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# Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Electric Machines

Lab 1: Transformers

Transformers
Training contents

## The purpose of transformers

Equivalent circuit for a transformer
Single-phase transformers
Autotransformers
Three-phase transformers

## The following experiment investigates the behaviour of a single-phase transformer with

no load. For reasons of symmetry, this experiment and those that follow will always use
the central of the three windings on the transformer card's three-phase transformer.
Set up the experiment as illustrated below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Ammeter A and make the settings shown in the table below
(make sure you enter the correct shunt resistor setting).
Ammeter A settings
Range:

500 mA AC

Mode:

RMS

Shunt:

What is the no-load current I0? Enter the value in the following field.

mA

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter B and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter B settings
Range:

20 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Now close the voltmeter and ammeter and open the Oscilloscope virtual instrument
instead. Make the settings listed in the following table.
Oscilloscope settings
Channel A:

200 mV/div, AC

Channel B:

10 V/div, AC

Trigger:
Time base
Time/div:

Channel A
10 ms

Use the mouse to drag the oscilloscope trace into the placeholder below.

## What is the phase shift between the voltage and current?

Current and voltage are very nearly in phase since the load
acts like a normal resistor
acts like an inductor
acts like a capacitor

## Experiment: transformer ratio

The following experiment is to determine the transformer ratio for the circuit as set up in
the previous experiment. In addition, the number of turns in the tapped windings for the
primary and secondary are determined.
Set up the experiment as illustrated below::

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instruments Voltmeter A, Voltmeter B and make the settings shown in
the table below.

## Voltmeter A/B settings

Range:

20 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Enter the resulting secondary voltage U2 in the following table. Then increase the
primary voltage U1 in 1V steps and enter the secondary voltages produced in the
relevant places in the table. At the end switch to Chart mode to see the characteristic U2
= f(U1).

## What is the shape of the resulting characteristic?

A linear characteristic
An exponentially increasing characteristic
An exponentially falling characteristic
A magnetisation characteristic
What is the transformer ratio for the circuit?
A value rather more than 1

Now find out the number of turns in the secondary windings N2.1 and N2.2 according to
the diagram below. The manufacturer quotes the number of turns on the primary
winding as being N1.1 = 156.

To determine the number of winding turns the connection between the two secondary
winding needs to be removed and the output voltage tapped from just one of the two
sub-windings. The ratio of that voltage to the voltage determined in the first part of the
experiment will reveal the number of turns in each of the two sections of the secondary
winding.
Modify the experiment set-up appropriately, take measurements and use the results to
obtain the winding turns N2.1 and N2.2. (tip: use a primary voltage of 10V).
What do you obtain as a result for the number of turns? Enter your answer in the boxes
below.
N2.1 =

N2.2 =

Now we will determine the number of turns for the second primary winding N1.2. Apply
the primary voltage between terminals 1V1 and 1V3. Compare the resulting secondary
voltage with that obtained when the voltage was applied between 1V1 and 1V2. The
ratio between these two voltages along with the quoted number of turns N1.1 = 156
gives the desired number of turns N1.2.
Modify the experiment set-up appropriately, take measurements and use the results to
obtain the winding turns N1.2. (tip: use a primary voltage of 10V).

What do you obtain as a result for the number of turns? Enter your answer in the box
below.
N1.2 =

The following experiment studies the response of a transformer with a resistive load. It
involves measuring the secondary voltage U2 and the current I that passes through a
Set up the experiment as shown below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A settings
Range:

20 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Open the virtual instrument Ammeter B and make the settings shown in the table below
(make sure you enter the correct shunt resistor setting).
Ammeter B settings
Range:

500 mA AC

Mode:

RMS

Shunt:

First measure the current and voltage without a load (disconnect the bulb from terminal
2V4).
What is the current I? Enter your result into the box below.
Current I =

mA

## Take into account

that the bulb has
been removed (open
circuit)!

What is the voltage U2? Enter what you measure into the box below.
Voltage U2 =

Now connect the bulb back to terminal 2V4 and measure the current and voltage for the

What values do you get now for the load current I and voltage U2? Enter your results
into the boxes below.
I=

mA U2 =

Now modify the set-up so that you have a series circuit with two bulbs then measure the
load current and voltage once again.
How have the current and voltage changed with respect to the previous experiment?
The load current and the output voltage are both smaller
than in the previous experiment
The load current and the output voltage are both greater
than in the previous experiment
The load current is smaller but the output voltage is higher
than in the previous experiment
The load current is higher but the output voltage is smaller
than in the previous experiment

Now connect up the circuit so that the load comprises just one of the lamps again.
Close the voltmeter and ammeter and open the Oscilloscope. Set it up as in the
following table:
Oscilloscope settings
Channel A:

5 V/div, AC

Channel B:

100 mV/div, AC

Trigger:
Time base
Time/div:

Kanal A
5 ms

Drag the resulting oscilloscope trace into the placeholder below with the mouse.

## What is the shift in phase between the voltage and current?

Current and voltage are very nearly in phase since the load
acts like a normal resistor
acts like an inductor

acts like a capacitor
acts like a resistive inductive load

## Experiment: short-circuit response

The following experiment investigates the response of the transformer when its output is
shorted. It involves measuring the short circuit voltage referenced to the nominal voltage
and the sustained short circuit current.
Set up the experiment as shown in the diagram below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, set it to a frequency of 50 Hz
and configure the voltages starting with 0 V as shown in the following table then turn the
instrument on.

## Three-phase power supply settings

Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

0V

Warning: when the voltage is at its full nominal rating a very large current flows
when a short circuit is present. This can lead to destruction of the transformer.
Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A settings
Range:

2 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Open the virtual instrument Ammeter B and make the settings shown in the table below
(make sure you enter the correct shunt resistor setting).
Ammeter B settings
Range:

500 mA AC

Mode:

RMS

Shunt:

Increase the input voltage until the nominal input current I1N = 0.3A is flowing.

