect of Poisson's ratio (v) limits for
an isotropic elastic solid?
[IES2004]
(b) 1/ 4 dQ d1/ 3
(c) 1dQ d1/ 2
(d) 1/ 2 dQ d1/ 2
(a) f dQ d f
IES13. Ans. (c) Theoretically 1 P 1/ 2 but practically 0 P 1/ 2
IES14.
[IES1994]
IES16.
[IES1992]
(d) f
P f
If the area of crosssection of a wire is circular and if the radius of this circle
decreases to half its original value due to the stretch of the wire by a load, then
the modulus of elasticity of the wire be:
[IES1993]
(a) Onefourth of its original value
(b) Halved
(c) Doubled
(d) Unaffected
IES17. Ans. (d) Note: Modulus of elasticity is the property of material. It will remain same.
IES18.
The relationship between the Lames constant , Youngs modulus E and the
Poissons ratio
[IES1997]
a O
EP
1 P 1 2P
(b)O
EP
1 2P 1 P
c O
EP
1 P
d O
EP
1 P
Chapter1
S K Mondals
The highest stress that a material can withstand for a specified length of time
without excessive deformation is called
[IES1997]
(a) Fatigue strength
(b) Endurance strength
(c) Creep strength
(d) Creep rupture strength
IES22. Ans. (c)
IES23.
Which one of the following features improves the fatigue strength of a metallic
material?
[IES2000]
(a) Increasing the temperature
(b) Scratching the surface
(c) Overstressing
(d) Under stressing
IES23. Ans. (d)
IES24.
IES26.
IES28.
What are the materials which show direction dependent properties, called?
(a) Homogeneous materials
(b) Viscoelastic materials
[IES 2007]
(c) Isotropic materials
(d) Anisotropic materials
IES28. Ans. (d)
IES29.
Page 29 of 429
[IES2006]
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES30.
Match ListI (Properties) with ListII (Units) and select the correct answer
using the codes given below the lists:
[IES2001]
List I
List II
A. Dynamic viscosity
1. Pa
B. Kinematic viscosity
2. m2/s
C. Torsional stiffness
3. Ns/m2
D. Modulus of rigidity
4. N/m
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
2
4
1
(b)
5
2
4
3
(b) 3
4
2
3
(d)
5
4
2
1
IES30. Ans. (a)
IES31.
Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1.25 105
MPa and 0.34 respectively. The modulus of rigidity of the material is:
[IAS 1994, IES1995, 2001, 2002, 2007]
(b) 0.4664 105 Mpa
(a) 0.4025 105 Mpa
(d) 0.9469 105 MPa
(c) 0.8375 105 MPa
5
IES31. Ans.(b) E 2G (1 P ) or 1.25x10 = 2G(1+0.34) or G = 0.4664 105 MPa
IES32.
G 3K
9 KG
(b)
3G K
9 KG
(c)
9 KG
G 3K
(d)
9 KG
K 3G
What is the relationship between the linear elastic properties Young's modulus
(E), rigidity modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)?
[IES2008]
1 9 3
3 9 1
9 3 1
9 1 3
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
E K G
E K G
E K G
E K G
9KG
IES33. Ans. (d) E 2G 1 P 3K 1 2 P
3K G
IES34.
What is the relationship between the liner elastic properties Youngs modulus
(E), rigidity modulus (G) and bulk modulus (K)?
[IES2009]
(a)
KG
9K G
2G 1 P
(b)
9KG
K G
3K 1 2P
(c)
9 KG
K 3G
(d)
9 KG
3K G
9KG
3K G
IES35.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
2G 1 P
The modulus of elasticity for a material is 200 GN/m2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.25.
What is the modulus of rigidity?
[IES2004]
(b) 125 GN/m2
(c) 250 GN/m2
(d) 320 GN/m2
(a) 80 GN/m2
E
200
80GN / m2
IES37. Ans. (a) E 2G 1 P or G
2 1 P 2 u 1 0.25
IES37.
IES38.
Eight bolts are to be selected for fixing the cover plate of a cylinder subjected
to a maximum load of 980175 kN. If the design stress for the bolt material is
[IES2008]
315 N/mm2, what is the diameter of each bolt?
(a) 10 mm
(b) 22 mm
(c) 30 mm
(d) 36 mm
8 uV u
S d2
4
or d
P
2SV
980175
2S u 315
22.25 mm
(a) W1 W2
(b) W1 W2
Const. (c)
W1
A1 E1
W2
A2 E2
(d )
W1
A1 E2
W2
A2 E1
IES40. Ans. (c) Compatibility equation insists that the change in length of the bar must be
compatible with the boundary conditions. Here (a) is also correct but it is equilibrium
equation.
IES41.
When a composite unit consisting of a steel rod surrounded by a cast iron tube
is subjected to an axial load.
[IES2000]
Assertion (A): The ratio of normal stresses induced in both the materials is
equal to the ratio of Young's moduli of respective materials.
Reason (R): The composite unit of these two materials is firmly fastened
together at the ends to ensure equal deformation in both the materials.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES41. Ans. (a)
IES42.
The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm2 cross sectional area. It is loaded
at four points, K, L, M and N.
[GATE2004, IES 1995, 1997, 1998]
Page 31 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Assume Esteel = 200 GPa. The total change in length of the rod due to loading is
(a) 1 m (b) 10 m
(c) 16 m
(d) 20 m
IES42. Ans. (b) First draw FBD of all parts separately then
IES43.
PL
AE
IAS
2003]
IES43. Ans. (a) Elongation in AC = length reduction in CB
R A u 1 RB u 2
AE
AE
And RA + RB = 10
IES44.
Which of the following stresses are associated with the tightening of nut on a
bolt?
[IES1998]
1.
Tensile stress due to the stretching of bolt
2.
Bending stress due to the bending of bolt
3.
Crushing and shear stresses in threads
4.
Torsional shear stress due to frictional resistance between the nut and
the bolt.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
Codes:
(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4
IES45. Ans. (d)
Thermal effect
IES46.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
(d) No stress
D TE
J
(b)
D TE
1 2J
(c)
D TE
2J
(d)
D TE
1 2J
3
3
%V T p
a 1 BT
a
IES48. Ans. (b)
V
K
a3
P
Or
3BT
E
3 1 2H
IES49.
[IES2002]
(d) 2 alone
A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20C to 120C, E = 200
GPa and = 12 106 per C. If the rod is not free to expand, the thermal stress
developed is:
[IAS2003, IES1997, 2000, 2006]
(a) 120 MPa (tensile)
(b) 240 MPa (tensile)
(c) 120 MPa (compressive)
(d) 240 MPa (compressive)
12 u 10 u 200 u 10 u 120 20
6
240MPa
Page 33 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
kx u L
AE
kx u L
x
AE
0.5 u 12.5 u 106 u 20
0.125 mm
50 u 0.5
1
2
S u 0.010 u 200 u 106
4
kx
50 u 0.125
? Compressive stress =
0.07945MPa
A
S u 0.0102
IES54.
Impact loading
IES55.
Assertion (A): Ductile materials generally absorb more impact loading than a
brittle material
[IES2004]
Reason (R): Ductile materials generally have higher ultimate strength than
brittle materials
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES55. Ans. (c)
IES56.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Tensile Test
IES57.
[IES2006]
IES59.
Match ListI (Types of Tests and Materials) with ListII (Types of Fractures)
and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I
ListII
[IES2002; IAS2004]
(Types of Tests and Materials)
(Types of Fractures)
A. Tensile test on CI
1. Plain fracture on a transverse plane
B. Torsion test on MS
2. Granular helecoidal fracture
C. Tensile test on MS
3. Plain granular at 45 to the axis
D. Torsion test on CI
4. Cup and Cone
5. Granular fracture on a transverse plane
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
2
3
1
(c)
4
1
3
2
(b) 5
1
4
2
(d)
5
2
4
1
IES59. Ans. (d)
IES60.
For most brittle materials, the ultimate strength in compression is much large
then the ultimate strength in tension. The is mainly due to
[IES1992]
(a) Presence of flaws and microscopic cracks or cavities
(b) Necking in tension
(c)
Severity of tensile stress as compared to compressive stress
(d) Nonlinearity of stressstrain diagram
IES61. Ans. (a)
IES62.
What is the safe static tensile load for a M36 4C bolt of mild steel having yield
stress of 280 MPa and a factor of safety 1.5?
[IES2005]
(a) 285 kN
(b) 190 kN
(c) 142.5 kN
(d) 95 kN
W
S d2
or
W
V
u
;
IES62. Ans. (b) V c
c
4
S d2
4
W V c u S u d2 280 u S u 362
Wsafe
N 190kN
fos
fos u 4
1.5 u 4
IES63.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IES64.
A heavy uniform rod of length 'L' and material density '' is hung vertically
with its top end rigidly fixed. How is the total elongation of the bar under its
own weight expressed?
[IAS2007]
2G L2 g
E
(a)
(b)
G L2 g
E
(c)
WL
2 AE
G L2 g
(d)
2E
G ALg L G L2 g
2 AE
2E
G L2 g
2E
A rod of length 'l' and crosssection area A rotates about an axis passing
through one end of the rod. The extension produced in the rod due to
centrifugal forces is (w is the weight of the rod per unit length and Z is the
angular velocity of rotation of the rod).
[IAS 1994]
(a)
Zwl 2
gE
(b)
Z 2 wl 3
3 gE
(c)
Z 2 wl 3
gE
Page 36 of 429
(d)
3 gE
Z 2 wl 3
Chapter1
S K Mondals
A rod of length, " L " tapers uniformly from a diameter ''D1' to a diameter ''D2' and
carries an axial tensile load of "P". The extension of the rod is (E represents the
modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod)
[IAS1996]
(a)
4 P1
S ED1 D2
(b)
4 PE1
S D1 D2
(c)
S EP1
4 D1D2
(d)
S P1
4 ED1D2
Pl
S
4 D1D2 .E
Poissons ratio
IAS4.
In the case of an engineering material under unidirectional stress in the xdirection, the Poisson's ratio is equal to (symbols have the usual meanings)
[IAS 1994, IES2000]
(a)
Hy
Hx
(b)
Hy
Vx
(c)
Vy
Vx
(d)
Vy
Hx
Assertion (A): Poisson's ratio is a measure of the lateral strain in all direction
perpendicular to and in terms of the linear strain.
[IAS1997]
Reason (R): The nature of lateral strain in a uniaxially loaded bar is opposite
to that of the linear strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS6. Ans. (b)
Chapter1
S K Mondals
IAS9.
The independent elastic constants for a homogenous and isotropic material are
(a) E, G, K, v
(b) E, G, K
(c) E, G, v
(d) E, G
[IAS1995]
IAS9. Ans. (d)
IAS10.
Young's modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of a material are 1.25 105
MPa and 0.34 respectively. The modulus of rigidity of the material is:
[IAS 1994, IES1995, 2001, 2002, 2007]
(b) 0.4664 105 MPa
(a) 0.4025 105 MPa
5
(d) 0.9469 105 MPa
(c) 0.8375 10 MPa
5
IAS11. Ans.(b) E 2G (1 P ) or 1.25x10 = 2G(1+0.34) or G = 0.4664 105 MPa
IAS12.
IAS13.
G 3K
9 KG
(b)
3G K
9 KG
(c)
9 KG
G 3K
(d)
9 KG
K 3G
IAS15.
2G 1 P 3K 1 3P
9 KG
3K G
The moduli of elasticity and rigidity of a material are 200 GPa and 80 GPa,
respectively. What is the value of the Poisson's ratio of the material? [IAS2007]
(a) 030
(b) 026
(c) 025
(d) 024
P=
E
1
2G
200
1 0.25
2 u 80
The reactions at the rigid supports at A and B for the bar loaded as shown in
the figure are respectively.
[IES2002; IAS2003]
(a) 20/3 kN,10/3 Kn
(b) 10/3 kN, 20/3 kN
(c) 5 kN, 5 kN
(d) 6 kN, 4 kN
Page 38 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
RA u 1
AE
RB u 2
AE
And RA + RB = 10
Thermal effect
IAS18.
A steel rod 10 mm in diameter and 1m long is heated from 20C to 120C, E = 200
GPa and = 12 106 per C. If the rod is not free to expand, the thermal stress
developed is:
[IAS2003, IES1997, 2000, 2006]
(a) 120 MPa (tensile)
(b) 240 MPa (tensile)
(c) 120 MPa (compressive)
(d) 240 MPa (compressive)
12 u 10 u 200 u 10 u 120 20
6
240MPa
A. steel rod of diameter 1 cm and 1 m long is heated from 20C to 120C. Its
D 12 u106 / K and
..
E (D Tl G )
l
Impact loading
IAS21.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IAS1995]
List I (Property)
List II (Testing Machine)
A. Tensile strength
1. Rotating Bending Machine
B. Impact strength
2. ThreePoint Loading Machine
C. Bending strength
3. Universal Testing Machine
D. Fatigue strength
4. Izod Testing Machine
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS21. Ans. (d)
A
4
2
B
3
1
C
2
4
D
1
3
(b)
(d)
Page 39 of 429
A
3
3
B
2
4
C
1
2
D
4
1
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Tensile Test
IAS22.
[IAS1998]
(d) Breaking point
IAS24.
Lueder' lines on steel specimen under simple tension test is a direct indication
of yielding of material due to slip along the plane
[IAS1997]
(a) Of maximum principal stress
(b) Off maximum shear
(c) Of loading
(d) Perpendicular to the direction of loading
IAS24. Ans. (b)
IAS25.
Match ListI (Types of Tests and Materials) with ListII (Types of Fractures)
and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I
ListII
[IES2002; IAS2004]
(Types of Tests and Materials)
(Types of Fractures)
A. Tensile test on CI
1. Plain fracture on a transverse plane
B. Torsion test on MS
2. Granular helecoidal fracture
C. Tensile test on MS
3. Plain granular at 45 to the axis
D. Torsion test on CI
4. Cup and Cone
5. Granular fracture on a transverse plane
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
2
3
1
(c)
4
1
3
2
(b) 5
1
4
2
(d)
5
2
4
1
IAS26. Ans. (d)
IAS27.
Assertion (A): Stressstrain curves for brittle material do not exhibit yield
point.
[IAS1996]
Reason (R): Brittle materials fail without yielding.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS28. Ans. (a) Up to elastic limit.
Page 40 of 429
Chapter1
IAS29.
Match List I (Materials) with List II (StressStrain curves) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS2001]
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS29. Ans. (b)
IAS30.
S K Mondals
A
3
2
B
1
4
C
4
3
D
1
1
(b)
(d)
A
3
4
B
2
1
C
4
3
D
2
2
[IAS1998]
IAS30. Ans. (d)
IAS31.
[IAS1996]
IAS31. Ans. (a)
IAS32.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
[IAS2002]
List I
List
Page
41 II
of 429
A. Ultimate strength
1. Internal structure
Chapter1
B. Natural strain
C. Conventional strain
D. Stress
Codes:
A
B
(a) 1
2
(c)
1
3
IAS32. Ans. (a)
C
3
2
S K Mondals
IAS33.
What is the cause of failure of a short MS strut under an axial load? [IAS2007]
(a) Fracture stress
(b) Shear stress
(c) Buckling
(d) Yielding
IAS33. Ans. (d) In compression tests of ductile materials fractures is seldom obtained.
Compression is accompanied by lateral expansion and a compressed cylinder ultimately
assumes the shape of a flat disc.
IAS34.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given
the lists:
[IAS1995]
List I
List II
A. RigidPerfectly plastic
B.
ElasticPerfectly plastic
C.
RigidStrain hardening
D.
Linearly elastic
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS34. Ans. (a)
A
3
3
B
1
1
C
4
2
D
2
4
(b)
(d)
A
1
1
B
3
3
C
2
4
D
4
2
IAS35.
IAS36.
Assertion (A): Hooke's law is the constitutive law for a linear elastic material.
Reason (R) Formulation of the theory of elasticity requires the hypothesis that there
exists a unique unstressed state of the body, to which the body returns
whenever all the forces are removed.
[IAS2002]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS36. Ans. (a)
IAS37.
Page 42 of 429
Consider the following statements:
[IAS2002]
Chapter1
S K Mondals
1.
There are only two independent elastic constants.
2.
Elastic constants are different in orthogonal directions.
3.
Material properties are same everywhere.
4.
Elastic constants are same in all loading directions.
5.
The material has ability to withstand shock loading.
Which of the above statements are true for a linearly elastic, homogeneous and
isotropic material?
(a) 1, 3, 4 and 5
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2 and 5
IAS37. Ans. (a)
IAS38.
Page 43 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
[2 Marks]
Ans.
Aluminium wire
FA1
FA1
FSt
Steel wire
60kN
a A1
ast
EA1
Est
60 kN
300mm 2 l A1
200mm 2 lst
4m
8m
0.667 u 105 N / mm 2
2 u 105 N / mm 2
FA1 u l A1
a Al .EAl
Fst .lst
ast .Est
(2)
Fst u 8
FA1 u 4
5
300 u 0.667 u 10
FA1 1.0005 Fst
200 u 2 u 105
(3)
Page 44 of 429
after
Chapter1
FA1
60 u 103
3.001
Fst
S K Mondals
19.99 kN or 20 kN
20 kN
FA1
Fst
20 kN
Answer.
20 kN
Answer:
As
S
4
u 12
A b BC
Ab CD
4
4
36S mm2
u 30
36S u 10 6 m2
225S mm2
u 302 202
225S u 106 m2
125S mm2
125S u 106 m2
10 u 103
u 10 6 MN / m2 88.42MN / m2
6
36S u 10
5 u 103
u 10 6 MN / m2 7.07MN / m2
V b BC
225S u 10 6
5 u 103
u 106 MN / m2 12.73MN / m2
V b CD
125S u 10 6
Vs
Gl
G ls AB G lb BC G lb CD
88.42 u 0.15
7.07 u 0.2
12.73 u 0.125
9
9
6
6
210 u 10 u 10
105 u 10 u 10
105 u 109 u 10 6
9.178 u 105 m
G l
Vl
E
0.09178 mm
Page 45 of 429
Chapter1
Question:
Answer:
S K Mondals
List at least two factors that promote transition from ductile to brittle
fracture.
(i)
With the grooved specimens only a small reduction in area took place, and the
appearance of the facture was like that of brittle materials.
(ii) By internal cavities, thermal stresses and residual stresses may combine with
the effect of the stress concentration at the cavity to produce a crack. The
resulting fracture will have the characteristics of a brittle failure without
appreciable plastic flow, although the material may prove ductile in the usual
tensile tests.
What different stresses setup in a bolt due to initial tightening, while used as
a fastener? Name all the stresses in detail.
(i)
When the nut is initially tightened there will be some elongation in the bolt so
tensile stress will develop.
(ii) While it is tightening a torque across some shear stress. But when tightening will
be completed there should be no shear stress.
Answer:
Tc Ts
%t (Bc Bs )
Ec Es
2
Qd 2 Q 6 2
3 2
=
m 2.8274 q10 m
4
4 100
2
2
Qd 2 Q 8 6 2
3 2
Area of steel tube (A s )
=
m 2.1991q10 m
4
4 100 100
Rise in temperature,%t 50o C
Area of copper rod(A c )
Chapter1
S K Mondals
= 1711.5
106 q L q 50=2.75104L m
A compressive force (P) exerted by the steel tube on the copper rod opposed the extra
expansion of the copper rod and the copper rod exerts an equal tensile force P to pull
the steel tube. In this combined effect reduction in copper rod and increase in length of
steel tube equalize the difference in free expansions of the combined system.
Reduction in the length of copper rod due to force P Newton=
+L
C
PL
PL
m
Ac Ec 2.8275 q103
105 q109
+L
c +L
s 2.75 q104 L
PL
P.L
2.75 q104 L
3
3
9
9
q
q
q
q
2.8275
10
105
10
2.1991
10
210
10
Or P = 49.695 kN
49695
P
MPa=17.58MPa
2.8275 q103
Ac
P
49695
Stress in steel tube, Ts
MPa 22.6MPa
As
2.1991q103
Stress in copper rod, Tc
Since each of the pin is in double shear, shear stress in pins ( U pin )
=
P
49695
= 79 MPa
2 q Apin 2 q Q 0.02
2
4
Answer:
Mention the relationship between three elastic constants i.e. elastic modulus
(E), rigidity modulus (G), and bulk modulus (K) for any Elastic material. How
is the Poisson's ratio ( ) related to these modulli?
Answer: E
9KG
3K G
9KG
3K + G
Page 47 of 429
E 3K (1 2) = 2G(1 + ) =
Chapter1
S K Mondals
The elastic and shear moduli of an elastic material are 21011 Pa and 81010
Pa respectively. Determine Poisson's ratio of the material.
Answer:
or,1
or
9KG
3K + G
E
2G
E
2 q1011
1
1 0.25
2G
2 q (8 q1010 )
ES 2q105 N / mm 2
Answer:
or , Eb.
' E=
+L
(%l )b
.Ab s As
A
(1.5 q103 )
q 3.1416 q104
Ts q 7.854105
1
Ts 600 MPa (tensile )
and Tb =Eb.
(%l )b
(1.5 q103 )
MPa 150MPa (Compressive )
(1105 ) q
1
A
Page 48 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
So before heating
Stress in brass tube (b ) 150MPa (compressive )
Stress in steel bolt( s ) 600MPa (tensile)
Stress due to rise of temperature
Let stress
Bb q+t q1
Bb s free expansion of copper is greater than the free expansion of steel. But
they are rigidly fixed so final expansion of each members will be same. Let us assume
this final expansion is ' ', The free expansion of brass tube is grater than , while the
free expansion of steel is less than E . Hence the steel rod will be subjected to a tensile
stress while the brass tube will be subjected to a compressive stress.
For the equilibrium of the whole system,
Total tension (Pull) in steel =Total compression (Push) in brass tube.
Bs (+t ).1
T'
s'
q1 Bb (+t ) q1 b q1
Es
Eb
or , 1.2 q105
q 40 q1
s'
'b
5
q
q
q
(ii )
(1.9
10
)
40
1
2 q105 q106
1q105 q106
Answer:
1 d 2
= Weight of portion UVH= s y q Sg (i )
3 4
Page 49 of 429
Chapter1
S K Mondals
d .y
( ii )
A
= Stress at section UV =
force at UV
Weight of UVH
d s2
cross sec tion area at UV
1 d s2
.
.y .Sg
1
3
4
y Sg
=
d 2
3
s
4
1
y Sg .dy
3
1
y Sgdy
Sgh 2
3
E
6E
E.A
or , d A
d
A
E
Answer:
Which one of the three shafts listed hare has the highest ultimate tensile
strength? Which is the approximate carbon content in each steel?
(i) Mild Steel (ii) cast iron (iii) spring steel
Among three steel given, spring steel has the highest ultimate tensile strength.
Approximate carbon content in
(i)
Mild steel is (0.3% to 0.8%)
(ii) Cost iron (2% to 4%)
(iii) Spring steel (0.4% to 1.1%)
X
50 of 429
So failures will occurs according toPage
45 plane.
Chapter1
S K Mondals
Answer:
The steel bolt shown in Figure has a thread pitch of 1.6 mm. If the nut is
initially tightened up by hand so as to cause no stress in the copper spacing
tube, calculate the stresses induced in the tube and in the bolt if a spanner is
then used to turn the nut through 90.Take Ec and Es as 100 GPa and 209 GPa
respectively.
Given: p = 1.6 mm, Ec= 100 GPa ; Es = 209 CPa.
As
As
10
u
7.584 u 10 5 m2
4 1000
2
2
S 18 12
5
2
u
14.14 u 10 m
4 1000 1000
i,e
or
or
or
G l s G l c
1.6 u
Pl
Pl
A sEs A cEc
90
360
0.4mm
0.4 u 103
0.4 u 10 3 m
ls
lc
1
1
100
Pu
5
5
9
9
14.14 u 10 u 100 u 10
1000 7.854 u 10 u 209 u 10
P 30386N
P
P
386.88MPa
and
214.89MPa
?
As
Ac
0.4 u 103
Answer:
Pl
AE
Page 51 of 429
Chapter1
G ls
S K Mondals
Pls
A sEs
P u 2 u 1000
or 0.75
 (i)
1
S
2
5
4 u 3 u 2.0 u 10 u 2000
G lb
4.64
or
Plb
A bEb
P u 2.5 u 1000
 (ii)
S
2
4 u 2 u Eb
1
S
4.64 u u 22 u Eb u
2500
4
1
S
5
or
Eb 0.909 u 10 N / mm2
1
S
4.64 u u 22 u Eb u
2500
4
A steel bolt and sleeve assembly is shown in figure below. The nut is
tightened up on the tube through the rigid end blocks until the tensile force
in the bolt is 40 kN. If an external load 30 kN is then applied to the end
blocks, tending to pull them apart, estimate the resulting force in the bolt
and sleeve.
Answer:
25
4.908 u 104 m2
1000
2
2
S 62.5 50
Area of steel sleeve, A s
4 1000 1000
Area of steel bolt, A b
1.104 u 10 3 m2
Page 52 of 429
Chapter1
V b u Ab
S K Mondals
0.04
or
V b u 4.908 u 104
Vb
0.04
0.04
4.908 u 104
81.5MN / m2 tensile
V s u As
0.04
or
V s u 1.104 u 103
Vs
0.04
0.04
1.104 u 10 3
36.23MN / m2 compressive
0.03
4
(i)
0.03
In a compound system with an external tensile load, elongation caused in each will be
the same.
V 'b
G lb
Eb
V 'b
or G lb
Eb
V 's
and G ls
Es
But G lb
?
V 'b
Eb
or
u lb
u 0.5
Given,lb
500mm
0.5
u 0.4
Given,ls
400mm
0.4
Gs
V 's
u 0.5
V 'b
Es
u 0.4
0.8V 's
Given,Eb
Es
(2)
V 's
gives
and
V 'b
0.03
20MN / m tensile
2
V b r
V b V 'b
81.5 16
97.5MN / m2
V s r
V s V 's
V b r u A b
0.0478MN tensile
V b r u A s
16.23 u 1.104 u 10 3
Page 53 of 429
0.0179MN compressive
2.
Triaxial
stress:
three
nonzero
Isotropic
stress:
three
principal
Page 54 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Or
Shape
of
the
body
remains
Fig. (a)
Fig. (b)
Fig. (c)
Area of the YY Plane =
a shear stress
A
; Let us assume the normal stress in the YY plane is
cos T
Vn
and there is
Now resolve the force P in two perpendicular direction one normal to the plane YY = P cos T and
another parallel to the plane YY = Pcos
Page 55 of 429
Chapter2
Vn
and
Wu
A
cos T
P sin T
or
A
cos T
P cos T
Vn
P
cos 2 T
A
Vn
or
P
sin T cos T
A
S K Mondals
or
P
sin 2T
2A
W with
P
and shear stress W
A
0 at T
the variation of T .
0, V n
0.
P
at T
2A
S
4
0 . As T is
But if angle
90o
In ductile material failure in tension is initiated by shear stress i.e. the failure occurs across
1 or T
45o
P
2A
Vn
is
90
T.
P
cos2 (90 T ) and W
A
In
this
case
you
have
to
use
the
above
formula
as
P
sin(180 2T ) where T is the angle between the applied load and the
2A
Let us take an example: A metal block of 100 mm2 cross sectional area carries an axial tensile load
of 10 kN. For a plane inclined at 300 with the direction of applied load, calculate:
(a) Normal stress
(b) Shear stress
(c) Maximum shear stress.
Answer: Here T
90o 30o
60o
Page 56 of 429
Chapter2
10 u 103 N
u sin120o
2
2 u 100 mm
P
sin2T
2A
10 u 103 N
2 u 100 mm 2
P
2A
S K Mondals
43.3MPa
50MPa
Complementary stresses
Now if we consider the stresses on an oblique plane YY which is perpendicular to the previous
plane YY. The stresses on this plane are known as complementary stresses. Complementary
normal stress is
V nc
T 900
V nc
and
by
T 900 in the
Therefore
P
cos 2 90o T
A
V nc
Wc
It is clear
P
sin 2 90o T
2A
V nc V n
P
A
and
P 2
sin T
A
P
sin 2T
2A
W c W
i.e. Complementary shear stresses are always equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
Chapter2
The shear stress
W on
S K Mondals
clockwise moment with respect to a centre inside the element. If the moment is counterclockwise with respect to a centre inside the element, the shear stress in negative.
Note: The convention is opposite to that of moment of force. Shear stress tending to turn clockwise is
positive and tending to turn counter clockwise is negative.
Let us take an example: A prismatic bar of 500 mm2 cross sectional area is axially loaded with a
tensile force of 50 kN. Determine all the stresses acting on an element which makes 300 inclination
with the vertical plane.
Answer: Take an small element ABCD in 300 plane as shown in figure below,
Given, Area of crosssection, A = 500 mm2, Tensile force (P) = 50 kN
P
50103 N
2
=
cos
=
cos2 30o =75MPa (+ive means tensile).
n
2
A
500 mm
50 u 103 N
u sin 2 u 30o 43.3MPa
2 u 500 mm 2
P
sin2T
2A
90 30 120o
P
cos2 T
A
50 u 103 N
u cos2 120o 25MPa
500 mm 2
(+ ive means tensile)
P
sin2T
2A
50 u 103 N
u sin 2 u 120o
2
2 u 500 mm
43.3MPa
Page 58 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vx
and
Vy
are normal stresses and may be tensile or compressive. We know that normal stress
W xy
W xy
and
W yx
W xy = W yx
Let
Vn
Normal stress V n
V x V y
2
V x V y
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
and
Shear stress W
x y
2
sin 2  W xy cos 2
Above two equations are coming from considering equilibrium. They do not depend on material
Page 59 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
V n max
Vn
For
wV n
wT
maximum or minimum
or
Vy
2
wW
wT
or
0, where V n
Vy
2
Vy
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
u sin 2T u 2 W xy cos 2T u 2
or tan2T p =
2W xy
(V x V y )
W max
maximum or minimum
0, where W
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
sin 2T W xy cos 2T
cos 2T u 2 W xy sin 2T u 2
W xy
or cot 2T
Vx Vy
Let us take an example: At a point in a crank shaft the stresses on two mutually perpendicular
planes are 30 MPa (tensile) and 15 MPa (tensile). The shear stress across these planes is 10 MPa.
Find the normal and shear stress on a plane making an angle 300 with the plane of first stress. Find
also magnitude and direction of resultant stress on the plane.
25MPa tensile , V y
Answer: Given V x
Shear stress W
V x V y
15MPa tensile , W xy
V x V y
cos 2T W xy sin2T
2
2
30 15 30 15
cos 2 u 30o 10 sin 2 u 30o 34.91 MPa
2
2
V x V y
sin2T W xy cos 2T
2
30 15
sin 2 u 30o 10cos 2 u 30o 1.5MPa
2
Resultant stress V r
34.91
W
Vn
1.52
1.5
I
34.91
34.94MPa
2.460
Page 60 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
on a plane at angle T .
Vx V y
Vn
V x V y
cos 2T
Normal stress ,
Shear/Tangential stress,
Normal stress
V x (T
V x V y
2
sin 2T
T 900
S /2
0) & V y (T
S / 2)
Let us take an example: The principal tensile stresses at a point across two perpendicular planes
are 100 MPa and 50 MPa. Find the normal and tangential stresses and the resultant stress and its
obliquity on a plane at 200 with the major principal plane
Answer: Given V x
Normal stress, V n
Shear stress, W
100MPa tensile , V y
Vx Vy
2
V x V y
Resultant stress V r
V x V y
sin2T
942 162
200
100 50 100 50
cos 2 u 20o
2
2
cos 2T
2
100 50
sin 2 u 200
2
16MPa
95.4MPa
W
16
Therefore angle of obliquity, I tan1 tan1 9.70
94
Vn
Page 61 of 429
94MPa
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vx V y
Vn
and
2
x y
Just put V y
V x V y
2
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
sin 2  W xy cos 2
0 and W xy =0
Therefore,
Vn
Vx 0
2
and W
Vx 0
Vx 0
2
cos 2T
sin 2T
Vx
2
1
V x 1 cos 2T V x cos2 T
2
sin 2T
Vx
V y
Note: V x or V y which one is compressive that is immaterial but one should be tensile and
other
should
be
compressive
and
equal
magnitude.
V x 100MPa then
If
W max
x
rV x
; Vn
0 and V nc
Chapter2
S K Mondals
(a) In a torsion member, as shown below, an element ABCD is in pure shear (only shear
stress is present in this element) in this member at 45o plane an element AcBcC cDc is also
in pure shear where V x
(b) In a biaxial state of stress a member, as shown below, an element ABCD in pure shear
where V x
V y but in this element no shear stress is there and an element AcBcC cDc at
45o plane is also in pure shear (only shear stress is present in this element).
Let us take an example: See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and
the question is Conventional Question IES2007
Stress acts on every surface that passes through the point. We can use three mutually
perpendicular planes to describe the stress state at the point, which we approximate as a cube
each of the three planes has one normal component & two shear components therefore, 9
components necessary to define stress at a point 3 normal and 6 shear stress.
Therefore, we need nine components, to define the state of stress at a point
V x W xy W xz
V y W yx W yz
V z W zx W zy
For cube to be in equilibrium (at rest: not moving, not spinning)
Page 63 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
W xy
W yx
W xz
W yz
W zx
W zy
The nine components (six of which are independent) can be written in matrix form
V ij
V xx
V yx
V
zx
V xy V xz
V yy V yz or W ij
V zy V zz
W xx W xy
W yx W yy
W
zx W zy
W xz
W yz
W zz
V x W xy
W yx V y
W
zx W zy
W xz
W yz
V z
V 11 V 12 V 13
V 21 V 22 V 23
V
31 V 32 V 33
Chapter2
x
S K Mondals
V1
x
Vx V y
2
2
W
xy
V x V y
2
W
xy
tan2T p =
x
V x V y
V2
x
Vx V y
2W xy
(V x V y )
W max
V1 V 2
2
V x V y
2
W
xy
Let us take an example: In the wall of a cylinder the state of stress is given by,
Vx
85MPa compressive , V y
85MPa,V y
25MPa,W xy
60MPa
Page 65 of 429
Chapter2
Vx Vy
2
S K Mondals
V x V y
2
W xy
2
85 25
85 25
2
60
2
2
Vx Vy
2
51.4MPa
V x V y
2
W xy
2
85 25
85 25
2
60
2
2
For principalplanes
tan2TP
or TP
2W xy
V x V y
2 u 60
85 25
240 it is for V 1
The direction of one principle plane and the principle stresses acting on this would be V
when is
acting normal to this plane, now the direction of other principal plane would be 900 + T p because the
principal planes are the two mutually perpendicular plane, hence rotate the another plane 900 + T p
in the same direction to get the another plane, now complete the material element as T p is negative
that means we are measuring the angles in the opposite direction to the reference plane BC. The
following figure gives clear idea about negative and positive T p .
Page 66 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
The transformation equations of plane stress can be represented in a graphical form which is
popularly known as Mohr's circle.
Though the transformation equations are sufficient to get the normal and shear stresses on
any plane at a point, with Mohr's circle one can easily visualize their variation with respect
to plane orientation .
Rearranging we get, V n
Vn
x y
2
V x V y
2
x y
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
sin2  xy cos 2
V x V y V x V y
and
Vx V y
A little consideration will show that the above two equations are the equations of a circle with
Vn
Vx V y
V avg
Or
2
2
and R =
V avg W xy2
V x V y
2
W xy
R2
Vx V y
V avg ,0 i.e.
Page 67 of 429
,0
Chapter2
and radius,
V x V y
S K Mondals
2
W xy
V axis; a W xy
V axis.
Tensile stress will be positive and plotted right of the origin O. Compressive stress
will be negative and will be plotted left to the origin O.
An angle
I.
II.
Vy
known)
V x and V y both are tensile or both compressive sign of V x and V y will be same and this state of
stress is known as like stresses if one is tensile and other is compressive sign of
V x and V y will
x Construction of Mohrs circle for like stresses (when V x and V y are same type of stress)
StepI:
StepII: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i.e., in xaxis and shear stress (as
ordinate) i.e. in Yaxis
Page 68 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
StepIII: Using sign convention and some suitable scale, plot the stresses on two adjacent faces
e.g. AB and BC on the graph. Let OL and OM equal to
axis O
V.
StepV: At the centre C draw a line CP at an angle 2 , in the same direction as the normal to
the plane makes with the direction of
Page 69 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
OC
Vx Vy
and MC = CL = CP =
Vx Vy
2
PR = V
Vx Vy
n
Vx Vy
PQ = W = CPsin 2T =
cos 2T
Vx Vy
sin 2T
2
[Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in StepV) and follow the
procedure step by step so that no mistakes occur.]
x Construction of Mohrs circle for unlike stresses (when V x and V y are opposite in sign)
Follow the same steps which we followed for construction for like stresses and finally will get
the figure shown below.
Note: For construction of Mohrs circle for principal stresses when ( V 1 and
Page 70 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
II. Construction of Mohrs circle for complex state of stress ( V x , V y and W xy known)
StepI:
StepII: Set up axes for the direct stress (as abscissa) i.e., in xaxis and shear stress (as
ordinate) i.e. in Yaxis
StepIII: Using sign convention and some suitable scale, plot the stresses on two adjacent faces
Page 71 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
StepIV: Join ST and it will cut o axis at C. With C as centre and CS or CT as radius, draw
circle. It is the Mohrs circle.
StepV: At the centre draw a line CP at an angle 2 in the same direction as the normal to the
plane makes with the direction of x .
x +y
2
2
x y
=
Radius CS = ( CL ) + (LS )
+ xy 2 = CT = CP
x + y x y
+
PR = =
cos 2 +
sin 2
n
xy
2
2
x y
PQ = =
sin 2 xy cos 2 .
2
2
[Note: In the examination you only draw final figure (which is in StepV) and follow the
Page 72 of 429
Chapter2
oV
S K Mondals
Let us take an example: See the in the Conventional question answer section in this chapter and
the question is Conventional Question IES2000
Vx
P
; Vy
A
W xy
W xy
Tr
; Vx
J
Vy
(1 =  2 and 3 =Page
0) 73 of 429
Chapter2
Vx
V y
W max
rV x
1 = 2 = 3 = Compressive (Pressure)
v) Thin spherical shell under internal pressure
V1
V2
pr
2t
pD
(tensile)
4t
V1
pD
2t
pr
(tensile) and V 2
t
pd
4t
pr
(tensile)
2t
My
and V 2
I
W xy
0
Page 74 of 429
S K Mondals
Chapter2
S K Mondals
2.10 Strain
Normal strain
Let us consider an element AB of infinitesimal length x. After deformation of the actual body if
displacement of end A is u, that of end B is u+
is u+
wu
.G x  u
wx
wu
.G x. This gives an increase in length of element AB
wx
wu
G x and therefore the strain in xdirection is H x
wx
wQ
and H z
wx
wu
wx
ww
.
wz
Hx
wu
;
wx
wQ
;
wy
Hy
and
Hz
ww
.
wz
Shear strain
Let us consider an element ABCD in xy plane and let the displaced position of the element be
AcBcCcDc .This gives shear strain in xy plane as J xy v E where v is the angle made by the
displaced live BcCc with the vertical and E is the angle made by the displaced line A cDc with the
wu
.G y
wx
Gy
wQ
.G x
wu
and E = wx
Gx
wy
wQ
wx
J xy
wu wQ
;
wy wx
J yz
wQ ww
and J zx
wz wy
ww wu
wx wz
Therefore the state of strain at a point can be completely described by the six strain components
and the strain components in their turns can be completely defined by the displacement components
u,Q , and w.
Therefore, the complete strain matrix can be written as
Page 75 of 429
Chapter2
0
0
wx
w
0
0
H x
y
w
H
y
w
u
0
H 0
wz
z
X
w
J xy w
0 w
J wx wy
yz
w
w
J zx 0
wy
wz
w
w
0
wz
wx
S K Mondals
Strain Tensor
The three normal strain components are
H x H xx
wu
;
wx
Hy
H yy
wQ
wy
and
Hz
H zz
ww
.
wz
xy
J xy
2
1 wu wQ
;
2 wy wx
yz
J yz
2
1 wQ ww
2 wz wy
and
zx
J zx
2
1 wu ww
2 wz wx
ij
xx xy
yx yy
zx zy
xz
yz
zz
xx
J yx
2
J zx
J xy
2
yy
J zy
2
J xz
2
J yz
zz
Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equations relate stresses and strains and in linear elasticity. We know from the
Hooks law V
E.H
Page 76 of 429
Chapter2
Vx
E
Vx
S K Mondals
in xdirection
in ydirection and
P
Vx
E
in zdirection.
1
1
V y P V z V x and z
V z P V x V y
E
E
It is also known that the shear stress, W GJ , where G is the shear modulus and J is shear strain.
x
1
V x P V y V z ,
W xy
J xy
J yz
W yz
G
and J zx
W zx
G
H x
H y
H
z
J xy
J
yz
J zx
V
K 21 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 K 26 y
K 31 K 32 K 33 K 34 K 35 K 36 V z
K 41 K 42 K 43 K 44 K 45 K 46 W xy
K K K K K K
51 52 53 54 55 56 W yz
K 61 K 62 K 63 K 64 K 65 K 66 W
zx
K11 K 22
K 33
K 44
K 55
K 66
K12
K13
K 21
1
E
1
G
K 23
K 31
K 32
P
E
x 1D Strain
Let us take an example: A rod of cross sectional area Ao is
loaded by a tensile force P.
Its stresses
Vx
P
,
Ao
Vy
0,
and V z
V ij
V xx
0
0
0 0
0 0 or W ij
0 0
W xx
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
V x
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Chapter2
Vx
E
; y P
Vx
E
P x ;
P
and z
Vx
E
S K Mondals
P x
Hx
H ij
0
PH x
0
x 2D Strain (V z
(i)
x
y
z
0
PH x
Vx
E
0
P
Vx
V
P x
E
0
py
0
qy
0
0
qy
0)
1
V x PV y
E
1
V y PV x
E
P
V x V y
E
(ii)
Vx
E
P y
2 x
1 P
Vy
E
P x
2 y
1 P
x 3D Strain
(i)
x
y
z
(ii)
Vx
1
V x P V y V z
E
1
V y P V z V x
E
1
V z P V x V y
E
E
1 P x P y z
1
P
1
2
P
Page 78 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vy
E
1 P y P z x
1 P 1 2P
Vz
E
1 P z P x y
1 P 1 2P
Let us take an example: At a point in a loaded member, a state of plane stress exists and the
270 u 10 6 ;
strains are H x
Hy
90 u 106
and H xy
Hx
. Hy
H xy
This gives V x
and V y
and W xy
1
^V x PV y `
E
1
^V y PV x `
E
W xy
G
E
^H x PH y `
1 P 2
200 u 109
270 u 106 0.25 u 90 u 106 Pa
1 0.252
52.8 MPa (i.e. tensile)
E
H y PH x
1 P 2
200 u 109
90 u 106 0.25 u 270 u 106 Pa 4.8 MPa (i.e.compressive)
1 0.252
H xy .G 360 u 106 u 80 u 109 Pa 28.8MPa
J xy
2
Consider an element as shown in the figure given. The strain component In Xdirection is x , the
strain component in Ydirection is y and the shear strain component is J xy .
Now consider a plane at an angle T with X axis in this plane a normal strain T and a shear
strain J T . Then
JT
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
sin 2T
cos 2T
J xy
2
J xy
2
sin 2T
cos 2T
Page 79 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
We may find principal strain and principal plane for strains in the same process which we
followed for stress analysis.
In the principal plane shear strain is zero.
Therefore principal strains are
x y
1,2
x y J xy
r
2
2
tan 2T p
x
J xy
(x y )
Maximum shearing strain is equal to the difference between the 2 principal strains i.e
(J xy ) max 1 2
Mohr's Circle for circle for Plain Strain
We may draw Mohrs circle for strain following same procedure which we followed for drawing
Mohrs circle in stress. Everything will be same and in the place of
V y write y
and in place of W xy
write
J xy
2
Page 80 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Rectangular block,
'V
V0
x y z
V Vo
V0
'V
V0
L 1 H x u L 1 H y u L 1 H z L3
L3
Before deformation,
x y z
Volume (V)
Volume (Vo) = L3
= L 1 H x u L 1 H y u L 1 H z
Volumetric strain,
dv
v
H 1 2P
L 1 H
After deformation,
A 1 PH
A cLc=AL 1 H 1 PH
Page 81 of 429
Chapter2
'V V cV
V
V
'V
H 1 2P
V
S K Mondals
1=Longitudinal strain =
V1
E
2 =Circumferential strain =
P
V2
E
V2
E
P
V1
E
pr
>1 2P @
2 Et
pr
>2 P @
2Et
'V
pr
[5 4]
1 2 2
2 Et
Vo
1 2
pr
[1 P ]
2 Et
'V
V0
3 pr
[1 P ]
2 Et
Vx
V y
Therefore
Hx
W
E
Hy
Hz
Therefore H v
dv
v
1 P
W
E
1 P
Hx Hy Hz
Strain Gauge
Page 82 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Strain Rosette
The strain rosette is a device used to measure the state of strain at a point in a plane.
It comprises three or more independent strain gauges, each of which is used to read normal strain
at the same point but in a different direction.
The relative orientation between the three gauges is known as D , E and G
The three measurements of normal strain provide sufficient information for the determination of the
complete state of strain at the measured point in 2D.
We have to find out x , y , and J xy form measured value a , b , and c
Page 83 of 429
Chapter2
General arrangement:
S K Mondals
x y
2
x y
2
cos 2T
J xy
2
sin 2T
We get
b
c
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
x y
2
cos 2D
J xy
2
sin 2D
cos 2 D E
J xy
2
cos 2 D E G
sin 2 D E
J xy
2
sin 2 D E G
From this three equations and three unknown we may solve x , y , and J xy
0o ; E
45o and G
45o
x a x
x x J xy
2
2
c y
x b
x
(ii)
45
0o ; E
60o and G
60o
60o
x 3 y
3
J xy
4
4
x 3 y
3
J xy
4
4
or
Page 84 of 429
1200
Chapter2
S K Mondals
A block of steel is loaded by a tangential force on its top surface while the
bottom surface is held rigidly. The deformation of the block is due to
[GATE1992]
(a) Shear only
(b) Bending only
(c) Shear and bending
(d) Torsion
GATE1. Ans. (a) It is the definition of shear stress. The force is applied tangentially it is not a
point load so you cannot compare it with a cantilever with a point load at its free end.
A shaft subjected to torsion experiences a pure shear stress W on the surface.
The maximum principal stress on the surface which is at 45 to the axis will
have a value
[GATE2003]
(b) 2 W cos 45
(c) W cos2 45
(d) 2 W sin 45 cos 45
(a) W cos 45
Vx Vy Vx Vy
GATE2. Ans. (d) V n
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
2
2
Here V x V 2 0, W xy W , T 45o
GATE2.
GATE3.
W xy
W yx, W xz
W zx and W yz
W zy
A body is subjected to a pure tensile stress of 100 units. What is the maximum
shear produced in the body at some oblique plane due to the above? [IES2006]
(a) 100 units
(b) 75 units
(c) 50 units
(d) 0 unit
V 1 V 2 100 0
50 units.
GATE4. Ans. (c) W max
2
2
GATE5.
In a strained material one of the principal stresses is twice the other. The
maximum shear stress in the same case is W max .Then, what is the value of the
maximum principle stress?
(b) 2 W max
(a) W max
W max
V1 V 2
2
V1
2V 2 or W max
(c) 4 W max
V2
2
or
V2
[IES 2007]
(d) 8 W max
2W max or V 1 2V 2 = 4W max
A material element subjected to a plane state of stress such that the maximum
shear stress is equal to the maximum tensile stress, would correspond to
[IAS1998]
Page 85 of 429
Chapter2
V 1 ( V 1 )
V1
V1 V 2
V1 V 2
2
V 2
The state of stress at a point in a loaded member is shown in the figure. The
[IAS 1994]
magnitude of maximum shear stress is [1MPa = 10 kg/cm2]
(a) 10 MPa
(b) 30 MPa
(c) 50 MPa
(d) 100MPa
GATE9.
S K Mondals
W max
Vx V y
W xy 2 =
2
40 40
2
30 = 50 MPa
2
16 u 10000
Pa
S u (0.1)3
16T
Sd 3
50.93 MPa
Vb
V
b W 2 =82 MPa
2
2
GATE10. In a biaxial stress problem, the stresses in x and y directions are (x = 200 MPa
[GATE2000]
and y =100 MPa. The maximum principal stress in MPa, is:
(a) 50
(b) 100
(c) 150
(d) 200
GATE10. Ans. (d) V 1
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
if W xy
Page 86 of 429
Chapter2
Vx Vy
S K Mondals
Vx
[GATE2001]
GATE11. Ans. (b) V x
?V 1 max
V, Vy
Vx Vy
2
V , W xy
V
2
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
V V
2
V2
2V
GATE12. The normal stresses at a point are x = 10 MPa and, y = 2 MPa; the shear stress
at this point is 4MPa. The maximum principal stress at this point is:
[GATE1998]
(a) 16 MPa
(b) 14 MPa
(c) 11 MPa
(d) 10 MPa
GATE12. Ans. (c) V 1
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
10 2
10 2
2
4
2
2
(a)
2
V x V y
W xy
2
(c)
2
V x V y
W xy
2
(b)
V y
11.66 MPa
[IES2006; GATE1993]
W xy
(d)
V y W xy
Where, x and y are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and xy is the
shear stress.
GATE13. Ans. (a)
GATE14. A two dimensional fluid element rotates like a rigid body. At a point within the
element, the pressure is 1 unit. Radius of the Mohr's circle, characterizing the
state of stress at that point, is:
[GATE2008]
(a) 0.5 unit
(b) 0 unit
(c) 1 unit
(d) 2 units
GATE14. Ans. (b)
Page 87 of 429
Chapter2
10 MPa,
V2
Vy
Vy
[GATE2005]
100 MPa
S K Mondals
V1 V 2
10 ( 100)
Vy
2
2
90MPa
20MPa
Vx Vy
100 20
60
Data for Q17Q18 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct answers.
[GATE2003]
The state of stress at a point "P" in a two dimensional loading is such that the Mohr's
circle is a point located at 175 MPa on the positive normal stress axis.
GATE17. Determine the maximum and minimum principal stresses respectively from the
Mohr's circle
(a) + 175 MPa, 175MPa
(b) +175 MPa, +175 MPa
(c) 0, 175 MPa
(d) 0, 0
GATE17. Ans. (b)
V1 V 2
Vx
Vy
175 MPa
GATE18. Determine the directions of maximum and minimum principal stresses at the
point P from the Mohr's circle Page 88 of 429
[GATE2003]
Chapter2
(a) 0, 90
(b) 90, 0
(c) 45, 135
GATE18. Ans. (d) From the Mohrs circle it will give all directions.
S K Mondals
(d) All directions
Principal strains
GATE19. If the two principal strains at a point are 1000 106 and 600 106, then the
maximum shear strain is:
[GATE1996]
(b) 500 106
(c) 1600 106
(d) 200 106
(a) 800 106
GATE19. Ans. (c) Shear strain emax emin ^1000 600 ` u 10 6 1600 u 10 6
V
2
sin 2T
V
2
cos 2T
V
2
cos 2 T
V
2
sin 2 T
In the case of biaxial state of normal stresses, the normal stress on 45 plane is
equal to
[IES1992]
(a) The sum of the normal stresses
(b) Difference of the normal stresses
(c) Half the sum of the normal stresses
(d) Half the difference of the normal stresses
Vx Vy Vx Vy
IES2. Ans. (c) V n
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
2
2
Vx Vy
At T 45o andW xy 0; V n
2
IES3.
Hx
2H y and J xy z 0
(d)
Hx
0.5H y and J xy
Which one of the following Mohrs circles represents the state of pure shear?
[IES2000]
Chapter2
IES5.
S K Mondals
For the state of stress of pure shear W the strain energy stored per unit volume
in the elastic, homogeneous isotropic material having elastic constants E and
[IES1998]
Q will be:
W2
1 Q
E
IES5. Ans. (a) V 1 W ,
V2
(a)
W2
2W 2
(c)
1 Q
E
1 Q
2E
W , V 3 0
(b)
1 2
2
W W 2PW W V
2E
(d)
W2
2E
2 Q
1 P 2
W V
E
IES6.
Assertion (A): If the state at a point is pure shear, then the principal planes
through that point making an angle of 45 with plane of shearing stress carries
principal stresses whose magnitude is equal to that of shearing stress.
Reason (R): Complementary shear stresses are equal in magnitude, but
opposite in direction.
[IES1996]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES6. Ans. (b)
IES7.
Assertion (A): Circular shafts made of brittle material fail along a helicoidally
surface inclined at 45 to the axis (artery point) when subjected to twisting
moment.
[IES1995]
Reason (R): The state of pure shear caused by torsion of the shaft is equivalent
to one of tension at 45 to the shaft axis and equal compression in the
perpendicular direction.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES7. Ans. (a) Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation for A.
IES8.
V1 0
0 V2
IES8. Ans. (b) V 1 W ,
V2
V1 0
0 V 1
W , V 3 0
(b)
(a)
(c)
V x W xy
W yx V y
[IES1994]
IES9.
V x V y V and W xy
a V
IES10. Ans. (a) V n
IES11.
b
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
2V
3V
0 . The
[IES1998]
d 2V
cos 2T W xy sin 2T
Chapter2
Of these statements
(a) 1, and 3 are correct
(c) 1 alone is correct
IES11. Ans. (d)
S K Mondals
A body is subjected to a pure tensile stress of 100 units. What is the maximum
shear produced in the body at some oblique plane due to the above? [IES2006]
(a) 100 units
(b) 75 units
(c) 50 units
(d) 0 unit
V 1 V 2 100 0
50 units.
IES12. Ans. (c) W max
2
2
IES13.
In a strained material one of the principal stresses is twice the other. The
maximum shear stress in the same case is U max . Then, what is the value of the
maximum principle stress?
[IES 2007]
W
W
W
(a) max
(b) 2 max
(c) 4 max
(d) 8 W max
V1 V 2
W max
V x uV y
W xy
if V 2
(b)
2
Vx Vy
V2
2
or
V2
2W max or V 1 2V 2 = 4W max
W xy
V x uV y
(c)
W xy
V x uV y
(d)
W xy
V x2 V y2
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
Vx Vy
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
Vx Vy
or
Vx Vy
2
W xy or W xy
2
Vx uVy
IES16.
2V 2 or W max
V1
IES15.
V1 V 2
2
80 ( 40)
2
60 MPa
W max
V1 V 2
2
2W xy
Vx Vy
3V V
2
3V V
2
2V
Chapter2
IES17.
S K Mondals
Vx
Vy
500 kg/cm 2 .
1
1
Vy
Vx
2
2
V n V y cos T V x sin T
IES18.
1 1
500
2 2
500 kg/cm 2
V1
V2
and
is greater than
V2
(a)
V 1 V 2
V yp
2
(b)
V1
V yp
2
(c )
V2
2
V yp
2
(d ) V 1
r2V yp
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
V 1,2
V max
50 ( 10) 50 10
2
40
2
2
70 and V min
30
IES20.
a 50
[IES1997]
3 kgf/cm 2
b 100 kgf/cm 2
Page 92 of 429
c 50
5 kgf/cm2
d 150 kgf/cm 2
Chapter2
Vx 0
V 1,2
V 0
r x
W xy2
IES22.
S K Mondals
V 1 V 2
2
50 # 50 5
50 5
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer, using the codes given
below the lists:
[IES1995]
List I(State of stress)
List II(Kind of loading)
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IES22. Ans. (c)
A
1
2
B
2
4
C
3
3
D
4
1
A
2
3
(b)
(d)
B
3
4
C
4
1
D
1
2
Mohr's circle
IES23.
(b)V x V y
(c)V x
0, W xy z 0
0, V y W xy z 0
(d)V x z 0, V y
W xy
0
[IES2008]
V 2
For a general two dimensional stress system, what are the coordinates of the
centre of Mohrs circle?
(a)
Vx V y
2
,0
(b) 0,
Vx Vy
2
(c)
Vx Vy
2
,0
(d) 0,
Vx V y
2
(a)
2
V x V y
W xy
2
(c)
2
V x V y
W xy
2
(b)
[IES2006; GATE1993]
V y
W xy
Page 93 of 429
(d)
V y W xy
[IE
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Where, x and y are normal stresses along x and y directions respectively and xy is the
shear stress.
IES25. Ans. (a)
IES26.
Vx Vy
2
V xc
2
2
Wxcyc
2
W xy
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
Vx Vy
? Vt
V2
2
Vx Vy
Wmax
IES27.
Vx Vy
2
Vx Vy
2
V1 V2
2
2
W xy
2
W xy
Wmax
Vx Vy
2
W xy
Chapter2
100 40 2
y
2
x
/ 10
40
W xy 2 / 10
2
2
IES28.
S K Mondals
50 / 10
5 cm
Consider a two dimensional state of stress given for an element as shown in the
diagram given below:
[IES2004]
(d) (50, 0)
IES29.
Assertion (A): Mohr's circle of stress can be related to Mohr's circle of strain by
some constant of proportionality.
[IES2002]
Reason (R): The relationship is a function of yield stress of the material.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES30. Ans. (c)
IES31.
When two mutually perpendicular principal stresses are unequal but like, the
maximum shear stress is represented by
[IES1994]
(a) The diameter of the Mohr's circle
(b) Half the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(c)
Onethird the diameter of the Mohr's circle
(d) Onefourth the diameter of the Mohr's circle
IES31. Ans. (b)
IES32.
FigureI
Page 95 of 429
FigureII
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Strain
IES33.
(b) J xy / 2
[IES2008]
(d) 2 J xy
(c) J xy /2
Assertion (A): A plane state of stress does not necessarily result into a plane
state of strain as well.
[IES1996]
Reason (R): Normal stresses acting along X and Y directions will also result
into normal strain along the Zdirection.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES34. Ans. (a)
Principal strains
Principal strains at a point are 100 u 106 and 200 u 106 . What is the maximum
shear strain at the point?
[IES2006]
6
6
6
(b) 200 10
(c) 150 10
(d) 100 106
(a) 300 10
6
6
IES35. Ans. (a) J max H 1 H 2 100 200 u 10
300 u 10
IES35.
J xy
H1 H 2
and W max
V1 V 2
2
V1 V 2
2
IES36.
The principal strains at a point in a body, under biaxial state of stress, are
1000106 and 600 106. What is the maximum shear strain at that point?
[IES2009]
(b) 800 106
(c) 1000 106
(d) 1600 106
(a) 200 106
IES36. Ans. (d)
x y
Ixy
Ixy
x y
1600 u 106
IES37.
The number of strain readings (using strain gauges) needed on a plane surface
to determine the principal strains and their directions is:
[IES1994]
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
IES37. Ans. (c) Three strain gauges are needed on a plane surface to determine the principal
strains and their directions.
The principal stresses at a point in two dimensional stress system are V 1 and
V 2 and corresponding principal strains are H1 and H 2 . If E and Q denote
Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, respectively, then which one of the
following is correct?
[IES2008]
E
(a) V 1 EH1
(b)V 1
>H1 QH 2 @
1Q 2
E
(c)V 1
(d)96Vof
E >H 1 QH 2 @
>H1 QH 2 @
Page
1 429
1Q 2
Chapter2
IES38. Ans. (b) F1
T1
T
N 2
E
E
IES39.
Assertion (A): Mohr's construction is possible for stresses, strains and area
moment of inertia.
[IES2009]
Reason (R): Mohr's circle represents the transformation of secondorder tensor.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.
(c)
A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
IES39. Ans. (a)
100 V cos2 45 or V
W
IAS2.
200
[IAS1999]
IAS3.
Chapter2
S K Mondals
IAS3. Ans. (b) It is a case of pure shear so principal planes will be along the diagonal.
IAS4.
A uniform bar lying in the xdirection is subjected to pure bending. Which one
of the following tensors represents the strain variations when bending moment
is about the zaxis (p, q and r constants)?
[IAS2001]
py 0 0
(a) 0
qy 0
0 0 ry
0
py 0
(c) 0
py 0
0
0 py
py 0 0
(b) 0
qy 0
0
0 0
py 0 0
(d) 0 qy 0
0 0 qy
Vx
,
E
Hx
Hy
P
Vx
,
E
Hz
P
Vx
E
Assuming E = 160 GPa and G = 100 GPa for a material, a strain tensor is given
as:
[IAS2001]
0
0.004 0.003
0.006
0
0
W xy is:
W xy
G J xy
H xx H xy H xz
J xy
H yx H yy H yz and H xy
2
H H H
zx zy zz
3
100 u 10 u 0.004 u 2 MPa 800MPa
A material element subjected to a plane state of stress such that the maximum
shear stress is equal to the maximum tensile stress, would correspond to
[IAS1998]
V1 V 2
V 1 ( V 1 )
V1
Chapter2
(b) 80 MPa
V1 V 2
2
W max
V x V y
W xy 2 =
2
V 2
40 40
2
30 = 50 MPa
2
A horizontal beam under bending has a maximum bending stress of 100 MPa
and a maximum shear stress of 20 MPa. What is the maximum principal stress
in the beam?
[IAS2004]
(a) 20
IAS9. Ans. (c) b=100MPa
1,2=
(b) 50
(c) 50 +
2900
(d) 100
W =20 mPa
2
Vb
V 1,2
IAS10.
(d) 60 MPa
The state of stress at a point in a loaded member is shown in the figure. The
[IAS 1994]
magnitude of maximum shear stress is [1MPa = 10 kg/cm2]
(a) 10 MPa
(b) 30 MPa
(c) 50 MPa
(d) 100MPa
IAS9.
S K Mondals
(c) 70 MPa
V
b W 2
2
2
2
Vb
V
b W 2
2
2
100
100
2
20
2
2
50
2900 MPa
When the two principal stresses are equal and like: the resultant stress on any
plane is:
[IAS2002]
(a) Equal to the principal stress
(b) Zero
(c) One half the principal stress
(d) One third of the principal stress
Vn
Vx V y
2
V x V y
W xy
cos 2T
0 ] Vx
V y V ( say )
IAS11.
So
Chapter2
S K Mondals
IAS12.
Principal stress at a point in a stressed solid are 400 MPa and 300 MPa
respectively. The normal stresses on planes inclined at 45 to the principal
planes will be:
[IAS2000]
(a) 200 MPa and 500 MPa
(b) 350 MPa on both planes
(c) 100MPaand6ooMPa
(d) 150 MPa and 550 MPa
IAS12. Ans. (b)
Vn
Vx V y
V x V y
2
cos 2T
350MPa
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
IAS13.
v x y z
Vx Vy Vz
E
Vx Vy Vz
1 2P
2P
V x V y V z
E
60 20 50
1 2 u 0.35
105
9 u 10 5
Mohr's circle
IAS14.
Match ListI (Mohr's Circles of stress) with ListII (Types of Loading) and select
the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
[IAS2004]
ListI
ListII
(Mohr's Circles of Stress)
(Types of Loading)
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS14. Ans. (d)
A
5
4
B
4
3
C
3
2
D
2
5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(b)
(d)
A
2
2
B
4
3
C
1
1
D
3
5
Chapter2
S K Mondals
IAS15.
The resultant stress on a certain plane makes an angle of 20 with the normal
to the plane. On the plane perpendicular to the above plane, the resultant
stress makes an angle of with the normal. The value of can be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 0 or 20
(b) Any value other than 0 or 90
(c) Any value between 0 and 20
(d) 20 only
IAS15. Ans. (b)
IAS16.
The correct Mohr's stresscircle drawn for a point in a solid shaft compressed
by a shrunk fit hub is as (OOrigin and CCentre of circle; OA = 1 and OB = 2)
[IAS2001]
f x is equal to
f x is equal to
IAS18.
fx f y
2
fx f y
2
fx .
fx f y
2
V x =2
N/mm2,
V x =0
and W xy
0 , the correct
[IAS1999]
Vx Vy
,0
IAS18. Ans. (d) Centre
2
IAS19.
[IAS2000]
fx f y
radius
f x and f y
Vx Vy
2
Wx
2
20
2 ,0
1, 0
20
2 0
For which one of the following twodimensional states of stress will the Mohr's
stress circle degenerate into a point?
[IAS1996]
Chapter2
S K Mondals
Vx Vy
2
W xy
2
? W xy
0 andV x
Vy
Principal strains
IAS20.
Hr
(c)
Hr
u
, HT
r
u
, HT
r
wu
, b rT
wr
wu
, b rT
wr
w 2u
wrwT
(b)
Hr
(d)
Hr
wu
, HT
wr
wu
, HT
wr
u
, b rT o
r
wu
w 2u
, b rT
wT
wrwT
Assertion (A): A plane state of stress will, in general, not result in a plane state
of strain.
[IAS2002]
Reason (R): A thin plane lamina stretched in its own plane will result in a state
of plane strain.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS22. Ans. (c) R is false. Stress in one plane always induce a lateral strain with its orthogonal
plane.
Chapter2
S K Mondals
The Mohrs circle for a plane stress is a circle of radius R with its origin at + 2R
on V axis. Sketch the Mohrs circle and determine V max , V min , V av ,
this situation.
Ans.
Here V max
V min
3R
3R R
2R
2
V max V min
and W xy
2
V Vv
3R R
2
(2R,0)
3R
Direct tensile stresses of 120 MPa and 70 MPa act on a body on mutually
perpendicular planes. What is the magnitude of shearing stress that can be
applied so that the major principal stress at the point does not exceed 135
MPa? Determine the value of minor principal stress and the maximum shear
stress.
Answer:
120 70
120 70
2
o
U
2
2
Major principal stress is
1,2
120 70
1
2
120 70
2
U
135(Given) or , U 31.2MPa.
Page 103 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
W max
120 70
2
V1 V 2
2
120 70
2
31.2
2
135 55
40 MPa
2
55 MPa
Ans.
V1 V3
2
600 600
2
600 MPa
= 45 max. shear stress occurs with 1 plane. Since 1 and 3 are principle
stress does not contains shear stress. Hence max. shear stress is at 45 with principle
(ii) At
plane.
Answer:
A prismatic bar in compression has a cross sectional area A = 900 mm2 and
carries an axial load P = 90 kN. What are the stresses acts on
(i) A plane transverse to the loading axis;
(ii) A plane at = 60o to the loading axis?
(i) From figure it is clear A plane
transverse to loading axis, =0o
P
90000
N / mm 2
= Tn cos2 =
A
900
100 N / mm 2
P
90000
and U =
Sin 2=
q sin=0
2A
2900
(iii)
Answer:
n
P
cos2
A
U
P
sin 2
2A
Chapter2
S K Mondals
n
80 q103
P
80 q103
q cos2 45 1333MPa and Umax
1333MPa
30
2A
30 q 2
Answer:
x y ;
U max o x o400MPa
Answer:
Chapter2
S K Mondals
strain gauge mounted on the surface of the shaft with its axis at 45 to the
shaft axis, gives the strain reading as 3.98 104. If the modulus of elasticity
for bronze is 105 GN/m2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.3, find the power being
transmitted by the shaft. Bending effect may be neglected.
Answer:
1
4U 2 = U (compressive)
2
1
Principal stress along, LU =
4U 2 U (tensile)
2
Thus magntude of the compressive strain along VM is
Principal stress along, VM = 
U
= (1 ) 3.98 q104
E
3.98 q104 q 105 q109
or U =
32.15 MPa
1 0.3
qd 3
16
q 0.063 =1363.5 Nm
16
2N
2800
W 114.23 kW
60
60
Chapter2
Answer:
S K Mondals
80Mpa
Jxy
Principal stresses
1,2
y
U xy2
o x
2
x y
2
or , 1,2
60Mpa
60Mpa
Jxy
Jxy
60 80
2
U xy
60 80
o
2
Jxy
80Mpa
60 80
60 80
2
or , 1,2
o
U xy
2
2
To make principal stress 100 MPa we have to consider '+' .
= 1 100 MPa 10 702 U xy2 ; or, U xy 56.57 MPa
Therefore other principal stress will be
60 80
2
2
60 80
2
(56.57)
i.e. 80 MPa(compressive)
Conventional Question IES2001
Question: A steel tube of inner diameter 100 mm and wall thickness 5 mm is subjected to a
torsional moment of 1000 Nm. Calculate the principal stresses and
orientations of the principal planes on the outer surface of the tube.
Answer:
4
4
0.110
0.100
= 4.56 q106 m 4
32
5mm
T .R 1000 q(0.055)
T U
Now or J
J R
J
4.56 q106
12.07MPa
Now, tan 2 p
2U xy
r,
x y
gives p 45 or 135
50mm
Answer:
x y
2
x  y
U xy2
o
2
Page 107 of 429
Chapter2
S K Mondals
x y
y
U xy2
= x
2
2
2
y x y
U xy2
or, x
2 2
y x y
or, U x
2 2
2
xy
2
or, U xy
x y
or,U xy o x y
Answer:
10 u 103
Vx
S
4
u 0.032
T
J
TR
J
? Shear stress,
W
R
60 u 0.015
TR
S
32
32
u 0.03
11.32 u 106 N / m2
or 11.32 MN / m2
The principal stresses are calculated by u sin g the relations :
Vx Vy
r
2
V 1,2
Here
Vx
V x V y 2
2
W xy
2
14.15MN / m2 ,V y
0;W xy
11.32
MN / m2
V 1,2
14.15
2
14.15
r
11.32
2
2
7.07 r 13.35
20.425 MN / m2 , 6.275MN / m2 .
20.425 MN / m2 tensile
6.275MN / m2 compressive
V1 V 2
24.425 6.275
13.35mm / m2
Question:
Chapter2
Answer:
S K Mondals
2
70N/mm
x =140MPa(tensile)
y = 70MPa(compressive)
35Nmm
U xy 35MPa
2
2
140N/mm
Principal stresses; 1, 2 ;
A
x y
2
x y
2
U xy
o
2
140 70
o
2
140 70
2
35 35 o 110.7
2U xy
x y
2 q 35
0.3333
140 70
1  2 145 75.7
110.7MPa
2
2
Y
Mohr cirle:
OL= x 140MPa
OM y 70MPa
SM LT U xy 35MPa
2Rp =198.4
L
M
2R
= 140
steel
member
0
0 = 220 u 106 , 45
120 u 1006 ,
are
and
90 =220 u 106 . Given that the value of E = 2 u 105 N / mm2 and Poissons
Ratio P 0.3 , calculate the values of principal stresses acting at the point and
Ans.
their directions.
A rectangular strain gauge rosette strain
0 220 u 106
E = 2 u 1011 N / m2
450
[10 Marks]
ea eb
2
2
ea eb eb ec
2
220 u 106 120 u 106
1
r
220 120 106
2
2
1
354.40 u 106
50 u 106 r
2
Page 109 of 429
12
120 220 10
6
Chapter2
6
12 50 u 10
S K Mondals
1 2.01 u 104
2 3.01 u 104
Direction can be find out : 
2 u 120 u 106
220 u 106 220 u 106
2eb ea ec
ec ea
tan 2p
240
0.55
440
2p 28.81
Principal stress:
E 1 2
1
1 0.3
241.78 u 105 N / m 2
527.47 u 105 N / m 2
Conventional Question IES1998
Question:
Answer:
Answer:
and
V2
pd 0.6 u 0.5
7.5MN / m2
2t 2 u 0.02
0.6 u 0.5
3.75MN / m2
4 u 0.02
V1
We know,
pd
4t
Next consider effect of combined bending moment and torque on the walls of the
cylinder. Then the principal stresses V '1 and V '2 are given by
Chapter2
V '1
and
V '2
V '1
and
V '2
16
M M2 T 2
3
Sd
16
M M2 T 2
S d3
16
0.064 0.0642 0.0162
3
S u 0.5
16
S u 0.5
S K Mondals
5.29MN / m2
0.08MN / m2
V II
?
W max
V I V II
2
V 2 V '2
3.75 0.08
12.79 3.67
2
3.67MN / m2 tensile
4.56MN / m2
3.
About any point the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between them is
known as moment of a force or first moment of force.
This first moment is again multiplied by the perpendicular distance between them to obtain
second moment of force.
In the same way if we consider the area of the figure it is called second moment of area or
area moment of inertia and if we consider the mass of a body it is called second moment of
mass or mass moment of Inertia.
Mass moment of inertia is the measure of resistance of the body to rotation and forms the
basis of dynamics of rigid bodies.
Area moment of Inertia is the measure of resistance to bending and forms the basis of
strength of materials.
m r
2
i i
Notice that the moment of inertia I depends on the distribution of mass in the system.
The furthest the mass is from the rotation axis, the bigger the moment of inertia.
For a given object, the moment of inertia depends on where we choose the rotation axis.
In rotational dynamics, the moment of inertia I appears in the same way that mass m does
Page 112 of 429
in linear dynamics.
Chapter3
x
Solid disc or cylinder of mass M and radius R, about perpendicular axis through its
1
MR2
2
centre, I
Solid sphere of mass M and radius R, about an axis through its centre, I = 2/5 M R2
I
x
1
ML2
12
Thin rod of mass M and length L, about a perpendicular axis through its
end.
1
ML2
3
dIxx = y2dA
Ixx = y2 dA
dIyy = x2dA
Iyy = x2 dA
Chapter3
I xx I yy
To find the moment of inertia of the differential area about the pole (point of origin) or zaxis,
(r) is used. (r) is the perpendicular distance from the pole to dA for the entire area
J = r2 dA = (x2 + y2 )dA = Ixx + Iyy (since r2 = x2 + y2 )
Where, J = polar moment of inertia
?Total
b.y 2 .dy
moment of Inertia)
h
I xx
h
by dy
2
2 by 2 dy
0
bh3
12
bh
12
I xx
Similarly, we may find, I yy
hb3
12
bh3 hb3
12
12
Chapter3
u (distance) 2
bh3
h
buhu
12
2
bh3
3
I xx
a4
12
a4
12
I xx
CaseIII:
rectangular hole
Moment of inertia of the area = moment of inertia of BIG
rectangle moment of inertia of SMALL rectangle
I xx
BH 3 bh3
12
12
Chapter3
Moment of Inertia and Centroid
(ii) MOI of a Circular area
The moment of inertia about axis XX this passes through
the centroid. It is very easy to find polar moment of inertia
about point O. Take an element of width dr at a distance
r from centre. Therefore, the moment of inertia of this
element about polar axis
or d(J)
S R4
2S r dr
S D4
2
32
0
Due to summetry I xx
I yy
Therefore, I xx
I xx
J
2
I yy
64
S D4
I yy
CaseI:
S D4
64
and J
Ixx = Iyy =
S D4
64
S
64
CaseII:
S d4
64
( D4 d4 )
and J
32
( D4 d4 )
circular area.
I NN
1
of the momemt of total circular lamina
2
1 S D4 S D4
u
2 64 128
We
know
4r
3S
2D
3S
that
distance
of
CG
from
base
is
h say
S D4
32
Chapter3
I NN
or
or
S D4
1 S D2
2
I xx
u h
2 4
1 S D 2 2D
I xx u
u
2 4 3S
128
S D4
128
0.11R 4
I xx
or
1
u 0.11R4
2
I XX
I XX
0.055 R4
0.055 R 4
INN = one half of the moment of Inertia of the Semicircular area about NN.
? I NN
1 S D4
u
2 64
S D4
128
I XX
bh3
36
I NN
bh3
12
Chapter3
Moment of Inertia and Centroid
(iv) Moment of inertia of a thin circular ring:
Polar moment of Inertia
I XX
IYY
J
2
S R 3t
I XX
S ab3
4
Let us take an example: An Isection beam of 100 mm wide, 150 mm depth flange and web of
thickness 20 mm is used in a structure of length 5 m. Determine the Moment of Inertia (of area) of
crosssection of the beam.
Answer: Carefully observe the figure below. It has sections with symmetry about the neutral axis.
We may use standard value for a rectangle about an axis passes through centroid. i.e. I
bh3
.
12
The section can thus be divided into convenient rectangles for each of which the neutral axis passes
I Beam
the centroid.
m
2 u
12
12
1.183 u 104 m4
Chapter3
kxx
2
kxx
A or
I xx
I xx
A
Similarly
I yy
2
kyy
A or
ko2 A or
ko2
I yy
kyy
ko
J
A
2
2
kxx
kyy
Let us take an example: Find radius of gyration for a circular area of diameter d about central
axis.