What is the short-circuit voltageUk? Enter what you measure in the box below.
Short-circuit voltage Uk =

What is the referenced short circuit voltage uk, if the nominal voltage is 12V? Enter the
Referenced short-circuit voltage uk =

For the sustained short-circuit voltage Ikd the following equation applies:

where IN is the nominal voltage for the secondary winding of the transformer and uk is
the referenced short-circuit voltage as a percentage.
What is the sustained short-circuit current if the nominal current is 0.3 A? Enter your
Sustained short-circuit current Ikd =

## Experiment: step-down transformation of voltage

The following experiment investigates step-down transformation of voltage with the aid
of an autotransformer with and without a load.
Set up the experiment as shown below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.

## Three-phase power supply settings

Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A/B settings
Range:

20V AC

Mode:

RMS

What do you measure as the voltage U2 across the secondary winding? Enter your
Secondary voltage U2 =

How can the secondary voltage U2 be calculated from the primary voltage U1 and the
number of turns in the windings?
U2=U1*N1.1/N1.2
U2=U1*(N1.1+N1.2)/N1.1
U2=U1/(N1.1+N1.2)
U2=U1*N1.1/(N1.1+N1.2)

Now investigate the circuit with a load. Modify the set-up as shown below with a bulb
and a series resistor acting as a load to the secondary winding.

What do you measure for the secondary voltage U2 now? Enter your answer in the
following box.
Secondary voltage U2 =

## What do you deduce from a comparison of the two results?

The secondary voltage for the autotransformer drops only
very slightly in the presence of a load
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer rises in the
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer drops
dramatically in the presence of a load
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer falls to
practically zero in the presence of a load

## Experiment: step-up transformation of voltage

The following experiment investigates step-up transformation of voltage with the aid of
an autotransformer with and without a load.

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A/B settings
Range:

50 V AC

Mode:

RMS

What do you measure for the voltage U2 across the secondary winding? Enter your

Secondary voltage U2 =

How can the secondary voltage U2 be calculated from the primary voltage U1 and the
number of turns in the windings?
U2=U1*N1.1/N1.2
U2=U1*(N1.1+N1.2)/N1.2
U2=U1*(N1.1+N1.2)/N1.1
U2=U1*N1.1/(N1.1+N1.2)

Now to investigate the circuit with a load. Modify the set-up as shown below with a bulb
and a series resistor acting as a load to the secondary winding.

What do you measure for the secondary voltage U2 now? Enter your answer in the
following box.
Secondary voltage U2 =

## The secondary voltage for the autotransformer does not

change in the presence of a load
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer increases in
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer
approximately halves in the presence of a load
The secondary voltage for the autotransformer drops by

## Experiment: Yy0 circuit with symmetrical load

The following experiment investigates the response of a Yy0 circuit with no load to
begin with, then with a symmetrical load..

## Vector group Yy0

For the Yy0 vector group, both windings are connected in star configuration. Phase
winding voltages in star configuration are only measured to be 1/3 times the voltage in
the external conductor. This allows for the minimum number of turns, requires the least
insulation and when currents are not very high, it is the least expensive to manufacture.
The circuit is used for changing voltage levels in transformer stations that are not
involved in the final stage of power distribution. The following graphic shows the circuit
and vector diagrams for the Yy0 vector group.

Experiment procedure
Set up the experiment as shown below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

The response with no load should be investigated first. For this part of the
experiment you should first disconnect all three lamps that are used as loads.
Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A settings
Range:

20 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Determine the secondary voltage in the phase L1. Then modify the set up slightly so
that you can measure the voltage for the other two phases.

What results do you obtain for the secondary voltages of the three various phases?
Enter your results in the boxes below.
Voltages: L1:

V L2:

V L3:

Now measure the response with a symmetrical resistive load. Connect up the loads
again. Open the virtual instrument Ammeter B and select the settings as shown in the
following table (make sure you enter the correct value for the shunt resistor).
Ammeter B settings
Range:

500 mA AC

Mode:

RMS

Shunt:

First measure the voltage and current in phase L1 then measure them for the other two
phases, making the necessary modifications to the circuit, each time.
What results do you obtain for the secondary voltage and current? Enter your results
into the boxes below.
Voltages:

L1:

L2:

L3:

Currents:

L1:

mA

L2:

mA

L3:

mA

## Experiment: Yy0 circuit with asymmetrical load

The following experiment investigates the response of a Yy0 circuit with an

Experiment procedure
First look at the response when just one phase is loaded. Set up the experiment as
shown below:

## The animation below illustrates how the circuit is set up.

Open the three-phase power supply virtual instrument, make the settings shown in the
following table and turn the instrument on.
Three-phase power supply settings
Frequency:

50 Hz

Amplitude:

12 V

Open the virtual instrument Voltmeter A and make the settings shown in the table
below.
Voltmeter A settings
Range:

20 V AC

Mode:

RMS

Open the virtual instrument Ammeter B and select the settings as shown in the following
table (make sure you enter the correct value for the shunt resistor).

Ammeter B settings
Range:

500 mA AC

Mode:

RMS

Shunt:

First measure the secondary voltage and primary current in phase L1 then make the
necessary modification to measure the same parameters for the other two phases.
What results do you obtain for the voltage and current? Enter your results into the boxes
below.
Voltages:

L1:

L2:

L3:

Currents:

L1:

mA

L2:

mA

L3:

mA

Now investigate the response with a load on two of the phases. Modify the experiment
set-up as shown below with loads on the two secondary windings L1 and L2.

First measure the secondary voltage and primary current in phase L1 then make the
necessary modification to measure the same parameters for the other two phases.
What results do you obtain for the voltage and current? Enter your results into the boxes
below.

Voltages:

L1:

L2:

L3:

Currents:

L1:

mA

L2:

mA

L3:

mA

## Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Electric Machines

## Lab 2: Induction Machines

Induction Machines
Training contents:

Electromagnetic induction
Static and rotating magnetic fields
The components and design of three-phase machines
Star connection, delta connection
Measurements of line current and phase current and voltage
Measurements of rotor current and voltage
Nominal data, rating plate, cos phi
Asynchronous machines
Squirrel-cage rotors

Field lines

## The experiment employs a rotatable permanent magnet to demonstrate the existence of

magnetic fields inside the stator.
Insert the experiment card into the Experimenter. Connect the winding U to a 5 V fixed
voltage. Attach permanent magnet inside the stator. To do this, the shaft of rotor is
simply plugged into the ball-bearing race.
Now try to slowly and steadily turn the rotor a full revolution of 360 and describe how
the rotor feels based on the following specific questions.
Note:
If you don't clearly feel the effect you can also perform the experiment with 15 V.
However, this causes the winding to heat up considerably.
Investigate the response of the rotor when you rotate it by hand one full 360 degree
revolution and when you let go of it at different positions. You will discover that there are
also 24 distinct notching positions in one full revolution. However, these are irrelevant
for the following questions. Which of the following statements are true?
There are four areas with maximum torque
Wherever torque arises, it tries to turn the south pole (red)

correct

## of the rotor to the right

There are two areas where torque is zero
There are two areas with maximum torque
There is no perceptible torque anywhere
At which of the stator locations does maximum torque arise?
Next to the 4 grooves with the plain (copper) windings
Next to the 4 grooves with the green windings
Next to the 4 grooves with the red windings
Now reverse the power supply's +15 V and earth connections for the green winding.
Towards which side is the south pole (red) now drawn?
To the right
Upwards
To the left
Connect the plain copper winding. By what angle has the maximum torque now been
shifted?
The maximum torque is at the same position
By 180 degrees
By 60 degrees

Magnetic field 1

What happens?

Magnetic field 2

What happens?

Magnetic field 3

What happens?

Magnetic field 4

What happens?

Magnetic field 5

What happens?

Magnetic field 6

What happens?

## Rotation with three-phase current

In the following experiment we will demonstrate how a permanent magnet rotates
synchronously with a revolving magnetic field. Set up the experiment as follows.

## Open the Three-phase power supply from the menu

Instruments/Power Supplies or click on the adjacent image.
Make the following settings:

U=6V
f = 1 Hz
Press the POWER button

## How does the permanent magnet rotor respond?

The rotor stands still
The rotor flips round in regular steps
The rotor turns by 180 degrees in one second

correct

## Measurements in delta and star configuration

In the following experiment the difference between delta and star configuration are
elaborated based on voltage and current measurements.
The stator is connected as shown in star configuration. There is now a (shunt) resistor
connected in phase winding U for measuring the current.
Open the Voltmeter A from the menu Instruments/Measuring Devices or
Alternating voltages and current are measured as rms values. The most
precise measurement is obtained in the smallest measurement range
Set the parameters for the measuring instrument as you see fit.

## Open the Ammeter B from the menu Instruments/Measuring Devices or

Enter the value of the shunt in the appropriate field. Set the parameters
for the measuring instrument as you see fit.

## Open the 3-Phase supply from the menu Instruments/Power

supply and set it using its frequency indicator and voltmeter A:
f= 50 Hz, UU = 10V

Measure the phase voltage UU across U1-U2 and the phase current IU.
Measure the values of voltage and current in winding U and enter these values into the
appropriate boxes.
Multimeter A: voltage UU =

Multimeter B: current IU =

Based on the measured values compute the apparent electrical power absorbed by the
machine:
PY = 3 * UU * IU =

VA

Re-insert the bottom two jumpers and the shunt so that the stator is connected in delta
configuration and repeat the measurements:
Measure the values of voltage and current in winding U and enter these values into the
appropriate boxes.
Multimeter A: voltage U13 =

Multimeter B: current I1 =

Based on the measured values compute the apparent electrical power absorbed by the
machine:
P = 1,73 * U13 * I1 = 1,73 * U13 * 1,73 * I13 = 3 * U13 * I13 =

VA

By what factor is the power absorbed by the machine higher in the delta connection
than in the star connection?
By a factor of one
By a factor of "root 3"
By a factor of 3

## Measurements on the stator

With the following measurements the response of a stator winding can be demonstrated
at various frequencies and the components of the equivalent circuit diagram
determined.
Set up the experiment as follows:
In single-phase mode the stator winding U is connected to V1 und V2 of the threephase generator.
Open the Voltmeter A from the menu Instruments/Measuring
Devices or click on the adjacent image.
Using the voltmeter A measure the voltage UU in the
winding.

## Open the Ammeter B from the menu Instruments/Measuring

Devices or click on the adjacent image.
Using the ammeter B, measure the winding current IU across
a shunt of 1 . Enter the value of the shunt in the
appropriate field.

## Open the DC Motor Control from the menu

Instruments/Motor Control or click on the adjacent image.
Make the following settings:

## U = 6 V (measured on the voltmeter A)

Press the POWER button

## Measure the winding current with Ammeter B:

IU =

mA

Use the measured winding current IU and the set voltage value of 6 V to calculate the
winding resistance:
RU = UU / IU =

## Open the Three-phase Power Supply from the menu

Instruments/Power Supplies or click on the adjacent image
Make the following settings:

## U = 6 V (on the voltmeter A) f = variable, as specified in

the table
Press the POWER button

Set the frequency f as specified in the table and measure the respective current values
iU then copy the results into the Table:

Switch the view from the table values to the chart window.
Explain the relationship between the frequency and the impedance, as well as the
frequency and the current, by lining up and matching the values correctly:
With increasing frequency

???

## With decreasing frequency

???

Based on the measured values compute the impedance and then also enter these into
the Table.
Based on the impedance at 50 hz calculate the inductance:

that is:
What is the value of the winding inductance?
LU =

mH

## Control characteristic of the asynchronous machine

In this experiment the motor is operated using "characteristic control" to achieve the
optimum V/f characteristic setting.
Set up the experiment as follows:

## Open the Voltmeter A from the menu

Instruments/Measuring Devices or click on the adjacent
image.

## Open Ammeter B from the menu Instruments/Measuring

Devices or click on the adjacent image.
Enter the value of the shunt and set it for the appropriate
measuring ranges.

## Open the Motor Control Unit from the Instruments menu or

Nominal voltage and nominal frequency of a squirrel-cage
machine amount to 14 V und 50 Hz when connected in star
configuration.

## Open the characteristics window by clicking on the

V/f button and setting the cut-off point of the
characteristic to14 V/50 Hz by clicking on it with the
mouse and selecting the desired position by keeping
the button pressed down.
Also set the starting voltage of the characteristic for
the first measurement series to 0 V.
The ramp time has no effect here and should be set
to 1s.
Now press the POWER button.