Answer:
We know that, I xx
2
K xx
A
Chapter3
or K XX
I XX
A
64
S d2
4
d
4
Chapter3
The second moment of a circular area about the diameter is given by (D is the
diameter)
(a)
[GATE2003]
S D4
(b)
S D4
16
(c)
S D4
32
(d)
S D4
64
GATE2.
The area moment of inertia of a square of size 1 unit about its diagonal is:
[GATE2001]
(a)
1
3
(b)
a4
12
1
4
(c)
1
12
(d)
1
6
12
Radius of Gyration
Data for Q3Q4 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct
answers.
A reel of mass m and radius of gyration k is rolling down smoothly from rest with one
end of the thread wound on it held in the ceiling as depicted in the figure. Consider the
thickness of the thread and its mass negligible in comparison with the radius r of the
hub and the reel mass m. Symbol g represents the acceleration due to gravity.
[GATE2003]
Chapter3
GATE3.
(c)
grk
k2
(d)
mgr 2
k2
GATE3. Ans. (a) For downward linear motion mg T = mf, where f = linear tangential
acceleration = r, = rotational acceleration. Considering rotational motion
Tr I D .
or, T = mk2 u
GATE4.
f
gr 2
therefore
mg
T
=
mf
gives
f
=
r2
r 2 k2
mk2 u
f
r2
mk2 u
gr
2
(c)
mgk
r r k
mgk2
k
(d)
mg
k2
k2
Assertion (A): Inertia force always acts through the centroid of the body and is
directed opposite to the acceleration of the centroid.
[IES2001]
Reason (R): It has always a tendency to retard the motion.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES1. Ans. (c) It has always a tendency to oppose the motion not retard. If we want to retard a
motion then it will wand to accelerate.
Chapter3
Radius of Gyration
IES2.
(b) h1
h22
k2
(c) h1h2
k2
(d)
h1h2
k2
Chapter3
4.
this
coordinate
system
treats
downward
0 ,
We find that Vx
0 and
P and M x
P . x
Chapter4
S K Mondals
What are the benefits of drawing shear force and bending moment diagram?
The benefits of drawing a variation of shear force and bending moment in a beam as a function of x'
measured from one end of the beam is that it becomes easier to determine the maximum absolute
value of shear force and bending moment. The shear force and bending moment diagram gives a
clear picture in our mind about the variation of SF and BM throughout the entire section of the
beam.
Further, the determination of value of bending moment as a function of x' becomes very important
so as to determine the value of deflection of beam subjected to a given loading where we will use the
formula, EI
d 2y
dx 2
Mx .
Chapter4
downward
S K Mondals
The
direction
shear force.
The
downward
direction
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Sagging
If the bending moment of
XX is clockwise then it is a
section
clockwise then it is a
moment.
XX
is
anti
taken
as
positive
and
Hogging
If the bending moment of
the
anti
section XX is clockwise
left
section
hand
XX
is
of
clockwise then it is a
then
bending moment.
it
is
positive
Remember in the Cantilever beam both Shear force and BM are negative (ive).
4.3 Relation between S.F (Vx), B.M. (Mx) & Load (w)
x
dVx
= w (load) The value of the distributed load at any point in the beam is
dx
equal to the slope of the shear force curve. (Note that the sign of this rule may change
depending on the sign convention used for the external distributed load).
dM x
= Vx The value of the shear force at any point in the beam is equal to the slope
dx
of the bending moment curve.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
4.4 Procedure for drawing shear force and bending moment diagram
Construction of shear force diagram
x
From the loading diagram of the beam constructed shear force diagram.
Then the vertical components of forces and reactions are successively summed from the left
end of the beam to preserve the mathematical sign conventions adopted. The shear at a
section is simply equal to the sum of all the vertical forces to the left of the section.
The shear force curve is continuous unless there is a point force on the beam. The curve then
jumps by the magnitude of the point force (+ for upward force).
When the successive summation process is used, the shear force diagram should end up with
the previously calculated shear (reaction at right end of the beam). No shear force acts
through the beam just beyond the last vertical force or reaction. If the shear force diagram
closes in this fashion, then it gives an important check on mathematical calculations. i.e. The
shear force will be zero at each end of the beam unless a point force is applied at the end.
The bending moment diagram is obtained by proceeding continuously along the length of
beam from the left hand end and summing up the areas of shear force diagrams using proper
sign convention.
The process of obtaining the moment diagram from the shear force diagram by summation is
exactly the same as that for drawing shear force diagram from load diagram.
The bending moment curve is continuous unless there is a point moment on the beam. The
curve then jumps by the magnitude of the point moment (+ for CW moment).
We know that a constant shear force produces a uniform change in the bending moment,
resulting in straight line in the moment diagram. If no shear force exists along a certain
portion of a beam, then it indicates that there is no change in moment takes place. We also
know that dM/dx= Vx therefore, from the fundamental theorem of calculus the maximum or
minimum moment occurs where the shear is zero.
The bending moment will be zero at each free or pinned end of the beam. If the end is built
in, the moment computed by the summation must be equal to the one calculated initially for
the reaction.
4.5 Different types of Loading and their S.F & B.M Diagram
(i) A Cantilever beam with a concentrated load P at its free end.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Shear force:
At a section a distance x from free end consider the forces to
the left, then (Vx) =  P (for all values of x) negative in sign
i.e. the shear force to the left of the xsection are in downward
direction and therefore negative.
Bending Moment:
Taking moments about the section gives (obviously to the left
of the section)
(ii) A Cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load over the whole length
When a cantilever beam is subjected to a uniformly
distributed load whose intensity is given w /unit length.
Shear force:
Consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance of x from
the free end. If we just take the resultant of all the forces on
the left of the Xsection, then
Vx = w.x
At x = 0, Vx = 0
At x = L, Vx = wL (i.e. Maximum at fixed end)
Plotting the equation Vx = w.x, we get a straight line
because it is a equation of a straight line y (Vx) = m( w) .x
Bending Moment:
Bending Moment at XX is obtained by treating the load to the
left of XX as a concentrated load of the same value (w.x)
Mx
w .x .
x
2
w .x 2
2
Mx = 0
and x = L, Mx =
wL2
2
Chapter4
Mmax
wL2
2
S K Mondals
at fixed end
Another way to describe a cantilever beam with uniformly distributed load (UDL) over its whole
length.
(iii) A Cantilever beam loaded as shown below draw its S.F and B.M diagram
Vx = P; and Mx =  P.x
In the region a < x < L
(iv) Let us take an example: Consider a cantilever bean of 5 m length. It carries a uniformly
distributed load 3 KN/m and a concentrated load of 7 kN at the free end and 10 kN at 3 meters from
the fixed end.
Chapter4
Vx = 7 kN
at x = 2 m , Vx = 7  3 u 2 = 13 kN
at point Z
Vx = 7 3 u 210 = 23 kN
x
2
3x 2
7x
2
Mx = 0
at x = 2 m,
Mx = 7 u 2 (3 u 2) u
2
=  20 kNm
2
x
 10 (x  2)
2
3
x 2 17 x 20
2
So, the variation of bending force is parabolic.
at x = 2 m, Mx
3
u 22 17 u 2 20 =  20 kNm
2
at x = 5 m, Mx =  102.5 kNm
S K Mondals
Chapter4
(v)
S K Mondals
A Cantilever beam carrying uniformly varying load from zero at free end and w/unit
length at the fixed end
w
.x
L
L
w x dx
L .xdx =
Shear force Vx
wL
2
1 w
wx 2
. x .x
2 L
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
at x = 0, Vx 0
at x = L, Vx
WL
i.e. Maximum Shear force (Vmax )
2
WL
at fixed end
2
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Bending moment Mx load u distance from centroid of triangle ABC
S K Mondals
wx 2 2x
wx 3
.
2L 3
6L
? The bending moment variation is cubic.
at x= 0, Mx 0
at x = L,
Mx
wL2
i.e. Maximum Bending moment (Mmax )
6
Integration method
d Vx
w
load .x
Alternative way :
We know that
dx
or d(Vx )
w
.x .dx
L
d Vx
0
or Vx
0
w
. x .dx
L
w x2
.
L 2
Vx
dx
or
d Mx
wx 2
2L
wx 2
dx
2L
wL2
at fixed end.
6
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
Integrating both side we get at x=0,Mx =0
Mx
d(Mx )
or Mx
0
S K Mondals
wx 2
.dx
2L
w x3
2L 3
wx 3
6L
(vi) A Cantilever beam carrying gradually varying load from zero at fixed end and
w/unit length at the free end
wL2
and Reaction R A
3
wL
2
Shear force Vx
W
.x
L
wL 1 w
wL wx 2
 . .x .x = +
2 2 L
2
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
wL
at x 0, Vx
i.e. Maximum shear force, Vmax
2
at x L, Vx 0
Bending moment Mx =R A .x 
wL
2
wx 2 2x
.
 MA
2L 3
wL
wx 3
wL2
.x 2
6L
3
? The bending moment variation is cubic
=
at x = 0, Mx
at x
L, Mx
wL2
i.e.Maximum B.M. Mmax
3
wL2
.
3
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(viii) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load P at its mid span.
P
2
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance of x from left end A and section YY at
a distance from left end A, as shown in figure below.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
P
 P =  P/2
2
(it is constant)
P
.x
2
at x = 0, Mx = 0
and at x = L/2 Mx =
PL
i.e. maximum
4
PL
4
Mmax
PL P
P
.x (its variation is linear)
.x P(x  L/2) =
2
2
2
at x = L/2 , Mx =
PL
4
and at x = L,
Mx = 0
(ix) A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load P is not at its mid span.
Pb
Pa
and RB =
L
L
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section
YY at a distance x from end A as shownPage
in figure
below.
137 of 429
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Pb
L
(it is constant)
Pa
L
(it is constant)
Pb
.x
L
at x = 0, Mx = 0
and at x = a, Mx =
Pab
L
(i.e. maximum)
Pb
.x P.x + Pa (Put b = L  a)
L
= Pa (1  Pa 1
at x = a, Mx =
x
)
L
Pab
L
and at x = L, Mx = 0
(x) A Simply supported beam with two concentrated load P from a distance a both end.
The loading is shown below diagram
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Take a section at a distance x from the left support. This section is applicable for any value of x just
to the left of the applied force P. The shear, remains constant and is +P. The bending moment varies
linearly from the support, reaching a maximum of +Pa.
A section applicable anywhere between the two applied forces. Shear force is not necessary to
maintain equilibrium of a segment in this part of the beam. Only a constant bending moment of +Pa
must be resisted by the beam in this zone.
Such a state of bending or flexure is called pure bending.
Shear and bendingmoment diagrams for this loading condition are shown below.
(xi) A Simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load (UDL) through out its
length
wL
2
Chapter4
Shear force: Vx =
wL
wx
2
at x = 0,
wL
2
at x = L/2, Vx = 0
Vx = 
at x = L,
wL
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
Bending moment: M x
d Mx
dx
or
0 i .e. Vx
wL
wx
2
0 or
d M x
dx
L
2
Mmax
wL2
8
or
d Vx
dx
d Vx
w
wdx
Vx
wL
)
2
at x = L/2
S K Mondals
Chapter4
Vx
S K Mondals
d V
wdx
wL
2
or Vx
or Vx
wL
wx
2
wL
wx
2
Bending moment:
We know that,
d Mx
dx
Vx
d M x Vx dx
or
wL
2 wx dx
d Mx
or M x
wL
wx dx
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
Let us take an example: A loaded beam as shown below. Draw its S.F and B.M diagram.
0 gives
 200 u 4 u 2 3000 u 4 RB u 8
or
RB
1700N
And R A RB
or
RA
200 u 4 3000
2100N
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance 'x' from left end A and
as shown in figure
Chapter4
x
2
= 2100 x 100 x
2
Vx = 2100 N,
Vx = 1300 N,
Mx = 0
Mx = 6800 N.m
Vx = 1700 N,
at x = 8 m,
Vx = 1700 N,
Mx = 6800 Nm
Mx = 0
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at one end and
w/unit length at other span.
R A .L or R A
1
wL acting at a point C at a distance 2L/3 to the left end A.
2
0 gives
wL L
.
2 3
wL
6
Similarly
0 gives RB
wL
3
The free body diagram of section A  XX as shown below, Load at section XX, (wx) =
w
x
L
Chapter4
The resulted of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is
applied at a point Z, distance x/3 from XX section.
wx 2
2L
wL wx 2
6
2L
wL
6
at x = 0,
Vx =
at x = L,
Vx = 
wL
3
wL
wx 2 x
.x
.
6
2L 3
wL
wx 3
.x
6
6L
or
wL wx 2
6 2L
and Mmax
i.e.
d Mx
dx
0 or x
i.e. Vx
L
3
wL L w L
u
u
6 3 6L 3
Mmax
d Mx
dx
wL2
9 3
wL2
at x
9 3
Page 144 of 429
L
3
Vx
S K Mondals
1
w
x . x
2
L
wx 2
2L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xiii) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and
w/unit length at mid span.
Therefore R A
RB
1 L
2u u u w
2 2
wL
4
The free body diagram of section A XX as shown below, load at section XX (wx)
The resultant of that part of the distributed load which acts on this free body is
applied at a point, distance x/3 from section XX.
wL
2
2w
.x
L
1 2w
.x.
.x
2
L
wx 2
L
Chapter4
Vx
RA
wx 2
L
wL wx 2
4
L
wL
4
at x = 0,
Vx =
at x = L/4,
Vx = 0
wL
1 2wx
.x .x.
. x / 3
4
L
2
Mx
wL wx 3
4
3L
Mx = 0
at x = L/2, Mx =
wL2
12
d Mx
dx
or
wL wx 2
4
L
and Mmax
i.e.
i.e. Vx
d Mx
dx
0 or x
Vx
L
2
wL2
12
Mmax
wL2
12
at x
L
2
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xiv) A Simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at mid span and
w/unit length at each end.
Vx 1
Mx 1
wL
wx
2
wL
wx 2
.x
2
2
And (2) a simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) zero at each end and w/unit
length at mind span.
In the range 0 < x < L/2
Vx 2
Mx 2
wL wx 2
4
L
wL
wx 3
.x
4
3L
Chapter4
Vx
S K Mondals
w
2
x  L/2
L
Therefore the variation of shear force is parabolic
at x = 0,
Vx = +
at x = L/2,
Vx = 0
wL
4
wL
wx 2 wL
wx 3
.x
.x
2 4
3L
2
wx 3 wx 2 wL
.x
3L
2
4
at x
0, Mx
at x
L / 2, Mx
wx 2
24
(xv) A simply supported beam with a gradually varying load (GVL) w1/unit length at one
end and w2/unit length at other end.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
At first we will treat this problem by considering a UDL of identifying (w1)/unit length over the
whole length and a varying load of zero at one end to (w2 w1)/unit length at the other end. Then
superimpose the two loadings.
Vx 1
Mx 1
w1L
w1x
2
w1L
1
.x w1x 2
2
2
And (ii) simply supported beam with (GVL) zero at one end (w2 w1) at other end gives
Vx 2
w 2 w1 w 2 w1 x 2
6
M x 2 w 2 w 1 .
L
.x
6
2L
w 2 w1 x 3
6L
Shear force Vx
Vx 1 + Vx 2
w1L w 2L
x2
+
w 1x w 2 w1
3
6
2L
0, Vx
at x L,
Vx
Bending moment Mx
w1L w 2L L
2w1 w 2
3
6
6
L
w1 2w 2
6
Mx 1 Mx 2
w1L
wL
1
w w
.x 1 .x w1x 2 2 1 .x 3
3
6
2
6L
at x
0,
Mx
at x
L,
Mx
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(xvi) A Simply supported beam carrying a continuously distributed load. The intensity of
the load at any point is, w x
Sx
w sin
. Where x is the distance from each end of
L
the beam.
Therefore
d Vx
dx
d Vx
dx
d Vx
load
and
d Mx
dx
Vx
Sx
w sin
L
Sx
w sin
dx
L
dV
x
Sx
w sin
dx
L
or
Vx
Sx
w cos
L A
> where, A
constant of Integration@
Sx
cos
A
S
L
wL
Chapter4
Again we know that
d Mx
dx
Vx
or
d Mx
Vx dx
S K Mondals
wL
Sx
cos
A dx
L
S
Sx
sin
S
L Ax + B
wL
Mx
wL2
S2
Sx
sin
Ax + B
L
L
[Where B = constant of Integration]
Now apply boundary conditions
At x = 0,
Mx = 0
and
at x = L,
Mx = 0
Sx
cos
S
L
wL2
Sx
sin
2
S
L
? Shear force Vx
And Mx
Mmax
wL2
S2
wL
and
Vmax
wL
at x
at x = L/2
(xvii) A Simply supported beam with a couple or moment at a distance a from left end.
Chapter4
RB L +M 0 or RB
and
S K Mondals
M
L
0 gives
M
L
R A L +M 0 or R A
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section YY
at a distance x from left end A as shown in figure.
M
L
M
.x
L
M
L
M
.x  M
L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
When the beam is subjected to an eccentric load, the eccentric load is to be changed into a couple =
Force u (distance travel by force)
= P.a (in this case) and a force = P
Therefore equivalent load diagram will be
Considering equilibrium
0 gives
P.(L/2) + P.a + RB u L = 0
or RB =
P P.a
2
L
and RA + RB = P gives RA =
P P.a
2
L
Now consider any crosssection XX which is at a distance x from left end A and another section YY
at a distance x from left end A as shown in figure.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
P P.a
2
L
P Pa
.x
2 L
P Pa
P
2 L
=
P Pa
2 L
PL P Pa
.x  Pa
2 2 L
Chapter4
Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram
S K Mondals
Type of Loading & B.M Diagram
Reaction
Bending Moment
R A= R B =
RA = RB =
P
2
wL
2
wL2
M =M = 12
A
RA
Pab 2
L2
RB
Pa 2
(3b a)
L3
MB = 
Pa 2b
L2
3wL
16
5wL
8
RB
+

MA = 
Rc =
Pb 2
(3a b)
L3
R A= R B =
RA
PL
M =M = 8
Chapter4
S K Mondals
4.7 Load and Bending Moment diagram from Shear Force diagram
OR
Load and Shear Force diagram from Bending Moment diagram
If S.F. Diagram for a beam is given, then
(i)
If S.F. diagram consists of rectangle then the load will be point load
(ii)
If S.F diagram consists of inclined line then the load will be UDL on that portion
(iii)
If S.F diagram consists of parabolic curve then the load will be GVL
(iv)
If S.F diagram consists of cubic curve then the load distribute is parabolic.
After finding load diagram we can draw B.M diagram easily.
If B.M diagram consists of inclined line then the load will be free point load
(ii)
If B.M diagram consists of parabolic curve then the load will be U.D.L.
(iii)
If B.M diagram consists of cubic curve then the load will be G.V.L.
(iv)
If B.M diagram consists of fourth degree polynomial then the load distribution is
parabolic.
Let us take an example: Following is the S.F diagram of a beam is given. Find its loading
diagram.
Answer: From AE inclined straight line so load will be UDL and in AB = 2 m length load = 6 kN if
UDL is w N/m then w.x = 6 or w u 2 = 6 or w = 3 kN/m after that S.F is constant so no force is
there. At last a 6 kN for vertical force complete the diagram then the load diagram will be
Chapter4
S K Mondals
In this diagram we noticed that for the beam loaded as in this case, the bending moment diagram is
partly positive and partly negative. In the deflected shape of the beam just below the bending
moment diagram shows that left hand side of the beam is sagging' while the right hand side of the
beam is hogging.
The point C on the beam where the curvature changes from sagging to hogging is a point of
contraflexure.
d4y
EI
dx 2
Z
EI
d3y
dx3
Vx
d2y
EI 2
dx
Mx
Page 157 of 429
Chapter4
dy
= = slope
dx
y= G = Deflection
Flexural rigidity = EI
S K Mondals
Chapter4
S K Mondals
A
concentrated
force,
F
is
applied
(perpendicular to the plane of the figure) on
the tip of the bent bar shown in Figure. The
equivalent load at a section close to the fixed
end is:
(a) Force F
(b) Force F and bending moment FL
(c)
Force F and twisting moment FL
(d) Force F bending moment F L, and twisting
moment FL
[GATE1999]
Cantilever
GATE3.
Two identical cantilever beams are supported as shown, with their free ends in
contact through a rigid roller. After the load P is applied, the free ends will
have
[GATE2005]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
GATE3. Ans. (a) As it is rigid roller, deflection must be same, because after deflection they also
will be in contact. But slope unequal.
GATE4.
Chapter4
(b)
PL
2
(c)
3PL
2
S K Mondals
(d) Indeterminate
The shapes of the bending moment diagram for a uniform cantilever beam
carrying a uniformly distributed load over its length is:
[GATE2001]
(a) A straight line
(b) A hyperbola
(c) An ellipse
(d) A parabola
GATE5. Ans. (d)
[GATE2005]
Chapter4
Mx
S K Mondals
wx 2 wx 3
2
6L
L
from the left support. The bending moment at the point of
3
PL
(a)
3
2 PL
(b)
3
[GATE2003]
PL
(c )
9
2 PL
(d )
9
GATE8.
Pab
l
L 2L
Pu u
3 3
L
2PL
9
Simply Supported
Distributed Load
Beam
Carrying
Uniformly
Chapter4
S K Mondals
GATE9.
3000 N/m
R1
R1 R 2
R2
3000 u 2
R1 u 4 3000 u 2 u 1
R1
6000N
0
1500,
^for
x ! 2m}
2.5 m.
ld 3
12
m u 50
3
ld
12
x2
m x 1.5 u 103 [2000 x]
2
6
? m2500 3.375 u10 N mm
and I
?V
& V
3.375 u 106 u 50 u 12
30 u 1003
67.5 MPa
Data for Q11Q12 are given below. Solve the problems and choose correct
answers
A steel beam of breadth 120 mm and
height 750 mm is loaded as shown in the
figure. Assume Esteel= 200 GPa.
[GATE2004]
GATE11. The beam is subjected to a maximum bending moment of
(a) 3375 kNm
(b) 4750 kNm
(c) 6750 kNm
Page 162 of 429
Chapter4
wl
8
120 u 15
kNm
8
3375kNm
5 wl4
384 EI
0.12 u 0.75
(d) 63.75 mm
bh
4.22 u 103 m4
12
12
5
120 u 103 u 154
u
m 93.75mm
384 200 u 109 u 4.22 u 103
G max
S K Mondals
WL Wx 2
WL 1 W
x. u X
Sx
4
2 L
4
L
WL
Smax at x 0
4
Chapter4
3wl
8
(b)
S K Mondals
wl
12
(c)
wl
24
(d)
5wl 2
12
[IES1998]
IES1. Ans. (a)
IES2.
[IES1997]
IES2. Ans. (b) Load P at end produces moment
PL
in
2
IES3.
The bending moment (M) is constant over a length segment (I) of a beam. The
shearing force will also be constant over this length and is given by [IES1996]
(a) M/l
(b) M/2l
(c) M/4l
(d) None of the above
IES3. Ans. (d) Dimensional analysis gives choice (d)
IES4.
M
I
(b)
(c) M2
(d) 1/M
const.
and
bh
12
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Cantilever
IES6.
The given figure shows a beam BC simply supported at C and hinged at B (free
end) of a cantilever AB. The beam and the cantilever carry forces of
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IES1993]
ListI
ListII
(Condition of beam)
(Bending moment diagram)
A.
Subjected to bending moment at the
1. Triangle
end of a cantilever
B.
Cantilever carrying uniformly distributed
2. Cubic parabola
load over the whole length
C.
Cantilever carrying linearly varying load
3. Parabola
from zero at the fixed end to maximum at
the support
D.
A beam having load at the centre and
4. Rectangle
supported at the ends
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
1
2
3
(b)
4
3
2
1
(c)
3
4
2
1
(d)
3
4
1
2
IES7. Ans. (b)
IES8.
If the shear force acting at every section of a beam is of the same magnitude
and of the same direction then it represents a
[IES1996]
(a) Simply supported beam with a concentrated load at the centre.
(b) Overhung beam having equal overhang at both supports and carrying equal
concentrated loads acting in the same direction at the free ends.
(c)
Cantilever subjected to concentrated load at the free end.
(d) Simply supported beam having concentrated loads of equal magnitude and in the
same direction acting at equal distances from the supports.
IES8. Ans. (c)
Zl
2
Zu 3
2
6
6u2
3
4 kN / m
Page 165 of 429
Chapter4
IES10.
Code:
(a)
(c)
IES10. Ans. (b)
IES11.
S K Mondals
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given
below the Lists:
[IES2009]
A
1
1
B
5
3
C
2
4
D
4
5
(b)
(d)
A
4
4
B
5
2
C
2
5
D
3
3
[IES2008]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
IES12.
A vertical hanging bar of length L and weighing w N/ unit length carries a load
W at the bottom. The tensile force in the bar at a distance Y from the support
will be given by
[IES1992]
a W wL
b W w( L y )
c W w y / L
d W
W
(L y)
w
Chapter4
M = 37.5 u
S K Mondals
4
KNm = 50 u 106 Nmm
3
Assertion (A): If the bending moment along the length of a beam is constant,
then the beam cross section will not experience any shear stress.
[IES1998]
Reason (R): The shear force acting on the beam will be zero everywhere along
the length.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES15. Ans. (a)
IES16.
Assertion (A): If the bending moment diagram is a rectangle, it indicates that
the beam is loaded by a uniformly distributed moment all along the length.
Reason (R): The BMD is a representation of internal forces in the beam and not
the moment applied on the beam.
[IES2002]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES16. Ans. (d)
IES17.
(b)
WL
2
(c)
WL
4
(d)
WL
8
If a beam is subjected to a constant bending moment along its length, then the
shear force will
[IES1997]
(a) Also have a constant value everywhere along its length
(b) Be zero at all sections along the beam
(c)
Be maximum at the centre and zero at the ends (d) zero at the centre and
maximum at the ends
IES19. Ans. (b)
Page 168 of 429
Chapter4
IES20.
S K Mondals
[IES2000]
A simply supported beam has equal overhanging lengths and carries equal
concentrated loads P at ends. Bending moment over the length between the
supports
[IES2003]
(a) Is zero
(b) Is a nonzero constant
(c) Varies uniformly from one support to the other
(d) Is maximum at midspan
IES21. Ans. (b)
IES22.
The bending moment diagram for the case shown below will be q as shown in
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
[IES1992]
IES22. Ans. (a)
Chapter4
IES23.
S K Mondals
IES23. Ans. (d) Pure bending takes place in the section between two weights W
IES24.
[IES1995]
[IES1998]
IES25. Ans. (b)
IES26.
A beam is simply supported at its ends and is loaded by a couple at its midspan
as shown in figure A. Shear force diagram for the beam is given by the figure.
[IES1994]
(a) B
IES26. Ans. (d)
IES27.
(b) C
(c) D
(d) E
(a) 0
(b) P
(c) P/2L
(d) P.c./2L
Chapter4
S K Mondals
IES27. Ans. (d) If F be the shearing force at section x (at point A), then taking moments about B, F
x 2L = Pc
or F
Pc
2L
Simply Supported
Distributed Load
IES28.
Beam
Pc
2L
Carrying
Uniformly
A freely supported beam at its ends carries a central concentrated load, and maximum
bending moment is M. If the same load be uniformly distributed over the beam length,
[IES2009]
then what is the maximum bending moment?
(a) M
(b)
M
2
(c)
B.MMax
WL
4
L 8
WL 1 WL
8
2 4
M
2
M
3
(d) 2M
Chapter4
S K Mondals
WL Wx 2
WL 1 W
x. u X
Sx
4
2 L
4
L
WL
Smax at x 0
4
The value of midspan deflection of the same beam when the same load is
distributed with intensity varying from 2q unit length at one end to zero at the
other end is:
[IES1995]
(a) 1/3
(b) 1/2
(c) 2/3
(d)
IES30. Ans. (d)
A beam, builtin at both ends, carries a uniformly distributed load over its
entire span as shown in figureI. Which one of the diagrams given below,
represents bending moment distribution along the length of the beam?
[IES1996]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
[IES2000]
ListI
ListII
A.
Bending moment is constant
1. Point of contraflexure
B.
Bending moment is maximum or minimum 2. Shear force changes sign
C.
Bending moment is zero
3. Slope of shear force diagram is
zero over the portion of the beam
D.
Loading is constant
4. Shear force is zero over the
portion of the beam
Code:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
1
2
3
(b)
3
2
1
4
(c)
4
2
1
3
(d)
3
1
2
4
IES33. Ans. (b)
The bending moment diagram shown in Fig. I correspond to the shear force
diagram in
[IES1999]
IES34. Ans. (b) If shear force is zero, B.M. will also be zero. If shear force varies linearly with
length, B.M. diagram will be curved line.
IES35.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
[IES2001]
IES37.
The figure given below shows a bending moment diagram for the beam CABD:
Page 174 of 429
Chapter4
S K Mondals
[IES1993]
IES39. Ans. (a) Load diagram at (a) is correct because B.M. diagram between A and B is parabola
which is possible with uniformly distributed load in this region.
IES40.
IES40. Ans. (b) The shear force diagram is possible on simply supported beam with symmetrical
varying load about mid span.
Assertion (A): A beam subjected only to end moments will be free from shearing
force.
[IAS2004]
Reason (R): The bending moment
variation
along the beam length is zero.
Page 175
of 429
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS1. Ans. (a)
IAS2.
Assertion (A): The change in bending moment between two crosssections of a
beam is equal to the area of the shearing force diagram between the two
sections.
[IAS1998]
Reason (R): The change in the shearing force between two crosssections of
beam due to distributed loading is equal to the area of the load intensity
diagram between the two sections.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS2. Ans. (b)
IAS3.
The ratio of the area under the bending moment diagram to the flexural
rigidity between any two points along a beam gives the change in
[IAS1998]
(a) Deflection
(b) Slope
(c) Shear force
(d) Bending moment
IAS3. Ans. (b)
Cantilever
IAS4.
A load perpendicular to the plane of the handle is applied at the free end as
shown in the given figure. The values of Shear Forces (S.F.), Bending Moment
(B.M.) and torque at the fixed end of the handle have been determined
respectively as 400 N, 340 Nm and 100 by a student. Among these values, those
of
[IAS1999]
(a) S.F., B.M. and torque are correct
(b) S.F. and B.M. are correct
(c)
B.M. and torque are correct
(d) S.F. and torque are correct
Torque
400 u 0.25
240Nm
100Nm
If the SF diagram for a beam is a triangle with length of the beam as its base,
the beam is:
[IAS2007]
(a) A cantilever with a concentrated load at its free end
(b) A cantilever with udl over its whole span
(c)
Simply supported with a concentrated
load
Page 176 of
429 at its midpoint
(d) Simply supported with a udl over its whole span
Chapter4
S K Mondals
IAS7.
IAS8.
wx u
x
2
wx 2
2
The beam is loaded as shown in Fig. I. Select the correct B.M. diagram
[IAS1999]
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Assertion (A): In a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load at midspan, both the shear force and bending moment diagrams are triangular in
nature without any change in sign.
[IAS1999]
Reason (R): When the shear force at any section of a beam is either zero or
changes sign, the bending moment at that section is maximum.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS10. Ans. (d) A is false.
IAS11.
For the shear force to be uniform throughout the span of a simply supported
beam, it should carry which one of the following loadings?
[IAS2007]
(a) A concentrated load at midspan
(b) Udl over the entire span
(c)
A couple anywhere within its span
(d) Two concentrated loads equal in magnitude and placed at equal distance from each
support
Chapter4
S K Mondals
IAS12.
Which one of the following figures represents the correct shear force diagram
for the loaded beam shown in the given figure I?
[IAS1998; IAS1995]
Simply Supported
Distributed Load
IAS13.
Beam
Carrying
Uniformly
5wL 4
1.
384 E I
B.
2. w
C.
Maximum deflection
3.
D.
4.
Codes:
(a)
(c)
A
1
3
B
2
2
C
3
1
D
4
(b)
Page
429
4 179 of (d)
A
3
2
wL 4
8
wL
2
B
1
4
C
2
1
D
4
3
Chapter4
S K Mondals
3wl 2
(a)
8
wl 2
(b)
12
wl 2
(c)
24
5wl 2
(d)
12
wl
2
(b)
wl
5
(c)
wl
4
(d)
wl
3
Chapter4
IAS17.
S K Mondals
Match ListI (Beams) with ListII (Shear force diagrams) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below the Lists:
[IAS2001]
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IAS17. Ans. (d)
A
4
1
B
2
4
C
5
3
D
3
5
(b)
(d)
A
1
4
B
4
2
C
5
3
D
3
5
A point, along the length of a beam subjected to loads, where bending moment
changes its sign, is known as the point of
[IAS1996]
(a) Inflexion
(b) Maximum stress
(c) Zero shear force
(d) Contra flexure
IAS18. Ans. (d)
IAS19.
Assertion (A): In a loaded beam, if the shear force diagram is a straight line
parallel to the beam axis, then the bending moment is a straight line inclined
to the beam axis.
[IAS 1994]
Reason (R): When shear force at any section of a beam is zero or changes sign,
the bending moment at that section is maximum.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
Page 181 of 429
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
Chapter4
S K Mondals
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS19. Ans. (b)
(d) 8 kNm
[IAS1997]
IAS20. Ans. (a)
IAS21.
[IAS2003]
(c)
(d)
Chapter4
IAS22.
S K Mondals
Which one of the given bending moment diagrams correctly represents that of
the loaded beam shown in figure?
[IAS1997]
IAS22. Ans. (c) Bending moment does not depends on moment of inertia.
The shear force diagram is shown
IAS23.
above
for
corresponding
loaded
beam.
bending
The
moment
diagram is represented by
[IAS2003]
The bending moment diagram for a simply supported beam is a rectangle over
a larger portion of the span except near the supports. What type of load does
the beam carry?
[IAS2007]
(a) A uniformly distributed symmetrical load over a larger portion of the span except
near the supports
(b) A concentrated load at midspan
(c)
Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the supports and close to midpoint of the beam
Page 183 of 429
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Two identical concentrated loads equidistant from the midspan and close to
supports
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Answer:
5KN/m
5KN/m
B
X
10m
RA
RB
10
25 kN
2
25
12.5 kN
2
Take a section XX from B at a distance x.
For 0 b x b 5 m we get rate of loading
= RA RB
dV
X
dx
or V = Xdx = (5 x )dx 5 x
at x = 0, F =12.5 kN (RB ) so c1 12.5
x2
12.5
2
It is clear that maximum S.F = 12.5 kN
= V = 5x +
x2
c1
2
Chapter4
For a beam
S K Mondals
dM
V
dx
x2
5x 2 x 3
12.5)dx =
12.5 x C2
2
2
6
at x = 0, M = 0 gives C2 0
or , M = Vdx (5 x
M = 12.5x  2.5x 2 x 3 / 6
dM
0
dx
x2
12.5 0
2
or , x 2 10 x 25 0
or5x+
or , x 5 means at centre.
So, Mmax 12.5 q 2.5 2.5 q 52 53 / 6 20.83 kNm
X
XKNm
B
RA
RB
X
WL
2
Vx
Vmax
Mx
Chapter4
5KN/m
S K Mondals
5KN/m
3.75kN/m
B
12.5KN/m
12.5KN/m
10m
RA
RB
12.5kN
6.666m
12.5kN
S.F.D
S.F.D
20.83KNm
Cubic parabola
B.M.D
Parabola
20.83kNm
Answer:
WA
2
WA
Wx 2
x
2
2
dM x
0 that gives.
dx
WA
Xx 0
+ 2
or x= A i.e. at mid point.
2
XA A
X A
wA 2
And Mmax=
q q
2 2 2
2
8
Conventional Question AMIE1996
Question:
Calculate the reactions at A and D for the beam shown in figure. Draw the
bending moment and shear force diagrams showing all important values.
Chapter4
Answer:
S K Mondals
Chapter4
Obviously
S K Mondals
R A u 6 2 u 1 1u 2 u 2 2 2 4 u 2
2
or
R A 3kN
Also R A RDV
1u 2 4 2
or
RDV
R R
2
? Re action at D, RD
DV
DH
tan1
52 2 3
5
2 3
6.08kN
55.30
S.F.Calculation :
VF
2kN
VD
2 5
3kN
VC
34
1kN
VB
1kN
VA
1 1u 2
3kN
B.M.Calculation :
MF
MD
2 u 1 2kNm
MC
2 1 2 5 u 2 2
6kNm
MA
2 1 2 2 5 2 4 u 2 2
4kNm
2
1
2 1 2 2 5 2 2 1 4 2 1 2 1u 1u
2
2
2.5kNm
0
Construct the bending moment and shearing force diagrams for the beam
shown in the figure.
Answer:
Page 189 of 429
Chapter4
S K Mondals
RE u 4.5 20 u 0.5 u
or
RE
RB RE
RB
50 u 3 40 u 5
55kN
Also,
or
0.5
100
2
20 u 0.5 50 40
> RE
45kN
S.F. Calculation :
B.M.Calculation :
55kN@
VF
40kN
VE
40 55 15kN
VD
15 50
35kN
VB 35 45 10kN
MG 0
MF
ME
40 u 0.5
MD
40 u 2 55 u 1.5
20kNm
2.5kNm
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Answer:
There shall be a vertical reaction at hinge B and we can split the problem in two parts.
Then the FBD of each part is shown below
Fy
0, and R1 R2
200kN
From
or
R2
R1
500
125kN
4
200 125 75kN
Again, R3
R1
75kN
and
M 75 u 1.5 112.5kNm.
Chapter4
S K Mondals
Question:
Answer:
(i) Given, d0
1kN; E
40 mm 0.04 m; di
208GN / m
d0 2t
2
40 2 u 5
30 mm
Calculation:
(ii) Radius of coordinate R
As per bending equation:
M
I
E
y R
EI
or R
i
M
Here,M W u a 1u 103 u 0.125 125Nm
I
d
64
4
0
d14
S
4
4
0.04 0.03 8.59 u 108 m4
64
Substituting the values in equation i , we get
208 u 108 u 8.59 u 108
125
Deflection at mid span :
R
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
142.9 m
Wx W x Page
Wx
Wx Wa
a 192
of 429
Wa
0.03 m;
0.125 m
Chapter4
dy
dx
S K Mondals
Wax C1
1 dy
,
0
2 dx
1
Wal
0 Wa C1 or C1
?