Before each measurement set the frequency using the large "High" or "Low" buttons.
Measure the stator voltage and the stator current for each of the frequencies specified
in the table and enter the measured values into the Table (columns 3 and 4).

Based on the graph describe how the voltage and current vary when you alter the
frequency setting. Explain the characteristic of the current and the effects this has on
the torque.
Switch to the chart window. Which of the following statements are correct regarding the
voltage and current trace?
The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency
beginning from the initial starting value up to 100 Hz
The linear voltage gradient can be extrapolated to 0 V at the
bottom left
at the bottom left
at the bottom left
The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency
starting from the intial value up to 50 Hz
As of 50 Hz the voltage remains almost constant or
increases only minimally
As the frequency increases the current rises, beginning at 0
A up to 50 Hz and only then does it start to drop off again
In the range from 0 to 50 Hz the current is approximately
constant

correct

## The current does not begin at zero

Switch over from chart display mode to the table values.
Repeat the sequence of measurements at a starting voltage of 5 V and switch again
into the chart window.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the voltage and current trace when
the initial starting voltage is 5 V?
The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency
beginning from the initial starting value up to 100 Hz
The linear voltage gradient can be extrapolated to 0 V at the
bottom left

correct

## The linear voltage gradient can be extrapolated to about 4 V

at the bottom left
at the bottom left
The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency
beginning from the initial starting value up to 50 Hz
As of 50 Hz the voltage remains almost constant or
increases only minimally
As the frequency increases the current rises, beginning at 0
A up to 50 Hz and only then does it start to drop off again
In the range from 0 to 50 Hz the current is approximately
constant
The current does not begin at zero
Switch over from chart display mode to the table values.
Repeat the measurement sequence at a starting voltage of 10 V and switch again into
the chart window.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the voltage and current trace when
the initial starting voltage is 10 V?

## The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency

beginning from the initial starting value up to 100 Hz
The linear voltage gradient can be extrapolated to 0 V at the
bottom left
at the bottom left
at the bottom left
The voltage shows a linear increase with the frequency
beginning from the initial starting value up to 50 Hz
As of 50 Hz the voltage remains almost constant or
increases only minimally
As the frequency increases the current rises, beginning at 0
A up to 50 Hz and only then does it start to drop off again
In the range from 0 to 50 Hz the current is approximately
constant
The current does not begin at zero

correct

## The ohmic winding resistance amounts to approx. R = 20 , the nominal current is

approx. I = 0.43 A. Theoretically speaking how large does the starting voltage have to
be to compensate for the resulting voltage drop?
USTART = I * R =

## Reversing rotation direction

In this experiment the motor's rotation direction is reversed by interchanging two phase
windings. Furthermore, in contrast to previous experiments the machine cannot be
connected up using jumpers, instead the windings V and W are crossed over using
cables in the course of the experiment.
Set up the following experiment:
Open the Motor Control Unit from the Instruments menu or
click on the adjacent image. Make the following settings:

## Open the characteristics window using the V/f

button and set the cut-off point of the characteristic
to 14 V/50 Hz
Also set the starting voltage of the characteristic to 6
V.
Press the POWER button.

## What is the rotation direction of the machine?

Clockwise
Anti-clockwise
Reverse the terminals for V and W.
What is the machine's rotation direction now?
Clockwise
Anti-clockwise
Why is the rotation direction reversed?

## Because the rotor can be crank started in this direction

Because the rotation direction depends on arbitrary
circumstances during starting
Exchanging the two phase lines reverses the rotation
direction of the rotating field
Press the CW/CCW button in the motor control unit.
What is the machine's rotation direction now?
Clockwise
Anti-clockwise
Why is the rotation direction reversed?
Because the modified triggering has the same effect as the
interchanging of the two phase line connections
Because the rotation direction depends on arbitrary
circumstances during start up
Because it is possible to crank start the rotor in this direction

## Temperature measurements of different currents

This experiment demonstrates the influence of the stator currents on the winding
temperature.
As shown in the illustration connect the squirrel-cage motor in star configuration.
Open the motor temperature measuring instrument from the menu
image. Make the following settings:

U=6V
f = 1 Hz
Press the POWER button

## Note the motor's temperature when cold.

Due to the previous experiments the motor may already be warmed up. Then this is the
temperature that needs to be noted down.

Tcold =

C
Open the virtual instrument Three-phase power supply from
adjacent image. Make the following settings:

U = 14 V
f = 10 Hz
Press the POWER button

Observe the temperature over two to three minutes and describe what happens?
Observe the temperature over two to three minutes. Which answer is correct?
The temperature of the machine increases rapidly and
reaches its final value
The temperature increases slowly and only reaches its final
value much later
The temperature does not change
Now reduce the voltage to 4V.
Observe the temperature over two to three minutes. Which of the following statements
is correct?
The temperature of the machine drops rapidly and reaches
its final value
The temperature drops very slowly and only reaches its final
value much later
The temperature does not change
Why is it important to know the motor temperature? Select the correct answers:
For the protection of the machine
To avoid power losses
To avoid insulation damage
To avoid fire hazard

correct

## Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Electric Machines

## Lab 3:Synchronous Machines

Machines
Synchronous Machines
Objectives:

## Synchronous and reluctance machines

Design and components
Terminal designations
Circuit diagrams
Rotors
Motor and generator operation
Measurements of rotor currents and voltages
Asynchronous and synchronous speed
Operating response
Starting resistors, starting
Excitation

## In this experiment we will be examining the conditions needed for a synchronous

machine to start rotating.
Set up the following experiment:
Open the virtual instrument 3-phase Power Supply from the
Instruments Power Supplies menu. Carry out the following
settings

## Observe the rotor:

U = 11 V
f = 50 Hz
Press the POWER button

## The rotor rotates rapidly

The rotor starts humming, but remains stationary
The rotor starts humming and slowly begins to turn
The rotor runs up gradually (ramps up) and reaches
synchronous speed
Switch off the three-phase power supply by pressing the POWER button. Add the
Switch back on the three-phase power supply by pressing the POWER button and
observe the rotor:
The rotor rotates at a rapid rate
The rotor hums but remains stationary
The rotor hums and slowly rotates
The rotor runs up gradually (ramps up) and reaches
synchronous speed
Switch the three-phase power supply off by pressing the POWER button and then close
the virtual instrument.
Open the virtual instrument U/f Motor Control Unit from the
Instruments Motor Controls menu. Carry out the following
settings:

f = 50 Hz
Ramp time = 30 s

## Press the U/F button so that the characteristics window opens

and enter the following settings for the characteristic:

## Observe the rotor:

Starting voltage 6 V
Cut-off frequency 75 Hz
Switch on the three-phase power supply by pressing
the POWER button

## The rotor rotates at a rapid rate

The rotor hums, but then comes to a halt
The rotor hums and then rotates slowly
The rotor runs up (ramp like) gradually and reaches
synchronous speed
What are the reasons for the different responses?
No torque can be generated without short-circuiting
No torque can be generated without an exciter voltage
The machine cannot run up asynchronously
The machine can run up asynchronously
The synchronous machine must run up slowly on a ramp
Synchronous machines can run up as fast as desired

correct.

## The synchronous machine can easily be connected into a

constant voltage, constant frequency power system
The synchronous machine can be connected into a
constant voltage, constant frequency system without any
aids

Synchronous operation
In this experiment we will determine the rotation speed of the rotor
Supplement the previous experiment as follows:
Open the virtual instrument U/f Motor Control Unit from the
Instruments Motor Controls menu. Carry out the following
settings:

Ramp time = 15 s

## Press the U/F button to open the characteristics window and

make the following settings to the characteristic:

Starting voltage 6 V

Cut-off frequency 75 Hz
Switch the three-phase voltage on by pressing the
POWER button

## Set the strobe frequency to an initial value of 10 Hz for

the first measurement.
Switch stroboscope on by pressing the POWER button.

On the motor control unit set the frequencies to those listed in the table and measure
the speeds using the stroboscope. Transfer the rotation speeds into table:

You can derive the number of pole pairs p from the speed and the frequency. What is
the number?
1
2
3
4
6
Switch the table to Chart mode. Which of the following statements are true?
The machine runs asynchronously to the mains at any
frequency
The relationship between the speed and the frequency is: n
= f1 / p
The speed is proportional to the exciter voltage
The relationship between the rotation speed and the
frequency is: n = f1 / 2 p
The machine runs synchronously to the mains at any speed

## Voltage and current measurement

In this experiment the conductor currents and the line voltage as well as the phase
angle are measured and the cos factor are calculated.
Set up the experiment as follows:
Open the virtual instrument U/f Motor Control Unit from the
Instruments Motor Controls menu. Carry out the following
settings:

f = 50 Hz
Ramp time = 15 s

## Press the U/F button so that the characteristics window opens

and make the following settings to the characteristics:

Starting voltage 6 V
Cut-off frequency 75 Hz
Switch on the three-phase power supply by turning on
the POWER button

## Open the virtual instrument Oscilloscope in the Instruments

Meters menu. Carry out the following settings:

## Channel A: 10V/DIV, DC, zero line 2 divisions from the

top
Channel B: 0.5 V/DIV, DC, zero line 3 divisions from the
bottom
Time base: 2 ms
Trigger: channel A

## Copy the oscilloscope trace into the grid.

Read off the peak values for the two voltages, then calculate the rms values and enter
these into the appropriate boxes:
Channel A: stator voltage V1 =
Channel B: shunt voltage Vshunt =
Stator current I1 =

V
V

Hint:
The current can be
calculated by I=U/R,
with R = 1 .

Read off the phase shift between the voltage and the current for the screen and
calculate cos
Hint: One grid square
o
=
corresponds to 360 in
cos =
this case
Compare the cos factor with the one determined for a squirrel-cage machine:
The angle is close to 90 O and cos is close to 1
The angle is small and cos is close to 2
For synchronous machines cos is always 2

Generation of torque
In this experiment we will demonstrate how the torque is generated.
Set up the following experiment:
With your hand slowly turn the reluctance rotor around a full 360. What do you notice
or observe?
The rotor slowly turns.
The rotor begins to turn briefly and then comes to a halt.
The rotor strives to rotate into one of two "natural positions".
The rotor strives to rotate into one of four "natural
positions".
What is the reason for this response?
The rotor strives to orient itself to the direction of the
magnetic field.
The permanent magnet of the rotor is being attracted.
The rotor turns in the direction of the stator coil's maximum
inductance.
The rotor turns in the direction of the stator coil's minimum
inductance.
Change the polarity of the supply voltage and repeat the turning movement. Do you
notice anything different from the first experiment?

## The "natural position" is unchanged

The "natural position" has shifted
Because the torque is proportional dL / d, the sign of the
torque is reversed.
Because the torque is proportional to I2, the polarity of the
current does not play a role. The response is unchanged.

## More than one

correct.

Instead of the one connect one of the other coils to the DC voltage and observe the
changes in the "natural positions".
The "natural position" is unchanged
The "natural position" is shifted by 60 each time
The "natural position" is shifted by 90 each time
The "natural position" is shifted by 120 each time

## Switched reluctance machine

In this experiment we will demonstrate how a rotation motion arises by switching a DC
voltage and how rotation reversal occurs. To do this a voltage source is connected to
the stator windings via relays.
Set up the following experiment:
Click HERE to apply the voltage to the the stator windings via the relays and then
What do you observe and what can you conclude from this?
The rotor can be moved in steps
The rotor does not turn.
The rotor comes to a standstill at 2 "natural positions" within
one revolution
The rotor rotates smoothly
The rotor can only rotate clockwise
The rotor comes to a standstill at 6 "natural positions" within
one revolution
The switching sequence determines the rotation direction

correct.

## There are two different switching positions each with the

same effect
The rotation direction depends on the polariy of the residual
magnetism
Each switch setting causes something different

## Asynchronous and synchronous operation

In this experiment the reluctance machine is put into three-phase operation.
Set up the experiment as follows:
Open the virtual instrument Stroboscope from the Instruments

## Set the instrument to a starting frequency of 50 Hz

Selec the POWER button.