2
2
dy
Wal
EI
?
Wax
dx
2
Integrating again, we get
When,
When
x 2 Wal
x C2
2
2
a, y 0
Wa
EIy
x
Wa3 Wa2l
C2
2
2
Wa3 Wa2l
C2
2
2
2
Wax
Walx Wa3 Wa2l
EIy
2
2
2
2
or
?
or
At mid span,i,e., x
y
Wa x 2 lx a2 al
EI 2 2 2 2
l/2
2
l u l / 2 a2 al
Wa l / 2
EI
2
2
2 2
2
2
Wa l
a
al
EI 8 2 2
1.52 0.1252 0.125 u 1.5
1u 1000 u 0.125
0.001366m 1.366mm
It will be in upward direction
17.5kN/m
A
4M
Answer:
20kN
C
B
4M
D
2m
In a beam if the bending moment changes sign at a point, the point itself having zero
bending moment, the beam changes curvature at this point of zero bending moment
and this point is called the point of contra flexure.
Chapter4
17.5kN/m
A
20kN
C
4M
S K Mondals
B
4M
D
2M
BMD
From the bending moment diagram we have seen that it is between A & C.
[If marks are more we should calculate exact point.]
5.
Deflection of Beam
We know that the axis of a beam deflects from its initial position under action of applied
forces.
In this chapter we will learn how to determine the elastic deflections of a beam.
d 2y
dx 2
Mx .
this
coordinate
system
treats
downward
d 2y
dx 2
M x .
To make sure the structure not deflect severely and to appear safe for its occupants
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Method of superposition
Castiglianos theorem
Work/Energy methods
Methods to find
deflection
Double integration
Geometrical
Moment area
method
Energy Method
Conjugate
beam method
Castiglians
theorem
Virtual
Work
The material is homogenous and isotropic i.e. it has a uniform composition and its
mechanical properties are the same in all directions
Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending
NonUniform Bending
x
In the case of nonuniform bending of a beam, where bending moment varies from section to
section, there will be shear force at each cross section which will induce shearing stresses
Also these shearing stresses cause warping (or outof plane distortion) of the cross section so
that plane cross sections do not remain plane even after bending
Page 196 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
d y
EI 2 =M x
dx
Proof: Consider the following simply supported beam with UDL over its length.
From elementary calculus we know that curvature of a line (at point Q in figure)
1
R
d2 y
dx 2
3/2
dy 2
1
dx
dy
0
dx
1 d2 y

R dx 2
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Bending stress of the beam (at point Q)
S K Mondals
Mx .y
Vx
EI
From strain relation we get
H
1
x and H x
R
y
1 Mx
?
R EI
d2 y Mx
Therefore
dx 2 EI
d2 y
or EI
Mx
dx 2
Vx
E
d2y
dx 2
EI
d4y
dx 4
EI
d3y
dx3
Vx
EI
d2y
dx 2
M x Bending moment
dy
= = slope
dx
x
x
y = G = Deflection, Displacement
Flexural rigidity = EI
Shear force
Z dx
Vx =
Mx = Vx dx
EI
d2y
dx 2
Slope
Deflection
Mx
1
M x dx
EI
T dx
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Step 1: Write down boundary conditions (Slope boundary conditions and displacement boundary
conditions), analyze the problem to be solved
d2y
dx 2
Mx
Step 3: Solve governing equations by integration, results in expression with unknown integration
constants
Deflection, y 0
Slope, T 0
Moment , M z 0
Deflection, y z 0
Deflection, y 0
Slope, T z 0 i.e.A finite value
Moment , M
Shear force, V
Flexible support
Figure
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Moment , M kr
Shear force, V
S K Mondals
dy
dx
k. y
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii) A simply supported beam with triangular distributed load (GVL) gradually varied load.
(viii) A simply supported beam with a moment at mid span.
(ix)
A simply supported beam with a continuously distributed load the intensity of which at
any point x along the beam is
wx
Sx
w sin
? Mx =  P.x
We know that differential equation of elastic line
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
P.x
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
dy
P x dx
dx 2
dy
x2
or EI
P. A
dx
2
EI
.............(i)
P 2 A dx
Px 3
or EIy = ..............(ii)
Ax +B
6
Where A and B is integration constants.
EI dy =
Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also
know that at fixed end
at x = L,
y=0
at x = L,
dy
dx
PL3
+ AL +B
6
PL2
+A
2
Therefore,
y=
..........(iii)
..(iv)
PL2
PL3
and B = 2
3
Px 3 PL2 x PL3
6EI 2EI 3EI
The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at free end hence putting x = 0 we get
ymax = 
PL3
(Negative sign indicates the deflection is downward)
3EI
(Slope)max = T
max
PL2
2EI
PL
3EI
PL2
2EI
Page 201 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
We will now solve this problem by double integration method, for that at first we have to calculate
(Mx).
Consider any section XX at a distance x from free end which is left end as shown in figure.
? Mx
w.x .
x
2
wx 2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
wx 2
2
d2 y
wx 2
dx
dx 2
2
dy
wx 3
A ......(i)
or EI
dx
6
EI
6 A dx
wx 4
or EIy = Ax B.......(ii)
24
> where A and B are integration constants@
EI dy
Now apply boundary condition at fixed end which is at a distance x = L from free end and we also
know that at fixed end.
at x = L,
y=0
at x = L,
dy
=0
dx
EI u (0) =
wL3
+wL3
+ A or A =
6
6
EI.y = 
or
B=
wL4
+ A.L + B
24
wL4
8
The slope as well as the deflection would be maximum at the free end hence putting x = 0, we get
Page 202 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
4
y max
wL
8EI
slope max
S K Mondals
wL3
6EI
Remember: For a cantilever beam with UDL over its whole length,
Maximum slope,
wL
8EI
wL3
6EI
Consider a section XX at a distance x from free end, the bending moment at section XX is
(Mx) = M
We know that differential equation of elastic line
or EI
d2 y
dx 2
M
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Again integrating both side we get
EI dy =
S K Mondals
M x +A dx
Mx 2
Ax + B ...(ii)
2
Where A and B are integration constants.
or EI y
dy
dx
0 gives A = ML
ML2
2
2
Mx
MLx ML2
Therefore deflection equation is y =
2EI
EI
2EI
Which is the equation of elastic curve.
at x = L, y = 0 gives B =
ML2
ML2
2
ML
G =
2EI
ML
T
EI
(It is downward)
Let us take a funny example: A cantilever beam AB of length L and uniform flexural rigidity EI
has a bracket BA (attached to its free end. A vertical downward force P is applied to free end C of the
bracket. Find the ratio a/L required in order that the deflection of point A is zero.
[ISRO 2008]
We may consider this force P and a moment (P.a) act on free end A of the cantilever beam.
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
3
PL
3EI
ML2
2EI
(P.a)L2
2EI
PL3 (P.a)L2
=
3EI
2EI
a 2
or
L 3
We want to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find its value.
P
.x
2
Mx =
P
x L / 2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
P
.x
2
or EI
dx
or EI
dy
dx
2 x dx
P x2
. A (i)
2 2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
EI dy = x 2 A dx
4
3
Px
or EI y =
Ax + B (ii)
12
> Where A and B are integrating constants@
Now applying boundary conditions to equation (i) and (ii) we get
at x = 0,
at x = L/2,
A=
y=0
dy
dx
PL2
and B = 0
16
Px 3 PL12
x
12 16
PL
G =
48EI
PL2
16EI
(v) A simply supported beam with a point load P NOT at its midpoint.
A simply supported beam AB carries a concentrated load P as shown in the figure.
We have to locate the point of maximum deflection on the elastic curve and find the value of this
deflection.
Taking coordinate axes x and y as shown below
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Mx
Mx
P.a
L .x
P.a
L  x
L
for 0 d x d a
EI
for a d x d L
dy P.a x 2
. + A1
......(i)
dx
L 2
dy
P.a 2
EI
P.a x x A2
......(ii)
dx
L
P.a x 3
EI y
. +A1x+B1
......(iii)
L 6
x 2 P.a x 3
EI y P.a
. A 2 x + B2 .....(iv)
2
L 6
for o d x d a
EI
for a d x d L
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
(a) at x = 0, y = 0
(b) at x = L, y = 0
dy
= Same for equation (i) & (ii)
dx
(c) at x = a,
A1
and B1
Pb 2
L b2 ;
6L
A2
P.a
2L2 a2
6L
0;
B2
Pa3 / 6EI
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
Pbx 2
L b2 x 2
..... (v)
6L
Pb L
3
EI y =
x  a L2 b2 x  x3 . ...(vi)
6L b
EI y = 
S K Mondals
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
For a > b, the maximum deflection will occur in the left portion of the span, to which equation (v)
applies. Setting the derivative of this expression equal to zero gives
x=
a(a+2b)
3
L2 b2
3
(Lb)(L+b)
3
at that point a horizontal tangent and hence the point of maximum deflection substituting this value
of x into equation (v), we find,
y max
P.b(L2 b2 )3/2
9 3. EIL
L2 L/2
3
L/2
and y max
P. L/2 u L2 L/2
3/2
9 3 EIL
PL3
48EI
Taking coordinate axes x and y as shown, we have for the bending moment at any point x
Mx
wL
x2
.x  w.
2
2
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
wL
x2
.x  w.
2
2
EI
dy
dx
wL x 2 w x 3
. . A
2 2 2 3
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
EI y
wL x 3 w x 4
. . Ax + B
2 6 2 12
.....(ii)
Where A and B are integration constants. To evaluate these constants we have to use boundary
conditions.
at x = 0, y = 0
at x = L/2,
dy
dx
gives
gives
B=0
wL3
24
wL 3
w
wL3
wx
L3 2L.x 2 x 3
.x
.x 4
.x =
12EI
24EI
12EI
24EI
The maximum deflection at the midspan, we have to put x = L/2 in the equation and obtain
5wL
384EI
(It is downward)
wL3
24EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
4
EI
dy
dx 4
load
w
.x
L
S K Mondals
.....(i)
EI
d3 y
dx 3
Vx
wx 2
+A
2L
.....(ii)
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
EI
dy
dx
EI y
wx 3
+ Ax +B
6L
.....(iii)
wx 4 Ax 2
+
+Bx + C
24L
2
.....(iv)
wx 5 Ax 3 Bx 2
+
+
+ Cx +D
120L
6
2
.....(v)
A=
at x = 0,
Mx = 0,
at x = L,
Mx = 0, y = 0 gives
y=0
wL
7wL3
, B = 0, C = , D=0
360
6
Therefore y = 
wx
7L4 10L2 x 2 3x 4
360EIL
dy
=0
dx
wL4
EI
M
and RB
L
M
L
Mx
M
.x
L
In the region a d x d L,
Mx
M
xM
L
Page 210 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
2
dy
dx 2
d2 y
and EI 2
dx
EI
M
.x
L
M
.x M
L
S K Mondals
for 0 d x d a
for a d x d L
M x2
. A1
L 2
M x2
 Mx+ A 2
L
2
M x3
A1x + B1
and EI y = .
L V
M x 3 Mx 2
A 2 x + B2
EI y =
L V
2
dy
dx
dy
EI
dx
EI
....(i)
for 0 d x d a
.....(ii)
for a d x d L
......(iii)
for 0 d x d a
......(iv)
for a d x d L
dy
= same form equation (i) & (ii)
dx
(c) at x = a,
ML Ma2
+
, A2
3
2L
Ma2
B2
2
A1
M.a +
B1
0,
ML Ma2
3
2L
Mx
6aL  3a2 x 2 2L2
6L
? deflection of x = a,
Ma
y=
3aL  2a2 L2
3EIL
y=
for 0 d x d a
At first we have to find out the bending moment at any point x according to the shown coordinate
system.
We know that
Chapter5
d Vx
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Sx
w sin
dx
dV
x
or Vx
Sx
w sin
dx +A
L
wL
Sx
.cos
A
S
L
d Mx
Sx
cos
A
L
wL
Vx
dx
wL
Sx
A dx
cos
L
S
d M
x
wL2
or Mx
Sx
sin
Ax +B
L
Where A and B are integration constants, to find out the values of A and B. We have to use boundary
conditions
and
at x = 0,
Mx = 0
at x = L,
Mx = 0
wL2
Sx
sin
EI
d2 y
dx 2
wL2
Mx
Sx
sin
EI
dy
dx
EI y
wL3
Sx
cos
C
S
L
wL4
Sx
4 sin
Cx D
S
L
.......(i)
.....(ii)
Where C and D are integration constants, to find out C and D we have to use boundary conditions
at x = 0,
y=0
at x = L,
y=0
dy
wL3
Sx
3 cos
dx
S
L
wL4
Sx
4 sin
S EI L
EI
Sx
is maximum
L
Page 212 of 429
Chapter5
Sx
sin
=1
L
Deflection of Beam
or
S K Mondals
x = L/2
WL4
(downward).
S 4EI
When the beam is subjected to point loads (but several loads) this is very convenient method
for determining the deflection of the beam.
In this method we will write single moment equation in such a way that it becomes
continuous for entire length of the beam in spite of the discontinuity of loading.
After integrating this equation we will find the integration constants which are valid for
entire length of the beam. This method is known as method of singularity constant.
Step III: Integrate the moment equation by a typical manner. Integration of (xa) will be
xa
x2
xa so on.
not
ax and integration of (xa)2 will be
3
2
Step IV: After first integration write the first integration constant (A) after first terms and after
second time integration write the second integration constant (B) after A.x . Constant A and B are
valid for all values of x.
Step V: Using Boundary condition find A and B at a point x = p if any term in Macaulays method,
(xa) is negative (ive) the term will be neglected.
(i) Let us take an example: A simply supported beam AB length 6m with a point load of 30 kN is
applied at a distance 4m from left end A. Determine the equations of the elastic curve between each
change of load point and the maximum deflection of the beam.
Answer: We solve this problem using Macaulays method, for that first writes the general
momentum equation for the last portion of beam BC of the loaded beam.
EI
d2 y
dx 2
Mx
....(i)
Page 213 of 429
Chapter5
e.g
Deflection of Beam
x a
x a dx
S K Mondals
We get
EI
dy
dx
5x 2 A 15 x4
and EI y =
N.m2
5 3
x Ax + B  5 (x  4)3 N.m3
3
..... ii
..... iii
Where A and B are two integration constants. To evaluate its value we have to use following
boundary conditions.
at x = 0,
and
y=0
at x = 6m, y = 0
Note: When we put x = 0, x  4 is negativre (ive) and this term will not be considered for x = 0 , so
our equation will be EI y =
5 3
x Ax +B, and at x = 0 , y = 0 gives B = 0
3
But when we put x = 6, x4 is positive (+ive) and this term will be considered for x = 6, y = 0 so our
equation will be EI y =
5 3
x + Ax + 0 5 (x 4)3
3
This gives
5 3
.6 A.6 0 5(6 4)3
3
or A =  53
EI .(0) =
EI
dy
dx
5x 2  53  15 x  4
5 3
3
x  53x + 0  5 x  4
3
and EI y
Now we have two equations for entire section of the beam and we have to understand how we use
these equations. Here if x < 4 then x 4 is negative so this term will be deleted. That so why in the
region o d x d 4m we will neglect (x 4) term and our slope and deflection equation will be
EI
dy
dx
5x 2 53
5 3
x  53x
3
But in the region 4m x d 6m , (x 4) is positive so we include this term and our slope and
and
EI y
EI
dy
dx
EI y
5x 2  53  15 x  4
5 3
3
x  53x  5 x  4
3
Now we have to find out maximum deflection, but we dont know at what value of x it will be
maximum. For this assuming the value of x will be in the region 0 d x d 4m .
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
dy
Deflection (y) will be maximum for that
= 0 or 5x 2  53 = 0 or x = 3.25 m as our calculated x is
dx
in the region 0 d x d 4m ; at x = 3.25 m deflection will be maximum
or
EI ymax =
or
ymax = 
5
u 3.253 53 u 3.25
3
115
EI
But if you have any doubt that Maximum deflection may be in the range of 4 x d 6m , use EIy =
5x2 53x 5 (x 4)3 and find out x. The value of x will be absurd that indicates the maximum
deflection will not occur in the region 4 x d 6m .
Deflection (y) will be maximum for that
dy
=0
dx
or
5x 2  53  15 x  4 = 0
or
or
x = 3.41 m or 8.6 m
Both the value fall outside the region 4 x d 6m and in this region 4 x d 6m and in this region
maximum deflection will not occur.
(ii)
Now take an example where Point load, UDL and Moment applied simultaneously in
a beam:
Let us consider a simply supported beam AB (see Figure) of length 3m is subjected to a point load 10
kN, UDL = 5 kN/m and a bending moment M = 25 kNm. Find the deflection of the beam at point D if
flexural rigidity (EI) = 50 KNm2.
0 gives
10 u 1  25  5 u 1 u 1 1 1/ 2 RB u 3
or RB
15.83kN
R A RB
10 5 u 1 gives R A
0.83 kN
We solve this problem using Macaulays method, for that first writing the general momentum
equation for the last portion of beam, DB of the loaded beam.
d2 y
EI
dx 2
Mx
0.83x
5 x2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
x a dx
x a
2
We get
EI
dy
dx
and EIy =
0.83 2
5
2
3
.x A 5 x 1 25 x 2 x 2
2
6
0.83 3
5
25
5
3
2
4
x Ax +B  x 1
x 2 x 2
6
3
2
24
Where A and B are integration constant we have to use following boundary conditions to find out A
& B.
at x = 0,
y=0
at x = 3m, y = 0
Therefore B = 0
0.83
5
5
u 33 A u 3 + 0  u 23 12.5 u 12
u 14
6
3
24
or A = 1.93
and 0 = 
12.5 x 2 0.21 x 2
Deflextion at point D at x = 2m
EIyD
or yD
8.85
EI
8.85
8.85
m ive sign indicates deflection downward
50 u 103
0.177mm downward .
(iii) A simply supported beam with a couple M at a distance a from left end
If a couple acts we have to take the distance in
the bracket and this should be raised to the
power zero. i.e. M(x a)0. Power is zero because
(x a)0 = 1 and unit of M(x a)0 = M but we
introduced the distance which is needed for
Macaulays method.
EI
d2 y
dx 2
M R A. x M xa
dy
dx
EI y
M x2
1
. A  M xa
L 2
M xa
M 3
x Ax + B 6L
2
Where A and B are integration constants, we have to use boundary conditions to find out A & B.
at x = 0, y = 0 gives B = 0
at x = L, y = 0 gives A =
M La
2L
ML
6
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
This method is used generally to obtain displacement and rotation at a single point on a
beam.
The moment area method is convenient in case of beams acted upon with point loads in
which case bending moment area consist of triangle and rectangles.
A
Loading
L
Mn
Mc
B.M.diag
MB
Deflection
OA
ymax
AB
AD
tBA
Angle between the tangents drawn at 2 points A&B on the elastic line, AB
AB =
1
u Area of the bending moment diagram between A&B
EI
i.e. slope
T AB
A B.M.
EI
M
diagram between B&A taking about B (or w.r.t. B)
EI
i.e. deflection yBA
A B.M u x
EI
Important Note
If
A1 u A2
EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Some typical bending moment diagram and their area (A) and distance of
C.G from one edge
BM Diagram
Area
1. Rectangle
bh
b
2
b
3
b
4
2. Triangle
3. Parabola
4. Parabola
5.Cubic Parabola
6. y = k xn
7. Sine curve
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
1
u L u PL
2
Therefore
PL2
2
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
PL2 2
u L
2 3
EI
PL2
2EI
Ax
EI
PL3
3EI
1
u a u Pa
2
Pa2
2
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
Pa2 a
u L
2 3
EI
Pa2
2EI
Ax
EI
( at free end)
Pa2 a
. L(at free end)
2EI 3
wL2
1
uL u
3
2
wL3
6
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
wL3 3
u L
6 4
EI
wL3
6EI
Ax
EI
wL4
(at free end)
8EI
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
1 L PL
u u
2 2 4
PL2
16
Therefore
A
EI
Maximum slope T
Maximum deflection G
PL2 L
u
16 3
EI
PL2
(at each ends)
16EI
Ax
EI
PL3
48EI
(v) A simply supported beam with UDL over its whole length
Area of BM diagram (shaded)
2 L wL2
u
u
3 2 8
wL3
24
Therefore
Maximum slope T
A
EI
Maximum deflection G
wL3 5 L
u u
24 8 2
EI
wL3
24EI
Ax
EI
5 wL4
384 EI
9. Method of superposition
Assumptions:
x
The deflection of the beam should be small such that the effect due to the shaft or rotation of
the line of action of the load is neglected.
Principle of Superposition:
Procedure is facilitated by tables of solutions for common types of loadings and supports.
Example:
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Conjugate
beams
real beams
for
Statically
By the conjugate beam method, the slope and deflection of the actual beam can be found by
using the following two rules:
x
The slope of the actual beam at any cross section is equal to the shearing force at the
corresponding cross section of the conjugate beam.
The deflection of the actual beam at any point is equal to the bending moment of the
conjugate beam at the corresponding point.
Construct the M / EI diagram for the given (real) beam subjected to the specified (real)
loading. If a combination of loading exists, you may use Mdiagram by parts
Apply the M / EI diagram as the load on the conjugate beam as per sign convention
Calculate the reactions at the supports of the conjugate beam by applying equations of
equilibrium and conditions
Determine the shears in the conjugate beam at locations where slopes is desired in the
Determine the bending moments in the conjugate beam at locations where deflections is
desired in the real beam, Mconj = yreal
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
wL2
and Reaction R A
3
wL
2
Shear force Vx
W
.x
L
wL 1 w
wL wx 2
 . .x .x = +
2 2 L
2
2L
? The shear force variation is parabolic.
wL
at x 0, Vx
i.e. Maximum shear force, Vmax
2
at x L, Vx 0
Bending moment Mx = R A .x 
wx 2 2x
.
 MA
2L 3
wL
2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
3
2
wL
wx
wL
=
.x 2
6L
3
? The bending moment variation is cubic
at x = 0, Mx
at x
L, Mx
wL2
i.e.Maximum B.M. Mmax
3
wL2
.
3
S K Mondals
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
(b) 4
(c) 3
(d) 2
[GATE1999]
2
dy
dx 2
GATE3.
(b)
Wl3
48EI
and G 2
[IES1995; GATE1994]
2:1
W
5 l4
l
384EI
(c) 1: 1
(d) 1: 2
5Wl3
Therefore 1: 2 = 5: 8
384EI
A simply supported laterally loaded beam was found to deflect more than a
specified value.
[GATE2003]
(b)
(c)
(d)
Wl3
48EI
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
WL2
2 EI
(b)
WL2
4 EI
(c)
WL2
8 EI
(d)
WL2
16 EI
L
W
2
WL2
IES2. Ans. (c) R
2EI
8EI
IES3.
1
a G
2
y mid
IES4.
2
b G
3
c G
WL3 WL2
5WL3
L
3EI 2EI
6EI
W 2Lx 2 x 3
5WL3
EI 2
6 at x L
6EI
d 2G
Wl 3
3EI
Wl 3 u12
3Eah3
[IES2000]
4Wl 3
Eah3
4Wl 3
2 Ea 2h
1 4Wl 3
u
16 Eah3
1
a G
2
b G
c 2G
d 4G
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
W 2L
48 EI
S K Mondals
WL3
6 EI
WL
3EI
2G
Figure E
Figure F
[IES1997]
(a)
1
T
3
(b)
1
T
2
(c)
2
T
3
(d)
ML
EI
PL / 2 L
EI
IES7.
PL2
2 EI
PL2
2 EI
A cantilever beam carries a load W uniformly distributed over its entire length.
If the same load is placed at the free end of the same cantilever, then the ratio
of maximum deflection in the first case to that in the second case will be:
[IES1996]
(a) 3/8
(b) 8/3
(c) 5/8
(d) 8/5
Wl 3 Wl 3
y
8 EI 3EI
3
8
PL2 ML2
(a)
2 EI 3EI
ML2 PL3
(b)
2 EI 3EI
ML2 PL3
(c)
3EI 2 EI
ML2 PL3
(d)
2 EI 48 EI
For a cantilever beam of length 'L', flexural rigidity EI and loaded at its free
end by a concentrated load W, match List I with List II and select the correct
answer.
[IES1996]
List I
List II
A. Maximum bending moment
1. Wl
B. Strain energy
2. Wl2/2EI
C. Maximum slope
3. Wl3/3EI
D. Maximum deflection
4. W2l2/6EI
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
4
3
2
(b)
1
4
2
3
(c)
4
2
1
3
(d)
4
3
1
2
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
(a) wl4/ (EI)
S K Mondals
IES11.
2 Pl 3
(a)
81EI
3Pl 3
(b)
81EI
14 Pl 3
(c)
81EI
15 Pl 3
(d)
81EI
GA
Area
x
EI
1 2Pl 2l l 4
u
u
u
l
2 3 3 3 9
EI
Pl3 2 7 14 Pl3
u u
EI 9 9 81 EI
2
Alternatively Ymax
IES12.
2l
W
Wa2 l a
3 l 2l / 3
EI 2 6
EI 2
6
Wl3 4 9 2
u u
EI 9
18
14 Wl3
81 EI
[IES1997]
IES12. Ans. (c) Reaction force on B and C is same 100/2 = 50 kg. And we know that shear force is
same throughout its length and equal to load at free end.
IES13. Assertion (A): In a simply supported beam subjected to a concentrated load P at
midspan, the elastic curve slope becomes zero under the load.
[IES2003]
Reason (R): The deflection of the beam is maximum at midspan.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES13. Ans. (a)
IES14.
a Slope Qx
Mx
Vx
b Vx
dM x
dx
c Wx
d 2M x
dx 2
d Wx
dVx
dx
Chapter5
IES15.
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
wL
w
3
Lx  Lx Nm
2
2
wL
2 w
3
c M= Lx  Lx Nm
2
2
wL
w
2
x  x Nm
2
2
wL
2 wLx
Nm
d M= x 2
2
a M=
b M=
A simply supported beam with width 'b' and depth d carries a central load W
and undergoes deflection at the centre. If the width and depth are
interchanged, the deflection at the centre of the beam would attain the value
[IES1997]
d
a G
b
d
b G
b
d
c G
b
Wl3
48EI
d
d
b
3/2
Wl3
bd3
48E
12
Wl 3
48EI c
Wl 3
db3
48 E
12
Wl 3
d2
bd 3 b 2
48 E
12
d2
G
b2
IES17.
A simply supported beam of rectangular section 4 cm by 6 cm carries a midspan concentrated load such that the 6 cm side lies parallel to line of action of
loading; deflection under the load is . If the beam is now supported with the 4
cm side parallel to line of action of loading, the deflection under the load will
be:
[IES1993]
(a) 0.44
(b) 0.67
(c) 1.5
(d) 2.25
IES17. Ans. (d) Use above explanation
IES18.
(b)
Wl3
48EI
2:1
and G 2
(c) 1: 1
W
5 l4
l
384EI
(d) 1: 2
5Wl3
Therefore 1: 2 = 5: 8
384EI
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
[IES1997]
ListI
ListII
1. Moment area method
A. Toughness
B. Endurance strength
2. Hardness
C. Resistance to abrasion
3. Energy absorbed before fracture in
a tension test
D. Deflection in a beam
4. Fatigue loading
Code:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 4
3
1
2
(b)
4
3
2
1
(c)
3
4
2
1
(d)
3
4
1
2
IES19. Ans. (c)
Page 229 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Which one of the following is represented by the area of the S.F diagram from
one end upto a given location on the beam?
[IAS2004]
(a) B.M. at the location
(b) Load at the location
(c) Slope at the location
(d) Deflection at the location
IAS1. Ans. (a)
dM
dx
[IAS2007]
dM
dx
IAS3.
PL3
3EI
? G fL
G
? 2
G1
L2
L1
By conjugate beam method, the slope at any section of an actual beam is equal
to:
[IAS2002]
(a) EI times the S.F. of the conjugate beam (b) EI times the B.M. of the conjugate beam
(c) S.F. of conjugate beam
(d) B.M. of the conjugate beam
IAS4. Ans. (c)
IAS5.
[IES2002]
IAS5. Ans. (c) Stiffness means required load for unit deformation. BMD of the given beam
Page 230 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
The deflection at the free end of the actual beam = BM of the at fixed point of conjugate
beam
3
1
ML 2L WL
L L 1 q L q WL q L 2L 3WL
y q L q
q
q
L
q
2
2 2
2EI
3
2EI
EI 3 2EI
9
6
W
2EI 2 q 200 q10
q 375 q10
Or stiffness =
3
4 q1010 N / m
3
y
3L
3 q 0.5
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
Consider the signboard mounting shown in figure below. The wind load
acting perpendicular to the plane of the figure is F = 100 N. We wish to limit
the deflection, due to bending, at point A of the hollow cylindrical pole of
outer diameter 150 mm to 5 mm. Find the wall thickness for the pole. [Assume
E = 2.0 X 1011 N/m2]
Answer:
WL3 ML2
3EI
2EI
100 u 53
100 u 53
5 u 10 3
3 u 2.0 u 1011 u I 2 u 2.0 u 1011 u I
100 u 53
1
100 u 53
I
or
But
?
5.417 u 10 6 m4
S 4
d0 di4
64
S
5.417 u 106
0.15 4 di4
64
I
or
di
0.141m or 141 mm
d0 di
2
150 141
2
4.5 mm
Find the slope and deflection at the free end of a cantilever beam of length
6m as loaded shown in figure below, using method of superposition. Evaluate
their numerical value using E = 200 GPa, I = 1104 m4 and W = 1 kN.
Chapter5
Answer:
Deflection of Beam
We have to
theory.
1st consider
use
S K Mondals
superposition
PL3 (3W ) q 23 8W
3EI
3EI
EI
2
2
PL
(3W ).2
6W
c
2EI
2EI
EI
c
8W
6W
32W
q4
EI
EI
EI
2nd consider:
2W
q 43
128W
3EI
3EI
2
(2W ) q 4
16W
RB
EI
2EI
Deflection at A due to this load( 2 )
B
=B RB q (6 4)=
224W
3EI
3rd consider :
W q 63 72W
3EI
EI
W q 62 18W
RA
2EI
EI
(3 ) A
40 q 10 3
6W
16W
18W
40W
EI
EI
EI
EI
200 q 10 9
q 10 4
32W
224W
72W
40W 563W
=
EI
EI
EI
3 EI
3EI
563(10 3 )
=
8.93 m m
3 q (200 q 10 9 ) q 10 4
1 2 3
If two cantilever beams of identical dimensions but made of mild steel and
grey cast iron are subjected to same point load at the free end, within elastic
limit, which one will deflect more and why?
Answer:
We know that a cantilever beam of length 'L' end load 'P' will deflect at free end
(E ) =
PL3
3EI
Page 233 of 429
Chapter5
Deflection of Beam
S K Mondals
1
E
ECast Iron 125 GPa and EMild steel 200 GPa
=E r
Answer:
2EI
0
6.
V
y
Where
M
I
E
R
V = Bending Stress
M = Bending Moment
I
= Moment of Inertia
E = Modulus of elasticity
R = Radius of curvature
y = Distance of the fibre from NA (Neutral axis)
The material is homogenous and isotropic i.e. it has a uniform composition and its
mechanical properties are the same in all directions
Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending
6.3
Chapter6
V max V t
Mc1
I
V min V c
Mc2
I
S K Mondals
I
Z=
y
x
The strength of the beam sections depends mainly on the section modulus
M
Z
Rectangular c/s of width is "b" & depth "h" with sides horizontal, Z =
a3
6
a3
6 2
Sd3
32
bh 2
6
Chapter6
S K Mondals
b( d 2 b 2 )
6
Therefore, Zmax =
bd 3
d
for b =
9
3
M D bh 2
For it
Keeping the width constant throughout the length and varying the depth, (Most widely used)
Keeping the depth constant throughout the length and varying the width
Chapter6
S K Mondals
My
is varying linearly from zero at centre and extremum (minimum
I
If P is compressive then
P My
A I
At top fibre
At mid fibre
At bottom fibre
(compressive)
P
A
V
V
(compressive)
P My
(compressive)
A
I
V max
P P u e y
A
I
V min
P P u e y
A
I
2k 2
d
h
6
d
8
h
of the middle section.
3
D2 d 2
8D
d
4
D2 d 2
.
4D
Chapter6
S K Mondals
P.x
M
I
V
y
or V
[GATE2005]
My
I
10 u x u 0.005
0.01
60.(x) MPa
12
At x 0; V 0
At x 1m; V 60MPa
And it is linear as V f x
GATE2.
Two beams, one having square cross section and another circular crosssection,
are subjected to the same amount of bending moment. If the cross sectional
area as well as the material of both the beams are the same then
[GATE2003]
(a) Maximum bending stress developed in both the beams is the same
(b) The circular beam experiences more bending stress than the square one
(c)
The square beam experiences more bending stress than the circular one
(d) As the material is same both the beams will experience same deformation
M E V
My
;
or V
;
GATE2. Ans. (b)
I
U y
I
V sq
? V sq
a
M
2
1
a.a3
12
V cir
6M
;
a3
V cir
d
M
2
S d4
64
32M
S d3
4S S M 22.27M
a3
a3
S d2
4
a2
Section Modulus
GATE3.
[GATE2006]
Chapter6
R. Section modulus
S. Prime circle
(a) P 4, Q 2, R 3, S l
(c) P 3, Q 2, R 1, S 4
GATE3. Ans. (b)
S K Mondals
3. Linkage
4. Gear
(b) P 4, Q 3, R 2, S 1
(d) P 3, Q 4, R 1, S 2
For the component loaded with a force F as shown in the figure, the axial
stress at the corner point P is:
[GATE2008]
(a)
F (3L b)
4b3
(b)
F (3L b)
4b3
(c)
F (3L 4b)
4b3
(d)
F (3L 2b)
4b3
GATE4. Ans. (d) Total Stress = Direct stress + Stress due to Moment
=
P My
F
F (L b ) q b
2
A
I
4b
2b q ( b )3
12
Beam A is simply supported at its ends and carries udl of intensity w over its
entire length. It is made of steel having Young's modulus E. Beam B is
cantilever and carries a udl of intensity w/4 over its entire length. It is made of
brass having Young's modulus E/2. The two beams are of same length and have
same crosssectional area. If A and B denote the maximum bending stresses
developed in beams A and B, respectively, then which one of the following is
correct?
[IES2005]
(a) A/B
(b) A/B < 1.0
(d) A/B depends on the shape of crosssection
(c) A/B > 1.0
My
, y and I both depends on the
IES1. Ans. (d) Bending stress V
I
Shape of cross sec tion so
IES2.
VA
depends on the shape of cross sec tion
VB
Chapter6
S K Mondals
B. Deflection
2. 1
C. Bending Stress
3. 1/8
D. Section Modulus
4. 1/16
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
(a) 3
1
2
4
(b)
2
(c)
3
4
2
1
(d)
2
IES2. Ans. (b) Diameter will be double, D = 2d.
A. Maximum BM will be unaffected
B. deflection ratio
C. Bending stress
EI1
EI2
d
4
B
4
1
C
3
3
D
1
4
1
16
M d / 2
My
I
S d4
V2
V1
d
D
1
8
64
Z2
Z1
I2 y1
u
y1 I1
D
d
IES3.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given
below the Lists:
[IES2006]
ListI (State of Stress)
ListII (Kind of Loading)
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IES4. Ans. (c)
A
2
2
B
1
4
C
3
3
D
4
1
1.
2.
3.
Thin cylinder
pressure
4.
(b)
(d)
A
3
3
B
4
1
subjected
C
2
2
to
D
1
4
internal
Chapter6
S K Mondals
Section Modulus
IES5.
IES5. Ans. (b) If D is diameter of circle and 'a' the side of square section,
Z for circular section =
IES6.
Sd2
32
a3
;
4 S
d2
a 2 or d
a3
6
VB
VA
(d)
VA
VB
[IES1997]
4
2
Z A .V A
Z B .V B
b
b
2
6
bd
, ZA
6
b3
b3
or V A
VB,
24
12
IES7.
2
3
b
,
24
or V A
ZB
b 2
ub
2
6
b3
12
2V B
(a)
1
V
2
(b) V
(c)
2V
(d) 2V
M
Z
a3
For rectangular beam with sides horizontal and vertical, Z =
6
3
a
For same section with diagonal horizontal, Z =
6 2
Which one of the following combinations of angles will carry the maximum
load as a column?
[IES1994]
Chapter6
S K Mondals
Assertion (A): For structures steel Ibeams preferred to other shapes. [IES1992]
Reason (R): In Ibeams a large portion of their crosssection is located far from
the neutral axis.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES9. Ans. (a)
Assertion (A): A column subjected to eccentric load will have its stress at
centroid independent of the eccentricity.
[IES1994]
Reason (R): Eccentric loads in columns produce torsion.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES10. Ans. (c) A is true and R is false.
IES11.
For the configuration of loading shown in the given figure, the stress in fibre
AB is given by:
[IES1995]
(a) P/A (tensile)
(c)
(b)
P P.e.5
(Compressive)
A I xx
Vd
P
(compressive), V x
A
P P.e.5
(Compressive)
A I xx
My
Ix
Pky
(tensile)
Ix
Chapter6
IES12.
S K Mondals
1.2 N/mm2
+1 N/mm2
+0.8 N/mm2
0.8 N/mm2
[IES1999]
IES12. Ans. (d) Compressive stress at CD = 1.2 N/mm2 =
or
IES13.
6e
20
0.2. Sostress at AB
P 6e 1600 6e
1
1
A
b 1600 20
1600
1 0.2 0.8 N/mm2 (com)
1600
[IES2001]
IES13. Ans. (b)
IES14.
Dd
(a)
8
D2 d 2
(b)
8d
D2 d 2
(c)
8D
(d)
D2 d 2
8
Chapter6
S K Mondals
[IAS2004]
What is the ratio of the maximum compressive to the maximum tensile stress?
(a) 1.0
(b) 2.0
(c) 2.5
(d) 3.0
IAS1. Ans. (b) =
My
I
V compressive, Max
tensile, max =
IAS2.
M 2h
u at lower end of A.
I 3
M h
u at upper end of B
I 3
V
y
or V
0.2
E
Here y =
2
R
25
mm = 12.5 x 103 m
2
Section Modulus
IAS3.
Chapter6
65S
cm3
64
IAS4.
(d)
65S
cm3
128
z1
I
y
and z2
?
IAS5.
65S
65S
cm3
cm3
(c)
32
96
S 4 4
3 2
65S
I 64
cm3
cm3
3
y
96
2
(b)
S K Mondals
z2
z1
0.6 u 13
0.5
I
y
0.72
1.2
1.2m3
1u 0.63
0.3
0.72m3
0.6 times
[IAS2001]
IAS5. Ans. (b)
IAS6.
Chapter6
IAS7.
S K Mondals
[IAS2000]
IAS7. Ans. (c)
M
I
V1
V2
y1
y2
or V 2
y2 u
V1
y1
30
110 30 u
30
80 MPa
IAS8.
Bimetallic Strip
IAS9.
A straight bimetallic strip of copper and steel is heated. It is free at ends. The
strip, will:
[IAS2002]
(a) Expand and remain straight
(b) Will not expand but will bend
(c) Will expand and bend also
(d) Twist only
IAS9. Ans. (c) As expansion of copper will be more than steel.
IAS10. Ans. (a) As direct and bending both the stress is compressive here.
IAS11.
Chapter6
P Phy Pkx
A Ix
Iy
P Phx Pky
(b)
A Iy
Ix
P Phy Pkx
(c)
A Iy
Ix
P Phx Pky
(d)
A Iy
Ix
(a)
P
My Pky
(compressive), V x
(compressive)
A
Ix
Ix
Mx Phx
and V y
(compressive)
Iy
Iy
Vd
S K Mondals
Chapter6
S K Mondals
Answer:
2KN
4kN/M
B
1.5
4m
NA
RA
RB
B=10cm
C/s
R A + RB = 2 + 44.........(i)
R A 4 + 2(41.5) + (44)2=0.......(ii)
or R A = 9.25 kN, RB =18R A = 8.75 kN
if 0 b x b 2.5 m
2
2(x2.5)
Mx =RB x  4x. x
=8.75x  2x 2  2x + 5 = 6.75x  2x 2 + 5
...(ii)
From (i) & (ii) we find out that bending movment at x = 2.1875 m in(i)
gives maximum bending movement
dM
for both the casses]
dx
8.25 q 2.1875 2 q18752 9.57K 7kNm
[Just find
Mmax
Tmax
Therefore maximum tensile stress in the lowest point in the beam is 14.355 MPa and
maximum compressive stress in the topmost fiber of the beam is 14.355 MPa.
Chapter6
S K Mondals
The greatest central load the beam will carry if the bending stress in the
300mm/20mm plates is not to exceed 125 MPa.
The minimum length of the 300 mm plates required to restrict the
maximum bending stress is the flanges of the joist to 125 MPa.
Answer:
35060 2
30 q 2 q 101370 cm 4
2
12
2
517194Nm
M
y
0.245
= 1.25W = 517194
or W = 413.76 kN
(ii) Suppose the cover plates are absent for a distance of xmeters from each support.
Then at these points the bending moment must not exceed moment of resistance of
I section alone i.e
35060 q108
.I
6
125 q10
q
178878Nm
y
0.245
= Bending moment at x metres from each support
Chapter6
S K Mondals
W
q x 178878
2
41760
q x 178878
or ,
2
or x 0.86464 m
Hence leaving 0.86464 m from each support, for the
Calculate:
Answer:
RR q1500 50 q 500
or , RR 16.667 kN
or , RL RR 50
= RL 50 16.667=33.333 kN
Take a section from right R,
xx at a distance x.
(I )
or, max
My
I
0.001
2
N / m 2 200MPa
4.1667 q106
16.67q103
q
d2y
33.333q x 50q ( x 0.5)
dx 2
Chapter6
S K Mondals
2.43
m = 2.9167 mm[downward so ive]
(210 q10 )q (4.1667q106 )
5
Answer:
d
above or below the neutral axis. Any
2
My
, where I
fibre at a distance y from N.A. is subjected to a bending stress, V
I
bd3
denotes the second moment of area of the rectangular section about the N.A. i.e.
.
12
d
, the maximum bending stress there becomes
At the outer fibres, y =
2
fibres of the rectangular section at a distance
or
d
Mu
2
V max
bd3
12
bd2
M V max .
6
M
bd2
6
i
(ii)
For the condition of maximum strength i.e. maximum moment M, the product bd2 must
be a maximum, since V max is constant for a given material. To maximize the quantity
bd2 we realise that it must be expressed in terms of one independent variable, say, b,
and we may do this from the right angle triangle relationship.
Page 252 of 429
Chapter6
b d
or
S K Mondals
D2 b 2
d
bd2
db
d
bD2 b3
db
D2 3b2
b2 d2 3b2
d2 2b2
...(iii)
Solving, we have, depth d 2 b
This is the desired radio in order that the beam will carry a maximum moment M.
It is to be noted that the expression appearing in the denominator of the right side of
eqn. (i) i. e.
bd2
is the section modulus (Z) of a rectangular bar. Thus, it follows; the
6
section modulus is actually the quantity to be maximized for greatest strength of the
beam.
Using the relation (iii), we have
d=
2 x 0075 = 00106 m
bd2
6
V max
M
Z
0.075 u 0.106
= 0.005618 MNm
6
0.005618
0.075 u 0.106 2 / 6
40MN / m2
7.
vQ
Ib
dM
dx
c1
Q = Statical moment =
ydA
y1
I = Moment of inertia
b = Width of beam c/s.
Q=
ydA = Shaded Area distance of the centroid of the shaded area from the neutral axis of
y1
the c/s.
Diagram
Position
of
W max
W max
Rectangular
N.A
W max =
3V
2A
N.A
W max
4
W mean
3
Chapter7
Triangular
h
from N.A
6
Trapezoidal
Section
S K Mondals
W NA
= 1.33 W mean
h1
2
V 2 h12
h
8I
h
from N.A
6
W max
Diagram
Uni form
In Flange,
ISection
( W max ) W max y
W max y
o
2
In Web
W max y
W m im y
h1
2
v
b(h12 h12 ) th12
8It
vb 2
h h12
8 It
4. Variation of shear stress for some more section [Asked in different examinations]
Non uniform ISection
Lsection
Hollow circle
Tsection
Cross
Chapter7
S K Mondals
5. Rectangular section
W max =
3V
2A
Shear stress at any point in the wall distance "s" from the free edge
A
Shearing occurs here
Vx
W
where Vx
Vx
It
ydA
o
Shear force
q =
Wt
Vx
ydA
I NA o
Chapter7
F=
x
qds
S K Mondals
Chapter7
S K Mondals
W max
3
W mean
2
The ratio of average shear stress to the maximum shear stress in a beam with a
square crosssection is:
[GATE1994, 1998]
(a) 1
(b)
2
3
(c)
3
2
(d) 2
W max
3
W mean
2
a a2
3 V 2
V u y2
.a
2 4
WA
VAy
3 V 2
4
2
2 a3
a
4y
or
IES1. Ans. (c) W
2
W B 3 V 2
Ib
2 a3
3
a4
a
ua
. 3 . a 4
12
2 a
4
Page 258 of 429
Chapter7
IES2.
S K Mondals
3 F
u
2 bd
3 2000
u
2 10 u 5
60 kg/cm 2
IES3.
V h2
2
y1 indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the cross4I 4
section.
IES5.
IES6.
Chapter7
S K Mondals
crosssection is t avg . What is the maximum shear stress developed at the same
crosssection due to the same loading?
1
(a) tavg
2
[IES2009]
3
(c) tavg
2
(b) tavg
(d) 2 tavg
Wmax
IES7.
3F
2b. h
Wmax
1.5 W(average)
4F
S
3 u d2
4
beam,
the
4
W(average)
3
W max
3
W mean
2
IES8.
Chapter7
S K Mondals
The
given
figure
(all
dimensions are in mm) shows
an ISection of the beam. The
shear stress at point P (very
close to the bottom of the
flange) is 12 MPa. The stress at
point Q in the web (very close
to the flange) is:
(a)
Indeterminable
due
to
incomplete data
(b)
60MPa
(c)
18 MPa
(d)
12 MPa
[IES2001]
The shear stress distribution over a beam crosssection is shown in the figure above. The beam is of
(a) Equal flange ISection
(b) Unequal flange ISection
(c) Circular crosssection
(d) Tsection
[IES2003]
Chapter7
S K Mondals
VAy
My
and shear stress ( W ) =
both of them does not depends
Ib
I
on material of beam.
V h2
2
y1 indicating a parabolic distribution of shear stress across the cross4I 4
section.
Chapter7
S K Mondals
The distribution of shear stress of a beam is shown in the given figure. The
crosssection of the beam is:
[IAS2000]
Assertion (A): The line of action of the load passes through the centroid of the
crosssection. The beam twists besides bending.
Reason (R): Twisting occurs since the line of action of the load does not pass
through the web of the beam.
(a) Both A and R are individually
true
Page
263 and
of 429R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
Chapter7
S K Mondals
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS5. Ans. (c) Twisting occurs since the line of action of the load does not pass through the shear.
Chapter7
S K Mondals
(i)A cantilever of circular solid crosssection is fixed at one end and carries a
concentrated load P at the free end. The diameter at the free end is 200 mm
and increases uniformly to 400 mm at the fixed end over a length of 2 m. At
what distance from the free end will the bending stresses in the cantilever be
maximum? Also calculate the value of the maximum bending stress if the
concentrated load P = 30 kN
[15Marks]
Ans.
We have
V
y
M
I
.... (i)
y = 100 +
Sd4
64
and I =
400 200 x
S 200
64
S 200 100x
64
mm 4
...... (ii)
1012 u 960
S
Chapter7
S K Mondals
30kN
200
400
2000mm
(2m)
Hence maximum bending stress occurs at the midway and from equation (ii), maximum
bending stress
960
1 200 100 3 u 1012
S
960 u 1012
S u 300
11.32 MPa
N/A
Answer:
bh3
12
20cm
0.15 u 0.20
12
104 m4
20
2
10 cm
0.1 m
M V
My
or V
I
y
I
Where maximum bending moment due to uniformly
We know that
Z" 2
Z u 42
2Z
Chapter7
S K Mondals
Z.L
Z.4
2Z
2Z
0.15 u 0.2
66.67 Z
3
.W
2
8.
Types of Beams
Cantilever beam
Cantilever Beam
Continuous Beam
Fixed Beam
Continuous beam
Continuous beams
Beams placed on more than 2 supports are called continuous beams. Continuous beams are used
when the span of the beam is very large, deflection under each rigid support will be equal zero.
Stability of structure
If the equilibrium and geometry of structure is maintained under the action of forces than the
structure is said to be stable.
Chapter8
Page267
External stability of the structure is provided by the reaction at the supports. Internal stability is
provided by proper design and geometry of the member of the structure.
Example:
P
RB
RA
0, Yi 0 and
M 0
i
Beams for which reaction forces and internal forces cannot be found out from static equilibrium
equations alone are called statically indeterminate beam. This type of beam requires deformation
equation in addition to static equilibrium equations to solve for unknown forces.
Example:
RA
RB
Rc
RD
Chapter8
Page268
Fixed beams are stiffer, stronger and more stable than SSB.
In case of fixed beams, fixed end moments will reduce the BM in each section.
Chapter8
Page269
Chapter8
Page270
VB u 2 = 2 u 1 6 u 3
2VB
2 18
VB
10 kN
VA VB
?
VA
26
8 10
8kN
2 kN
IES2.
Chapter8
Page271
They use opposite sign conversions but for correct sign remember S.F & B.M of cantilever
is () ive.
IES3.
If the beam shown in the given figure is to have zero bending moment at its
middle point, the overhang x should be:
[IAS2000]
(a)
wl 2 / 4 P
Rc
RD
(b)
P
wl 2 / 6 P
wl 2 / 8P
(d)
wl 2 /12 P
wl
2
IAS2.
(c)
wl l
l
l
u RD u P x 0 gives x
2 4
2
2
wl 2
8P
A beam carrying a uniformly distributed load rests on two supports 'b' apart
with equal overhangs 'a' at each end. The ratio b/a for zero bending moment at
midspan is:
[IAS1997]
(a)
1
2
(b) 1
(c)
3
2
(d) 2
Chapter8
Page272
IAS3.
(i)
(ii)
By formula M
Z b2
2
a
24
0 gives a = b/2
A beam carries a uniformly distributed load and is supported with two equal
overhangs as shown in figure 'A'. Which one of the following correctly shows
the bending moment diagram of the beam?
[IAS 1994]
Chapter8
Page273
Example:
RB
RA
0, Yi 0 and
M 0
i
is sufficient
Example:
RA
RB
Rc
RD
9.
Torsion
In machinery, the general term shaft refers to a member, usually of circular crosssection, which supports gears, sprockets, wheels, rotors, etc., and which is subjected to
torsion and to transverse or axial loads acting singly or in combination.
A spindle is a short shaft. Terms such as lineshaft, headshaft, stub shaft, transmission
shaft, countershaft, and flexible shaft are names associated with special usage.
T G
=
J
L
Torsion Equation
Assumptions
The section under consideration is remote from the point of application of the load and from
a change in diameter.
Adjacent cross sections originally plane and parallel remain plane and parallel after
twisting, and any radial line remains straight.
Crosssections rotate as if rigid, i.e. every diameter rotates through the same angle
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
2 r 3 dr
J = 2
LM r OP
N4Q
=
0
2 R 4 D4
=
4
32
(6)
2 r dr =
3
Lr O
2 M P
N4Q
4
=
r
( R4 r 4 ) =
32
cD
d4
(7)
d4
Solid shaft J =
32
32
(do 4 di 4 )
Then, max = T / Zp
If design shears stress, d is known, required polar section modulus can be calculated from:
Zp = T / d
P (in Watt ) =
2 NT
60
Chapter9
Torsion
2 NT
=
4500
P (in hp)
S K Mondals
(1 hp = 75 Kgm/sec).
[Where N = rpm; T = Torque in Nm.]
Stiffness consideration
T G
=
J
L
T
=
J R
We take higher value of diameter of both cases above for overall safety if other parameters are given.
6. In twisting
max
16T
d3
Solid shaft,
Hollow shaft,
max
16Td o
(d o 4 di 4 )
d = 4.9
TL
G
A Hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of the same weight & same
material because the average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the average
shear stress in the solid shaft
=
( max ) solid shaft
15
Th
n2 + 1
=
Ts n n 2 1
Where, n=
[ONGC2005]
n 2 1 n 2/3
Wh
=
2/3
Ws
n4 1
Hollow shaft, d o = D, di = D
2
Where, n=
Uh n 2 + 1
1
= 1+ 2
=
2
Us
n
n
[WBPSC2003]
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
8. Shaft in series
= 1 + 2
Torque (T) is same in all section
Electrical analogy gives torque(T) = Current (I)
9. Shaft in parallel
1 = 2
and T = T1 + T2
In most practical transmission situations shafts which carry torque are also subjected to
bending, if only by virtue of the selfweight of the gears they carry. Many other practical
applications occur where bending and torsion arise simultaneously so that this type of
loading represents one of the major sources of complex stress situations.
In the case of shafts, bending gives rise to tensile stress on one surface and compressive
stress on the opposite surface while torsion gives rise to pure shear throughout the shaft.
For shafts subjected to the simultaneous application of a bending moment M and torque T
the principal stresses set up in the shaft can be shown to be equal to those produced by an
equivalent bending moment, of a certain value Me acting alone.
Figure
32 M P
+
d3 A
16T
xy = 3
d
x =
Chapter9
Torsion
1,2
max =
max
x + xy2
2
2
1 2
2
= x + ( xy ) 2
2
16
M + M 2 +T2
d3
16
M 2 +T2
3
d
max
S K Mondals
1
T
tan 1
2
M
M + M 2 +T2
Me =
2
Te = M 2 + T 2
Important Note
o
Uses of the formulas are limited to cases in which both M & T are known. Under any
other condition Mohrs circle is used.
in tension , d =
in shear , d=
32M e
16Te
Figure
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Fn = [ BC sin + AC cos ]
Ft = [ BC cos  AC sin ]
Normal stress ( n ) & Tangential stress (shear stress) ( t ) on inclined plane AB.
sin 2
cos 2
( n )max
45
90
135
max
Important Note
1,2 = sin2
Principal strains
1 =
(1 + ); 2 =
(1 + ); 3 = 0
Volumetric strain,
v =1 + 2 + 3 = 0
No change in volume for a shaft subjected to pure torque.
There are some applications in machinery for noncircular crosssection members and shafts
where a regular polygonal crosssection is useful in transmitting torque to a gear or pulley
that can have an axial change in position. Because no key or keyway is needed, the
possibility of a lost key is avoided.
Saint Venant (1855) showed that max in a rectangular b c section bar occurs in the middle
of the longest side b and is of magnitude formula
max =
T
T
1.8
=
3+
2
2
b / c
bc
bc
Where b is the longer side and factor that is function of the ratio b/c.
The angle of twist is given by
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Tl
bc3G
Rectangular c/s
Elliptical c/s
Triangular c/s
Angle of twist,
T
2 A0t
sL
2 AO G
[Where S = length of mean centre line, AO = Area enclosed by mean centre line]
Special Cases
o
J = 2 r 3t ;
Ao = r 2 ;
S = 2 r
=
o
T
T .r
T
=
=
2
2 r t
2 Aot
J
TL
L
TL
=
=
GJ Ao JG 2 r 3tG
A0 = b 2
S =4b
o
A0 = ab
3
S (a + b) ab
2
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under
pure torsion is 240 MPa. If the shaft diameter is doubled then the maximum
shear stress developed corresponding to the same torque will be: [GATE2003]
(a) 120 MPa
(b) 60 MPa
(c) 30 MPa
(d) 15 MPa
16T
16T
16T
240
GATE2. Ans. (c) =
, 240 =
if diameter doubled d = 2d, then =
=
= 30MPa
3
8
d3
d3
( 2d )
GATE3.
A steel shaft 'A' of diameter 'd' and length 'l' is subjected to a torque T Another
shaft 'B' made of aluminium of the same diameter 'd' and length 0.5l is also
subjected to the same torque 'T'. The shear modulus of steel is 2.5 times the
shear modulus of aluminium. The shear stress in the steel shaft is 100 MPa. The
shear stress in the aluminium shaft, in MPa, is:
[GATE2000]
(a) 40
(b) 50
(c) 100
(d) 250
16T
as T & d both are same is same
GATE3. Ans. (c) =
d3
GATE4.
(a)
64T
d3
(b)
32T
d3
(c)
16T
d3
(d)
8T
d3
The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter or shaft B and both are made of
the same material. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed, the
maximum power transmitted by B is:
[IES2001; GATE1994]
th
(a) The same as that of A (b) Half of A
(c) 1/8 of A
(d) 1/4th of A
or P =
d3
16
2 N
60
and =
16T
d3
=
or
T
16
d3
2 N
or P d3
60
A solid shaft can resist a bending moment of 3.0 kNm and a twisting moment of
4.0 kNm together, then the maximum torque that can be applied is: [GATE1996]
(a) 7.0 kNm
(b) 3.5 kNm
(c)4.5 kNm
(d) 5.0 kNm
Page 283 of 429
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. The ratio of
its torque carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the
same outside diameter is:
[GATE1993; IES2001]
(a)
15
16
(b)
T G
=
=
J
L
R
or T =
J
R
3
4
(c)
1
2
(d)
1
16
if is const. T J
4
D
4
2
32
15
Th
J
= h =
=
4
T
J
16
D
32
Shafts in Series
GATE8.
Shafts in Parallel
GATE9.
[GATE2005]
(d) TA=16 TC
[IES 2008]
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
3.
Directly proportional to its polar moment of inertia.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1 and 2 only
T r 16T
IES1. Ans. (d) =
=
J
d3
IES2.
Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under
pure torsion is 240 MPa. If the shaft diameter is doubled, then what is the
maximum shear stress developed corresponding to the same torque? [IES2009]
(a) 120 MPa
(b) 60 MPa
(c) 30 MPa
(d) 15 MPa
16T
= 240 MPa =
d3
16
( 2d)
1 16T 240
= =
= 30MPa
8 d3 8
8
IES4.
T d3
or
T2 d2
60
= = =8
T1 d1
30
IES5.
[IES2000]
IES7.
A solid circular shaft is subjected to pure torsion. The ratio of maximum shear
to maximum normal stress at any point would be:
[IES1999]
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1: 2
(c) 2: 1
(d) 2: 3
16T
32T
and normal stress =
3
d
d3
IES8.
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
[IES2002]
Which of the following figures represents the shear stress on the element
LMNOPQRS ?
[IES1997]
T G
GR
1
or =
= =
IES10. Ans. (c)
J R
L
L
L
Onehalf length of 50 mm diameter steel rod is solid while the remaining half is
hollow having a bore of 25 mm. The rod is subjected to equal and opposite
torque at its ends. If the maximum shear stress in solid portion is or, the
maximum shear stress in the hollow portion is:
[IES2003]
15
(b)
16
J
T
IES11. Ans. (d)
= or T =
J r
r
J J
D
or s = h h ; rs = rh =
rs
rh
2
(a)
(c)
(d)
16
15
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
D4
Js
1
1
16
32
or h =
=
=
=
=
4
4
Jh
d
25
15
D4 d 4
1
1
32
D
50
IES13.
While transmitting the same power by a shaft, if its speed is doubled, what
should be its new diameter if the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft
remains same?
[IES2006]
1
of the original diameter
2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1
of the original diameter
2
1
( 2)
if P is const.T
IES14.
if
1/ 2
(a)
(b)
d3
16
2 N
60
and =
(c)
2/3
(d)
16T
d3
or T =
3
16
d
1/3
2 N
480 P
P
or d3 = 2
or d
60
JN
N
IES15.
A shaft can safely transmit 90 kW while rotating at a given speed. If this shaft
is replaced by a shaft of diameter double of the previous one and rotated at
half the speed of the previous, the power that can be transmitted by the new
shaft is:
[IES2002]
(a) 90 kW
(b) 180 kW
(c) 360 kW
(d) 720 kW
IES15. Ans. (c)
IES16.
The diameter of shaft A is twice the diameter or shaft B and both are made of
the same material. Assuming both the shafts to rotate at the same speed, the
maximum power transmitted by B is:
[IES2001; GATE1994]
(d) 1/4th of A
(a) The same as that of A
(b) Half of A
(c) 1/8th of A
3
2 N
16T
d
and =
or T =
IES16. Ans. (c) Power, P = T
3
60
16
d
Page 287 of 429
3
d 2 N
or P =
or P d3
16
60
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
IES17.
[IES1997]
M2+T2
(c)
1
[M + T ]
2
1
M + M 2 +T2
2
1
2
2
(d) M + T
4
(b)
M2
(c)
M2 +T2
(d) M T
+ T2
A shaft is subjected to fluctuating loads for which the normal torque (T) and
bending moment (M) are 1000 Nm and 500 Nm respectively. If the combined
shock and fatigue factor for bending is 1.5 and combined shock and fatigue
factor for torsion is 2, then the equivalent twisting moment for the shaft is:
[IES1994]
(a) 2000Nm
(b) 2050Nm
(c) 2100Nm
(d) 2136 Nm
(b) M + T
Teq =
= 2136 Nm
A shaft was initially subjected to bending moment and then was subjected to
torsion. If the magnitude of bending moment is found to be the same as that of
the torque, then the ratio of maximum bending stress to shear stress would be:
[IES1993]
(a) 0.25
(b) 0.50
(c) 2.0
(d) 4.0
IES22. Ans. (c) Use equivalent bending moment formula,
1st case: Equivalent bending moment (Me) = M
0 + 02 + T 2 T
=
2
2
(Me)288
= of 429
2nd case: Equivalent bending momentPage
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
IES23.
(b) Wl + T
(a) T
2 2
2
wL
(c) (Wl ) +
2
2
wL2
2
+
(d) Wl +
T
[IES1999]
wL
2
(a)
T
2
(b) T
(c) 2T
(d) 4T
32 M
16T
and =
d3
d3
[IES1998]
(d) Zero
The maximum compressive normal stress =
b + xy2
2
2
2
2
2
=
+
2
2
IES27.
= 3
Which one of the following statements is correct? Shafts used in heavy duty
speed reducers are generally subjected
[IES2004]
Page 289 ofto:
429
(a) Bending stress only
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
The ratio of torque carrying capacity of a solid shaft to that of a hollow shaft is
given by:
[IES2008]
(a) 1 K 4
(b) 1 K 4
(c)K 4
(d)1/ K 4
Di
; Di = Inside diameter of hollow shaft and Do = Outside diameter of hollow
Do
shaft. Shaft material is the same.
IES28. Ans. (b) should be same for both hollow and solid shaft
Where K =
Ts
Th
=
4
D
D4 Di4
32 o
32 o
1
Ts
1 k4
Th
Ts
D4
= 4 o 4
Th Do Di
4
Ts Di
= 1
Th Do
IES29.
(404 204 )
Js
JH
d4
64
=
or
=
40
Rs
RH
64 d
2
2
or, d3 = (10)3 60 or d = 10 3 60 mm
IES30.
The diameter of a solid shaft is D. The inside and outside diameters of a hollow
shaft of same material and length are
2D
D
and
respectively. What is the
3
3
ratio of the weight of the hollow shaft to that of the solid shaft?
(a) 1:1
(b) 1:
IES31.
WH
=
WS
(c) 1:2
(d) 1:3
4D D
L g
4 3
3
=1
2
D L g
4
2
[IES 2007]
16
(R
)f
(b)
2R
(R
)f
(c)
8R
(R
)f
(d)
R4 r 4
32
fs
R4 r 4
T fs
J
2
IES31. Ans. (b)
=
or T = fs =
fs =
R 4 r 4 .fs .
J R
R
R
2R
IES32.
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
DH
dH
The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. The ratio of
its torque carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and the
same outside diameter is:
[GATE1993; IES2001]
(a)
15
16
3
4
(b)
T G
=
=
J
L
R
or T =
J
R
(c)
1
2
(d)
1
16
if is const. T J
4
D
4
D
32
2 15
Th
J
= h =
=
4
T
J
16
D
32
IES34.
Two hollow shafts of the same material have the same length and outside
diameter. Shaft 1 has internal diameter equal to onethird of the outer
diameter and shaft 2 has internal diameter equal to half of the outer diameter.
If both the shafts are subjected to the same torque, the ratio of their twists
1 / 2
(a) 16/81
[IES1998]
(b) 8/27
(c) 19/27
d
d14 1
Q
1
2
1 =
IES34. Ans. (d) Q
J
Q2
d
d14 1
3
IES35.
(d) 243/256
= 243
4
256
(a )
16
15
( b)
4
(c)
3
( d )
T G
G.R.
=
=
or =
if is const. R and outer diameter is same in both
J
L
R
L
the cases.
Note: Required torque will be different.
IES36.
A solid shaft of diameter 'D' carries a twisting moment that develops maximum
shear stress . If the shaft is replaced by a hollow one of outside diameter 'D'
and inside diameter D/2, then the maximum shear stress will be:
[IES1994]
(a) 1.067
(b) 1.143
(c) 1.333
(d) 2
T G
TR
1
IES36. Ans. (a)
=
=
or =
if T is const.
J
L
R
J
J
h
J
D4
16
=
=
=
= 1.06666
4
Jh
15
D
4
D
2
IES37.
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
develop a maximum shear stress of 60 N/mm2 in the hollow shaft, the torque 'T
must be reduced by:
[IES1998]
(a) T/4
(b) T/8
(c) T/12
(d)T/16
Tr 16T
T 32(d / 2)
=
= 4
4
3
J d
d ( d / 2)
1
Reduction =
16
s =
or
T 15
=
T 16
IES38.
Assertion (A): A hollow shaft will transmit a greater torque than a solid shaft of
the same weight and same material.
[IES1994]
Reason (R): The average shear stress in the hollow shaft is smaller than the
average shear stress in the solid shaft.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES38. Ans. (a)
IES39.
A hollow shaft is subjected to torsion. The shear stress variation in the shaft
along the radius is given by:
[IES1996]
Shafts in Series
IES40.
16Tl
Gd 4
64Tl
(c)
Gd 4
(a)
38Tl
Gd 4
66Tl
(d)
Gd 4
(b)
[IES2005]
T 2l
Tl
Tl
66Tl
+
=
64 + 2] =
IES40. Ans. (d) = 1 + 2 =
4
4 [
4
d
Gd
Gd4
( 2d)
G
G.
32
32
Shafts in Parallel
IES41.
For the two shafts connected in parallel, find which statement is true?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
[IES1992]
Chapter9
IES42.
Torsion
S K Mondals
TL
3GJ
[IES2005]
(b)
TL
2GJ
(c)
TL
GJ
(d)
AB = BC
or
TAB
TABL TBC.L
=
or TAB = 2TBC
G.2J
G.J
+ TBC = T or
TBC = T / 3
or QB = Q AB =
IES43.
2TL
GJ
T L
TL
.
=
3 GJ 3GJ
16T
D3
(b)
12T
D3
[IES2004]
(c)
8T
D3
(d)
4T
D3
AX = XB & TA + TB = T
3L
TA.L / 4 TB 4
or
=
GJ
GJ
or TA = 3TB or TA =
max
16TA
=
=
D3
3T
,
4
3
T
12T
4
=
4
D3
D3
16
IES44.
[IES1998]
Chapter9
Torsion
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
IAS1. Ans. (b)
IAS2.
S K Mondals
T
=
J R
If two shafts of the same length, one of which is hollow, transmit equal torque
and have equal maximum stress, then they should have equal.
[IAS1994]
(a) Polar moment of inertia
(b) Polar modulus of section
(c) Polar moment of inertia
(d) Angle of twist
T
J
Here T & are same, so
should be same i.e. polar modulus of section will
=
R
J R
be same.
A hollow circular shaft having outside diameter 'D' and inside diameter d
subjected to a constant twisting moment 'T' along its length. If the maximum
shear stress produced in the shaft is s then the twisting moment 'T' is given
by:
[IAS1999]
D d
(a) s
8
D4
4
D d
(b)
s
16
D4
4
T G
J
IAS4. Ans. (b)
=
= gives T =
=
J
L
R
R
(c)
32
D d
s
32
D4
4
(D
D
2
d4
16
(D
D d4
(d)
s
64
D4
d4
Torsional Rigidity
IAS5.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IAS1996]
ListI (Mechanical Properties)
ListII ( Characteristics)
A. Torsional rigidity
1. Product of young's modulus and second
moment of area about the plane of
bending
B. Modulus of resilience
2. Strain energy per unit volume
C. Bauschinger effect
3. Torque unit angle of twist
D. Flexural rigidity
4. Loss of mechanical energy due to local
yielding
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 1
3
4
2
(b)
3
2
4
1
(c)
2
4
1
3
(d)
3
1
4
2
IAS5. Ans. (b)
IAS6.
Assertion (A): Angle of twist per unit length of a uniform diameter shaft
depends upon its torsional rigidity.
[IAS2004]
Reason (R): The shafts are subjected to torque only.
Page 294 of 429
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS6. Ans. (c)
A shaft is subjected to a bending moment M = 400 N.m alld torque T = 300 N.m
The equivalent bending moment is:
[IAS2002]
(a) 900 N.m
(b) 700 N.m
(c) 500 N.m
(d) 450 N.m
Me =
L
from one end. What is the reaction torque at the other end of
3
2T
(a)
3
[IAS2007]
T
(b)
2
T
(c)
3
T
(d)
4
IAS9.
2d
while the inside diameter
3
d
. What is the ratio of the torsional stiffness of the hollow shaft to that of
3
2
3
[IAS2007]
(b)
3
5
(c)
5
3
(d) 2
4
4
2d d
T
IAS9. Ans. (c) Torsional stiffness =
IAS10.
K H 32 3 3 5
GJ
=
=
or
=
4
3
KS
L
.d
32
Two steel shafts, one solid of diameter D and the other hollow of outside
diameter D and inside diameter D/2, are twisted to the same angle of twist per
unit length. The ratio of maximum shear stress in solid shaft to that in the
hollow shaft is:
[IAS1998]
(a)
(b)
(c)
16
15
(d)
T G
G R
as outside diameter of both the shaft is D so is
or =
= =
J R
L
L
same for both the cases.
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Shafts in Series
IAS11.
Two shafts having the same length and material are joined in series. If the
ratio of the diameter of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is 2, then the
ratio of the angle of twist of the first shaft to that of the second shaft is:
[IAS1995; 2003]
(a) 16
(b) 8
(c) 4
(d) 2
1 1
J d4
A circular shaft fixed at A has diameter D for half of its length and diameter
D/2 over the other half. What is the rotation of C relative of B if the rotation of
B relative to A is 0.1 radian?
[IAS1994]
(a) 0.4 radian
(b) 0.8 radian
(c) 1.6 radian
(d) 3.2 radian
d 4
T G
1
1
or
or 4 J =
=
32
J
L
J
d
4
d
Here
or = 1.6 radian.
=
0.1 (d / 2)4
Shafts in Parallel
IAS13.
A stepped solid circular shaft shown in the given figure is builtin at its ends
and is subjected to a torque To at the shoulder section. The ratio of reactive
torque T1 and T2 at the ends is (J1 and J2 are polar moments of inertia):
J 2 l2
J1 l1
J l
(c) 1 2
J 2 l1
J 2 l1
J 1 l2
J l
(d) 1 1
J 2 l2
(b)
(a)
[IAS2001]
IAS13. Ans. (c)
1 = 2
or
T1l1 T2l2
=
GJ1 GJ 2
or
T1 J1 l2
=
T2 J 2 l1
IAS14.
Steel shaft and brass shaft of same length and diameter are connected by a
flange coupling. The assembly is rigidity held at its ends and is twisted by a
torque through the coupling. Modulus of rigidity of steel is twice that of brass.
If torque of the steel shaft is 500 Nm, then the value of the torque in brass shaft
will be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 250 Nm
(b) 354 Nm
(c) 500 Nm
(d) 708 Nm
IAS14. Ans. (a)
1 = 2 or
IAS15.
Ts ls
Tl
= bb
Gs J s Gb J b
or
Ts Tb
=
Gs Gb
or
Tb Gb 1
=
=
Ts Gs 2
or Tb =
Ts
= 250 Nm
2
A steel shaft with bultin ends is subjected to the action of a torque Mt applied
at an intermediate crosssection 'mn' as shown in the given figure.
[IAS1997]
Page 296 of 429
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
Assertion (A): The magnitude of the twisting moment to which the portion BC
is subjected is
M ta
a+b
Reason(R): For geometric compatibility, angle of twist at 'mn' is the same for
the portions AB and BC.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS15. Ans. (a)
IAS16.
A steel shaft of outside diameter 100 mm is solid over one half of its length and
hollow over the other half. Inside diameter of hollow portion is 50 mm. The
shaft if held rigidly at two ends and a pulley is mounted at its midsection i.e., at
the junction of solid and hollow portions. The shaft is twisted by applying
torque on the pulley. If the torque carried by the solid portion of the shaft is
16000kgm, then the torque carried by the hollow portion of the shaft will be:
[IAS1997]
(a) 16000 kgm
(b) 15000 kgm
(c) 14000 kgm
(d) 12000 kgm
IAS16. Ans.(b) s = H
100 4 50 4
TsL
THL
JH
32
or
=
or TH = TS
= 16000
= 15000kgm
GJs GJH
Js
4
100
32
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
A hollow steel rod 200 mm long is to be used as torsional spring. The ratio of
inside to outside diameter is 1 : 2. The required stiffness of this spring is 100
N.m /degree.
Determine the outside diameter of the rod.
Value of G is
Ans.
8 104 N/mm2 .
[10 Marks]
T
G.
=
J
L
Where T = Torque
T
N M
= Stiffness
rad
J = polar moment
Stiffness =
T
G.J
=
d2 = 2d1
d 42  d14
32
J=
16d14  d14
32
J=
(
(
J=
d1
1
=
d2
2
d14 15
32
5729.578Nm / rad =
8 104 106 N / m2
d14 15
0.2
32
5729.578 .2 32
= d14
10
8 10 15
d1 = 9.93 103 m.
d1 = 9.93mm.
d 2 = 2 9.93 = 19.86 mm
Ans.
Answer:
Chapter9
Torsion
tE = 30 C; tm = 700 C;
Tmax = 1000Nm;
S K Mondals
allowable = 300MPa
Linear strain =
max
16T 2 a 2
=
+
3
D 2
allowable
300
= 200MPa
F.O.S
1.5
Substituting the values, we get
where, max =
16 1000
8
4 1016 =
+ 1.2 10
3
D
16 1000
or
= 1.6 108
D3
1/3
16 1000
or D =
8
1.6 10
= 0.03169 m = 31.69 mm
Ans.
T G
= =
J r
L
......... (i)
J=
=
D4 d4
32
= 5.338 107
T = 1.6 kN m = 1.6 103 Nm
= 0.4
l = 0.2 m
E = 200 109 N/m 2
From equation (i)
T G
=
J
L
Page 299 of 429
Chapter9
Torsion
1.6 103
5.338 10 7
G=
S K Mondals
G 0.4
180
=
0.2
0.4 5.338 10 7
= 85.92 GPa
We also have
E = 2 G (1 + v)
200 = 2 85.92 (1 + v )
1 + v = 1.164
v = 0.164
Conventional Question IAS  1996
Question:
Answer:
3G
R13R32
D13D32
3G
2
2
32TL (1.2 ) + 1.2 1 + (1)
=
[ D1 = D and D2 = 1.2D]
3
3
3G D4
1.2
1
(
)
(
)
32TL
=
2.1065
3G D4
1.2D + D
Now,
Davg =
= 1.1D
2
2
32TL 3 (1.1D ) 32TL
3
32TL
=
2.049
'=
=
6
4
4
3G (1.1D ) 3G (1.2 ) .D
3G D4
Error =
Solution:
A hollow shaft and a solid shaft construction of the same material have the
same length and the same outside radius. The inside radius of the hollow
shaft is 0.6 times of the outside radius. Both the shafts are subjected to the
same torque.