## Open the virtual instrument Three-phase Power Supply in the

Instruments Power Supplies menu. Carry out the following
settings:

U = 14 V
f = 50 Hz
Press the POWER button

## Take a rapid measurement of the frequency. What do you observe?

The rotor turns synchronously
The rotor turns asynchronously
Switch the three-phase power supply off again!
What is the reason for this response?
The machine starts asynchronously and then locks into
synchronous operation.

## The machine starts synchronously and maintains

synchronous speed.
The machine starts synchronously and then losses
synchronisation and continues running asynchronously.
The machine starts asynchronously and does not manage
to reach synchronous operation.

## Make the following settings:

U = 10 V
f = 50 Hz
Press the POWER button

## Measure the frequency. What do you observe?

The rotor rotates synchronously
The rotor rotates asynchronously
What is the reason for this response?
The machine starts asynchronously and is then able to
make the transition to synchronous operation
The machine starts up synchronously and maintains
synchronous speed
The machine starts up asynchronously and does not
manage to make the transition to synchronous operation
As long as the rotor runs asynchronously you can audibly hear the increase in the
motor's noise. The frequency at this "noisy process" point corresponds to the slip
frequency. In the next experiment segment the superpositioned ripple torques are
visible, which are superpositioned on the asynchronous torque.
Slowly increase the voltage until the slip frequency drops to a
very low value (e.g. approx. 3 Hz). "Play this by ear".
Note:
If you have increased the voltage too excessively, the rotor
makes the transition to synchronism. Then reduce the voltage
again until you audibly perceive the increasing noise and you
approximate once again the low slip frequency.

Illuminate as large a surface of the rotor as possible using the stroboscope. You can
now see the torque ripple or oscillations, which you were already able to hear. What is
the reason for the oscillations?
The torque is a sinusoidally shaped torque curve with slip
frequency superpositioned. This is not sufficient to
accelerate the rotor into synchronous operation
The torque lacks a sinusoidally shaped torque curve
superpositioned which is needed to accelerate the rotor into
synchronisation
Due to the considerable slip frequency the rotor cannot be
brought into synchronisation.

## Voltage and current measurement

In this experiment we will be measuring the stator voltage, the stator current and the
cos factor.
Set up the following experiment:
Open the virtual instrument Three-phase Power Supply from
the Instruments Power Supplies menu. Carry out the following
settings:

U = 14 V
f = 50 Hz
Press the POWER button

## Open the virtual instrument Oscilloscope from the Instruments

Meters menu. Make the following settings:

## Channel A: 10V/DIV, DC, zero line 2 divisions from the

top
Channel B: 0.5 V/DIV, DC, zero line 3 divisions from the
bottom
Timebase: 5 ms
Trigger: Channel A

## Copy the oscilloscope trace into the grid.

Read off the peak values for the two voltages and calculate the RMS value of the stator
voltage and the stator current:
Channel A: stator voltage V1 =
Channel B: shunt voltage Vshunt =
Statorstrom I1 =

V
V

Read off the phase shift between the voltage and the current for the screen and
calculate cos
o

=
cos =

## Evaluate cos in comparison to the corresponding experiment with the synchronous

machine:
The reluctance machine requires less reactive power
The reluctance machine requires more reactive power
The reluctance machine requires the same reactive power
as an asynchronous machine
Note:
Only very small machines with high ohmic resistance will reach this convenient value for
cos .

## Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Electric Machines

Lab 4: DC Machines

DC Machines
Training objectives:

## Electromagnetic induction, Lorentz force

Magnetic fields
Series-wound, shunt-wound and compound-wound windings
Reversing rotation direction
Field weakening
Armature and field resistors
Speed measurement using a stroboscope

## Experiment: Permanent magnet in a stator

Equip the Experimenter with the card SO4204-7S. Insert the permanent magnet into the
stator. The stator windings are not connected yet.
Turn the permanent magnet once or twice around its axis and describe what you
observe.
The south pole always turns anticlockwise.
The torque drops to zero in certain ranges.
No torque is generated.
The torque reaches two maxima and two minima in one
complete rotation.
The torque reaches one maximum and one minimum in one
complete rotation.

may be correct.

Are there any differences in response between the case in which the magnet's poles
face the pole pieces and the case in which they don't?
The torque is at its highest when the magnet's poles face
the pole pieces.
The torque is at its lowest when the magnet's poles face the
pole pieces.

may be correct.

## The torque is at its highest when the magnet's poles are

away from the pole pieces.
The torque is at its lowest when the magnet's poles are
away from the pole pieces.
Are there any differences in response with regard to the north and south poles?
When the north pole points up, the maximum torque is
generated.
A substantial torque is generated only when the south pole
is at right angles to the pole pieces.
Both magnetic poles are attracted equally by the iron pole
pieces.

may be correct.

## In which direction does the rotor turn?

Right or left, depending on which pole piece the magnetic
poles are closest to.
Right or left, depending on which pole piece the magnetic
poles are furthest from.

may be correct.

## Right or left, randomly.

Now connect the exciter windings to the 15V supply voltage as shown.
Describe the response in the area where the pole pieces and magnet's poles face each
other.
No torque is generated in this range.
The torque is at its highest in this range.

## Turn the rotor to

questions.

Describe the response when the permanent magnet's rotor is aligned perpendicularly to
the excitation field (i.e. located between the pole pieces) with the red pole pointing
upward.
The magnet tends to turn anticlockwise or clockwise
depending on which pole piece is closer.
The magnet tends to turn in just one direction, so that the
red pole moves rightward and the blue pole leftward.
Describe the response when the permanent magnet's rotor is aligned perpendicularly
with respect to the excitation field with the blue pole pointing upward.

## The magnet tends to turn anticlockwise or clockwise

depending on which pole piece is closer.
The magnet tends to turn in just one direction, so that the
red pole moves rightward and the blue pole leftward.
Interchange the 15V and ground terminals, and observe the change in response.
The magnet tends to turn in just one direction, so that the
blue pole moves rightward and the red pole leftward.
The blue always tends to move leftward, regardless of the
polarity.

## Connection and operation

In this experiment the DC machine is operated as a shunt-wound machine.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The shaft of the rotor is inserted into
the bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the
attachment pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.
Open the DC Motor Control virtual instrument from the
INSTRUMENTS/MOTOR CONTROL menu or by clicking on the
left-hand image.
Set the instrument to 15.0 V.
Switch on the POWER button of the power supply.
In the case of new machines which have not been run-in yet, it might be necessary to
increase the starting voltage by a few volts.
How does the machine behave?
It runs up quickly to its rated speed and maintains it.
It does not start.