(i) What is the ratio of maximum shear stress in the hollow shaft to that of
solid shaft?
(ii) What is the ratio of angle of twist in the hollow shaft to that of solid shaft?
T G
= =
J R L
Inside radius (r)
Given,
= 0.6 and Th = Ts = T
Out side (R)
Using
(i) =
T .R
T .R
gives ; For hollow shaft (h ) =
4
J
R r 4)
(
2
Page 300 of 429
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T .R
and for solid shaft ( s)=
4
.R
2
Therefore
(ii) =
n
R4
= 4
=
s
R r 4
1
1
=
= 1.15
4
1 0.64
r
1
R
TL
T .L
T .L
gives h =
and s =
GJ
G. (R 4 r 4 )
G. .R 4
2
2
Therefore
h
R4
= 4
=
s R r 4
1
1
=
= 1.15
4
1 0.64
r
1
R
Answer:
Two hollow shafts of same diameter are used to transmit same power. One
shaft is rotating at 1000 rpm while the other at 1200 rpm. What will be the
nature and magnitude of the stress on the surfaces of these shafts? Will it be
the same in two cases of different? Justify your answer.
We know power transmitted (P) = Torque (T) rotation speed ( )
Therefore
P. D
T .R PR
2
=
=
N
2
J
J
( D 4 d 4 )
60 32
1
as P, D and d are constant.
N
So the shaft rotating at 1000 rpm will experience greater stress then 1200 rpm shaft.
Answer:
max
T + t
2
=
J
4
(d + 2t ) d 4 = d 3 t
32
4
Chapter9
Torsion
[As t <<d] then max
S K Mondals
d
2 = 2T
=
3 td 2
d t
4
T
Given
max
d = 5 cm = 0.05 m
&
t = 1cm = 0.1 m
8000N
= 8 kN / cm 2 =
= 80MPa = 80 106 N / m 2
2
4
(10 ) m
T =
d 2t max
0.052 0.01 80 106
=
= 3.142 kNm
2
2
Answer:
=
J
R
{D 4 ( 0 .6 D )4 }
J
3
2
=
o r ,T =
f o r h o llo w s h a f t
R
(D / 2 )
D s4
J
= J 32
f o r s o lid s h a f t
Ds
R
2
D 3s
{1 ( 0 . 6 ) 4 } =
16
and T=
D 3
16
or,
D
=
Ds
1
= 1 .0 7 2
1 ( 0 .6 )4
Answer:
D 3 t
4
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T
TD
T.R TD
2T
2 72
18335
=
=
=
=
=
=
or, =
J R
J
t
2J
D 3 t
D 2t (0.050)2 t
2
4
P 9000
9000
57296
=
=
Direct stress (1 ) = =
A
t
dt
(0.050)t
d
My M 2 Md
=
=
Maximum bending stress ( 2 ) =
[J = 2I ]
I
I
J
1750 0.120 0.050 4 106952
=
=
(0.050)3 t
t
164248
Total longitudinal stress (b ) = 1 + 2 =
t
Maximum principal stress
2
164248
+
(1) = b + b + 2 =
2
2
2t
2
2
276 106
164248 18335
+
=
2t t
4
Answer:
A hollow shaft of diameter ratio 3/8 required to transmit 600 kW at 110 rpm,
the maximum torque being 20% greater than the mean. The shear stress is
not to exceed 63 MPa and the twist in a length of 3 m not to exceed 1.4
degrees. Determine the diameter of the shaft. Assume modulus of rigidity for
the shaft material as 84 GN/m2.
Let d = internal diameter of the hollow shaft
And D = external diameter of the hollow shaft
(given) d = 3/8 D = 0.375D
Power (P)= 600 kW, speed (N) =110 rpm, Shear stress( )= 63 MPa. Angle of twist (
)=1.4, Length ( ) =3m , modulus of rigidity (G) = 84GPa
2N
60
3
60 P 60 (60010 )
or T=
=
= 52087Nm
2 110
2N
Tmax = 1.2T = 1.252087 =62504 Nm
We know that, (P) = T.
= T.
[T is average torque]
or J =
T
=
J R
T .R T .D
=
2
4
62504 D
4
D
(0.375
D
)
=
2 (63106 )
32
or D = 0.1727 m = 172.7 mm (i )
or
17 1.4
radian
180
Chapter9
Torsion
S K Mondals
T G
=
J
T G
=
J
or D 4 (0.375 D) 4 =
32
or
625043
1.5
(84109 )
180
so D=175.5 mm
Conventional Question ESE1997
Question:
Answer:
D 4 d 4 ) = d 4 (1.54 1)
(
32
32
T G
= =
L
J R
4
G.
d (1.54 1)
GJ
0.4Gd 4
32
or T =
=
=
L
L
L
We know that
The maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress analysed for a
shaft of 150 mm diameter under combined bending and torsion, were found
to be 120 MN/m2 and 80 MN/m2 respectively. Find the bending moment and
torque to which the shaft is subjected.
If the maximum shear stress be limited to 100 MN/m2, find by how much the
torque can be increased if the bending moment is kept constant.
Answer:
Part 1:
M; T
We know that for combined bending and torsion, we have the following expressions:
16
(i)
M + M2 + T 2
d3
16
max = 3 M2 + T 2
and
( ii )
d
Substituting the given values in the above equations, we have
16
M + M2 + T 2 ( iii )
120 =
3
( 0.15 )
max =
80 =
or
16
( 0.15 )
M +T =
2
M2 + T 2 ( iv )
80 ( 0.15 )
16
= 0.053 ( v )
Chapter9
Torsion
Substituting this values in equation ( iii ) , we get
16
120 =
( 0.1503 )
S K Mondals
[M + 0.053]
M = 0.0265MNm
( 0.0265 )
+ T 2 = 0.053
T = 0.0459MNm
or
[ max = 100MN / m2 ]
Part II :
Increase in torque :
( 0.0265 )
or
100 ( 0.15 )3
= 0.004391
+T =
16
T = 0.0607 MNm
The increased torque = 0.0607 0.0459 = 0.0148MNm
Conventional Question ESE1996
Question: A solid shaft is to transmit 300 kW at 120 rpm. If the shear stress is not to
exceed 100 MPa, Find the diameter of the shaft, What percent saving in
weight would be obtained if this shaft were replaced by a hollow one whose
internal diameter equals 0.6 of the external diameter, the length, material
and maximum allowable shear stress being the same?
Answer:
Given P= 300 kW, N = 120 rpm, =100 MPa, d H = 0.6 DH
Diameter of solid shaft, Ds:
2NT
601000
T
We know that
=
J R
We know that P =
or, T=
.J
R
or 300 =
2 120T
or T=23873 Nm
601000
100106
or, 23873 =
4
Ds
32
Ds
2
TH = Ts
Chapter9
Torsion
J
R
or ,
4
H
J
=
R
4
H
{D d }
= D s3
DH
or ,DH =
A g a in
Ds
3
(1 0 .6 )
S K Mondals
or ,
=
D H4 (0 .6 D H ) 4
= D s3
DH
1 0 6 .7
3
1 0 .6 4
= 1 1 1 .8 m m
A L g
A
WH
= H H H = H
As Ls s g
As
WS
(D H2 d H2 ) D H2 (1 0 .6 2 ) 1 1 1 .8 2
AH
4
1 0 .6 )2 = 0 .7 0 2
=
=
=
2
1 0 6 .7 (
2
As
D
s
D
4 s
W
P e rc e n ta g e s a v in g s in w e ig h t = 1  H 1 0 0
W
s
= (1 0 .7 0 2 ) 1 0 0 = 2 9 .8 %
s = qr
s qr
=
A A
Unit stress,
Circumferential strain, c =
qr
AE
w 2 r 2
Hoop's Tension, s =
g
s w 2 r
Radial loading, q = =
r
g
Hoop's stress,
= Angular velocity
s
w 2 2
=
. r
A Ag
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
3. General Formula
1
r1
Where
2
r2
p
t
1 =Meridional stress at A
2 =Circumferential / Hoop's stress
P = Intensity of internal gas pressure/ fluid pressure
t = Thickness of pressure vessel.
4. Some cases:
Cylindrical vessel
1 =
pr pD
=
2t
4t
max =
1 2
2
2 =
=
r1 , r2 = r
pr pD
=
4t
8t
Spherical vessel
pr pD
=
2t
4t
1 = 2 =
pr pD
=
t
2t
[r1 = r2 = r]
Conical vessel
1 =
py tan
[ r1 ]
2t cos
py tan
t cos
2 =
and
Volume
'V'
of
the
spherical
shell,
V=
Di3
1/3
6V
Di =
Notes:
Rectangular block,
1=Longitudinal strain =
1
E
2
E
pr
[1 2 ]
2 Et
pr
[1 2 ]
E
E 2 Et
V
pr
pD
Volumetric Strain,
[5 4] =
[5 4]
=1 +2 2 =
Vo
2 Et
4 Et
2 =Circumferential strain =
Spherical vessels
=1 =2 =
pr
[1 ]
2 Et
Chapter10
V
3 pr
[1 ]
= 3 =
V0
2 Et
Thin Cylinder
t2 1
=
t1 2
7. Alternative method
Consider the equilibrium of forces in the zdirection acting on the part
cylinder shown in figure.
Force due to internal pressure p acting on area D2/4 = p. D2/4
Force due to longitudinal stress sL acting on area Dt = 1 Dt
Equating:
or
p. D2/4 = 1 Dt
1 =
pd pr
=
4t
2t
pD pr
=
2t
t
S K Mondals
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
ec =
c
E
l
E
50 106
25 106
0.2
= 2.25 104
200 109
200 109
(a)
pd
t
(b)
pd
,
2t
l =
pd
,
4t
pd
2t
(c)
pd
4t
(d)
c l
2
pd
8t
pd
8t
gRL
1000 10 1 1
= 10 MPa
1 10 3
PR Page
10 311
1 of 429
Circumferential Stress( c )=
=
= 10 MPa
t
1 10 3
or a =
(d) (5,5)MPa
Chapter10
GATE4.
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
If the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the container material are 100
GPa and 0.3, respectively, the axial strain in the cylinder wall at middepth is:
(a) 2 105
(b) 6 105
(c) 7 105
(d) 1.2 105
a =
a
E
c
E
10
10
0 .3
= 7 10 5
3
3
100 10
100 10
du
dr
(b)
1 du
.
r dr
(c)
u
r
(d)
2u
r
IES4.
l
E
c
E
c
E
l
E
pr
(2 )
2Et
pr
(1 2 )
2Et
m2
2m + 1
(b)
m2
2m 1
(c)
Pr
2t
2m 1
m2
(d)
2m + 2
m 1
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
Pr
hoop stress ( c ) =
t
l 1 c
1 1
l
m2
= E m E = 2 m =
1
2m 1
c c 1 l
1
2m
E mE
IES5.
When a thin cylinder of diameter 'd' and thickness 't' is pressurized with an
internal pressure of 'p', (1/m = is the Poisson's ratio and E is the modulus of
elasticity), then
[IES1998]
pd 1 1
2tE 2 m
(a)
(b)
pd
1
1
2tE 2m
(c)
pd
2t
(d)
m2
2m 1
IES5. Ans. (d) Ratio of longitudinal strain to circumferential strain
1
1
c l {2 l } m 2
m =
m
=
=
2m 1
1
1
c l {2 l } l
m
m
pr
Circumferential strain, ec = c l =
(2 )
Longitudinal strain, el =
IES6.
l
E
c
E
2Et
pr
(1 2 )
2Et
A thin cylinder contains fluid at a pressure of 500 N/m2, the internal diameter
of the shell is 0.6 m and the tensile stress in the material is to be limited to 9000
[IES2000]
N/m2. The shell must have a minimum wall thickness of nearly
(a) 9 mm
(b) 11 mm
(c) 17 mm
(d) 21 mm
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
IES7. Ans. (a) Point 'X' is subjected to circumferential and longitudinal stress, i.e. tension on all
faces, but there is no shear stress because vessel is supported freely outside.
IES8.
A thin cylinder with both ends closed is subjected to internal pressure p. The
longitudinal stress at the surface has been calculated as o. Maximum shear
stress at the surface will be equal to:
[IES1999]
( a ) 2 o
( b ) 1.5 o
(c) o
(d)
0.5 o
pd
10 100
1000
or 200 =
or t =
= 2.5 cm
2t
2t
400
2 o o o
=
2
2
1
( 1 2 )
E
Since circumferential stress 1 = 80 MPa and longitudinal stress 2 = 40 MPa
1
80 0.28 40 ] 106 = 3.44 x104
5
6 [
2 10 10
Circumferential strain =
IES11.
A penstock pipe of 10m diameter carries water under a pressure head of 100 m.
If the wall thickness is 9 mm, what is the tensile stress in the pipe wall in MPa?
[IES2009]
(a) 2725
(b) 5450
(c) 2725
(d) 1090
IES11. Ans. (b) Tensile stress in the pipe wall = Circumferential stress in pipe wall =
Pd
2t
P = gH = 980000N / m2
980000 10
Tensile stress =
= 544.44 106 N / m2 = 544.44MN / m2 = 544.44MPa
2 9 103
Where,
IES12.
Hoop stress = c =
t=
Pd
2t
106 (1)
Pd
1
m = 20 mm
=
=
6
2c
2 25 10
50
Page 314 of 429
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
Longitudinal stress
IES13.
Hoop stress and longitudinal stress in a boiler shell under internal pressure
are 100 MN/m2 and 50 MN/m2 respectively. Young's modulus of elasticity and
Poisson's ratio of the shell material are 200 GN/m2 and 0.3 respectively. The
hoop strain in boiler shell is:
[IES1995]
3
3
3
3
(a) 0.425 10
(b) 0.5 10
(c) 0.585 10
(d) 0.75 10
1
1
( h l ) =
[100 0.3 50] = 0.425 103
200 1000
E
IES14.
In strain gauge dynamometers, the use of how many active gauge makes the
dynamometer more effective?
[IES 2007]
(a) Four
(b) Three
(c) Two
(d) One
IES14. Ans. (b)
Volumetric strain
IES15.
(a) 1 + 2 2
(b)
(c) 2 1 + 2
2
1 2
(d) 12 2
pd
pd
. ( 3 2 ) (b)
. ( 4 3 )
2tE
3tE
(c)
pd
. ( 5 4 )
4tE
(d)
pd
. ( 4 5 )
4tE
Spherical Vessel
IES17.
For the same internal diameter, wall thickness, material and internal pressure,
the ratio of maximum stress, induced in a thin cylindrical and in a thin
spherical pressure vessel will be:
[IES2001]
(a) 2
(b) 1/2
(c) 4
(d) 1/4
IES17. Ans. (a)
IES18.
From design point of view, spherical pressure vessels are preferred over
cylindrical pressure vessels because they
[IES1997]
(a) Are cost effective in fabrication
(b) Have uniform higher circumferential stress
(c)
Uniform lower circumferential stress
(d) Have a larger volume for the same quantity of material used
IES18. Ans. (d)
Chapter10
IAS2.
S K Mondals
A thin walled water pipe carries water under a pressure of 2 N/mm2 and
discharges water into a tank. Diameter of the pipe is 25 mm and thickness is
25 mm. What is the longitudinal stress induced in the pipe?
[IAS2007]
(a) 0
(b) 2 N/mm2
(c) 5 N/mm2
(d) 10 N/mm2
Thin Cylinder
Pr 2 12.5
=
= 5 N/mm 2
2t 2 2.5
A thin cylindrical shell of mean diameter 750 mm and wall thickness 10 mm has
its ends rigidly closed by flat steel plates. The shell is subjected to internal
fluid pressure of 10 N/mm2 and an axial external pressure P1. If the
longitudinal stress in the shell is to be zero, what should be the approximate
value of P1?
[IAS2007]
2
2
2
(a) 8 N/mm
(b) 9 N/mm
(c) 10 N/mm
(d) 12 N/mm2
7502
10
IAS3. Ans. (c) Tensile longitudinal stress due to internal fluid pressure ( 1) t =
750 10
tensile. Compressive longitudinal stress due to external pressure p1 (
l)c =
750
P1
IAS4.
c =
Pr
t
l =
Pr
2t
IAS5.
Match ListI (Terms used in thin cylinder stress analysis) with ListII
(Mathematical expressions) and select the correct answer using the codes
given below the lists:
[IAS1998]
ListI
ListII
A. Hoop stress
1. pd/4t
B. Maximum shear stress
2. pd/2t
C. Longitudinal stress
3. pd/2
D. Cylinder thickness
4. pd/8t
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
3
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
2
4
3
1
(d)
2
4
1
3
IAS5. Ans. (d)
Longitudinal stress
IAS6.
Assertion (A): For a thin cylinder under internal pressure, At least three strain
Page
316 of
429
gauges is needed to know the stress
state
completely
at any point on the shell.
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
Reason (R): If the principal stresses directions are not know, the minimum
number of strain gauges needed is three in a biaxial field.
[IAS2001]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS6. Ans. (d) For thin cylinder, variation of radial strain is zero. So only circumferential and
longitudinal strain has to measurer so only two strain gauges are needed.
Volumetric strain
IAS8.
and
(a) 1 + 2 2
(b) 1 22
(c) 2 1 + 2
(d) 12 2
pd
pd
. ( 3 2 ) (b)
. ( 4 3 )
2tE
3tE
pd
. ( 5 4 )
4tE
(d)
pd
. ( 4 5 )
4tE
(a)
pd
(2 )
4tE
[IAS1998]
(b)
pd
(1 + )
2tE
(c)
pd
(2 + )
tE
(d)
pd
(2 + )
4tE
(b) 030
Pr
= 200 106 Pa
t
Page 317 of 429
(c) 025
(d) 020
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
Pr
( 5 4 ) = t ( 5 4 )
2 Et
2E
6
200 10
2
5 4 0.25 ) =
=
9 (
2 200 10
1000
S K Mondals
IAS12.
Pl
(1 2 ) E
(b)
Pl (1 2 )
E
(c)
Pl
E
[IAS2007]
(d)
Pl
E
x =
P
,
A
or x =
x
E
y = 0 and z = 0
, y =
and z =
x
E
x
E
or v = x + y + z =
(1 2 ) =
E
Pl
V = v V = v . Al = (1 2 )
E
IAS13.
P
(1 2 )
AE
Volumetricstrain( v ) =
or ( V ) = v V =
Volume change(V)
Initial volume(V)
1
25 10 5 = 0.25cm3
5000
[IAS2000]
(d) 0.75 cm3
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
Answer:
pd 10 106 0.1
=
= 50 106 N / m2 = 50MN / m2
4t
4 0.005
Circumferential stress, c = y =
pd 10 106 0.1
=
= 100MN / m2
2 0.005
2t
T
= , we have
J R
2000 ( 0.05 + 0.005 )
TR
T R
= xy =
=
=
= 24.14MN / m2
J
D4 d4
0.114 0.14
32
32
1,2 =
x + y
2
2
x y
+ ( xy )
2
50 + 100
2
50 100
=
+ ( 24.14 )
2
2
Answer:
)==
p.r
t
p.r
2t
c
p.r
=
2
4t
Answer:
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
Pd
Hoop or circumferential stress ( c ) =
2t
Pd
And longitudinal stress ( ) =
4t
Therefore c = 2
Conventional Question IES2009
Q.
Ans.
pd
2t
Longitudinal stresses, 2 =
1 2
2
pd
=
8t
pd
4t
Shear stress =
1 =
2 =
1.5 106 1
3
= 0.75 108
2 10 10
= 75 MPa
1.5 106 1
4 10 10
= 37.5 106
= 37.5 MPa
1 Hoop strain
1
( v2 )
E 1
Pd
=
(2 v )
4tE
1 =
=
=
1.5 106 1
4 10 103 200 109
37.5 106
200 109
( 2 0.3 )
( 2 0.3 )
= 0.31875 103
d
= 0.3187 103
d
change in diameter,
d = 1 0.31875 103 m
= 0.31875 mm
Page 320 of 429
Chapter10
Logitudinal strain, 2
2 =
=
Thin Cylinder
S K Mondals
pd
(1 2v )
4tE
37.5 106
200 109
(1 2 0.3)
= 7.5 105
l
= 7.5 105
l
or l = 7.5 105 3
= 2.25 104 m = 0.225mm
Change in length = 0.225 mm and maximum shear stress,
pd 1.5 106 1
=
8t 8 10 103
= 18.75 MPa
Answer:
(ii) Represent the stress configuration on a square element taken in the load
direction with direction and magnitude indicated; (schematic).
Given: d = 50 mm = 0.05 m D = d + 2t = 50 + 2 x 2.5 = 55 mm = 0.055 m;
Axial pull, P = 10 kN; T= 500 Nm; p = 6MN/m2
(i) Principal stresses ( 1,2 ) in the tube and the maximum shear stress ( t max ):
pd
P
6 106 0.05
10 103
+
=
+
3
4t dt 4 2.5 10
0.05 2.5 103
= 30 106 + 25.5 106 = 55.5 106 N / m2
x =
y =
pd 6 106 0.05
=
= 60 106
2t 2 2.5 103
x + y
x y 2
+ xy
2
2
T
Us e Torsional equation, =
J R
1,2 =
where J =
(D
32
d4 =
(1)
(i)
4
4
( 0.055 ) ( 0.05 ) = 2.848 107 m4
32
Chapter10
Thin Cylinder
500
=
2.848 107 ( 0.055 / 2 )
or
500 ( 0.055 / 2 )
2.848 107
S K Mondals
= 48.28 106 N / m2
2
2
1,2 =
6
+ 48.28 10
1 2
2
106.08 9.42
= 48.33MN / m2
2
2. General Expression
of thick cylinders.
4. Strain
du
.
dr
Radial strain, r =
Axial strain,
z =
r + t
E
E E
u
r
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
5. Stress
pi ri 2
Axial stress, z = 2
r0 ri 2
Radial stress,
r = A
B
r2
t = A +
B
r2
[Note: Radial stress always compressive so its magnitude always ive. But in some books they
assume that compressive radial stress is positive and they use,
r =
6. Boundary Conditions
p r2 p r2
7. A = i i 2 2o o
ro ri
and
At
r = ri ,
At
r = ro
r = pi
r = po
ri 2 ro2
B = ( pi po ) 2 2
(ro ri )
pi ri 2
z = 2 2
r0 ri
r =
pi ri 2 r02
1
r02 ri 2 r 2
t = +
pi ri 2
r02 ri 2
i.e. po = 0
r02
2 + 1
r
(i ) r = ri
(ii ) r = pi
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(iii ) t = +
ro2 ri 2
(iv) max =
ro2
. pi
ro2 ri 2
B
A]
r2
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
(i ) r = ro
(ii ) r = 0
2pi ri2
(iii ) t = 2 2
ro ri
(c) Radial and circumferential stress distribution within the cylinder wall when only
internal pressure acts.
ri 2
i 2
r
r =
po ro2 ri 2
t = 2 2 i + 2
ro ri r
r = ri
(ii)
r = o
(iii)
t =
2 po ro2
ro2 ri 2
r = ro
(ii)
r = po
(iii)
po (ro2 + ri 2 )
t = 2 2
ro ri
(c) Distribution of radial and circumferential stresses within the cylinder wall when
only external pressure acts
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
When the material of the cylinder is brittle, such as cast iron or cast steel, Lame's Equation is used to
determine the wall thickness. Condition of cylinder ends may open or closed.
It is based on maximum principal stress theory of failure.
There principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows: (i) (ii) & (iii)
(i ) r = pi
(ii ) t = +
pi (r02 + ri 2 )
r02 ri 2
pi ri 2
(iii ) z = + 2 2
ro ri
t >z >r
For ro = ri + t
ro
t + pi
=
ri
t pi
+p
i
1 ( Lame ' s Equation)
t = ri t
t pi
t =
ult
fos
11. Clavarino's Equation [for cylinders with closed end & made of ductile material]
When the material of a cylinder is ductile, such as mild steel or alloy steel, maximum strain theory
of failure is used (St. Venant's theory) is used.
Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii)
Page 326 of 429
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
(i ) r = pi
(ii ) t = +
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(ro2 ri 2 )
(iii ) z = +
pi ri 2
(ro2 ri 2 )
1
t ( r + z )
t =
t =
Or
= t ( r + z ). Where =
yld / fos
E
yld
fos
ro
+ (1 2 ) pi
=
(1 + ) pi
ri
For ro = ri + t
+ (1 2 ) pi
t = ri
1
(1 + ) pi
( Clavarion's Equation )
12. Birne's Equation [for cylinders with open end & made of ductile material]
When the material of a cylinder is ductile, such as mild steel or alloy steel, maximum strain theory
of failure is used (St. Venant's theory) is used.
Three principal stresses at the inner surface of the cylinder are as follows (i) (ii) & (iii)
(i ) r = pi
pi (ro2 + ri 2 )
(ii ) t = +
(ro2 ri 2 )
(iii ) z = 0
= t r
where =
yld
fos
ro
+ (1 ) pi
=
(1 + ) pi
ri
For ro = ri + t
+ (1 ) pi
t = ri
1
(1 + ) pi
(Birnie's Equation)
13. Barlows equation: [for high pressure gas pipe brittle or ductile material]
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
t = ro
Where t =
y
fos
ult
fos
pi
S K Mondals
[GAIL exam 2004]
When two cylindrical parts are assembled by shrinking or pressfitting, a contact pressure is
created between the two parts. If the radii of the inner cylinder are a and c and that of the
outer cylinder are (c ) and b, being the radial interference the contact pressure is given
by:
2
2
2
2
E (b c ) (c a )
P=
The inner diameter of the jacket is slightly smaller than the outer diameter of cylinder
When the jacket is heated, it expands sufficiently to move over the cylinder
As the jacket cools, it tends to contract onto the inner cylinder, which induces residual
compressive stress.
There is a shrinkage pressure 'P' between the cylinder and the jacket.
The pressure 'P' tends to contract the cylinder and expand the jacket
The shrinkage pressure 'P' can be evaluated from the above equation for a given amount of
interference
The resultant stresses in a compound cylinder are found by supervision losing the 2 stresses
Derivation:
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
j = tangential strain
Now j = j c
=
S K Mondals
1
[ t r ] c
E
cP b 2 + c 2
+ ( i )
2
2
E b c
=
t =circumferential stress
p(b2 +c 2 )
+
2
2
b
c
(
)
2
2
t = p(c + a )
(c 2 a2 )
r = p
1
[ t r ]c
E
cP c 2 + a 2
 (ii )
E c 2 a 2
Adding ( i ) & ( ii )
= j + c =
Pc
E
2c 2 ( b 2 a 2 )
2
(b c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
or P =
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
c 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
15. Autofrettage
Autofrettage is a process of prestressing the cylinder before using it in operation.
We know that when the cylinder is subjected to internal pressure, the circumferential stress at the
inner surface limits the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder.
In autofrettage prestressing develops a residual compressive stresses at the inner surface. When
the cylinder is actually loaded in operation, the residual compressive stresses at the inner surface
begin to decrease, become zero and finally become tensile as the pressure is gradually increased.
Thus autofrettage increases the pressure carrying capacity of the cylinder.
R02 Ri2
2
r =
( 3 + ) R0 + Ri 2 r 2
8
r
t =
2
8
( 3 + ) R02 + Ri2 +
R02 Ri2 1 + 3 2
.r
r2
3+
= Angular speed
= Poisson's ratio.
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
Radial stress,
1 2
3+
2 2
t =
Ri
. . R0 +
3
+
4
3+
2
2
2
r =
. R0 Ri
8
S K Mondals
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
p r2 r2
Circumferential or hoop stress (c) = 2 i i 2 o2 + 1
ro ri r
ro2
ri2
2 + 1 = 120 2 2
ro ri
ro
r2
150 5
or 2 i 2 =
=
120 4
ro ri
r
9
or o =
5
ri
at r = ri
c = 60
ri2
ro2 ri2
ro2
5 9
2 + 1 = 60 + 1 = 210 MPa
4 5
ri
IES2.
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
IES3.
Where does the maximum hoop stress in a thick cylinder under external
pressure occur?
[IES2008]
(a) At the outer surface
(b) At the inner surface
(c) At the midthickness
(d) At the 2/3rd outer radius
IES4. Ans. (a) Maximum hoop stress in thick cylinder under external pressure occur at the outer
surface.
IES5.
rr is:
u /
[IES1996]
(a) u/r
(b)
IES6. Ans. (c) The strains r and may be given by
(c) du/dr
(d) du/d
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
ur
1
since z = 0
=
r v
r
E
( r + ur ) r = ur = 1 v
=
r
r
r
E
r =
Representation
of
circumferential strain.
radial
and
Lame's theory
IES7.
p r2 r2
Circumferential or hoop stress (c) = 2 i i 2 o2 + 1
ro ri r
150 = 60
ri2
ro2 ri2
ro2
ri2
1
120
+
=
2
ro2 ri2
ro
or
ri2
150 5
=
=
ro2 ri2 120 4
r
9
or o =
r
5
i
at r = ri
c = 60
ri2
r ri2
2
o
ro2
5 9
2 + 1 = 60 + 1 = 210 MPa
4 5
r
i
IES8.
[IES2002]
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
(d) Constant
(c) Maximum at radius r = ab
IES10. Ans. (d)
Pr 2 P r 2 Pa2 Pb2
B
c = A + 2
A = i i 2 2o o =
= P
r
ro ri
b2 a2
c = P
B=
(Pi Po ) ro2ri2
ro2 ri2
=o
IES11.
Consider the following statements at given point in the case of thick cylinder
subjected to fluid pressure:
[IES2006]
1.
Radial stress is compressive
2.
Hoop stress is tensile
3.
Hoop stress is compressive
4.
Longitudinal stress is tensile and it varies along the length
5.
Longitudinal stress is tensile and remains constant along the length of the
cylinder
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) Only 1, 2 and 4
(b) Only 3 and 4
(c) Only 1,2 and 5
(d) Only 1,3 and 5
IES12. Ans. (c) 3. For internal fluid pressure Hoop or circumferential stress is tensile.
4. Longitudinal stress is tensile and remains constant along the length of the cylinder.
IES13.
(b)
2
p
3
(c)
5
p
3
(d) 2p
d
d +
2
2
r +r
2 =5 p
= p 22 12 = p
2
3
r2 r1
d
d2
2
2
hoop
IES15.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the Lists:
[IES2004]
ListI
ListII
1. Hydrostatic stress
A. Wire winding
B. Lame's theory
2. Strengthening of thin cylindrical shell
C. Solid sphere subjected to uniform Page 3343.of 429
Strengthening of thick cylindrical shell
pressure on the surface
D. Autofrettage
4. Thick cylinders
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
Coeds:
(a)
(c)
IES15. Ans. (d)
IES16.
A
4
2
B
2
4
C
1
3
D
3
1
S K Mondals
A
4
2
(b)
(d)
B
2
4
C
3
1
D
1
3
=
E D32 D22 D22 D12
P E.
)(
Alternatively : if E then P
and if then P so P E
IES17.
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
Distribution of radial and circumferential stresses within the cylinder wall when only
external pressure acts.
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
The pressure within the cylinder of a hydraulic press is 9 MPa. The inside
diameter of the cylinder is 25 mm. Determine the thickness of the cylinder
wall, if the permissible tensile stress is 18 N/mm2
Given: P = 9 MPa = 9 N/mm2, Inside radius, r1 = 12.5 mm;
t = 18 N/mm2
Thickness of the cylinder:
r2 + r2
Usin g the equation; t = p 22 12 , we have
r2 r1
r 2 + 12.52
18 = 9 22
2
r2 12.5
r2 = 21.65mm
or
r = a
Ans.
2b
b
=
+
and
a
.
0
r3
r3
[10 Marks]
2b
r3
b
Circumference stress = = a + 3
r
Assume radial stress =
r = a
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
= 30N / mm2
80N / mm2
2b
(75)3
b
80 = a +
(75)3
30 = a
..............(i)
.................(ii)
Soluing eq n (i)&(ii)
110 753
130
b=
a=
3
3
At outer Radius (R) radial stress should be zero
2b
R3
2b 2 110 753
R3 =
=
= 713942.3077
130
a
3
3
R = 89.376mm
There fore thickness of cylinder = (R r)
o=a
= 89.376 75 = 14.376mm
Conventional Question IES1993
Question:
Answer:
1
= 0.30;
m
r2
Where K =
r1
K 2 + 1
We know that, r 2
K 1
or
or
or
i.e.
K 2 + 1
6
80 106 2
300 10
K 1
K 1.314
K = 1.314
r2
= 1.314 or r2 = r1 1.314 = 150 1.314 = 197.1mm
r1
Use + y2
Page 338 of 429
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
2 r2 K 4 (1 + ) + (1 )
( 300 10 )
or
(K
6 2
S K Mondals
2 80 106
K 4 (1 + 03 ) + (1 0.3 )
(K
)
+ 0.7 )
2
r2
= 1.364 or r2 = 150 1.364 = 204.6 mm
r1
What is the difference in the analysis of think tubes compared to that for thin
tubes? State the basic equations describing stress distribution in a thick
tube.
The difference in the analysis of stresses in thin and thick cylinder:
(i) In thin cylinder, it is assumed that the tangential stress is uniformly distributed
over the cylinder wall thickness. In thick cylinder, the tangential stress has highest
magnitude at the inner surface of the cylinder and gradually decreases towards the
outer surface.
(ii) The radial stress is neglected in thin cylinders, while it is of significant magnitude
in case of thick cylinders.
Basic equation for describing stress distribution in thick tube is Lame's equation.
r =
B
B
A and t = 2 + A
2
r
r
Page 339
429 material, Can you outline the steps
Where E is the Young's modulus
of ofthe
involved in developing this important design equation?
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
Answer:
j = tangential strain
Now j = j c
=
1
[ t r ] c
E
cP b 2 + c 2
(i )
+
E b 2 c 2
t =circumferential stress
p(b2 +c 2 )
+
2
2
b
c
(
)
1
[ t r ] c
E
2
2
t = p(c + a )
(c 2 a2 )
r = p
cP c 2 + a 2
 (ii ) Here ive signrepresents contraction
E c 2 a 2
Adding (i ) & (ii )
Pc 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
= j + c =
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
E (b 2 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )
or P =
Proved.
Page 340 of 429
c 2c 2 (b 2 a 2 )
=
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
/o C
Answer:
There is a shrinkage pressure P between the steel rod and the bronze casing. The
pressure P tends to contract the steel rod and expand the bronze casing.
(i) Consider Bronze casing, According to Lames theory
t =
B
+A
r2
Where A =
Piri 2 P0 r02
r02 ri 2
(Pi P0 )r02 ri 2
and B =
r02 ri 2
Pi = P, P0 = 0 and
A=
Pr02 ri 2
Pri2
2Pri2
,
B=
=
r02 ri 2
r02 ri 2 r02 ri 2
30 =
Pr 2
Pr 2
2Pr 2
B
+A= 2 i 2 + 2 i 2 = 2 i 2
2
ro
r0 ri
r0 ri
r0 ri
90 2
r 2
30(r02 ri 2 )
0
1 MPa=33.6MPa
15
1
15
or , P=
=
50
r 2
2ri 2
i
Therefore the radial pressure between the rod and the casing is P= 33.6 MPa.
(ii) The shrinkage allowance:
Let j = increase in inert diameter of bronze casing
C= decrease in outer diameter of steel rod
1st consider bronze casing:
B
+A
ri 2
90 2
+ 1
Pr 2
P (r02 + r12 )
Pr 2
50
= 63.6MPa
=
= 2 0 2+ 2 i 2=
33.6
2
r0 ri
r0 ri
(r02 ri 2 )
90 1
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
S K Mondals
1
(t ) j (r ) j
E
1
[63.6 + 0.3 33.6] =7.36810 4
5
110
j = (t ) j d i = 7.368 104 0.050 = 0.03684 mm
=
Circumferential stress ( t )s = P
and radial stress (r )s = P
c = (t )s d i =
=
1
(t )S (r )s d i
Es
Pd i
33.6 0.050
(1 ) =
[1 0.3 ] = 0.00588mm [reduction]
Es
2 105
b > s due to same temperature rise steel not will expand less than bronze
casing. When their difference of expansion will be equal to the shrinkage then
force fit will eliminate.
d i b t d i s t = 0.04272
or t =
0.04272
0.04272
=
= 122o C
5
5
d i b s 50 1.9 10 1.2 10
1
= 0.33), has inside diameter of 200 mm and outside diameter of 800 mm.
m
The cylinder is subjected to internal fluid pressure of 150 MPa. Determine the
principal stresses and maximum shear stress at a point on the inside surface
of the cylinder. Also determine the increase in inside diameter due to fluid
pressure.
Answer:
200
800
= 100mm = 0.1m;r2 =
= 400mm = 0.4;p = 150MPa = 150MN / m2 ;
2
2
1
E = 72GPa = 72 109 N / m2 ;
= 0.33 =
m
Given: r1 =
b
a
r2
At r = 0.1m, 2 = +p = 150MN / m2
r =
r = 0.4m, 2 = 0
Substituting the values in the above equation we have
Chapter11
Thick Cylinder
150 =
0=
( 0.1)
b
S K Mondals
(i)
( ii )
( 0.4 )
From ( i ) and ( ii ) , we get
2
a = 10 and b = 1.6
c =
b
+a
r2
1.6
+ 10 = 170MN / m2 ( tensile ) , and
0.12
1.6
( c )min ,at r ( = r2 ) = 0.4m = 2 + 10 = 20MN / m2 ( tensile ) .
0.4
Pr incipal stresses are 170 MN / m2 and 20MN / m2
( c )max ,at r ( = r1 ) = 0.1m =
( c )max ( c )min
2
170 20
= 75MN / m2
2
1 =
12. Spring
Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU)
1. A spring is a mechanical device which is used for the efficient storage
and release of energy.
2. Helical spring stress equation
Let us a closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter D, wire diameter d and number of turn n. The
spring material has a shearing modulus G. The spring index, C =
D
. If a force P is exerted in both
d
ends as shown.
The work done by the axial
force 'P' is converted into
strain energy and stored in
the spring.
U=(average torque)
(angular displacement)
T
=
2
From the figure we get, =
Torque (T)=
TL
GJ
PD
2
d 4
32
4P 2D 3 n
Gd 4
Therefore =
4 p 2 D3n 8PD3n
U
=
=
Gd 4
P P Gd 4
Axial deflection =
8 PD 3 n
Gd 4
(k ) =
P Gd 4
=
D 3 n344 of 429
8Page
Chapter12
Spring
16T 16 ( PD / 2 ) 8PD
The torsional shear stress in the bar, 1 =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
The direct shear stress in the bar, 2 =
= Ks
Where K s = 1 +
4P
d2
S K Mondals
8PD 0.5d
d 3 D
8PD
0.5d
8PD
1+
= Ks
3
D
d
d3
8PD
d3
0.5d
is correction factor for direct shear stress.
D
8PD
d3
4C 1 0.615
+
is known as Wahls stress correction factor
C
4C 4
Where K =
Here K = KsKc; Where K s is correction factor for direct shear stress and Kc is correction
factor for stress concentration due to curvature.
Note: When the spring is subjected to a static force, the effect of stress concentration is neglected
due to localized yielding. So we will use, = K s
8PD
d3
1
1
1
=
+
K eq K1 K 2
or K eq =
K1 K 2
K1 + K 2
Shaft in series ( = 1 + 2 )
Spring in Parallel ( e = 1 = 2 )
K eq = K1 + K 2
Shaft in Parallel ( eq = 1 = 2 )
Chapter12
1
1
1
=
+
K eq K1 K 2
Spring
or K eq =
S K Mondals
K eq = K1 + K 2
K1 K 2
K1 + K 2
5. Important note
If a spring is cut into n equal lengths then spring constant of each new spring = nk
When a closed coiled spring is subjected to an axial couple M then the rotation,
64 MDnc
Ed 4
3PL3
Central deflection, =
8Enbt 3
3PL
2nbt 2
7. Belleville Springs
Load, P =
4 E
(1 2 ) k f D02
3
(h ) h 2 t + t
Do
= Linear deflection
=Poissons Ratio
kf =factor for Belleville spring
Do = outside diamerer
h = Deflection required to flatten Belleville spring
t = thickness
P
t
Note:
ho
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
8PD3N
G.d4
G.d 4
8D 3 N
or K
1
D3
K 2 D1 20
= =8
=
K1 D2 10
GATE3.
Two helical tensile springs of the same material and also having identical mean
coil diameter and weight, have wire diameters d and d/2. The ratio of their
stiffness is:
[GATE2001]
(a) 1
(b) 4
(c) 64
(d) 128
G.d 4
d4
GATE3. Ans. (c) Spring constant (K) = =
Therefore
k
n
8D 3 N
P
GATE4.
=
= 500N / m
W d k ( ld ) l = 0 or k =
0.3
2
2l
2
GATE5.
[GATE2004]
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
2 g = k ( lo 0.2 )
2 g + 20 g = k ( lo 0.1)
Just solve the above equations.
Springs in Series
GATE6.
The deflection of a spring with 20 active turns under a load of 1000 N is 10 mm.
The spring is made into two pieces each of 10 active coils and placed in parallel
under the same load. The deflection of this system is:
[GATE1995]
(a) 20 mm
(b) 10 mm
(c) 5 mm
(d) 2.5 mm
GATE6. Ans. (d) When a spring is cut into two, no. of coils gets halved.
Stiffness of each half gets doubled.
When these are connected in parallel, stiffness = 2k + 2k = 4k
Therefore deflection will be times. = 2.5 mm
A helical coil spring with wire diameter d and coil diameter 'D' is subjected to
external load. A constant ratio of d and D has to be maintained, such that the
extension of spring is independent of d and D. What is this ratio?
[IES2008]
4/3
4/3
D
d
(a)D3 / d4
(b)d3 / D4
(c) 3
(d) 3
d
D
8PD3N
Gd4
D
;
2
FD
=
;
2
L = DN
1
T
2
TL
=
GJ
T = F
U=
U=
1 FD L 4F2D3N
=
2 2 GJ
Gd4
U 8FD3N
=
F
Gd4
IES2.
Assertion (A): Concentric cylindrical helical springs are used to have greater
spring force in a limited space.
[IES2006]
Reason (R): Concentric helical springs are wound in opposite directions to
prevent locking of coils under heavy dynamic loading.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES2. Ans. (b)
IES3.
Assertion (A): Two concentric helical springs used to provide greater spring
force are wound in opposite directions.
[IES1995; IAS2004]
Reason (R): The winding in opposite directions in the case of helical springs
prevents buckling.
Page
348R
of is
429
(a) Both A and R are individually true
and
the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES3. Ans. (c) It is for preventing locking not for buckling.
IES4.
A body having weight of 1000 N is dropped from a height of 10 cm over a closecoiled helical spring of stiffness 200 N/cm. The resulting deflection of spring is
nearly
[IES2001]
(a) 5 cm
(b) 16 cm
(c) 35 cm
(d) 100 cm
8PD
d3
1 2
kx
2
8PD
it is independent of number of turn
d3
The maximum shear stress occurs on the outermost fibers of a circular shaft
under torsion. In a close coiled helical spring, the maximum shear stress
occurs on the
[IES1999]
(a) Outermost fibres (b) Fibres at mean diameter (c) Innermost fibres (d) End coils
IES8. Ans. (c)
IES9.
A helical spring has N turns of coil of diameter D, and a second spring, made of
same wire diameter and of same material, has N/2 turns of coil of diameter 2D.
If the stiffness of the first spring is k, then the stiffness of the second spring
will be:
[IES1999]
(a) k/4
(b) k/2
(c) 2k
(d) 4k
Gd 4
Gd 4
k
;
S
econd
spring,stiffness
(k
)
=
=
2
3
N 4
3
64 R N
64 ( 2 R )
2
IES10.
A closedcoil helical spring is subjected to a torque about its axis. The spring
wire would experience a
[IES1996; 1998]
(a) Bending stress
(b) Direct tensile stress of uniform intensity at its crosssection
(c)
Direct shear stress
(d) Torsional shearing stress
IES10. Ans. (a)
IES11.
Given that:
[IES1996]
d = diameter of spring, R = mean radius of coils, n = number of coils and G =
modulus of rigidity, the stiffness of the closecoiled helical spring subject to an
Page 349 of 429
axial load W is equal to
Chapter12
Spring
4
(a)
S K Mondals
Gd
64 R 3 n
(b)
Gd
64 R 3 n
(c)
Gd
32 R 3 n
(d)
Gd 4
64 R 2 n
IES12.
Which one of the following expresses the stress factor K used for design of
closed coiled helical spring?
[IES2008]
4C 4
4C 1 0.615
4C 4 0.615
4C 1
(a)
(b)
+
(c)
+
(d)
4C 1
4C 4
C
4C 1
C
4C 4
Where C = spring index
IES13. Ans. (b)
IES14.
While calculating the stress induced in a closed coil helical spring, Wahl's
factor must be considered to account for
[IES2002]
(a) The curvature and stress concentration effect
(b) Shock loading
(c) Poor service conditions
(d) Fatigue loading
IES15. Ans. (a)
IES16.
Cracks in helical springs used in Railway carriages usually start on the inner
side of the coil because of the fact that
[IES1994]
(a) It is subjected to the higher stress than the outer side.
(b) It is subjected to a higher cyclic loading than the outer side.
(c)
It is more stretched than the outer side during the manufacturing process.
(d) It has a lower curvature than the outer side.
IES16. Ans. (a)
IES17.
Two helical springs of the same material and of equal circular crosssection
and length and number of turns, but having radii 20 mm and 40 mm, kept
concentrically (smaller radius spring within the larger radius spring), are
compressed between two parallel planes with a load P. The inner spring will
carry a load equal to
[IES1994]
(a) P/2
(b) 2P/3
(c) P/9
(d) 8P/9
3
Wo Ri3 20 1
W
W
8
= 3 = = ; Wo = i So Wi + i = P or Wi = P
IES17. Ans. (d)
Wi Ro 40 8
8
8
9
IES18.
Gd 4
IES18. Ans. (c) Stiffness of spring (k) =
Where G and d is same
64 R 3 n
Page 350 of 429
Chapter12
Therefore
Spring
S K Mondals
k
1
1
1
=
=
=
3
3
k2 R n 75 8 1.56
60 10
R2 n2
IES19.
Wire diameter, mean coil diameter and number of turns of a closelycoiled steel
spring are d, D and N respectively and stiffness of the spring is K. A second
spring is made of same steel but with wire diameter, mean coil diameter and
number of turns 2d, 2D and 2N respectively. The stiffness of the new spring is:
[IES1998; 2001]
(a) K
(b) 2K
(c) 4K
(d) 8K
Gd4
IES20. Ans. (a) Stiffness of spring ( k ) =
8D3n
IES21.
When two springs of equal lengths are arranged to form cluster springs which
of the following statements are the:
[IES1992]
1. Angle of twist in both the springs will be equal
2. Deflection of both the springs will be equal
3. Load taken by each spring will be half the total load
4. Shear stress in each spring will be equal
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2 and 4 only
IES21. Ans. (a)
IES22.
Consider the following statements:
[IES2009]
When two springs of equal lengths are arranged to form a cluster spring
1.
Angle of twist in both the springs will be equal
2.
Deflection of both the springs will be equal
3.
Load taken by each spring will be half the total load
4.
Shear stress in each spring will be equal
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 3 and 4
(c)2 only
(d) 4 only
IES22. Ans. (a) Same as [IES1992]
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
1 2
kx
2
A closed coil helical spring of mean coil diameter 'D' and made from a wire of
diameter 'd' is subjected to a torque 'T' about the axis of the spring. What is the
maximum stress developed in the spring wire?
[IES2008]
8T
16T
32T
64T
(a) 3
(b) 3
(c) 3
(d) 3
d
d
d
d
IES25. Ans. (b)
Springs in Series
IES26.
When a helical compression spring is cut into two equal halves, the stiffness of
each of the result in springs will be:
[IES2002; IAS2002]
(a) Unaltered
(b) Double
(c) Onehalf
(d) Onefourth
IES26. Ans. (b)
IES27.
If a compression coil spring is cut into two equal parts and the parts are then
used in parallel, the ratio of the spring rate to its initial value will be: [IES1999]
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 4
(d) Indeterminable for want of sufficient data
IES27. Ans. (c) When a spring is cut into two, no. of coils gets halved.
Stiffness of each half gets doubled.
When these are connected in parallel, stiffness = 2k + 2k = 4k
Springs in Parallel
IES28.
[IES1997; IAS2001]
IES28. Ans. (c)
IES29.
1
1 1
2
=
+
or Se = S
Se 2 S S
3
Two coiled springs, each having stiffness K, are placed in parallel. The stiffness
of the combination will be:
[IES2000]
( a ) 4K
( b ) 2K
(c)
IES30.
K
2
(d)
K
4
1
1 1
10
= + or Se =
Se 10 5
3
Chapter12
IES31.
Spring
S K Mondals
[IES2005]
IES31. Ans. (b)
IES32.
F2
2K
(b)
F2
4K
(c)
F2
8K
(d)
F
1 2
1
IES32. Ans. (c) The strain energy stored per spring = k .x / 2 = keq
k
2
2
eq
F2
16 K
2
IES33.
[IES1997]
IES33. Ans. (a) Stiffness K1 of 10 coils spring = 8 N/mm
Stiffness K2 of 5 coils spring = 16 N/mm
Though it looks like in series but they are in parallel combination. They are not subjected
to same force. Equivalent stiffness (k) = k1 + k2 = 24 N/mm
Assertion (A): Concentric cylindrical helical springs which are used to have
Page 354
of 429
greater spring force in a limited space
is wound
in opposite directions.
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
Reason (R): Winding in opposite directions prevents locking of the two coils in
case of misalignment or buckling.
[IAS1996]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS1. Ans. (a)
IAS2.
Assertion (A): Two concentric helical springs used to provide greater spring
force are wound in opposite directions.
[IES1995; IAS2004]
Reason (R): The winding in opposite directions in the case of helical springs
prevents buckling.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c)
A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS3. Ans. (c) It is for preventing locking not for buckling.
IAS4.
Which one of the following statements is correct?
[IES1996; 2007; IAS1997]
If a helical spring is halved in length, its spring stiffness
(a) Remains same
(b) Halves
(c) Doubles
(d) Triples
Gd4
1
so k andn wiil behalf
IAS4. Ans. (c) Stiffness of sprin ( k ) =
n
8D3n
IAS5.
A closed coil helical spring has 15 coils. If five coils of this spring are removed
by cutting, the stiffness of the modified spring will:
[IAS2004]
(a) Increase to 2.5 times
(b) Increase to 1.5 times
(c) Reduce to 0.66 times
(d) Remain unaffected
Gd 4
8D3 N
or K
K
N 15
1
or 2 = 1 = = 1.5
N
K1 N 2 10
A closecoiled helical spring has wire diameter 10 mm and spring index 5. If the
spring contains 10 turns, then the length of the spring wire would be: [IAS2000]
(a) 100 mm
(b) 157 mm
(c) 500 mm
(d) 1570 mm
l = Dn = ( cd ) n = ( 5 10 ) 10 = 1570 mm
IAS7.
Two closecoiled springs are subjected to the same axial force. If the second
spring has four times the coil diameter, double the wire diameter and double
the number of coils of the first spring, then the ratio of deflection of the second
spring to that of the first will be:
[IAS1998]
1
(a) 8
(b) 2
(c)
(d) 1/16
2
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
D2 N2
2 D1 N1 43 2
8PD N
or
=
=
=8
IAS8. Ans. (a) =
4
1
Gd4
24
d2
d1
3
IAS9.
1 2
2Wh 2 2 1
k .x or k = 2 =
N / m = 400 N / m
2
0.12
x
IAS10.
1 2 1 10N
2
2
IAS10. Ans. (b) E = kx =
{1 0.6} m = 800Nm
2
2 1
m
1000
IAS11.
1 2 1 2
1
k x1 k x2 (b) k ( x1 x2 ) 2
2
2
2
(c)
1
k ( x1 + x2 ) 2
2
x1 + x2
(d) k
1 2 1 2
k x1 k x 2
2
2
IAS12.
Springs in Series
IAS13.
When a helical compression spring is cut into two equal halves, the stiffness of
each of the result in springs will be:
[IES2002; IAS2002]
(a) Unaltered
(b) Double
(c) Onehalf
(d) Onefourth
IAS13. Ans. (b)
IAS14.
The length of the chestexpander spring when it is unstretched, is 0.6 m and its
stiffness is 10 N/mm. The work done in stretching it to 1m will be:
[IAS2001]
(a) 800 J
(b) 1600 J
(c) 3200 J
(d) 6400 J
IAS14. Ans. (a)
Work done =
1
1 10N
1
10 N
2
2
k.x 2 =
0.42 m 2 = 800 J
(1 0.6 ) m = 1
2
2 1mm
2
m
1000
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
Springs in Parallel
IAS15.
[IES1997; IAS2001]
IAS15. Ans. (c)
IAS16.
1
1 1
2
=
+
or Se = S
3
Se 2 S S
[IAS1998]
IAS16. Ans. (b) Effective stiffness = 2K. Due to applied force one spring will be under tension and
another one under compression so total resistance force will double.
Mach ListI (Type of spring) with ListII (Application) and select the correct
answer:
[IAS2000]
ListI
ListII
A. Leaf/Helical springs
1. Automobiles/Railways coachers
B. Spiral springs
2. Shearing machines
C. Belleville springs
3. Watches
Codes:
A
B
C
A
B
C
(a) 1
2
3
(b)
1
3
2
(c)
3
1
2
(d)
2
3
1
IAS17. Ans. (b)
Page 357 of 429
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
Semielliptical spring
IAS18.
The ends of the leaves of a semielliptical leaf spring are made triangular in
plain in order to:
[IAS 1994]
(a) Obtain variable I in each leaf
(b) Permit each leaf to act as a overhanging beam
(c)
Have variable bending moment in each leaf
(d) Make Mil constant throughout the length of the leaf.
IAS18. Ans. (d) The ends of the leaves of a semielliptical leaf spring are made rectangular in plan
in order to make M/I constant throughout the length of the leaf.
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
Answer:
A closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter D, wire diameter d and number
of turn n. The spring material has a shearing modulus G. Derive an
expression for the stiffness k of the spring.
The work done by the
axial force 'P' is
converted into strain
energy and stored in
the spring.
U=(average torque)
(angular displacement)
T
=
2
From the figure we get, =
Torque (T)=
TL
GJ
PD
2
d 4
32
4P 2D 3 n
Gd 4
Therefore =
4 p 2 D 3n 8PD 3n
U
=
=
P P Gd 4
Gd 4
P Gd 4
So Spring stiffness, (k ) = =
8D3n
Conventional Question ESE2010
Q.
Ans.
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
The number of coils in the spring 1,2 and 3 is 10, 12 and 15 mean diameter of spring 1,2
and 3 in the ratio of 1 : 1.2 : 1.4 Find out distance x so that rod remains
horizontal
after loading.
Since the rod is rigid and remains horizontal after the load p is applied therefore the
deflection of each spring will be same
1 = 2 = 3 =
(say)
Spring are made of same material and out of the rods of equal diameter
G1 = G2 = G3 = G and d1 = d 2 = d3 = d
Load in spring 1
P1 =
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4
=
=
64R13n1 64R13 10 640R13
.....(1)
Load in spring 2
P2 =
Gd 4
Gd 4
Gd 4
=
=
64 R32n2 64 (1.2)3 12R13
1327.10R13
.....(2)
Load in spring 3
P3 =
Gd 4
Gd4
Gd 4
=
=
64R33n3 64 (1.4)3 15R13 2634.2R13
.....(3)
640
P1
1327.1
P2 = 0.482 P1
P2 =
P
total load in the rod is
P=P1 +P2 +P3
........(4)
P = P1 + .4823P1 + 0.2430P1
P = 1.725 P1
......(5)
0.9683L
0.9683L
=
= 0.5613L
1.725 P1 / P1
1.725
x = 0.5613 L
Answer:
A closecoiled helical spring has coil diameter to wire diameter ratio of 6. The
spring deflects 3 cm under an axial load of 500N and the maximum shear
stress is not to exceed 300 MPa. Find the diameter and the length of the
spring wire required. Shearing modulus of wire material = 80 GPa.
Gd 4
P
Stiffness, K = =
8D 3 n
Chapter12
Spring
500 (80 10 ) d
=
0.03
8 63 n
9
or ,
[given c=
S K Mondals
D
= 6]
d
or , d = 3.6 104 n (i )
For static loading correcting factor(k)
0.5
1+ 0.5 = 1.0833
=
k=1+
c
6
8PD
We know that ( ) =k
d3
D
C = = 6
d
1.0833 8 500 6
d=
= 5.252103 m = 5.252 mm
6
300 10
So D=cd=65.252mm=31.513mm
From, equation (i)
n=14.59 15
Now length of spring wire(L) =Dn = 31.51315 mm =1.485 m
d2 =
8kPC
A coil spring of stiffness 'k' is cut to two halves and these two springs are
assembled in parallel to support a heavy machine. What is the combined
stiffness provided by these two springs in the modified arrangement?
When it cut to two halves stiffness of
each half will be 2k. Springs in parallel.
Total load will be shared so
Total load = W+W
or .K eq = .(2k ) + .(2k )
or K eq = 4k.
Answer:
Gd4
8D 3 N
Here load shared the springs are arranged in parallel
The stiffness of the spring (k) =
d
= A
d
B
4
3
DB
[As N = N ] = 12 60 = 2.559
N
A
7 90
D
A
Page 361Total
of 429 load
x=
Equivalet stiffness
210 N
K A + KB
Chapter12
Spring
S K Mondals
210
210
Load shared by spring 'A'(FA ) = K A x =
=151N
=
k B
1
1 + 1 +
k 2.559
A
Load shared by spring 'A'(FB ) = K B x = ( 210 151) = 59 N
0.5 8PD
For static load: = 1+ 3
C d
8151 0.090
0.5
= 21.362 MPa
( A )max = 1 +
3
90
(0.012)
12
( B )max
3
60 (0.007)
7
Answer:
T =
We know,
16
( where T = P R )
d3
16
(i)
d3
P = k
( ii )
P = 80 103
8PD3n 8P ( 0.075 ) 8
P
=
=
= 33.75 1014 4
4
9
4
Gd
80 10 d
d
3
16
( 0.0128 ) ;
3
P = 2745.2N = 2.7452kN
A long, slender column becomes unstable when its axial compressive load reaches a value
called the critical buckling load.
If a beam element is under a compressive load and its length is an order of magnitude larger
than either of its other dimensions such a beam is called a columns.
Due to its size its axial displacement is going to be very small compared to its lateral
deflection called buckling.
Buckling does not vary linearly with load it occurs suddenly and is therefore dangerous
Slenderness Ratio: The ratio between the length and least radius of gyration.
Euler buckling is only valid for long, slender objects in the elastic region.
At this value the structure is in equilibrium regardless of the magnitude of the angle
(provided it stays small)
Critical load is the only load for which the structure will be in equilibrium in the disturbed
position
At this value, restoring effect of the moment in the spring matches the buckling effect of the
axial load represents the boundary between the stable and unstable conditions.
If the axial load is less than Pcr the effect of the moment in the spring dominates and the
structure returns to the vertical position after a small disturbance stable condition.
If the axial load is larger than Pcr the effect of the axial force predominates and the structure
buckles unstable condition.
Because of the large deflection caused by buckling, the least moment of inertia I can be
expressed as, I = Ak2
Where: A is the cross sectional area and r is the radius of gyration of the cross sectional area,
i.e. kmin =
Imin
A
Page 364 of 429
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
Note that the smallest radius of gyration of the column, i.e. the least moment of inertia I
should be taken in order to find the critical stress. l/ k is called the slenderness ratio, it is a
measure of the column's flexibility.
2 EI
Pcr = 2
le
e=Equivalent
Diagram
Pcr
Equivalent
length(le)
2 EI
2
4 2 EI
2
2 EI
4 2
C
Chapter13
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
S K Mo
ondals
2 EI
wheere I=A k 2minn
2
Le
2 EA
e
kmin
Sleenderness Ratio
R
=
kmin
6 Rankine
6.
es Cripp
pling Load
d
R
Rankine
theoory is applieed to both
Long
g Column (Valid upto SR
R 120)
Slend
derness ratioo
e
2 E
e
( e = critiical stress)=
=
Pcr
A
Cripp
pling Load , P
P=
c A
1+ K ' e
k
c
Page 366
deepends
on of
material
m429
& end conditioons
2
E
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
c = crushing stress
1
for both ends fixed
25000
K =
1
for one end fixed & other hinged
12500
20
100
Gordons formula,
P=
A c
1+ b e
d
P = c A 1 c e
k
Fiddlers formula,
P=
A
( c + e )
C
where, e =
c + e
2c c e
2 E
Secant formula
m ax =
Where
P
A
ey c
e
1 + 2 sec
k
2k
EA
P = load
u
P
Chapter13
Theories of Column
A = Area of c/s
y c = Distance of the outermost fiber in compression from the NA
e = Eccentricity of the load
le = Equivalent length
I
A
E = Modulus of elasticity of the material
k = Radius of gyration =
P
M = P.e.Sec e
2k EA
Where M = Moment introduced.
max d
11
d
e
e1 yc
= 2
k
d =
Then,
d =
e1 yc
k2
f + e (1 + )
2
f + e (1 + )
ef
2
PerryRobertson Formula
= 0.003
f + e 1 + 0.003 e
k
d =
2
e
f + e (1 + 0.003 k
e f
Page 368 of2429
S K Mondals
Chapter13
Theories of Column
For
=0 to 160
y
Pc =
fos
1 + 0.2sec e
k
fos pc '
4E
le
= Slenderness ratio
k
6
2
E = Modulus of elasticity = 2.045 10 kg / cm for mild steel
For
le
> 160
k
S K Mondals
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
2 EI
L2
2 EI
2L2
(b)
(b)
2 2EI
L2
2 EI
2L2
[GATE2008]
GATE1. Ans. (b) Axial component of the force FPQ = F Sin 450
2 EI
F=
L2
2 2EI
L2
Equivalent Length
GATE2.
The ratio of Euler's buckling loads of columns with the same parameters
having (i) both ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is:
[GATE1998; 2002; IES2001]
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 6
(d) 8
GATE2. Ans. (b) Eulers buckling loads of columns
4 2EI
(1) both ends fixed = 2
l
2EI
( 2 ) both ends hinged = 2
l
EI
2 L2
2 EI
Pcr = 2
L
(a) Pcr =
(b)
Pcr =
2 EI
(c) Pcr =
3L
EI
(d)
L2
What is the expression for the crippling load for a column of length l with one
end fixed and other end free?
[IES2006; GATE1994]
2 2 EI
(a) P =
l2
(b)
P=
2 EI
4l 2
(c)
P=
EI
l2
(d)
P=
2 EI
l2
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
21. The piston rod of diameter 20 mm and length 700 mm in a hydraulic cylinder is subjected to
a compressive force of 10 KN due to the internal pressure. The end conditions for the rod may
be assumed as guided at the piston end and hinged at the other end. The Youngs modulus is
200 GPa. The factor of safety for the piston rod is
(a) 0.68
(b) 2.75
(c) 5.62
(d) 11.0 [GATE2007]
21. Ans. (c)
Chapter13
IES3.
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
Codes:
(a)
(c)
IES3. Ans. (b)
A
2
1
B
4
2
C
3
4
D
1
3
(b)
(d)
A
2
2
B
3
1
C
1
3
D
4
4
[IES1997]
IES4.
Mach ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IAS1999]
ListI
ListII
1. Thin cylindrical shell
A. Polar moment of inertia of section
B. Buckling
2. Torsion of shafts
C. Neutral axis
3. Columns
D. Hoop stress
4. Bending of beams
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
2
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
3
2
4
1
(d)
2
3
1
4
IES4. Ans. (b)
Strength of Column
IES5.
Assertion (A): A long column of square cross section has greater buckling
stability than a similar column of circular crosssection of same length, same
material and same area of crosssection with same end conditions.
Reason (R): A circular crosssection has a smaller second moment of area than
a square crosssection of same area.
[IES1999; IES1996]
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES6. Ans. (a)
Equivalent Length
IES7.
Four columns of same material and same length are of rectangular crosssection of same breadth b. The depth of the crosssection and the end
conditions are, however different are given as follows:
[IES2004]
Column
Depth
End conditions
1
0.6 b
FixedFixed
2
0.8 b
Fixedhinged
3
1.0 b
HingedHinged
4
2.6 b
FixedFree
Which of the above columns Euler buckling load maximum?
(a) Column 1
(b) ColumnPage
2 372 of 429(c) Column 3
(d) Column 4
IES7. Ans. (b)
Chapter13
IES8.
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
What is the expression for the crippling load for a column of length l with one
end fixed and other end free?
[IES2006; GATE1994]
(a)
P=
2 2 EI
l2
(b)
P=
2 EI
4l 2
(c)
P=
4 2 EI
l2
(d)
P=
2 EI
l2
IES11.
Euler's formula can be used for obtaining crippling load for a M.S. column with
hinged ends.
Which one of the following conditions for the slenderness ratio
satisfied?
(a) 5 <
l
<8
k
l
is to be
k
[IES2000]
(b) 9 <
l
< 18
k
(c) 19 <
l
< 40
k
(d)
l
80
k
IES13.
If one end of a hinged column is made fixed and the other free, how much is the
critical load compared to the original value?
[IES2008]
(a)
(b)
(c) Twice
(d) Four times
IES13. Ans. (a) Critical Load for both ends hinged = 2EI/ l 2
And Critical Load for one end fixed, and other end free = 2EI/4l2
IES14.
If one end of a hinged column is made fixed and the other free, how much is the
critical load compared to the original value?
[IES2008]
(a)
(b)
(c) Twice
(d) Four times
2EI
Page 373 of 429
IES14. Ans. (a) Original load = 2
I
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
When one end of hinged column is fixed and other free. New Le = 2L
2EI
2EI
1
=
= Original value
New load =
2
2
4
4L
( 2L )
IES15.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given
below the Lists:
[IES1995; 2007; IAS1997]
ListI (Long Column)
ListII (Critical Load)
1. 2EI/4l2
A. Both ends hinged
B. One end fixed, and other end free
2. 4 2EI/ l2
C. Both ends fixed
3. 2 2EI/ l2
D. One end fixed, and other end hinged
4. 2EI/ l2
Code:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 2
1
4
3
(b) 4
1
2
3
(c)
2
3
4
1
(d) 4
3
2
1
IES15. Ans. (b)
IES16.
The ratio of the compressive critical load for a long column fixed at both the
ends and a column with one end fixed and the other end free is:
[IES1997]
(a) 1 : 2
(b) 1: 4
(c) 1: 8
(d) 1: 16
IES16. Ans. (d) Critical Load for one end fixed, and other end free is 2EI/4l2 and both ends fixed
is 4 2EI/ l 2
IES17.
[IES1993]
IES18.
4
4
4
p p d d
0.8d
P I or P d or
=
= 1
= 0.59
p
d4
d
( )
A long slender bar having uniform rectangular crosssection 'B x H' is acted
upon by an axial compressive force. The sides B and H are parallel to x and yaxes respectively. The ends of the bar are fixed such that they behave as pinjointed when the bar buckles in a plane normal to xaxis, and they behave as
builtin when the bar buckles in a plane normal to yaxis. If load capacity in
either mode of buckling is same, then the value of H/B will be:
[IES2000]
(a) 2
(b) 4
(c) 8
(d) 16
P=
2 EI
Pxx =
2 EI
L2
4 2 EI
BH3
HB3
H
and Pyy =
as
P
=
P
then
=
=
I
4I
or
4
or = 2
xx
yy
2
12
12
B
L
The Euler's crippling load for a 2m long slender steel rod of uniform crosssection hinged at both the ends is 1 kN. The Euler's crippling load for 1 m long
steel rod of the same crosssection and hinged at both ends will be:
[IES1998]
(a) 0.25 kN
(b) 0.5 kN
(c) 2 kN
(d) 4 kN
2 EI
l2
If c and E denote the crushing stress and Young's modulus for the material of
a column, then the Euler formula can be applied for determination of cripping
load of a column made of this material only, if its slenderness ratio is:
(a) More than
E / c
E / c
[IES2005]
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
2EI
le
< cA
or
2EAK 2
le
< cA
E
le
or >
c
k
2
or
le
> E / c
k
IES22.
Four vertical columns of same material, height and weight have the same end
conditions. Which crosssection will carry the maximum load?
[IES2009]
(a) Solid circular section
(b) Thin hollow circular section
(c) Solid square section
(d) Isection
IES22. Ans. (b)
[IES1994]
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given
below the lists:
[IES2008]
ListI (Formula/theorem/ method)
ListII (Deals with topic)
1. Deflection of beam
A. Clapeyron's theorem
B. Maculay's method
2. Eccentrically loaded column
C. Perry's formula
3. Riveted joints
4. Continuous beam
Code:
A
B
C
A
B
C
(a) 3
2
1
(b)
4
1
2
(c)
4
1
3
(d)
2
4
3
IES24. Ans. (b)
Mach ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IAS1999]
ListI
ListII
1. Thin cylindrical shell
A. Polar moment of inertia of section
B. Buckling
2. Torsion of shafts
C. Neutral axis
3. Columns
D. Hoop stress
4. Bending of beams
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a) 3
2
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
3
2
4
1
(d)
2
3
1
4
IAS1. Ans. (b)
Strength of Column
IAS2.
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IAS2. Ans. (a)
IAS3.
Equivalent Length
IAS4.
A column of length 'I' is fixed at its both ends. The equivalent length of the
column is:
[IAS1995]
(a) 2 l
(b) 0.5 l
(c) 2 l
(d) l
IAS4. Ans. (b)
IAS5.
4 2 EI
For which one of the following columns, Euler buckling load =
?
l2
IAS8.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given
below the Lists:
[IES1995; 2007; IAS1997]
ListI (Long Column)
ListII (Critical Load)
2
2
A. Both ends hinged
1.
Page 376 of 429 EI/4l
B. One end fixed, and other end free
2. 4
2EI/ l 2
Chapter13
Theories of Column
3. 2
4.
Code:
(a)
(c)
IAS8. Ans. (b)
A
2
2
B
1
3
C
4
4
D
3
1
A
(b) 4
(d) 4
S K Mondals
2EI/ l 2
2EI/ l 2
B
1
3
C
2
2
D
3
1
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
Differentiate between strut and column. What is the general expression used
for determining of their critical load?
Strut: A member of structure which carries an axial compressive load.
If the strut is vertical it is known as column.
For strut failure due to compression or c =
Compressive force
Area
If c > yc it fails.
Euler's formula for column ( PC ) =
2 EI
2
e
Two long columns are made of identical lengths l and flexural rigidities EI.
Column 1 is hinged at both ends whereas for column 2 one end is fixed and the
other end is free.
(i)
Write the expression for Eulers buckling load for column 1.
(ii) What is the ratio of Eulers buckling load of column 1 to that column 2? [ 2 Marks]
Ans.
(i)
2EI
2EI
( right )
L2
4L2
For column l, both end hinged l e = L
(ii)
P1 =
; P2 =
P1
=4
P2
Ans.
P
PL
; =
;
A
AE
; Pe =
2 EI
2
e
20mm
) (
(0.7)
F.S =
= 63.278 kN
Chapter13
Theories of Column
Conventional Question ESE1999
Question:
Answer:
S K Mondals
Answer:
What is the value of Euler's buckling load for an axially loaded pinended
(hinged at both ends) strut of length 'l' and flexural rigidity 'EI'? What would
be order of Euler's buckling load carrying capacity of a similar strut but
fixed at both ends in terms of the load carrying capacity of the earlier one?
From Euler's buckling load formula,
2EI
2
e
2EI
( 2)
2EI
2
4 2EI
2
Euler's critical load for a column with both ends hinged is found as 40 kN.
What would be the change in the critical load if both ends are fixed?
We know that Euler's critical laod,
PEuler=
e
2 EI
2
e
= equivalent length ]
/2
(PEuler )b.e.h. =
EI
=40 kN(Given)
2EI
2 EI
=
4
= 4 40 = 160 kN
2
( / 2)2
A hollow cast iron column of 300 mm external diameter and 220 mm internal
diameter is used as a column 4 m long with both ends hinged. Determine the
safe compressive load the column can carry without buckling using Euler's
formula and Rankine's formula
E = 0.7105 N/mm2, FOS = 4, Rankine constant (a) = 1/1600
Crushing Stress ( c ) = 567 N/mm2
Answer:
)=
= 4 m.
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
64
64
(D 4 d 4 ) D 2 + d 2
0.32 + 0.222
64
=
=
= 0.093m
2
16
16
2
(D d )
4
I
=
Slenderness ratio(k)=
A
PEuler =
2EI
2
e
PEuler 12.2
=
= 3.05 MN
fos
4
(ii)Rankine's buckling load, PRankine
Safe load =
PRankine =
(56710 ) 0.03267
6
c .A
2
1 + a. e
k
4
1
1+
1600 0.093
= 8.59 MN
PRankine 8.59
=
= 2.148 MPa
fos
4
Safe load =
Answer:
A both ends hinged cast iron hollow cylindrical column 3 m in length has a
critical buckling load of P kN. When the column is fixed at both the ends, its
critical buckling load raise by 300 kN more. If ratio of external diameter to
internal diameter is 1.25 and E = 100 GPa determine the external diameter of
column.
Pc =
2 EI
I e2
P=
P+300=
2EI
(L 2)
4 2EI
( ii )
L2
D4 d 4 ) = 2
(
64
E
3
2
64 (100 10 ) 3
4
4
= 1.8577 105
orD d =
2
9
100 10
I=
Chapter13
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
D
D
= 1.25 or d =
d
1.255
4
1
= 1.8577 105
or D4 1
1.25
or D=0.0749 m = 74.9 mm
given
formula as
Answer:
1
for hinged ends. The rod may be assumed partially fixed
7500
a=
1
for hinged ends;
7500
P=
cA
l
1+ a e
k
Here le = 0.6l = 0.6 800 = 480 mm [length coefficient = 0.6]
k=
I
=
A
64
d4
d2
d
4
100 d2
4
60 103 =
2
1 480
1+
7500 d / 4
or
d = 33.23mm
Answer:
C
Chapter13
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
Area( A) =
S K Mo
ondals
I
2.898 106
Radius off gyration (k)
=
( =
= 0..032 m
A
2.8274 103
c .A
PRankine =
uivalent len
ngth]
; [ e = equ
2
e
1+ a
k
(600 10 )(2.8274 10 )
3
(i)
1 3
1+
1600 0.0
032
; [
= l = 3 m for both
h end hinged]
2.61026kN
N
=2
P
26126
Safe load
d (P)= Rankine =
= 87.09 kN
FOS
S
3
(ii) For bo
oth end fixxed, e =
= 1.5 m
2
(600 106 )(2.8274 103 )
PRankinee =
= 714.8 kN
k
2
1.5
1
1+
0
1600 0.032
P
714.8
8
Safe load
d (P)= Rankkine =
= 238.27
7 kN
S
3
FOS
C
Convention
nal Questiion AMIE1997
Q
Question:
A
Answer:
Above figu
ure shows a slender colu
umn of lengtth I. The coolumn is built in at one
e end B
and eccentric load P is applied at the
t free end A.
he deflection
n at any secttion XX disttant x from the fixed en
nd B. Let be the
Let y be th
deflection at
a A.
The bendin
ng moment at
a the section XX is give
en by
Page 382 of 429
Chapter13
Theories of Column
2
dy
= P ( + e y )
dx 2
d2 y
EI 2 + Py = P ( + e )
dx
S K Mondals
(i)
EI
d2 y P
P
+ y = ( + e )
2
EI
EI
dx
or
P
P
y = C1 cos x
+ C2 sin x
+ ( + e )
EI
EI
Where C1 and C2 are the cons tan ts.