Measurement of speed
In this experiment we will perform a contactless measurement of the rotation speed of a
DC shunt-wound machine using a stroboscope.

## The previous experiment set-up is retained. It is supplemented with the stroboscope,

which illuminates the rotor with a flash of light but does not make physical contact with
it.
Now open the virtual instrument DC Motor Supply from the
INSTRUMENTS/MOTOR CONTROL menu or by clicking on the
left-hand image.
Set it to 12.0 V.
Then switch the POWER button on.
Now go to the INSTRUMENTS menu and open the Stroboscope
virtual instrument.
Set the flash rate to 30 Hz.
Switch the stroboscopes POWER button on.
Point the flash bulb at the rotating armature.
Slowly increase the flash rate until you can see the motion appear to stand quite still.
For additional information regarding the stroboscope please refer to the help file (e.g. by
pressing the F1 function key).
In the case of new
machines that
haven't been run-in
RPM
yet, a flash rate of
less than 30 Hz may
be needed!
Note:
Though stationary images arise at a number of speeds, a truly sharp image is
obtained only at a few flash frequencies at which the actual speed can be
determined. After just a little practice, you will be able to decide whether or not a
Are stationary images obtained at multiple stroboscope flash frequencies?
Stationary images are not obtained at multiple flash
frequencies.
A stationary image is also obtained at twice a particular
flash frequency.
A stationary image is also obtained at 1.73 times a
particular flash frequency.
A stationary image is also obtained at half a particular flash
frequency.

Brush shifting
In this experiment the position of the carbon brushes is shifted in a DC shunt-wound
machine and the effects are observed.
The experiment set-up of the previous experiment is left unchanged except for the
position of the armature.
Alter the position of the carbon brushes by pulling the rotor out slightly, turning it and
positioning it elsewhere by pressing the attachment pin down into one of the other
sockets provided for this.
To facilitate adjustment of the brushes, it is advisable to unscrew the attachment pin
fully out of the armature unit. As the rotor turns, the armature's connection plate must be
held manually at the desired position to prevent it from turning as well.
To maintain the brushes continuously at a defined angle, use the available sockets and
attachment pin on the rotor unit.
What happens to the speed when the carbon brushes are re-positioned?
The speed remains unchanged.
The speed remains nearly constant over an angular
adjustment range of approximately -20 to +20 degrees.
The speed remains nearly constant over an angular
adjustment range of approximately -50 to +50 degrees.
The speed remains nearly constant in the range beyond +/60 degrees.
The speed remains approximately zero in the range beyond
+/- 60 degrees.
The brush position influences the speed over an angular
adjustment range of +/- (20 ...60) degrees.

may be correct.

## Experiment: Armature voltage

In this experiment we will measure the influence of the armature voltage on the rotation
speed of a DC shunt-wound machine. A contactless measurement of the rotation speed
will be performed using the stroboscope.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The shaft of the rotor is inserted into
the bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the
attachment pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.

## Now open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument.

Set the amplitude to an initial value of 20 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.
Now open the Stroboscope virtual instrument.
Set the flash rate for the first measurement to the initial value of
100 Hz and then reduce this gradually until the motion appears to
be stationary.
Switch the POWER button of the stroboscope ON.
Point the strobe at the rotating armature and use the standard methods to perform the
speed measurements using the values of the armature voltage specified in the table:

Switch the tabular view above to the diagram view. What can be observed?
From a threshold voltage onward, the speed increases
linearly with the armature voltage.
From a threshold voltage onward, the speed increases
The speed does not increase.

## Experiment: Exciter voltage

In this experiment we will measure the influence of the exciter voltage on the rotation
speed of a DC shunt-wound machine. Measurement of the rotation speed is performed
Set up the experiment as specified in the animation. The rotor shaft is inserted into the
bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the attachment
pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.

## Now open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument.

Set the amplitude to an initial value of 15 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.

## Now open the Stroboscope virtual instrument from the

Set the flash rate to30 Hz.
Switch the stroboscope's POWER button ON.
Point the strobe at the rotating armature and use the standard method to measure the
speed using the values of the armature voltage specified in the table:

## What happens when the exciter voltage is reduced from 16 V to 9 V?

The speed rises.
The speed drops.
The speed remains constant.

## Switch the tabular

view above to the
diagram view and
evaluate it.

What causes the speed to rise when the exciter voltage is reduced?
Field amplification
Boost
Field attenuation

## Experiment: Rotation direction

In this experiment we will be exploring the possibilities of reversing the direction of
rotation of a DC shunt-wound machine.
Set up the experiment as specified in the animation. The rotor shaft is inserted into the
bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the attachment
pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.
Now open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument from the
INSTRUMENTS/MOTOR CONTROL menu or by clicking on the
left-hand image.
Set the voltage to 15.0 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.

Observe the direction of rotation of the machine using different power supply
configurations. To "change" a connection simply interchange the two connections of the
exciter or armature winding.
"Unchanged" means that the connection corresponds to the animation shown.
In which direction does the machine rotate? Determine the correct assignments below
through experimentation.
Armature and exciter windings
unchanged
Armature winding changed - Exciter
winding unchanged
Armature winding unchanged - Exciter
winding changed
Armature and exciter windings changed

???

???

???
???

## Experiment: Normal operation

With the opening of this page two relays are closed, all other relays remain open.
CAUTION - Note
To carry out this experiment "Braking" the card has to be slightly pulled out of the
VG terminal strip.
Reason: In this experiment relays 1 and 2 are used which, when the card is fully
connected, are parallel to the 2 starting resistors. This would interfere with the
experiment.
Set up the shunt-wound machine in the following circuit.
Open the Oscilloscope virtual instrument.
In addition to the connections shown in the animation:

## Connect channel A to the armature voltage

Connect channel B to the armature current (voltage across
the shunt).

## Make the following settings:

Channel A: 5V/DIV, DC
Channel B: 500mV, DC
Time base: 200 ms
Trigger: Channel A, pretrigger 25%, trigger level approx.

13 V, falling edge
Single

## Activate the trigger before each new measurement by clicking the

STOP button (the green lamp goes out and the trace starts
running)
Now open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument.
Set the unit to 20 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.

## How does the machine behave?

It runs up quickly to its rated speed and maintains it.
It does not start.
NOTE
To continue the experiments, proceed to the next page (experiment on run-down)
and use the oscilloscope to read the time taken by the rotor to come to a stop.
Make sure that the oscilloscope is ready for triggering before proceeding to the
next page.

Experiment: Run-down
Copy the trace into the grid provided for it.
Evaluate the oscillogram over the time period from 0 to 1.25 s and determine which
statement is correct:
The machine is braked.
The machine is connected to the voltage source and
running.
Evaluate the oscillogram over the time period from 0 to 4 s and determine which
statements are correct:
The UniTrain-I system lowers the source voltage according
to a ramp function.

may be correct.

## The voltage decays because the machine operates as a

generator over this time period.
At the switching point, the supply voltage is interrupted and
the current drops to zero.
The machine runs down.
The machine is braked from the switching point onward.
Immediately after switching, the machine comes to a
standstill (generator voltage equals zero).
Approximately 3 s after switching, the machine comes to a
standstill (generator voltage equals zero).

Renewed run-up
When this page is invoked, relay 2 is closed and all other relays opened.
NOTE
Wait until the machine has run up and ready the oscilloscope for triggering again.
Switch to the page titled "Experiment: Braking".

Experiment: Braking
The opening of this page causes relay 1 to be closed, all other relays are opened.
Copy the trace into the appropriate grid and observe how long it takes until the rotor
reaches standstill.
Evaluate the oscillogram for active braking over the time period from 1.25 s to
approximately 4 s and determine which statement is correct:
The supply voltage is reduced according to a ramp function.
The machine runs down.
The machine operates as a generator over this time period.
At the switching point, the supply voltage is interrupted and
a braking resistance applied to the generator (indicated by
the negative current).

may be correct.

## Approximately 1.5 s after the switching operation, the

machine comes to a standstill (the generator voltage and
current then being equal to zero).
The machine comes to a standstill after approximately 3 s.
Which operational advantage of electric machines is evident from the two oscillograms
on the pages titled "Experiment: Run-down" and "Experiment: Braking"?
Faster braking
Faster starting
Higher speed

## Connection and operation

In this experiment the DC machine is put into operation as a series-wound machine.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The shaft of the rotor is inserted into
the bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the
attachment pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.
Open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument from the
Set it to 16.0 V
Switch the POWER button of the supply on.
How does the machine behave?
It runs up quickly to its rated speed and maintains it.
It does not start.

## Experiment: Armature resistance

In this experiment we will investigate the influence of armature series resistance on the
rotation speed of a DC series-wound machine.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The shaft of the rotor is inserted into
the bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor bear in mind that the
attachment pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.

## Now open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument .

Set the amplitude to an initial level of 15 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.

Now use a short cable to shunt the resistor R6 and disconnect it again after several
seconds.
What effect does the armature resistor have on the speed?
The speed remains unchanged.
The speed drops.
The speed rises.
Note:
To fully demonstrate this effect, it would be necessary to examine the response
under various loads. In other words, this experiment only considers a single point on
the diagram shown earlier.

## Experiment: Starting resistors

In this experiment it is demonstrated that the starting current can be reduced
considerably using starting resistors.
Set up the experiment as specified in the animation. The rotor shaft is inserted into the
bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the attachment
pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.
Open the virtual instrument Oscilloscope from the
Supplement the connections depicted in the animation by:

## Connecting channel A to the armature voltage

Connecting channel B to the armature current
(voltage across the shunt).

## Make the following settings:

Channel A: 5 V/DIV, DC
Channel B: 500 mV, DC
Time base: 500 ms

## Trigger: Channel A, pretrigger 25%, trigger level

approx. 5 V, rising edge
Single

## Before each new measurement activate the trigger by

clicking the STOP button (the green lamp goes out and the
trace starts running)
Open the Startup Control virtual instrument from the
Make the following settings:

All t to 0.3 s
Voltage to 0 V
Switch the power supply on by pressing the START
button

The relays are

???

???

resistor is

???

by the relays.

## Switch the power supply back off.

Now set the voltage to 20 V. Switch the power supply's START button back on and copy
the trace into the grid provided for it:
Now switch the power supply off.
Add a cable to the experiment setup as shown. This is used to shunt the relays and
starting resistors and now it is possible to measure the unlimited starting current.
Activate the trigger readiness and switch the power supply (20V) back on by pressing
the START button. Copy the trace into the grid provided for it:
Read the starting current's peak value in each oscillogram:

## Starting current with starting resistor:

Starting current without starting resistor:

A
A

## The shunt has a

rating of 1 ohm.
Accordingly, 1V on
the oscilloscope
screen corresponds
to 1A.

## Compare the two oscillograms. What can be observed?

The starting characteristics hardly differ.
In the presence of a starting resistor, the starting current is
notably lower.
The starting resistor lengthens the starting phase.

may be correct.

## The current after the starting phase is also lower.

The starting resistor no longer has any influence after the
starting phase.

## Connection and operation

In this experiment the commutator machine is put into operation as a compound-wound
machine.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The rotor shaft is inserted into the
bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the attachment
pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.
Open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument in the
INSTRUMENTS/MOTOR CONTROL menu or by clicking on the
left-hand image.
Set the voltage to 20.0 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.
How does the machine behave?
It runs up quickly to its rated speed and maintains it.
It does not start.

## Connection and operation

In this experiment the commutator machine is put into operation as a compound-wound
machine.
Set up the experiment as shown in the animation. The rotor shaft is inserted into the
bearing situated in the stator. When attaching the rotor make sure that the attachment
pin is inserted into the socket labelled 0.

## Open the DC Motor Supply virtual instrument in the

INSTRUMENTS/MOTOR CONTROL menu or by clicking on the
left-hand image.
Set the voltage to 20.0 V.
Switch the POWER button of the power supply ON.
How does the machine behave?
It runs up quickly to its rated speed and maintains it.
It does not start.