( ii )
0 = C1 cos 0 + C2 sin 0 + ( + e )
or
C1 = ( + e )
dx
EI
EI
EI
EI
Again,at the fixed end B,
dy
When x = 0,
=0
dx
P
P
cos 0
0 + C2
EI
EI
0 = ( + e )
or
C2 = 0
At the free end A,x = ,y =
= ( + e ) cos
cos
P
EI
= ( + e )
P
e
=
EI + e
(iii )
It is mentioned in the problem that the deflection of the free end does not exceed the
eccentricity. It means that = e
Substituting this value in equation (iii), we have
cos
P
e
1
=
=
EI + e 2
P
1
= cos 1 =
EI
2 3
=
EI
P
2 cos k
P
and k=
sin k
EI
Page 383 of 429
C
Chapter13
An
nswer:
Theorie
es of Colum
mn
S K Mo
ondals
d 2y
= P.y
dx 2
d 2y
P
+
o
or
y =0
2
EI
E
dx
EI
o
or
d 2y
+ k 2y = 0
2
dx
k = P giiven
EI
e = A..................(i )
2e e cos k
or B =
sin k
2e e cos k
sin kx
os kx +
y = e co
s k
sin
Where be
ending mom
ment is maximum,
dy
the deflection will be maximum so
s
=0
dx
2e e coss k
dy
cos kx = 0
e sin kx + k .
= ek
sin k
dx
2e = A cos
s k + B sin k
or tan kx =
2 cos k
sin k
C
Convention
nal Questiion ESE1996
Q
Question:
A
Answer:
The link of
o a mecha
anism is su
ubjected to axial com
mpressive fo
orce. It has
s solid
circular crosssectio
c
on with dia
ameter 9 mm
m and len
ngth 200 mm
m. The two
o ends
2
of the link
k are hing
ged. It is made
m
of stee
el having yield
y
strength = 400 N/mm
N
and elastic moduluss = 200 kN
N/mm2. Calc
culate the critical lo
oad that th
he link
y. Use John
non's equatiion.
can carry
According to
t Johnson'ss equation
y 2
Pcr = y .A 1
4n 2E k
d2
= 63.62
2 mm 2
4
d 4
64 d
I
least radiu
us of gyratio
on (k) =
= = 2.55 mm
=
d 2
4
A
200
400
C
Convention
nal Questiion GATE1995
Q
Question:
Chapter13
Answer:
Theories of Column
S K Mondals
yield strength and modulus of elasticity value for steel as 250 MPa and 200
GPa respectively.
Given: Crosssection, (= b x d) = 600 mm x 100 mm = 0.6 m x 0.1 m = 0.06 m2;
P
= 250MPa = 250MN / m 2 ; E = 200 GPa = 200 1012 N / m 2
A
Length of the column, L :
Yield strength =
bd 3 0.6 0.13
=
= 5 105 m4
12
12
I
5 105
= 8.333 104 m 2
Also,
k2 = =
A 0.6 0.1
[ I = AK 2 ( where A = area of crosssection, k = radius of gyration)]
From Euler's formula for column, we have
Least area moment of Inertia, I =
Crushing load ,
Pcr =
2EI 2EI
= 2
L2e
L
2EAk 2
L2
P 2EI
Yield stress cr = 2
A
L
or
Pcr =
L2 =
2Ek 2
(Pcr / A)
Answer:
Chapter13
Theories of Column
L = L. . t , Where t is the temperature rise.
or
Also,
L
L.
PL
or
L =
AE
2EI
Pcr = 2
Le
S K Mondals
t=
P=
L.AE
L
2EI L.A.E
=
[QLe =L For both endhinged]
L
L2
2I
L =
or
LA
L
2I
2I
t=
=
= 2
L. LA.L. L A.
Substituting the values, we get
4
2 (0.040)
64
t=
Temperature rise
= 49.350 C
2
4
6
(1) (0.040) 20 10
4
or
So the rod will buckle when the temperature rises more than 49.35C.
U=
2
V o lu m e
2E
or U =
2 E
V o lu m e
2
2. Proof Resilience
Maximum strain energy stored at elastic limit. i.e. the strain energy stored in the body upto
elastic limit.
This is the property of the material that enables it to resist shock and impact by storing
energy. The measure of proof resilience is the strain energy absorbed per unit volume.
2
u=
2E
2 E
or u=
2
4. Application
3
L
P2.
P2 L
P2 L
4
4
U=
+
=
2
d
2 AE 2 (2d ) 2 E
E
2.
4
4
L/4
2d
Strain energy becomes smaller & smaller as the cross sectional area of bar
is increased over more & more of its length i.e. A , U
5. Toughness
This is the property which enables a material to be twisted, bent or stretched under impact
Page be
387 considered
of 429
load or high stress before rupture. It may
to be the ability of the material to
C
Chapter14
Strain En
nergy Meth
hod
S K Mo
ondals
absorrb energy in
i the plasttic zone. Th
he measure
e of toughneess is the amount of energy
absorrbed after beeing stressed
d upto the point
p
of fractture.
Toug
ghness is an ability to ab
bsorb energy
y in the plasstic range.
The ability
a
to witthstand occa
asional stressses above th
he yield streess without ffracture.
Toug
ghness = streength + ducttility
M
Modulus
off Toughnes
ss
The ability of un
nit volume of materiall
to absorb energy
y in the plasttic range.
the
material
can
withstand
d
withoout failure.
The area
a
under the entire stress strain
n
diagrram is called
d modulus off toughness,
UT = u f
which
h is a meassure of energy that can
n
be absorbed
a
by
y the unit volume off
mateerial due to impact
i
loadiing before itt
fractu
ures.
6 Strain energy
6.
e
in shear an
nd torsion
n
Strain energy
e
per unit
u volumee, (u s )
2
G 2
us =
or, u s =
2
2G
1
U s = T
2
O
1 GJ 2
1 T 2L
U s =
or
2 L
2 GJ
or
Us =
2max 2 L 2
d
2G r 2
Case
es
Sollid shaft , U s =
2max
r2L
4G
4
4
2
2
2max ( D d ) L 2max ( D + d )
Hollow shaft , U s =
Volume
D2
D2
4G
4G
Chapter14
Strain
n Energy Method
M
S K Mondals
sLt
4G
w
where
s = Leength of meean centre linne
T
Thin walledd tube , U s =
GJ d
GJ
dx =
2 dx
2
Conical sppring , US =
P
2GJ
2 n
PR
R
)
.R.d ( R = Radius
GJ
2n
R d
3
(R varries with )
3 P2 L
Cantilever beam
b
with load
l
'p' at ennd, Us =
5 bhG
Helical sprring , U s =
P 2 R 3 n
GJ
( L = 2 Rn )
Sttrain energy
y stored in beam.
L
Ub =
or U
Mx
EI .dxx
M x2
.d x
2E I
L
EI
=
2
d 2y
dx
2
dx
d 2y
M
2
EI
dx
Cases
P 2 L3
6 EI
Simplly supported
d with a load
d P at centre
e, U b =
P 2 L3
96 EI
E
mportant Note
N
Im
o
For pu
ure bending
g
M is consttant along th
he length L
L
ML
EI
U=
EI 2
M 2L
if curvature / L isknown
if Misknow
wn =
2L
2EI
b
For noonuniform bending
8. Castiigliones theorem
U
= n
P
Pn
Chapter14
U
1
=
p EI
M x
Mx
p
dx
Note:
o
U=
o
1
( x ) 2 2 x y
2E
3 2
2
[1 2] =
2E
2k
S K Mondals
Chapter14
S K Mondals
The strain energy stored in the beam with flexural rigidity EI and loaded as
shown in the figure is:
[GATE2008]
(a)
P 2L3
3EI
4L
= 2
0
= 2
0
GATE2.
(b)
2P 2L3
3EI
(c)
3L
4P 2L3
3EI
(d)
8P 2L3
3EI
4L
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
=
+
+
EI
EI
EI
EI
L
0
3L
L
4L
2
2
By symmetry M dx = M dx
EI EI
0
3L
3L
M 2dx
M 2dx
+
EI
EI
L
3L
(Px )2 dx
(PL )2 dx
4P 2L3
+
=
EI
EI
3EI
L
PL3
is the deflection under the load P of a cantilever beam [length L, modulus
3EI
(a)
P 2 L3
3EI
(b)
P 2 L3
6 EI
(c )
P 2 L3
4 EI
(d )
P 2 L3
48 EI
3
P 2 L3
P PL
=
6 EI
2 3EI
U
. Then
P
U PL3
PL3
P Partially integrating with respect to P we get
or U = U =
=
P
3EI
3EI
P2L3
U=
6EI
=
C
Chapter14
G
GATE3.
Strain En
nergy Meth
hod
S K Mo
ondals
[GATE
E2000]
G
GATE3.
An
ns. (c) Resiliience = area under this curve
c
up to 0.004 strain
n
1
= 0.004 70 106 = 14
4 10 4 Nm/m
m3
2
T
Toughness
= area under this curve up
u to 0.012 strain
s
1
= 14 10 4 + 70
7 106 ( 0.0
012 0.004 ) + ( 0.012 0.004 ) (120 70 ) 10
06 Nm/m3
2
= 90 104 Nm
m/m3
G
GATE4.
A square ba
ar of side 4 cm and le
ength 100 cm
m is subjec
cted to an a
axial load P.
P The
s
same
bar iss then used
d as a cantiilever beam
m and subje
ected to alll end load P.
P The
r
ratio
of the
e strain ene
ergies, stor
red in the bar in the second case to that stored
in
n the first case, is:
E1998]
[GATE
(a
a) 16
(b) 400
(c) 1000
(d) 2500
2
G
GATE4.
W
A AL W 2L
A
Ans.
(d) U1 =
=
2AE
2E
2 3
2 3
W L
W L
2W 2L3
U2 =
=
=
6EI
Ea 4
1
6E a4
12
2
o
or
U2 4L2
100
= 2 = 4
= 2500
U1
a
4
T
Toughn
ness
G
GATE5.
The total ar
T
rea under the stressstrain curv
ve of a milld steel spe
ecimen testted up
to failure under tensio
on is a mea
asure of
[GATE
E2002]
a) Ductility
(b) Ultimate
U
streength
(c) Stiffn
ness
(d) Tough
hness
(a
G
GATE5.
An
ns. (d)
Prev
vious 20Ye
2
ars IE
ES Que
estion
ns
S
Strain
E
Energy
y or Re
esilienc
ce
IES1.
What is the
W
e strain en
nergy store
ed in a bod
dy of volum
me V with stress due
d
to
g
gradually
a
applied
load
d?
[IES
S2006]
(a
a)
E
V
(b)
E2
V
(c)
V 2
E
(d)
2V
2E
W
Where,
E = Modulus
M
of elasticity
e
1 2
IES1. Ans. (d) Strain Energy = .
V
2 E
IES2.
A bar havin
ng length L and uniform cross
ssection with
w
area A is subjec
cted to
b
both
tensile force P and torqu
ue Page
T. If
is the she
ear modulus and E is the
392Gof 429
Y
Young's
mo
odulus, the internal sttrain energ
gy stored in
n the bar iss:
[IES
S2003]
Chapter14
S K Mondals
T L P L
T L P L
+
+
(c)
GJ 2 AE
2GJ 2 AE
1
1
1 PL 1 TL
IES2. Ans. (c) Internal strain energy = P + T = P
+ T
2
2
2 AE 2 GJ
(a)
T L P L
+
2GJ AE
(b)
(d)
T L P2 L
+
GJ
AE
IES3.
PL2
P2L
(d)
AE
AE
1
1 P P L
PL2
IES4. Ans. (a) Strain energy = x stress x strain x volume = . ( AL ) =
2
2 A A E
2 AE
(a)
IES5.
P2L
2AE
PL2
2EI
(b)
(c)
Which one of the following gives the correct expression for strain energy
stored in a beam of length L and of uniform crosssection having moment of
inertia I and subjected to constant bending moment M?
[IES1997]
(a )
IES5. Ans. (d)
ML
EI
(b)
ML
2 EI
(c)
M 2L
EI
M 2L
2 EI
(d)
IES6.
30000 ) 50 10 3
(
1
1 PL P2L
= P = P
=
=
= 0.75 Nm
2
2 AE 2AE 2 150 106 200 109
2
IES7.
What is the expression for the strain energy due to bending of a cantilever
beam (length L. modulus of elasticity E and moment of inertia I)?
[IES2009]
(a)
P 2 L3
3EI
(b)
P 2 L3
6 EI
(c)
P 2 L3
4 EI
(d)
P 2 L3
48EI
(Px)2 dx P2 x 3
P2L3
=
IES7. Ans. (b) Strain Energy Stored =
=
2E
2EI 3 0
6EI
0
L
IES8.
30 C 8 steel has its yield strength of 400 N/mm2 and modulus of elasticity of 2
105 MPa. Assuming the material to obey Hooke's law up to yielding, what is its
proof resilience?
[IES2006]
(b) 0.4 N/mm2
(c) 06 N/mm2
(d) 07 N/mm2
(a) 08 N/mm2
1 2 1 ( 400 )
=
= 0.4N / mm2
.
2 E
2 2 105
2
Chapter14
S K Mondals
Toughness
IES10.
Toughness for mild steel under uniaxial tensile loading is given by the shaded
portion of the stressstrain diagram as shown in
[IES2003]
IES10. Ans. (d) Toughness of material is the total area under stressstrain curve.
Total strain energy stored in a simply supported beam of span, 'L' and flexural
rigidity 'EI 'subjected to a concentrated load 'W' at the centre is equal to:
[IAS1995]
(a)
W 2 L3
40 EI
(b)
L
W 2 L3
60 EI
L/2
(c)
L/2
M2 dx
M2 dx 1
2
=
0 2EI
0 2EI = EI 0
W 2 L3
96 EI
(d)
W 2 L3
240 EI
W 2L3
Wx
dx
=
2
96EI
U
U
=
P W
WL3
for simply supported beam in concentrated load at mid span.
48EI
U
U
WL3
WL3
=
W partially integrating with
Then =
or U = U =
=
P W
48EI
48EI
W 2L3
respect to W we get U =
96EI
We know that =
IAS2.
The strain energy stored in the beam with flexural rigidity EI and loaded as
shown in the figure is:
[GATE2008]
Chapter14
(a)
P 2L3
3EI
4L
= 2
0
= 2
0
IAS4.
(b)
L
2P 2L3
3EI
3L
(c)
S K Mondals
4P 2L3
3EI
(d)
8P 2L3
3EI
4L
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
M 2dx
=
+
+
EI
EI
EI
EI
L
0
3L
3L
M 2dx
M 2dx
+
EI
EI
L
L
4L
2
2
By symmetry M dx = M dx
EI EI
0
3L
3L
(Px )2 dx
(PL )2 dx
4P 2L3
+
=
EI
EI
3EI
L
2
1 2
1 (l )
= E = 2 E
IAS4. Ans. (a)
2E 2
2 L
Toughness
IAS5.
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists:
[IAS1996]
ListI (Mechanical properties)
ListII (Meaning of properties)
A. Ductility
1. Resistance to indentation
B. Hardness
2. Ability to absorb energy during plastic
C. Malleability
deformation
D. Toughness
3. Percentage of elongation
4. Ability to be rolled into flat product
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a)
1
4
3
2
(b)
3
2
4
1
(c)
2
3
4
1
(d)
3
1
4
2
IAS5. Ans. (d)
IAS6.
Match
ListI
(Material
properties)
with
ListII
(Technical
definition/requirement) and select the correct answer using the codes below
the lists:
[IAS1999]
ListI
ListII
1. Percentage of elongation
A. Hardness
B. Toughness
2. Resistance to indentation
C. Malleability
3. Ability to absorb energy during plastic deformation
D. Ductility
4. Ability to be rolled into plates
Codes:
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
(a)
3
2
1
4
(b)
2
3
4
1
(c)
2
4
3
1
(d)
1
3
4
2
IAS6. Ans. (b)
IAS7.
Chapter14
(a) 20.00 cm
(b) 22.85 cm
(c) 27.66 cm
(d) 30.00 cm
IAS7. Ans. (c) Kinetic energy of the truck = strain energy of the spring
150 103 2
2
9.81
1
1 2
mv 2
2
=
= 0.2766m = 27.66 cm
mv = kx or x =
2
2
k
10 1000
0.0125
S K Mondals
Chapter14
S K Mondals
Ans.
A close coiled helical spring made of wire diameter d has mean coil radius R,
number of turns n and modulus of rigidity G. The spring is subjected to an
axial compression W.
(1) Write the expression for the stiffness of the spring.
(2) What is the magnitude of the maximum shear stress induced in the spring
wire neglecting the curvature effect?
[2 Marks]
W
Gd4
=
X 8nD3
8WD
(2) Maximum shear stress, =
d3
(1) Spring stiffness, K =
Ans.
I=
bd3
12
b = 20 mm
d = 30 mm
20 ( 30 )
12
= 45,000 mm4
Influence of circumferential and shearing force are neglected strain energy at the section.
Chapter14
u=
S K Mondals
M Rd
R
for
10
2EI
4
0
M = F R sin
M
= R sin
F
u
F R2 sin2
FR2
=
=
d
F 0
EI
2EI
200 ( 300 )
FR2
=
=
2EI
2 2 105 45000
2
Answer:
Re action at A,
Re action at A,
Pb
, and
L
Pa
RB =
L
RA =
b Pa
P 2b2 a 3 P 2b2 a 3
Pb dx
dx
+
=
+
x
x
.
.
L 2EI 0 L 2EI
6EIL2
6EIL2
2
2
P 2b2 a 2
P 2b2 a 2 P ( L b ) b
+
=
=
a
b
(
)
6EIL
6EIL
6EIL2
( a + b ) = L )
2
P ( L b ) b2
U 2P ( L b ) b
=
=
Deflection under the load P , = y =
P
6EIL
3EIL
Deflection at the midspan of the beam can be found by Macaulay's method.
By Macaulay's method, deflection at any section is given by
2
Chapter14
6L
6L
6
Where y is deflection at any distance x from the support.
L
At
x = , i, e. at midspan,
2
3
L
3
P a
Pb ( L / 2 )
Pb 2
L
2
EIy =
L b2
6L
6L
2
6
3
2
2
2
Pb
L
b
P
L
2
a
(
)
PbL
or,
EIy =
48
12
48
P 2
3
y=
bL 4b L2 b2 ( L 2a )
48EI
EIy =
S K Mondals
Failure: Every material has certain strength, expressed in terms of stress or strain, beyond
which it fractures or fails to carry the load.
Failure Mode
Yielding: a process of global permanent plastic deformation. Change in the geometry of the
object.
Fracture: a process in which cracks grow to the extent that the component breaks apart.
Buckling: the loss of stable equilibrium. Compressive loading can lead to bucking in
columns.
Failure Modes:
Excessive elastic
deformation
1. Stretch,
twist,
bending
2. Buckling
3. Vibration
or
Yielding
Fracture
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Ra
ankin stated
d max principal stress theory
t
as folllows a matterial fails by
y fracturing
g when the
la
argest princiipal stress exceeds the ultimate
u
strrength u in a simple tension test. That
T
is, at
th
he onset of frracture, 1 = u OR 
3 = u
Crriterion hass good experrimental verrification, even though it assumess ultimate strength is
sa
ame in comp
pression and
d tension
Failu
ure surface according
g to maximu
um princip
pal stress th
heory
Th
his theory of
o yielding has
h very pooor agreemen
nt with experiment. How
wever, the theory
t
has
beeen used succcessfully forr brittle matterials.
Liimitations
o
Doesn
nt distinguissh between tension or co
ompression
Doesn
nt depend on
o orientatiion of princcipal planess so only ap
pplicable to
o isotropic
materrials
3. Maximum She
ear Stress
s or Stres
ss differe
ence theo
ory
(Guests or Tres
scas Theory1868) Ductile
e Material
The Tressca Criterio
on:
C
Chapter15
Theorie
es of Failure
S K Mo
ondals
Failu
ure by slip (yielding)
(
occcurs when the
t
maximu
um shearing
g stress, max exceeds th
he yield
stress f as deterrmined in a uniaxial ten
nsion test.
Failur
re surface according
a
t maximu
to
um shear sttress theory
y
4 Strain Energy
4.
E
Th
heory (Ha
aighs Theory)
T
The
theory associated
d with Haig
gh
T
This
theory is
i based on the assump
ption that sttrains are re
ecoverable up
u to the ela
astic limit, and
a
the
energy absorrbed by the material
m
at failure
f
up too this point is a single valued
v
function indepen
ndent of
th
he stress system causin
ng it. The strrain energy per unit vollume causin
ng failure is equal to the
e strain
energy at thee elastic limiit in simple tension.
y2
1
2
2
2
U=
1 + 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) =
2E
2E
12 + 22 + 32 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) = y2
12 + 22 2
1 2 = y2
3 stress
For 3D
5 Shear Strain
5.
S
En
nergy The
eory (Disttortion En
nergy The
eory or M
MisesHen
nky
Theory
y or VonM
Misses Theory)Du
uctile Ma
aterial
V
VonMises
C
Criterion:
Also known as th
he Maximum
m Energy of Distortion criterion
c
Page
ofncipal
429
Based on a more complex vieew of the rolle of
the402
prin
stresss differencess.
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
In
n simple term
ms, the von Mises criterrion considerrs the diameeters of all tthree Mohrss circles as
coontributing to
t the characterization of
o yield onse
et in isotropiic materials.
W
When
the critterion is app
plied, its rela
ationship to the uniaxia
al tensile yield strength is:
12 1 2 + 22 = y2
It is often con
nvenient to express
e
this as an equivalent stress, e:
1/2
1
2
2
2
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + (3 1 )
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1/2
or e =
6 xy
+ yz
+ zx
)
( x y ) + ( y z ) + ( x z ) + 6(
2
e =
In
n formulatin
ng this failurre theory wee used generalized Hooke's law for an isotropicc material
soo the theory
y given is only appliccable to tho
ose materials but it ca
an be generalized to
an
nisotropic materials.
m
Th
he von Misees theory is a little lesss conservativ
ve than the Tresca theoory but in most
m
cases
th
here is little difference in
i their pred
dictions of fa
ailure. Mostt experimenttal results te
end to fall
on
n or between
n these two theories.
t
6. Maximum Prin
ncipal Strrain Theo
ory (St. Ve
enant The
eory)
According
g to this theeory, yieldin
ng will occurr when the maximum principal sttrain just ex
xceeds the
strain at the tensile yield point in either sim
mple tension
n or compreession. If 1 and 2 are maximum
and minim
mum princip
pal strains correspondin
c
ng to 1 and 2, in the lim
miting case
C
Chapter15
Theorie
es of Failure
S K Mo
ondals
H
Higher
shearr stresses arre to the lefft of origin, since most brittle mateerials have higher stren
ngth in
compression
8 Comparison
8.
A comparison
n among thee different failure
f
theorries can be made
m
by sup
perposing th
he yield surfa
faces as
shown in figu
ure
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
Match 4 correct pairs between list I and List II for the questions
ListI
ListII
(a) Hooke's law
1. Planetary motion
(b) St. Venant's law
2. Conservation Energy
(c) Kepler's laws
3. Elasticity
(d) Tresca's criterion
4. Plasticity
(e) Coulomb's laws
5. Fracture
(f) Griffith's law
6. Inertia
GATE1. Ans. (a)  3, (c) 1, (d) 5, (e) 2
St. Venant's law: Maximum principal strain theory
[GATE1994]
GATE2.
Which theory of failure will you use for aluminium components under steady
loading?
[GATE1999]
(a) Principal stress theory
(b) Principal strain theory
(c) Strain energy theory
(d) Maximum shear stress theory
GATE2. Ans. (d) Aluminium is a ductile material so use maximum shear stress theory
1
2
2
2
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
12G
GATE4.
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Pre
evious
s 20Y
Years IES
I
Qu
uestio
ons
Maxim
mum Principa
P
al Stres
ss The
eory
IES1.
IES3.
A circular solid sh
haft is sub
bjected to a bending
g moment of 400 kN
Nm and a
o 300 kNm
m. On the basis of th
he maximu
um princip
pal stress
twisting moment of
theory, the
t
direct stress is and acc
cording to
o the maximum shea
ar stress
theory, the
t
shear sttress is . The
T
ratio /
is:
[IIES2000]
(a )
1
5
ns. (c) =
IES3. An
(b)
3
9
16
M + M2 + T 2
d3
Therefore
(c)
and =
16
d3
9
5
M2 + T 2
(d)
11
6
M + M2 + T 2 4 + 42 + 32 9
=
=
=
5
M2 + T 2
42 + 32
A transm
mission sha
aft subjecte
ed to bendiing loads must
m
be designed on the basis
of
[IIES1996]
mum normall stress theory
(a) Maxim
(b) Maxim
mum shear stress
s
theory
y
(c) Maxim
mum normal stress and maximum
m
sh
hear stress theories
t
(d) Fatigu
ue strength
ns. (a)
IES4. An
IES4.
Design of
o shafts ma
ade of britttle materia
als is based on
[IIES1993]
(a) Guest''s theory (b
b) Rankines theory (cc) St. Venantt's theory (d)) Von Mises theory
ns. (b) Ran
nkine's theorry or maxim
mum princip
ple stress th
heory is mosst commonly
y used for
IES5. An
brittle ma
aterials.
IES5.
Maxim
mum Shear
S
s
stress
o Stress Diffference
or
e Theory
IES6.
Which on
ne of the fo
ollowing fig
gures repre
esents the maximum shear stress theory
or Tresca
a criterion
n?
[IIES1999]
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
(b) T
(c)
2T
(d) 2T
yt
16T
principal stresses for only this shear stress are
=
2
d3
16 ( 2T )
d3
(b) M
16
M + M2 + T 2
IES8. Ans. (b) =
d3
(c)
2M
(d) 2M
16
and = 3 M2 + T 2 put T = 0
d
32M
32M
16M yt d3 16M
or yt =
and =
ThereforeM = M
=
=
=
2
2
d3
d3
d3
IES9.
We know that, =
P sin 2
P yt
or P = yt A
or max =
=
A 2
2A
2
IES10.
A cold roller steel shaft is designed on the basis of maximum shear stress
theory. The principal stresses induced at its critical section are 60 MPa and  60
MPa respectively. If the yield stress for the shaft material is 360 MPa, the
factor of safety of the design is:
[IES2002]
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 6
IES10. Ans. (b)
IES11.
80 0
2
2
+ 30 = 50 N/mm
2
IES12.
y
2
; F .S . =
280
= 2.8
2 50
are most conservative if which one of the following failure theories were used?
[IES1998]
(a) Maximum principal strain theory
(b) Maximum distortion energy theory
(c) Maximum shear stress theory
(d) Maximum principal stress theory
Page 408 of 429
IES12. Ans. (c)
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
[IES2008]
(d) MisesHenky
IES14.
[IES2008]
(d) MisesHenky
Rankine
Maximum principal stress theory
St. Venant
Maximum principal strain theory
Mises Henky
Maximum shear strain energy theory
IES15.
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2
2
1
= 2 y2
22 + 32 ) 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ) = y2
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 ) = 3 y2
2
2
(d) (1 2 )( 1 + 2 + 3 ) = 2 (1 + ) y
(c)
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
D. Maximum
shear
energy theory
Code:
(a)
(c)
IES18. Ans. (d)
A
2
4
B
1
2
strain
C
3
3
D
4
1
(b)
(d)
A
2
2
B
4
4
C
3
1
D
1
3
For
1 2
theory?
(a) A rectangle
(b) An ellipse
(c) A square
[IAS2004]
(d) A parabola
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
y =
= 0.577 y
IAS3.
[IAS
1 > 2 > 3
simple tension; which one of the following must be satisfied such that the
elastic failure does not occur in accordance with the maximum principal strain
theory?
[IAS2004]
(a)
< 1 2 3
E E
E
E
(b)
> 1 2 3
E E
E
E
Chapter15
(c)
Theories of Failure
> 1 + 2 + 3
E E
E
E
(d)
< 1 + 2 3
E E
E
E
e
E
>
1
E
2
E
3
E
S K Mondals
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
1 = 60N / mm 2 & 2 = 36 N / mm 2
If the allowable stress for the material in simple tension or compression is
100 N/mm2 calculate the value of factor of safety with each of the following
criteria for failure
(i) Max Stress Criteria
(ii) Max Shear Stress Criteria
(iii) Max strain criteria
[10 Marks]
(iv) Max Distortion energy criteria
Ans.
1 = 60 N / mm2
(i)
2 = 36 N / mm2
Allowable stress for the material in simple tension or compression is 100 N/mm2
Find out factor of safety for
Maximum stress Criteria :  In this failure point occurs when max principal stress
reaches the limiting strength of material.
Therefore. Let F.S factor of safety
1 =
( allowable )
F.S
F.S =
(ii)
100 N / mm2
= 1.67
60 N / mm2
Ans.
Maximum Shear stress criteria :  According to this failure point occurs at a point in a
member when maximum shear stress reaches to shear at yield point
max =
yt
2 F.S
yt = 100 N / mm2
max =
1 2
2
60 + 36 96
=
= 48 N / mm2
2
2
100
2 F.S
100
100
F.S =
=
= 1.042
2 48 96
F.S = 1.042 Ans.
48 =
(iii)
Maximum Strain Criteria ! In this failure point occurs at a point in a member when
maximum strain in a bi axial stress system reaches the limiting value of strain (i.e
strain at yield point)
+
2 1 2 = allowable
FOS
FOS = 1.27
12
22
( = 0.3assume)
(iv)
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
12 + 22 1 2 = yt
F.S
100
60 + ( 36 ) 60 36 =
F.S
F.S = 1.19
2
S K Mondals
Answer:
32M
d 3
16T
d 3
1,2
16
2
2
= b b + 2 =
M M + T
2
2
d 3
or
16
d 3
M + M 2 + T 2 = 210 106
16
3
(0.050)
or , 2
16
M 2 + T 2 = 210 106
3
d
Illustrate the graphical comparison of following theories of failures for twodimensional stress system:
(i)
(ii)
Chapter15
Theo
ories of Fa
ailure
S K Mondals
Conventtional Que
estion ESE
E2004
Question
n:
Answer:
State th
he Von Miises's theor
ry. Also giv
ve the natur
rally expre
ession.
Accordin
ng to this theory
t
yielding would occur
o
when total distorrtion energy
y absorbed
per unitt volume du
ue to applied
d loads exce
eeds the distortion enerrgy absorbed
d per unit
volume at the tensiile yield poin
nt. The failu
ure criterion is
2
(1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1) = 2 2y
[sym
mbols has usual
u
meaning]
Conventtional Que
estion ESE
E2002
Question
n:
Answer:
Accordin
ng to this theory
t
yielding would occur
o
when total distorrtion energy
y absorbed
per unitt volume du
ue to applied
d loads exce
eeds the distortion enerrgy absorbed
d per unit
volume at the tensiile yield point. Total strrain energy ET and stra
ain energy for
f volume
change EV can be giiven as
Substitu
uting strains in terms of
o stresses th
he distortion
n energy can
n be given ass
At the tensile
t
yield point, 1 = y , 2 = 3 = 0 which gives
In a 2D
D situation iff 3 = 0, the criterion red
duces to
Conventtional Que
estion GAT
TE1996
Question
n:
Answer:
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
x + y
2
= 60
1000
= 40 N/mm2
55
800
=
= 32 N/mm2
55
y =
xy
x y
80 + 40
2
+ xy
=
2
2
2
80 40
2
+ (32)
and
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + ( 3 1) 2yt2
Now
(1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + ( 3 1)
2
(i )
= 11745.8
and,
(ii )
Answer:
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
P
Due to axial load, the axial stress in the tube x =
2rt
Due to torque, shear stress,
xy =
Tr
Tr
T
=
=
3
J
2r t 2r 3 t
4
(r + t ) r 4 = 2r 3t neglecting t 2 higher power of t.
2
P
T
, y = 0, xy =
The state of stress in the tube is, x =
2rt
2r 3 t
J=
02 = 12 + 22 12
1 =
2 =
y 2
2
+ xy
+ x
2
x + y
2
x + y
2
In this case,
x y
2
+ xy
2
1 =
x
x2
2
+
+ xy
, and
2
4
2 =
x
2
2
x + xy
2
4
( y = 0)
2
2
2
x2
2
x x + 2 x + x + 2 x x + 2
= x +
+ xy
+
xy
xy
xy
2
2
4
4
4
4
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
x + x + 2 + 2. x . x + 2
= x + x + xy
+ 2. x . x + xy
+
xy
xy
4
4
2
4
4
2
4
4
2 2
2
x x xy
4
2
0
2
= x2 + 3 xy
2
0 = x2 + 3 xy
Answer:
Equivalent torque, Te = M 2 + T 2 =
Factor of safety =
300
= 150MN/m2
2
Chapter15
Theories of Failure
S K Mondals
16. Rive
eted and Weld
ded Joint
J
Th
heory at
a a Glance
G
e (for IES,
I
G
GATE,
PSU)
Chapter16
Riveted
d and Welde
ed Joint
S K Mondals
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Bolts in the flanged end of pressure vessel are usually pretensioned Indicate
which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?
[GATE1999]
(a) Pretensioning helps to seal the pressure vessel
(b) Pretensioning increases the fatigue life of the bolts
(c) Pretensioning reduces the maximum tensile stress in the bolts
(d) Pretensioning helps to reduce the effect of pressure pulsations in the pressure vessel
GATE1. Ans. (c)
GATE2.
4 kN
= 2k N
2
GATE3.
[GATE2008]
(D) 195 MPa
A bolted joint is shown below. The maximum shear stress, in MPa, in the bolts
at A and B, respectively are:
[GATE2007]
Chapter16
Riveted
d and Welde
ed Joint
(b) 42
25.5, 242.6
S K Mondals
42.6, 242.6
(d) 24
A bracke
et (shown in
i figure) is
i rigidly mounted
m
on
n wall usin
ng four rive
ets. Each
rivet is 6 mm in dia
ameter and
d has an efffective leng
gth of 12 m
mm.
[GA
ATE2010]
Direct sh
hear stress (in MPa) in the mostt heavily lo
oaded rivet is:
(a) 4.4
(b) 8.8
8
(c) 17.6
(d
d) 35.2
GATE5. Ans. (b)
F=
1000
= 250 N
4
and
z=
F
250
=
= 8.8MPa
A (6) 2
4
Efficiency of
o a rive
eted jo
oint
GATE6.
If the ra
atio of the diameter
d
o rivet holle to the piitch of rive
of
ets is 0.25, then the
tearing efficiency
e
o the joint is:
of
[GA
ATE1996]
(a) 0.50
(b) 0.7
75
(c) 0.2
25
(d) 0.8
87
GATE6. Ans. (b)
Chapter16
S K Mondals
GATE7.
A manufacturer of rivets claims that the failure load in shear of his product is
500 25 N. This specification implies that
[GATE1992]
(a) No rivet is weaker than 475 N and stronger than 525 N
(b) The standard deviation of strength of random sample of rivets is 25 N
(c) There is an equal probability of failure strength to be either 475 Nor 525 N
(d) There is approximately twotoone chance that the strength of a rivet lies between
475 N to 525 N
GATE7. Ans. (a)
An
eccentrically
loaded
riveted joint is shown with 4
rivets at P, Q, R and S.
Which of the rivets are the
most loaded?
(a) P and Q
(b) Q and R
(c) Rand S
(d) Sand P
[IES2002]
[IES2003]
Chapter16
S K Mondals
P = 2F2 = 2 x 3 = 6 kN
and P.L = F1l + F1l = 2 F1l
or 6 L = 2 4l = 8l
L 8
=
or
l 6
( 4 ) + ( 3)
2
+ 2 4 3cos
= 5 kN
R
5103
=
=10 N/mm 2
Area
500
If permissible stress in
plates of joint through a
pin as shown in the
given figure is 200 MPa,
then the width w will be
(a) 15 mm
(b) 18 mm
(c) 20 mm
(d) 25 mm
[IES1999]
IES3. Ans. (a) (w 10) 2 106 200 106 = 2000 N; or w = 15 mm.
IES4.
[IES2000]
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Two rigid plates are clamped by means of bolt and nut with an initial force N.
After tightening, a separating force P (P < N) is applied to the lower plate,
which in turn acts on nut. The tension in the bolt after this is:
[IES1996]
(a) (N + P)
(b) (N P)
(c) P
(d) N
IES6. Ans. (a)
Which one of the following structural joints with 10 rivets and same size of
plate and material will be the most efficient?
[IES1994]
The most efficient riveted joint possible is one which would be as strong in
tension, shear and bearing as the original plates to be joined. But this can
never be achieved because:
[IES1993]
(a) Rivets cannot be made with the same material
(b) Rivets are weak in compression
(c) There should be at least one hole in the plate reducing its strength
(d) Clearance is present between the plate and the rivet
IES8. Ans. (c) Riveted joint can't be as strong as original plates, because there should be at least
one hole in the plate reducing its strength.
Assertion (A): In a boiler shell with riveted construction, the longitudinal scam
is, jointed by butt joint.
[IES2001]
Reason (R): A butt joint is stronger than a lap joint in a riveted construction.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
IES9. Ans. (c)
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Answer:
1000
1000
= 0.06728 MN
2
20
120
4 1000
= 0.0754 MN
16
20
From the above three modes of failure it can be seen that the weakest element is the
plate as it will have tear failure at 0.06728 MN/pitch load itself.
Stresses acting on the plate for an inside pressure of pN/m2 is shown in figure.
pd
p6
=
= 187.5 p
Hoop stress =
2t
2 ( 0.016 )
Longitudinal stress =
pd
p6
=
= 93.75 p
4t 4 ( 0.016 )
or
pd
2t
0.06728
145
72 ( 2 21.5 )
( 0.016 ) 1000
187.5 p
Chapter16
S K Mondals
Answer:
Determine the shaft diameter and bolt size for a marine flangecoupling
transmitting 3.75 MW at 150 r.p.m. The allowable shear stress in the shaft and
bolts may be taken as 50 MPa. The number of bolts may be taken as 10 and
bolt pitch circle diameter as 1.6 times the shaft diameter.
Given, P = 3.75MW; N = 150 r.p.m.;
s = b = 50 MPa;
n = 10,
Db = 1.6 D
Shaft diameter, D :
2 NT
P=
60
2 150 T
E
3.78 106 =
60
3.75 106 60
or
T =
= 238732 Nm
2 150
Also,
T = s
or
238732 = 50 106
238732 16
D=
= 0.28 m or 290 mm
6
50 10
16
D3
16
D3
Bolt size,db :
Bolt pitch circle diameter, Db = 1.6 D = 1.6 0.29 = 0.464 m
Now,
or
or
T = n
D
db2 b b
2
0.464
db2 50 106
4
2
db = 0.0512 m or 51.2 mm
238732 = 10